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Sample records for bpw34 commercial p-i-n

  1. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  2. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOEpatents

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  3. Selective p-i-n photodetector with resonant tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Mil'shtein, S.; Wilson, S.; Pillai, A.

    2014-05-15

    There are different fundamental approaches to designing selective photodetectors, where the selectivity of optical spectra is produced by a filtering aperture. However, manufacturing of multilayered filters is cumbersome for epitaxial technology. In the current study, we offer a novel approach in design of selective photodetectors. A p-i-n photodetector with superlattices in top n-layer becomes transparent for photons where hν<>E{sub ng}+E{sub n1}, the light will be absorbed, simultaneously producing high energy (hot) electrons. The designed thickness of the structure does prevent thermal relaxation of high energy electrons by thus enhancing the selectivity of the photodetector. However the most important selectivity element is the resonant tunneling which does happen only for electrons occupying E{sub n1} energy levels as they transfer to levels E{sub i1}aligned under reverse biasing.

  4. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  5. Carbon nanotube intramolecular p-i-n junction diodes with symmetric and asymmetric contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changxin; Liao, Chenghao; Wei, Liangming; Zhong, Hanqing; He, Rong; Liu, Qinran; Liu, Xiaodong; Lai, Yunfeng; Song, Chuanjuan; Jin, Tiening; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-02-01

    A p-i-n junction diode based on the selectively doped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) had been investigated, in which two opposite ends of individual SWCNT channel were doped into the p- and n-type SWCNT respectively while the middle segment of SWCNT was kept as the intrinsic. The symmetric and asymmetric contacts were used to fabricate the p-i-n junction diodes respectively and studied the effect of the contact on the device characteristics. It was shown that a low reverse saturation current of ~20 pA could be achieved by these both diodes. We found that the use of the asymmetric contact can effectively improve the performance of the p-i-n diode, with the rectification ratio enhanced from ~102 for the device with the Au/Au symmetric contact to >103 for the one with the Pd/Al asymmetric contact. The improvement of the device performance by the asymmetric-contact structure was attributed to the decrease of the effective Schottky-barrier height at the contacts under forward bias, increasing the forward current of the diode. The p-i-n diode with asymmetric contact also had a higher rectification ratio than its counterpart before doping the SWCNT channel, which is because that the p-i-n junction in the device decreased the reverse saturated current.

  6. Carbon nanotube intramolecular p-i-n junction diodes with symmetric and asymmetric contacts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changxin; Liao, Chenghao; Wei, Liangming; Zhong, Hanqing; He, Rong; Liu, Qinran; Liu, Xiaodong; Lai, Yunfeng; Song, Chuanjuan; Jin, Tiening; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    A p-i-n junction diode based on the selectively doped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) had been investigated, in which two opposite ends of individual SWCNT channel were doped into the p- and n-type SWCNT respectively while the middle segment of SWCNT was kept as the intrinsic. The symmetric and asymmetric contacts were used to fabricate the p-i-n junction diodes respectively and studied the effect of the contact on the device characteristics. It was shown that a low reverse saturation current of ~20 pA could be achieved by these both diodes. We found that the use of the asymmetric contact can effectively improve the performance of the p-i-n diode, with the rectification ratio enhanced from ~102 for the device with the Au/Au symmetric contact to >103 for the one with the Pd/Al asymmetric contact. The improvement of the device performance by the asymmetric-contact structure was attributed to the decrease of the effective Schottky-barrier height at the contacts under forward bias, increasing the forward current of the diode. The p-i-n diode with asymmetric contact also had a higher rectification ratio than its counterpart before doping the SWCNT channel, which is because that the p-i-n junction in the device decreased the reverse saturated current. PMID:26915400

  7. Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hagir M; Balkan, Naci

    2014-01-13

    We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling.

  8. Waveguide photonic crystals with characteristics controlled with p-i-n diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, D. A. Skripal, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Bogolyubov, A. S.; Skvortsov, V. S.; Merdanov, M. K.

    2010-12-15

    A one-dimensional waveguide photonic structure-specifically, a photonic crystal with a controllable frequency characteristic-is designed. The central frequency of the spectral window of the photonic crystal can be tuned by choosing the parameters of disturbance of periodicity in the photonic crystal, whereas the transmission coefficient at a particular frequency can be controlled by varying the voltage at a p-i-n diode. It is shown that the possibility exists of using the waveguide photonic crystal to design a microwave device operating in the 3-cm-wavelength region, with a transmission band of 70 MHz at a level 3 dB and the transmission coefficient controllable in the range from -1.5 to -25 dB under variations in the forward voltage bias at the p-i-n diode from zero to 700 mV.

  9. Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling. PMID:24417767

  10. A p-i-n junction diode based on locally doped carbon nanotube network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Changxin; Wei, Liangming; Hu, Nantao; Song, Chuanjuan; Liao, Chenghao; He, Rong; Dong, Xusheng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qinran; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    A p-i-n junction diode constructed by the locally doped network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was investigated. In this diode, the two opposite ends of the SWNT-network channel were selectively doped by triethyloxonium hexachloroantimonate (OA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to obtain the air-stable p- and n-type SWNTs respectively while the central area of the SWNT-network remained intrinsic state, resulting in the formation of a p-i-n junction with a strong built-in electronic field in the SWNTs. The results showed that the forward current and the rectification ratio of the diode increased as the doping degree increased. The forward current of the device could also be increased by decreasing the channel length. A high-performance p-i-n junction diode with a high rectification ratio (~104), large forward current (~12.2 μA) and low reverse saturated current (~1.8 nA) was achieved with the OA and PEI doping time of 5 h and 18 h for a channel length of ~6 μm. PMID:26996610

  11. Improved designs for p-i-n OLEDs towards the minimal power loss of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dashan

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the low yield, high power loss, and poor stability of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) panels are remaining as the obstacles to the fast growth of the OLED industry, especially for the lighting application. The p-i-n OLEDs have been widely recognized as the promising method to circumvent these bottleneck factors, due to the unique merit of the electrical doping to enable low power loss. In p-i-n OLEDs, the frequently used n-doped electron transport layers (n-ETL1) such as n-BCP, n-Alq3 possess markedly lower conductivities but better capabilities of injecting electrons into ETL such as BCP, Alq3, as compared to another class of n-doped ETLs (n-ETL2), e.g., n-NTCDA, n-PTCDA, n-C60. Thus, in order to minimize the electron loss, we provide the structure of uniting two n-doped layers, cathode/ n-ETL2/ n-ETL1/ ETL. In p-i-n OLEDs, the hole current injected from the single p-doped hole transport layer (p-HTL) into the neat HTL must be limited, because the higher conductivity p-HTL has the higher lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, leading to a larger hole transport energy barrier (φB) at the interface with the neat HTL. Therefore, in order to minimize the hole loss, we suggest the structure of uniting two p-HTLs, anode/ p-HTL2/ p-HTL1/ HTL. The p-HTL2 possesses high-lying HOMO level and thereby high conductivity, decreasing the ohmic loss in the hole conduction; the p-HTL1 features a low-lying HOMO level, reducing the φB.

  12. High-performance p-i-n/HBT monolithic photoreceivers for lightwave communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, Chandra S.; Lunardi, Leda M.

    1995-12-01

    Long wavelength optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) have made impressive progress in the last decade and their performance has become attractive enough to be considered as part of lightwave communication systems. This paper reviews these aspects of OEICs, with emphasis on monolithic photoreceivers which incorporate heterojunction bipolar transistors for the electronic functions. We review single channel p-i-n/HBT photoreceivers with speeds up to 12 Gb/s and multi-channel array-type receivers suitable for WDM applications with an aggregate throughput of 20 Gb/s.

  13. Density of states measurements in a p-i-n solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Wang, Q.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe results of density of states (DOS) profiling in p-i-n solar-cell devices using drive-level capacitance (DLC) techniques. Near the p-i interface the defect density is high, decreasing rapidly into the interior, reaching low values in the central region of the cell, and rising rapidly again at the n-i interface. They show that the states in the central region are neutral dangling-bond defects, whereas those near the interfaces with the doped layers are charged dangling bonds.

  14. Electrophysical Properties of GaAs P-I-N Structures for Concentrator Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kósa, Arpád; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Stuchlíková, Ľubica; Harmatha, Ladislav; Dawidowski, Wojciech; Ściana, Beata; Tłaczała, Marek

    2016-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to electro-physical characterisation of a GaAs p-i-n structure grown for solar cell applications, which was carried out by light and dark current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS) methods. The conversion efficiency and open-circuit voltage were determined from I-V measurement at 1 and 20× sun light concentrations. Three electron like defects TAn1, TAn2, TDn and one hole like defect TBp obtained by DLTFS measurements were confirmed. The origin of these defect states was stated as native GaAs impurities.

  15. Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, V.; Bramanti, A.; Carallo, S.; Cingolani, R.; Gigli, G.

    2010-03-01

    A bottom contact/top gate ambipolar "p-i-n" layered light emitting field effect transistor with the active medium inserted between two doped transport layers, is reported. The doping profile results crucial to the capability of emitting light, as well as to the electrical characteristics of the device. In this sense, high output current at relative low applied gate/drain voltage and light emission along the whole large area transistor channel are observed, putting the basis to full integration of organic light emitting field effect transistors in planar complex devices.

  16. Highly Efficient White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-i-n Tandem Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Meiso; Su, Shui-Hsiang; Hou, Cheng-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Ta; Kung, Chun-Hao

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with a p-i-n tandem structure using lithium (Li)-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)-doped 4,4',4''-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino] triphenylamine (2-TNATA) as an effective interconnecting layer (ICL). The tandem device exhibited a luminance of 3800 cd/m2, a luminous efficiency of 18.8 cd/A, a power efficiency of 5.48 lm/W, an external quantum efficiency of 6.5%, and the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (x=0.312, y=0.396) at 20 mA/cm2. The electroluminescence color of this p-i-n tandem device nearly did not change significantly with driving voltage variation and viewing angle. The various interfaces of ICL in such a tandem device were studied using a photovoltaic setup and were used to elucidate the mechanisms of the tandem devices.

  17. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandro; Pangallo, Giovanni; Della Corte, Francesco Giuseppe

    2016-01-06

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34-40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature.

  18. A full free spectral range tuning of p-i-n doped gallium nitride microdisk cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Liu, Tsung-Li; Aharonovich, Igor; Russell, Kasey J.; Woolf, Alexander; Sadler, Thomas C.; El-Ella, Haitham A. R.; Kappers, Menno J.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2012-10-01

    Effective, permanent tuning of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of p-i-n doped GaN microdisk cavity with embedded InGaN quantum dots over one free spectral range is demonstrated by irradiating the microdisks with a ultraviolet laser (380 nm) in DI water. For incident laser powers between 150 and 960 nW, the tuning rate varies linearly. Etching of the top surface of the cavity is proposed as the driving force for the observed shift in WGMs and is supported by experiments. The tuning for GaN/InGaN microdisk cavities is an important step for deterministically realizing nanophotonic devices for studying cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  19. GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaojian; Cheng, Buwen; Xue, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Cao, Quan; Xue, Haiyun; Hu, Weixuan; Zhang, Guangze; Zuo, Yuhua; Wang, Qiming

    2011-03-28

    Using a 820 nm-thick high-quality Ge0.97Sn0.03 alloy film grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy, GeSn p-i-n photodectectors have been fabricated. The detectors have relatively high responsivities, such as 0.52 A/W, 0.23 A/W, and 0.12 A/W at 1310 nm, 1540 nm, and 1640 nm, respectively, under a 1 V reverse bias. With a broad detection spectrum (800-1800 nm) covering the whole telecommunication windows and compatibility with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) technology, the GeSn devices are attractive for applications in both optical communications and optical interconnects.

  20. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGES

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  1. Absorption properties of GaAsBi based p-i-n heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhize; Mendes, Danuta F.; Richards, Robert D.; Bastiman, Faebian; David, John PR

    2015-09-01

    The absorption properties of GaAsBi have been investigated using GaAsBi based p-i-n diodes with different bismuth compositions (˜2.1 and ˜3.4%). The absorption behaviour of GaAsBi as a function of incident photon energy above the band gap follows that of a direct band gap material. With increasing bismuth content, the absorption of photons with energy lower than the band gap in GaAsBi is enhanced, probably due to localized states caused by Bi-related defects. A simplified analysis has been undertaken on the behaviour of absorption as a function of bias voltage. By undertaking photoresponsivity measurements as a function of reverse bias, the background doping type and the minority carriers diffusion lengths in GaAsBi have been determined.

  2. Optical characterization of GaInP p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Guang; Lin, Der-Yuh; Ko, Tsung-Shine; Wu, Jenq-Shinn; Wu, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Yu-Li; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Zen

    2015-04-01

    Four p-i-n GaInP solar cells were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with different intrinsic layer thicknesses from 0.25 to 1 µm. A series of optical measurements, including electroreflectance (ER), photoluminescence (PL), electric luminescence (EL), and photocurrent (PC) measurements, have been performed to study the built-in electric field effect and to determine the suitable thickness of an intrinsic layer. The PL and EL spectra reflected the crystal quality of the GaInP layers. Furthermore, from the obtained ER spectrum, the built-in electric field in the intrinsic layer can be revealed. From the PC spectra under various bias voltages, the effect of built-in electric fields on the collection of photogenerated carriers has been studied.

  3. Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Lars; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud; Winzer, Georg; Tian, Hui; Elschner, Robert; Richter, Thomas; Schubert, Colja; Tillack, Bernd; Petermann, Klaus

    2012-06-04

    In this paper we present four-wave mixing (FWM) based parametric conversion experiments in p-i-n diode assisted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nano-rib waveguides using continuous-wave (CW) light around 1550 nm wavelength. Using a reverse biased p-i-n waveguide diode we observe an increase of the wavelength conversion efficiency of more than 4.5 dB compared to low loss nano-rib waveguides without p-i-n junction, achieving a peak efficiency of -1 dB. Conversion efficiency improves also by more than 7 dB compared to previously reported experiments deploying 1.5 µm SOI waveguides with p-i-n structure. To the best of our knowledge, the observed peak conversion efficiency of -1dB is the highest CW efficiency in SOI reported so far.

  4. Comprehensive physics-based compact model for fast p-i-n diode using MATLAB and Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Fu, Guicui; Zhang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a physics-based model for the fast p-i-n diode is proposed. The model is based on the 1-D Fourier-based solution of ambipolar diffusion equation (ADE) implemented in MATLAB and Simulink. The physical characteristics of fast diode design concepts such as local lifetime control (LLC), emitter control (EMCON) and deep field stop are taken into account. Based on these fast diode design concepts, the ADE is solved for all injection levels instead of high-level injection only as usually done. The variation of high-level lifetime due to local lifetime control is also included in the solution. With the deep field stop layer taken into consideration, the depletion behavior in the N-base during reverse recovery is redescribed. Some physical effects such as avalanche generation and carrier recombination in the depletion region are also taken into account. To be self contained, a parameter extraction method is proposed to extract all the parameters of the model. In the end, the static and reverse recovery experiments for a commercial EMCON diode and a LLC diode are used to validate the proposed model. The simulation results are compared with experiment results and good agreement is obtained.

  5. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  6. Secondary electron emission contrast of quantum wells in GaAs p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, Enrique; Barkay, Zahava; Shapira, Yoram; Barnham, Keith W J; Bushnell, David B; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J; Mazzer, Massimo; Wilshaw, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The secondary electron (SE) signal over a cleaved surface of GaAs p-i-n solar cells containing stacks of quantum wells (QWs) is analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The InGaAs QWs appear darker than the GaAsP barriers, which is attributed to the differences in electron affinity. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for profiling the conduction band minimum across junctions and interfaces with nanometer resolution. The intrinsic region is shown to be pinned to the Fermi level. Additional SE contrast mechanisms are discussed in relation to the dopant regions themselves as well as the AlGaAs window at the p-region. A novel method of in situ observation of the SE profile changes resulting from reverse biasing these structures shows that the built-in potential may be deduced. The obtained value of 0.7 eV is lower than the conventional bulk value due to surface effects.

  7. An in situ gamma ray spectrometer with CsI/p-i-n detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Clarke X.; Williams, Ron R.

    1995-03-01

    The development of a portable gamma ray spectrometer based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator (1.8 cm×1.8 cm×4 cm) with integral p-i-n diode (1.8 cm×4 cm) is described. A single board computer containing the MC68HC11 microcontroller, a single-chip self-contained computer system, is used for system control. The total size of the instrument is only 12 in×7 in. including the spectrometer and power supply. The system provides a low cost, low power gamma ray spectrometer as compared to the more common PMT-based devices. Spectra can be collected in daily intervals for up to 1 week. Special software which monitors the proper working of the spectrometer insures long term stability. This spectrometer can be used for routine monitoring and detection of gamma ray emitting radio nuclides. Performance of the spectrometer as well as gamma ray spectra are presented. The qualitative and quantitative reliability have shown its potential as a stand alone field monitoring instrument due to its low power consumption and intelligence.

  8. Si Radial p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Arrays with Built-In Light Concentrators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Campbell, Ian H; Dayeh, Shadi A; Schuele, Paul; Evans, David; Picraux, S Tom

    2015-05-26

    High-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices require strong light absorption, low reflection and efficient photogenerated carrier collection for high quantum efficiency. Previous optical studies of vertical wires arrays have revealed that extremely efficient light absorption in the visible wavelengths is achievable. Photovoltaic studies have further advanced the wire approach by employing radial p-n junction architectures to achieve more efficient carrier collection. While radial p-n junction formation and optimized light absorption have independently been considered, PV efficiencies have further opportunities for enhancement by exploiting the radial p-n junction fabrication procedures to form arrays that simultaneously enhance both light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Here we report a concept of morphology control to improve PV performance, light absorption and quantum efficiency of silicon radial p-i-n junction arrays. Surface energy minimization during vapor phase epitaxy is exploited to form match-head structures at the tips of the wires. The match-head structure acts as a built-in light concentrator and enhances optical absorptance and external quantum efficiencies by 30 to 40%, and PV efficiency under AM 1.5G illumination by 20% compared to cylindrical structures without match-heads. The design rules for these improvements with match-head arrays are systematically studied. This approach of process-enhanced control of three-dimensional Si morphologies provides a fab-compatible way to enhance the PV performance of Si radial p-n junction wire arrays.

  9. Development of a P-I-N HgCdTe photomixer for laser heterodyne spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    An improved HgCdTe photomixer technology was demonstrated employing a p-i-n photodiode structure. The i-region was near intrinsic n-type HgCdTe; the n-region was formed by B+ ion implantation; and the p-region was formed either by a shallow Au diffusion or by a Pt Schottky barrier. Experimental devices in a back-side illuminated mesa diode configuration were fabricated, tested, and delivered. The best photomixer was packaged in a 24-hour LN2 dewar along with a cooled GaAs FET preamplifier. Testing was performed by mixing black-body radiation with a CO2 laser beam and measuring the IF signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio in the GHz frequency range. Signal bandwidth for this photomixer was 1.3 GHz. The heterodyne NEP was 4.4 x 10 to the -20 W/Hz out to 1 GHz increasing to 8.6 x 10 to the -10 W/Hz at 2 GHz. Other photomixers delivered on this program had heterodyne NEPs at 1 GHz ranging from 8 x 10 to the -20 to 4.4 x 10 to the -19 W/Hz and NEP bandwidths from 2 to 4 GHz.

  10. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  11. Enhanced efficiency and stability in organic light-emitting diodes by employing a p-i-n-p structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Dong-Ying; Wang, Bo; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Yun; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a p-i-n-p structure were developed by inserting a p-doped layer, MoO3 doped N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB), between an n-doped electron injection layer and the cathode. The device showed a 33.5% improvement in the power efficiency and 70.7% improvement in the half operational lifetime compared with the conventional p-i-n structure based device. The improved device performance is mainly ascribed to an improved conductivity, an enhanced thermal stability, and the protection of the electron injection layer by the NPB:MoO3 p-doped layer. The finding indicates that the p-i-n-p structure is beneficial for improving the efficiency and the stability of OLEDs.

  12. Lead Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic as a Model p-i-n Diode.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Kenjiro; Tripathi, Neeti; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-16

    The lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells, especially the iodide compound CH3NH3PbI3 family, exhibited enormous progress in the energy conversion efficiency in the past few years. Although the first attempt to use the perovskite was as a sensitizer in a dye-sensitized solar cell, it has been recognized at the early stage of the development that the working of the perovskite photovoltaics is akin to that of the inorganic thin film solar cells. In fact, theoretically perovskite is always treated as an ordinary direct band gap semiconductor and hence the perovskite photovoltaics as a p-i-n diode. Despite this recognition, research effort along this line of thought is still in pieces and incomplete. Different measurements have been applied to different types of devices (different not only in the materials but also in the cell structures), making it difficult to have a coherent picture. To make the situation worse, the perovskite photovoltaics have been plagued by the irreproducible optoelectronic properties, most notably the sweep direction dependent current-voltage relationship, the hysteresis problem. Under such circumstances, it is naturally very difficult to analyze the data. Therefore, we set out to make hysteresis-free samples and apply time-tested models and numerical tools developed in the field of inorganic semiconductors. A series of electrical measurements have been performed on one type of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic cells, in which a special attention was paid to ensure that their electronic reproducibility was better than the fitting error in the numerical analysis. The data can be quantitatively explained in terms of the established models of inorganic semiconductors: current/voltage relationship can be very well described by a two-diode model, while impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a thick intrinsic layer with the help of a numerical solver, SCAPS, developed for thin film solar cell analysis. These results point to that CH3NH3PbI3 is an

  13. Dense nanoimprinted silicon nanowire arrays with passivated axial p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, A.; Pacifici, D.; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A. V.

    2015-03-28

    We report on the fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of vertical arrays of silicon axial p-i-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) epitaxy. NW surface passivation with silicon dioxide shell is shown to enhance carrier recombination time, open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), and fill factor (FF). The photovoltaic performance of passivated individual NW and NW arrays was compared under 532 nm laser illumination with power density of ∼10 W/cm{sup 2}. Higher values of V{sub OC} and FF in the NW arrays are explained by enhanced light trapping. In order to verify the effect of NW density on light absorption and hence on the photovoltaic performance of NW arrays, dense Si NW arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography to periodically arrange the gold seed particles prior to epitaxial growth. Compared to sparse NW arrays fabricated using VLS growth from randomly distributed gold seeds, the nanoimprinted NW array solar cells show a greatly increased peak external quantum efficiency of ∼8% and internal quantum efficiency of ∼90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying pitch (P) confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400–650 nm spectral range is calculated for a Si NW array with P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness.

  14. Design and Characterization of p-i-n Devices for Betavoltaic Microbatteries on Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Raziuddin A.

    Betavoltaic microbatteries convert nuclear energy released as beta particles directly into electrical energy. These batteries are well suited for electrical applications such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), implantable medical devices and sensors. Such devices are often located in hard to access places where long life, micro-size and lightweight are required. The working principle of a betavoltaic device is similar to a photovoltaic device; they differ only in that the electron hole pairs (EHPs) are generated in the device by electrons instead of photons. In this study, the performance of a betavoltaic device fabricated from gallium nitride (GaN) is investigated for beta particle energies equivalent to Tritium (3H) and Nickel-63 (N63) beta sources. GaN is an attractive choice for fabricating betavoltaic devices due to its wide band gap and radiation resistance. Another advantage GaN has is that it can be alloyed with aluminum (Al) to further increase the bandgap, resulting in a higher output power and increased efficiency. Betavoltaic devices were fabricated on p-i-n GaN structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The devices were characterized using current - voltage (IV) measurements without illumination (light or beta), using a laser driven light source, and under an electron beam. Dark IV measurements showed a turn on-voltage of ~ 3.4 V, specific-on-resistance of 15.1 m O-cm2, and a leakage current of 0.5 mA at -- 10 V. A clear photo-response was observed when IV curves were measured for these devices under a light source at a wavelength of 310 nm (4.0 eV). These devices were tested under an electron beam in order to evaluate their behavior as betavoltaic microbatteries without using radioactive materials. Output power of 70 nW and 640 nW with overall efficiencies of 1.2% and 4.0% were determined at the average energy emission of 3H (5.6 keV) and 63N (17 keV) respectively.

  15. Current impulse response of thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes using full band structure Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, A. H.; Cheang, P. L.

    2007-02-01

    A random response time model to compute the statistics of the avalanche buildup time of double-carrier multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using full band structure Monte Carlo (FBMC) method is discussed. The effect of feedback impact ionization process and the dead-space effect on random response time are included in order to simulate the speed of APD. The time response of InP p+-i-n+ diodes with the multiplication region of 0.2μm is presented. Finally, the FBMC model is used to calculate the current impulse response of the thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes with multiplication lengths of 0.05 and 0.2μm using Ramo's theorem [Proc. IRE 27, 584 (1939)]. The simulated current impulse response of the FBMC model is compared to the results simulated from a simple Monte Carlo model.

  16. High-Speed Widely-Tunable 90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 8:45am - 9...00am WB2 High-Speed Widely-Tunable >90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes Necmi Biyiklia. Ibrahim Kimukinb. Orhan ...Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. b Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. c Department of Electrical and Computer

  17. Large lateral photovoltaic effect in µc-SiOx:H/a-Si:H/c-Si p-i-n structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Xinhui; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on a large lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a hydrogenated microcrystal silicon-oxygen (µc-SiOx:H)-based p-i-n structure. Compared with LPE in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based p-i-n structure, this structure showed an abnormal current-voltage (I-V) curve with a lower photoelectric conversion efficiency, but exhibited a much higher LPE with the highest position sensitivity of 64.3 mV/mm. We ascribe this to the enhancement of the lateral gradient of excess transmitted carriers induced by increasing both Schottky barrier and p-type layer body conductivity. Our results suggest that this µc-SiOx:H-based p-i-n structure may be a promising candidate for position-sensitive detectors (PSDs). Moreover, our results may also imply that solar cell devices with abnormal I-V curves (or low efficiency) could find their new applications in other aspects.

  18. Temperature spectra of conductance of Ge/Si p-i-n structures with Ge quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, Ihor I.; Fitsych, Olena I.; Pishchagin, Anton A.; Kokhanenko, Andrei P.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Nikiforov, Alexander I.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents results of investigation of Ge/Si p-i-n structures with Ge quantum dots in the i-region by the method of admittance spectroscopy. The structures contain multiple layers with Ge quantum dots separated by thin 5 nm layers of Si in the intrinsic region. Two peaks are observed on the temperature dependences of conductance of the investigated heterostructures. It is revealed that the second peak is broadened and corresponds to a system of closely lying energy levels.

  19. Low power and fast electro-optic silicon modulator with lateral p-i-n embedded photonic crystal nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2009-12-07

    We have fabricated high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities with a lateral p-i-n structure to demonstrate low-power and high-speed electro-optic modulation in a silicon chip. GHz operation is demonstrated at a very low (microW level) operating power, which is about 4.6 times lower than that reported for other cavities in silicon. This low-power operation is due to the small size and high-Q of the photonic crystal nanocavity.

  20. Si nanocrystal p-i-n diodes fabricated on quartz substrates for third generation solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Hao, Xiaojing; Gentle, Angus; Kim, Dong-Ho; Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin. A.

    2009-10-01

    We fabricated p-i-n diodes by sputtering alternating layers of silicon dioxide and silicon rich oxide with a nominal atomic ratio O/Si=0.7 onto quartz substrates with in situ boron for p-type and phosphorus for n-type doping. After crystallization, dark and illuminated I-V characteristics show a diode behavior with an open circuit voltage of 373 mV. Due to the thinness of the layers and their corresponding high resistivity, lateral current flow results in severe current crowding. This effect is taken into account when extracting the electronic bandgap based on temperature dependent diode I-V measurements.

  1. In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodiodes with transparent cadmium tin oxide contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Paul R.; Dutta, Niloy K.; Zydzik, George; O'Bryan, H. M.; Keller, Ursula; Smith, Peter R.; Lopata, John; Sivco, D.; Cho, A. Y.

    1992-10-01

    A new type of p-i-n In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode having an optically transparent composite top electrode consisting of a thin semitransparent metal layer and a transparent cadmium tin oxide (CTO) layer was investigated. The composite functions as the n or p contact, an optical window, and an antireflection coating. The transparent contact also prevents shadowing of the active layer by the top electrode, thus allowing greater collection of incident light. Since the CTO contact is nonalloyed, interdiffusion into the i-region is not relevant avoiding an increased dark current. The photodiodes exhibited leakage currents of ≤8 nA and some as low as 23 pA, with reverse breakdown voltages of ≥15-17 V. Responsivity was measured using a 1.55 μm InGaAsP diode laser focused onto an unpassivated 60 μm diam p-i-n photodiode and was ≥0.41 A/W. Photoresponse of the diodes to 3 ps pulses from a Nd:YLF laser (λ=1.047 μm) was 169 and 86 ps for the 60 and 9 μm diodes, respectively. The maximum frequency response of the 9 μm diode is packaging limited, and is expected to have an intrinsic response time of 20-30 ps.

  2. Te incorporation in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires and p-i-n axial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Estiak; Kasanaboina, P. K.; Karim, M. R.; Sharma, M.; Reynolds, C. L.; Liu, Y.; Iyer, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report on in situ Te-doping in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires (NWs) grown via self-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Enhanced Te incorporation in the NW at higher Te cell temperature was attested by the broadening of the x-ray diffraction peak and the presence of a strong coupled-LO phonon mode in the Raman spectra. Te-doping was estimated from the shift in the coupled-LO phonon mode to be ˜2.0 × 1018/cm3. The surfactant nature of the Te modulated the growth kinetics, which was manifested in an enhanced radial growth rate with improved photoluminescence (PL) characteristics at both room temperature (RT) and 4 K. No noticeable planar defects were observed as ascertained from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images and selected-area electron diffraction patterns. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental realization of a GaAs1-xSbx axial p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) structure on a Si substrate with Te as the n-type dopant. The GaAs1-xSbx p-i-n NW structures exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) behavior. The dopant concentration and the transport parameters estimated from the PL spectra and I-V curve were found to be in good agreement.

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic property by forming p-i-n structures containing Si quantum dots/SiC multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si QDs)/SiC multilayers were fabricated by annealing hydrogenated amorphous Si/SiC multilayers prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The thickness of amorphous Si layer was designed to be 4 nm, and the thickness of amorphous SiC layer was kept at 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the formation of Si QDs after 900°C annealing. The optical properties of the Si QDs/SiC multilayers were studied, and the optical band gap deduced from the optical absorption coefficient result is 1.48 eV. Moreover, the p-i-n structure with n-a-Si/i-(Si QDs/SiC multilayers)/p-Si was fabricated, and the carrier transportation mechanism was investigated. The p-i-n structure was used in a solar cell device. The cell had the open circuit voltage of 532 mV and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.28%. PACS 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Pt; 88.40.jj PMID:25489285

  4. N-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx x-ray image detectors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, Sen-Shyong; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Hwang, Huey-Liang

    2003-06-01

    An innovative hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiode based x-ray detector for medical imaging applications has been developed in this work. Basically, the detector is a p-i-n photodiode, with a very simple modification by depositing a stacked silicon nitride (SiNx) layer on the p-layer (n-i-p-SiNx) or n-layer (p-i-n-SiNx) of this diode. The dielectric layer functioned as the major charge storage element of the pixel, and p-i-n as the photon-charge converter, separately. The charge storage capacity is larger as the nitride layer is thinner. Consequently, dynamic range, linearity, and data retention of the image array were significantly improved. The novel detector also offers a scheme to independently optimize the photo sensitivity and charge storage capacity of a p-i-n photodiode based pixel. Instead of the conventional p-i-n photodiodes, the novel detectors are proposed to employ in the active matrix, flat-panel imager, with the favor that the signal readout electronics and the TFT driving circuitry are unchanged. The changes include only the bias voltage, whch as a bi-level waveform, as well as the timing for turning on/off the switching thin film transistors (TFTs). The fundamentals of the n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx detectors are addressed, and the performances of these two novel detectors and the conventional p-i-n photodiode are compared. Additionally, the different performances, such as the speed, between n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx will be particularly discussed.

  5. A study of the coupling between LO phonons and plasmons in InP p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Dinh Nhu

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a study investigating the coupling between longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and plasmons in InP p-i-n diodes by a numerical simulation. A significant change is observed in the Fourier transform spectra of transient electric field when taking the coupling into account. The findings show two separate peaks instead of a single plasma peak as for non-coupling case. In addition, the bulk-like dispersion relations of the frequencies of those two peaks on the carrier density are found. Therefore, it is proposed that those behaviors manifest the LO phonon-plasmon coupling in the diodes. Also, there is evidence of the peak clipping by the diode itself, a phenomenon not being seen in the bulk InP semiconductor.

  6. Resonant metallic nanostructure for enhanced two-photon absorption in a thin GaAs p-i-n diode

    SciTech Connect

    Portier, Benjamin; Pardo, Fabrice; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Steveler, Emilie; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Lemaître, Aristide; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Vest, Benjamin; Jaeck, Julien; Rosencher, Emmanuel; Haïdar, Riad

    2014-07-07

    Degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) is investigated in a 186 nm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diode embedded in a resonant metallic nanostructure. The full device consists in the GaAs layer, a gold subwavelength grating on the illuminated side, and a gold mirror on the opposite side. For TM-polarized light, the structure exhibits a resonance close to 1.47 μm, with a confined electric field in the intrinsic region, far from the metallic interfaces. A 109 times increase in photocurrent compared to a non-resonant device is obtained experimentally, while numerical simulations suggest that both gain in TPA-photocurrent and angular dependence can be further improved. For optimized grating parameters, a maximum gain of 241 is demonstrated numerically and over incidence angle range of (−30°; +30°).

  7. Hump-shaped internal collection efficiency of degraded a-Si:H {ital p-i-n} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smole, F.; Topic, M.; Furlan, J.; Kusian, W.

    1997-07-01

    Measured internal collection efficiency (ICE) characteristics of annealed and degraded a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells were used for an analysis of their internal behavior. Using the numerical simulator ASPIN, simulations were performed in order to fit and explain pronounced hump-shaped voltage-dependent ICE characteristics of degraded structures under weak short-wavelength illumination. Agreement with measured ICE characteristics for a degraded cell was obtained only if in addition to the introduction of light-induced dangling bond defect states, their capture cross sections were also increased, in particular the capture cross section for the charged defect states were increased. This caused a change in the occupancy of defect states at the p-i interface and front part of the i layer under forward biases. Consequently, the electric field in the front part of the cell was sustained under higher forward biases, resulting in recovery of the ICE. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Effects of Be acceptors on the spin polarization of carriers in p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, I. T.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Galeti, H. V. A.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of Be acceptors on the electroluminescence and the spin polarization in GaAs/AlAs p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes. The quantum well emission comprise two main lines separated by ∼20 meV attributed to excitonic and Be-related transitions, which intensities show remarkably abrupt variations at critical voltages, particularly at the electron resonant peak where it shows a high-frequency bistability. The circular-polarization degree of the quantum-well electroluminescence also shows strong and abrupt variations at the critical bias voltages and it attains relatively large values (of ∼−75% at 15 T). These effects may be explored to design novel devices for spintronic applications such as a high-frequency spin-oscillators.

  9. A fast SOI-based variable optical attenuator with a p-i-n structure with low polarization dependent loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pei; Wu, Yuan-da; Wang, Yue; An, Jun-ming; Hu, Xiong-wei

    2016-01-01

    According to the plasma dispersion effect of silicon (Si), a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based variable optical attenuator (VOA) with p-i-n lateral diode structure is demonstrated in this paper. A wire rib waveguide with sub-micrometer cross section is adopted. The device is only about 2 mm long. The power consumption of the VOA is 76.3 mW (0.67 V, 113.9 mA), and due to the carrier absorption, the polarization dependent loss ( PDL) is 0.1 dB at 20 dB attenuation. The raise time of the VOA is 34.5 ns, the fall time is 37 ns, and the response time is 71.5 ns.

  10. Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Hagir M.; Royall, Ben; Mazzucato, Simone; Balkan, Naci

    2012-09-01

    The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out.

  11. Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hagir M; Royall, Ben; Mazzucato, Simone; Balkan, Naci

    2012-09-28

    The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out.

  12. GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H. H.; Li, H.; Mashanov, V.; Yang, Y. J.; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, G. E.; Soref, R. A.; Sun, G.

    2013-12-02

    We report an investigation of GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with an active GeSn layer that is almost fully strained. The results show that (a) the response of the Ge/GeSn/Ge heterojunction photodiodes is stronger than that of the reference Ge-based photodiodes at photon energies above the 0.8 eV direct bandgap of bulk Ge (<1.55 μm), and (b) the optical response extends to lower energy regions (1.55–1.80 μm wavelengths) as characterized by the strained GeSn bandgap. A cusp-like spectral characteristic is observed for samples with high Sn contents, which is attributed to the significant strain-induced energy splitting of heavy and light hole bands. This work represents a step forward in developing GeSn-based infrared photodetectors.

  13. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    SciTech Connect

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; Nie, H.; Disney, D.; Wierer, Jr., J.; Allerman, A. A.; Moseley, M. W.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remain superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.

  14. GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well p-i-n structures: A surface photovoltage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasy, N.; Leibovitch, M.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Shapira, Yoram; Barnham, K. W. J.; Nelson, J.; Barnes, J.

    1999-12-01

    The photovoltage (PV) response of single quantum well p-i-n structures under open circuit conditions has been studied experimentally and numerically. The numerical calculations show a monotonic increase in the PV response with decreasing well width, implying that the ensuing increase in carrier generation rate and band gap governs the PV response. The well layer has been shown to dominate the recombination of excess carriers generated throughout the structure, and their lifetime at the well has been found to be a critical structure parameter. Using a simple semi-empirical model, the effective carrier lifetimes at the well layer/interfaces for the different samples were estimated. The results demonstrate the benefits of using surface photovoltage spectroscopy for characterization and quality control of quantum well structures.

  15. An innovative a-Si:H p-i-n based X-ray medical image detector for low dosage and long exposure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, Sen-Shyong; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Hwang, Huey-Liang

    2003-05-01

    An innovative hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiode based X-ray detector for medical imaging applications was developed in this work, and the improvements of the device were also discussed. The detector consists of an a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode and a stacked dielectric layer, such as silicon nitride (SiN x), deposited on p-layer of this p-i-n diode (n-i-p-SiN x), as the major charge storage element. The detector operates as a capacitor, formed by this dielectric layer, in parallel with a reverse-biased p-i-n diode during the detection cycle. Consequently, the capacitance, for accumulating the photon-converted charges, of the p-i-n diode was enlarged by this stacked dielectric layer without decreasing the active area of the detector. As a result, the dynamic range, linearity and data retention capability of this novel detector are significantly improved. In particular, the photo sensitivity and charge storage capability of this novel detector can be separately optimized, and the drastically improved data retention, due to the high density and long release time of the trapped electrons in p-layer of the p-i-n diode, could facilitate this novel detector to be employed in the low dosage flux and long exposure applications.

  16. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Savanier, Marc Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-28

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  17. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-01

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  18. Influence of bilayer resist processing on p-i-n OLEDs: towards multicolor photolithographic structuring of organic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkus, Simonas; Nehm, Frederik; Janneck, Robby; Kalkura, Shrujan; Zakhidov, Alex A.; Schober, Matthias; Hild, Olaf R.; Kasemann, Daniel; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Recently, bilayer resist processing combined with development in hydrofluoroether (HFE) solvents has been shown to enable single color structuring of vacuum-deposited state-of-the-art organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). In this work, we focus on further steps required to achieve multicolor structuring of p-i-n OLEDs using a bilayer resist approach. We show that the green phosphorescent OLED stack is undamaged after lift-off in HFEs, which is a necessary step in order to achieve RGB pixel array structured by means of photolithography. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of both, double resist processing on red OLEDs and exposure of the devices to ambient conditions, on the basis of the electrical, optical and lifetime parameters of the devices. Additionally, water vapor transmission rates of single and bilayer system are evaluated with thin Ca film conductance test. We conclude that diffusion of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) through the fluoropolymer film is the main mechanism behind OLED degradation observed after bilayer processing.

  19. Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Matthew; Brendel, Corinna E.; Zang, Kai; Suh, Junkyo; Fenrich, Colleen S.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Huo, Yijie; Kamins, Theodore I.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Harris, James S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the effect of surface passivation on pseudomorphic multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors. A combination of ozone oxidation to form GeOx and GeSnOx on the surface of the diodes followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 for protection of these native oxides provides reduced dark current. With a temperature-dependent investigation of dark current, we calculate the activation energy to be 0.26 eV at a bias of -0.1 V and 0.05 eV at -1 V for the sample passivated by this ozone method. Based on these activation energy results, we find that the current is less dominated by bulk tunneling at lower reverse bias values; hence, the effect of surface passivation is more noticeable with nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in dark current for the ozone-passivated sample compared to control devices without the ozone treatment at a voltage of -0.1 V. Passivation also results in a significant enhancement of the responsivity, particularly for shorter wavelengths, with 26% higher responsivity at 1100 nm and 16% higher performance at 1300 nm.

  20. p-i-n heterojunctions with BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles and p- and n-type oxides: photovoltaic properties.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Soumyo; Bera, Abhijit; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-11-26

    We formed p-i-n heterojunctions based on a thin film of BiFeO3 nanoparticles. The perovskite acting as an intrinsic semiconductor was sandwiched between a p-type and an n-type oxide semiconductor as hole- and electron-collecting layer, respectively, making the heterojunction act as an all-inorganic oxide p-i-n device. We have characterized the perovskite and carrier collecting materials, such as NiO and MoO3 nanoparticles as p-type materials and ZnO nanoparticles as the n-type material, with scanning tunneling spectroscopy; from the spectrum of the density of states, we could locate the band edges to infer the nature of the active semiconductor materials. The energy level diagram of p-i-n heterojunctions showed that type-II band alignment formed at the p-i and i-n interfaces, favoring carrier separation at both of them. We have compared the photovoltaic properties of the perovskite in p-i-n heterojunctions and also in p-i and i-n junctions. From current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy, we have observed that two depletion regions were formed at the p-i and i-n interfaces of a p-i-n heterojunction. The two depletion regions operative at p-i-n heterojunctions have yielded better photovoltaic properties as compared to devices having one depletion region in the p-i or the i-n junction. The results evidenced photovoltaic devices based on all-inorganic oxide, nontoxic, and perovskite materials.

  1. A final report for: Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1999-04-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the front surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed from a layer of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed from the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10{sup -12} amps at -1 V on a 3mm x 3mm diode, or a density of 1.1 x 10{sup -11} amps cm{sup -2}, with many of the diode structures tested having nearly similar results. The PIN diodes were significantly better than the Schottky barrier device, which had six orders of magnitude higher dark current. Diodes were characterized in terms of their current-mode response to 5.5 MeV alpha particles from 241-Americium. These radiation-induced currents were as high as 9.78 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -1} on a PIN device with an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As BSF. Simple PIN diodes had currents as high as 2.44 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2}, with thicker undoped layers showing better sensitivity. Boron coatings were applied, and response to neutrons tested at University of Michigan by Dr. Doug McGregor. Devices with PIN and Schottky barrier designs showed neutron detection efficiencies as high as 2% on 5 {micro}m thick devices, with no need for external bias voltages. PIN diodes showed higher breakdown voltages and lower noise

  2. Near-infrared electroluminescence and photo detection in InGaAs p-i-n microdisks grown by selective area growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellman, Jon Øyvind; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-06-16

    Microselective-area growth of p-i-n InGaAs disks on (111) silicon by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is a promising technology for III/V-on-Si integration. As a proof-of-concept, room-temperature electroluminescence is reported from ensembles of p-i-n InGaAs-on-Si micro-disks. The observed spectrum shows peak luminescence at 1.78 μm with a local maxima at 1.65 μm. The disks are also shown to generate a measurable photo current when illuminated by infrared light with less energy than the silicon bandgap energy. This makes these InGaAs-on-Si disks a promising technology for monolithic integration of light sources and detectors with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics for optical communication, sensing, and imaging.

  3. Simulation based comparative analysis of photoresponse in front- and back-illuminated GaN P-I-N ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Jin; Xie, Feng; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Haoran; Song, Man; Yi, Yuanyuan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the comparative analysis of influence of doping level and doping profile of the active region on zero bias photoresponse characteristics of GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors operating at front- and back-illuminated. A two dimensional physically-based computer simulation of GaN-based p-i-n UV photodetectors is presented. We implemented GaN material properties and physical models taken from the literature. It is shown that absorption layer doping profile has notable impacts on the photoresponse of the device. Especially, the effect of doping concentration and distribution of the absorption layer on photoresponse is discussed in detail. In the case of front illumination, comparative to uniform n-type doping, the device with n-type Gaussian doping profiles at absorption layer has higher responsivity. Comparative to front illumination, back illuminated detector with p-type doping profiles at absorption layer has higher maximum photoresponse, while the Gaussian doping profiles have a weaker ability to enhance the device responsivity. It is demonstrated that electric field distribution, mobility degradation, and recombinations are jointly responsible for the variance of photoresponse. Our work enriches the understanding and utilization of GaN based p-i-n UV photodetectors.

  4. Experimental demonstration of efficient pulsed terahertz emission from a stacked GaAs/AlGaAs p-i-n-i heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisauskas, A.; Reklaitis, A.; Venckevičius, R.; Kašalynas, I.; Valušis, G.; Grigaliunaitė-Vonsevičienė, G.; Maestre, H.; Schmidt, J.; Blank, V.; Thomson, M. D.; Roskos, H. G.; Köhler, K.

    2011-02-01

    The pulsed optoelectronic terahertz emitter based on a δ-doped p-i-n-i GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, which was suggested by Reklaitis [Phys. Rev. B 77, 153309 (2008)], is investigated experimentally. It is shown that the heterostructure can serve as efficient antenna- and bias-free surface emitter. Its power exceeds the emission from InGaAs and InAs surfaces for optical excitation fluences below 0.7 μJ/cm2 at 82 MHz pulse repetition rate, respectively, 7 μJ/cm2 at 1 kHz, with potential for further improvement by carrier recombination management.

  5. InGaAs/AlAs triple-barrier p-i-n junction diode for realizing superlattice-based FET for steep slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukimachi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The subthreshold slope of a conventional FET is over 60 mV/dec at room temperature. One of the proposed devices capable of overcoming this limitation is a superlattice FET (SLFET). In this study, we determined the feasibility of an SLFET experimentally. To overcome the limitations of conventional FETs, we proposed a “leaned” superlattice structure for an FET. With the help of calculations, we fabricated InGaAs/AlAs triple-barrier p-i-n diodes instead of FETs. By using measurements recorded at room and low temperatures, we confirmed the change in slope at the expected bias through calculations.

  6. Effect of doping on room temperature carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, D. G.; Chen, E. Y.; Polly, S. J.; Hubbard, S. M.; Doty, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of doping on the mechanisms of carrier escape from intermediate states in delta-doped InAs/GaAs intermediate band solar cells. The intermediate states arise from InAs quantum dots embedded in a GaAs p-i-n junction cell. We find that doping the sample increases the number of excited-state carriers participating in a cycle of trapping and carrier escape via thermal, optical, and tunneling mechanisms. However, we find that the efficiency of the optically-driven carrier escape mechanism is independent of doping and remains small.

  7. Nuclear radiation detectors based on a matrix of ion-implanted p-i-n diodes on undoped GaAs epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, F. M.; Britvich, G. I.; Chernykh, A. V.; Chernykh, S. V.; Chubenko, A. P.; Didenko, S. I.; Koltsov, G. I.

    2012-11-06

    Samples of nuclear detectors which represent matrices of p-i-n diodes were fabricated based on undoped gallium arsenide epitaxial layers by ion implantation technology. The detectors have a size of the active area of 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 0.4 and 0.9 Multiplication-Sign 0.9 cm{sup 2}. Electrical characteristics of fabricated detectors and results of measurements of fast neutrons spectra of {sup 241}Am-Be source by the recoil protons method are discussed.

  8. Efficient gate control of spin-valve signals and Hanle signals in GaAs channel with p-i-n junction-type back-gate structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takumi; Akiho, Takafumi; Ebina, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Efficient gate control of spin-valve signals and Hanle signals was achieved in a GaAs channel with a p-i-n back-gate structure. Experiments showed that the amplitude of the spin-valve signal (ΔVNL) under constant-injection-current conditions increased for a cross nonlocal geometry when the channel was depleted by the gate voltage (VG). In contrast, the VG dependence of ΔVNL for a nonlocal geometry was complicated. The gate modulation efficiency of spin signals was approximately 50 times that with a graphene or Si channel.

  9. Influence of thin metal as a top electrode on the characteristics of P-I-N a- Si:H solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.; Anderson, W.A.; Lahri, R.; Coleman, J.

    1981-04-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-n junction solar cells have been fabricated which utilize various metals (Cr, Cu, Al, Pd, Ag) as a top electrode. Experimental and theoretical analysis of photovolatic performance in a-Si:H solar cells as a function of resistivity, optical transmittance, and work function of thin metal films are presented. Metal work function changes the effective built-in potential of p-n junction diodes. Furthermore, a lower work function metal forms a good Ohmic contact for substrate --P/sup +/-I-N/sup +/-- electrode cells, and high work function metals improve V/sub oc/ of substrate -N-I-P cells. Typical V/sub o/c values are 760 mV with Cr--, Cu--, and Al--N-I-P--stainless steel (SS), 700 mV with Pd--N-I-P-SS, 600 mV with Pd--P-I-N-SS, and 540 mV with Cr--P-I-N-SS. J/sub sc/ is strongly dependent on transmittance and resistivity of the metal films. Fill factor is independent of the choice of a top electrode. An efficient of 2% has been obtained on a 2 cm/sup 2/ solar cell.

  10. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications. PMID:26077658

  11. Characterisation of Al0.52In0.48P mesa p-i-n photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, S.; Lioliou, G.; Krysa, A. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Results characterising the performance of thin (2 μm i-layer) Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy are reported at room temperature. Two 200 μm diameter and two 400 μm diameter Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes were studied. Dark current results as a function of applied reverse bias are shown; dark current densities <3 nA/cm2 were observed at 30 V (150 kV/cm) for all the devices analysed. Capacitance measurements as a function of applied reverse bias are also reported. X-ray spectra were collected using 10 μs shaping time, with the device illuminated by an 55Fe radioisotope X-ray source. Experimental results showed that the best energy resolution (FWHM) achieved at 5.9 keV was 930 eV for the 200 μm Al0.52In0.48P diameter devices, when reverse biased at 15 V. System noise analysis was also carried out, and the different noise contributions were computed.

  12. Metamorphic In(0.20)Ga(0.80)As p-i-n photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates for near infrared applications.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, K; Yang, L-M; Grassman, T J; Tabares, G; Guzman, A; Hierro, A; Mills, M J; Ringel, S A

    2011-04-11

    The growth and performance of top-illuminated metamorphic In(0.20)Ga(0.80)As p-i-n photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates using a step-graded In(x)Ga(1-x)As buffer is reported. The p-i-n photodetectors display a low room-temperature reverse bias dark current density of ~1.4×10(-7) A/cm(2) at -2 V. Responsivity and specific detectivity values of 0.72 A/W, 2.3×10(12) cm·Hz(1/2)/W and 0.69 A/W, 2.2×10(12) cm·Hz(1/2)/W are achieved for Yb:YAG (1030 nm) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser wavelengths at -2 V, respectively. A high theoretical bandwidth-responsivity product of 0.21 GHz·A/W was estimated at 1064 nm. Device performance metrics for these GaAs substrate-based detectors compare favorably with those based on InP technology due to the close tuning of the detector bandgap to the target wavelengths, despite the presence of a residual threading dislocation density. This work demonstrates the great potential for high performance metamorphic near-infrared InGaAs detectors with optimally tuned bandgaps, which can be grown on GaAs substrates, for a wide variety of applications.

  13. Large Perovskite Grain Growth in Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Planar p-i-n Solar Cells by Sodium Addition.

    PubMed

    Bag, Santanu; Durstock, Michael F

    2016-03-02

    Thin-film p-i-n type planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells have the advantage of full low temperature solution processability and can, therefore, be adopted in roll-to-roll production and flexible devices. One of the main challenges with these devices, however, is the ability to finely control the film morphology during the deposition and crystallization of the perovskite layer. Processes suitable for optimization of the perovskite layer film morphology with large grains are highly desirable for reduced recombination of charge carriers. Here, we show how uniform thin films with micron size perovskite grains can be made through the use of a controlled amount of sodium ions in the precursor solution. Large micrometer-size CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite grains are formed during low-temperature thin-film growth by adding sodium ions to the PbI2 precursor solution in a two-step interdiffusion process. By adjusting additive concentration, film morphologies were optimized and the fabricated p-i-n planar perovskite-PCBM solar cells showed improved power conversion efficiences (an average of 3-4% absolute efficiency enhancement) compared to the nonsodium based devices. Overall, the additive enhanced grain growth process helped to reach a high 14.2% solar cell device efficiency with low hysteresis. This method of grain growth is quite general and provides a facile way to fabricate large-grained CH3NH3PbI3 on any arbitrary surface by an all solution-processed route.

  14. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  15. High performance planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells with crown-ether functionalized fullerene and LiF as double cathode buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yi E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn Song, Bo E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn; Lei, Ming; Li, Yongfang E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn

    2015-08-10

    Double cathode buffer layers (CBLs) composed of fullerene derivative functionalized with a crown-ether end group in its side chain (denoted as PCBC) and a LiF layer were introduced between the PCBM acceptor layer and the top cathode in planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells (pero-SCs) based on CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−X}Cl{sub X}. The devices with the PCBC/LiF double CBLs showed significant improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and long-term stability when compared to the device with LiF single CBL. Through optimizing the spin-coating speed of PCBC, a maximum PCE of 15.53% has been achieved, which is approximately 15% higher than that of the device with single LiF CBL. The remarkable improvement in PCE can be attributed to the formation of a better ohmic contact in the CBL between PCBC and LiF/Al electrode arising from the dipole moment of PCBC, leading to the enhanced fill factor and short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). Besides the PCE, the long-term stability of the devices with PCBC interlayer is also superior to that of the device with LiF single CBL, which is due to the more effective protection for the perovskite/PCBM interface.

  16. Highly Efficient p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells Utilizing Novel Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Hole Transport Materials with Linear π-Conjugated Structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Qiao, Bo; Huang, Di; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Youqin; Li, Xianggao; Liu, Xicheng; Xu, Xurong

    2016-09-01

    Alternative low-temperature solution-processed hole-transporting materials (HTMs) without dopant are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, two novel small molecule HTMs with linear π-conjugated structure, 4,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)biphenyl (TPASBP) and 1,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)benzene (TPASB), are applied as hole-transporting layer (HTL) by low-temperature (sub-100 °C) solution-processed method in p-i-n PSCs. Compared with standard poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, both TPASBP and TPASB HTLs can promote the growth of perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) film consisting of large grains and less grain boundaries. Furthermore, the hole extraction at HTL/CH3 NH3 PbI3 interface and the hole transport in HTL are also more efficient under the conditions of using TPASBP or TPASB as HTL. Hence, the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs is dramatically enhanced, leading to the high efficiencies of 17.4% and 17.6% for the PSCs using TPASBP and TPASB as HTL, respectively, which are ≈40% higher than that of the standard PSC using PEDOT:PSS HTL.

  17. Solar-blind Al x Ga1- x N ( x > 0.45) p- i- n photodiodes with a polarization- p-doped emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, N. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Shmidt, N. M.; Karpov, S. Yu.; Rzheutskii, N. V.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Troshkov, S. I.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ber, B. Ya.; Lutsenko, E. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Jmerik, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Polarization-induced p-type doping of AlGaN layers with high aluminum content during plasmaassisted MBE growth has been studied. It is shown that a gradient of the AlN molar fraction in AlGaN (composition gradient) on a level of 0.005 nm-1 must be set in order to obtain a hole concentration of ~1018 cm-3 (measured by the C- V method) in Al x Ga1- x N:Mg ( x = 0.52-0.32) layers with dopant concentration [Mg] = 1.3 × 1018 cm-3. p- i- n photodiodes based on AlGaN heterostructures with such layers as p-emitters showed maximum photoresponsitivity in the solar-blind wavelength range (λ = 281 nm) about 35 and 48 mA/W at reverse bias voltage U = 0 and-5 V, respectively, and exhibited a dark current density of 3.9 × 10-8 A/cm2 at U =-5 V.

  18. Measured and Simulated Dark J-V Characteristics of a-Si:H Single Junction p-i-n Solar Cells Irradiated with 40 keV Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth; Woodyard, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 40 keV electron irradiation on a-Si:H p-i-n single-junction solar cells was investigated using measured and simulated dark J-V characteristics. EPRI-AMPS and PC-1D simulators were explored for use in the studies. The EPRI-AMPS simulator was employed and simulator parameters selected to produce agreement with measured J-V characteristics. Three current mechanisms were evident in the measured dark J-V characteristics after electron irradiation, namely, injection, shunting and a term of the form CV(sup m). Using a single discrete defect state level at the center of the band gap, good agreement was achieved between measured and simulated J-V characteristics in the forward-bias voltage region where the dark current density was dominated by injection. The current mechanism of the form CV(sup m) was removed by annealing for two hours at 140 C. Subsequent irradiation restored the CV(sup m) current mechanism and it was removed by a second anneal. Some evidence of the CV(sup m) term is present in device simulations with a higher level of discrete density of states located at the center of the bandgap.

  19. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of interfacial states in ``buffer-free'' p-i-n GaSb/GaAs devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Ferrandis, Philippe; Mesli, Abdelmadjid; Hussain Mari, Riaz; Francisco Felix, Jorlandio; Sellai, Azzouz; Jameel, Dler; Al Saqri, Noor; Khatab, Almontaser; Taylor, David; Henini, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    A systematic study was carried out on defect states in Interfacial Misfit (IMF) unpassivated and Te-passivated IMF in p-i-n GaSb/GaAs devices using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace DLTS. Additionally, Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements were performed, which showed that the turn-on voltage (Von) of passivated samples is lower than that for unpassivated samples; an effect which can be explained by the introduction of new defects states near to the interface of GaSb/GaAs, where Te was incorporated to passivate the IMF. The Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) analysis demonstrates that these new states are the consequence of adding Te at the misfit of GaSb/GaAs. Furthermore, DLTS measurements reveal a distribution of states including a main midgap energy level, namely the well documented EL2 trap, with some peculiar behaviour. Most of these levels are related to interface states that are generated by the mismatch between GaAs and GaSb. Originally, the addition of Te atoms was thought to passivate these interface states. On the contrary, this paper, which attempts at correlating the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics to the DLTS results, shows clearly that Te atoms increase the density of interface states.

  20. High performance planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells with crown-ether functionalized fullerene and LiF as double cathode buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Yi; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang

    2015-08-01

    Double cathode buffer layers (CBLs) composed of fullerene derivative functionalized with a crown-ether end group in its side chain (denoted as PCBC) and a LiF layer were introduced between the PCBM acceptor layer and the top cathode in planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells (pero-SCs) based on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX. The devices with the PCBC/LiF double CBLs showed significant improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and long-term stability when compared to the device with LiF single CBL. Through optimizing the spin-coating speed of PCBC, a maximum PCE of 15.53% has been achieved, which is approximately 15% higher than that of the device with single LiF CBL. The remarkable improvement in PCE can be attributed to the formation of a better ohmic contact in the CBL between PCBC and LiF/Al electrode arising from the dipole moment of PCBC, leading to the enhanced fill factor and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Besides the PCE, the long-term stability of the devices with PCBC interlayer is also superior to that of the device with LiF single CBL, which is due to the more effective protection for the perovskite/PCBM interface.

  1. Room-temperature electroluminescence from radial p-i-n InP/InAsP/InP nanowire heterostructures in the 1.5-µm-wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Sudo, Hisao; Matsuda, Manabu; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Crystal growth of radial p-i-n InP nanowires (NWs) with InAsP quantum well (QW) layers by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy was studied, and vertical NW light-emitting devices were fabricated. Radial p-i-n NWs were formed using position-controlled n-type InP NW cores. By optimizing the flow rates of the Zn source, Zn-doped p-type InP shells were grown on the sidewall of the radial QW structures while maintaining the photoluminescence intensity of the QWs. The fabricated devices showed current rectification originating from the p-i-n diode structures. Electroluminescence from the radial QWs was clearly observed in the 1.5-µm-wavelength region at room temperature for the first time.

  2. Effect of tunable dot charging on photoresponse spectra of GaAs p-i-n diode with InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Xiangjun; Yu, Ying; Li, Mifeng; Wang, Lijuan; Zha, Guowei; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Pettersson, Håkan

    2015-12-28

    Quantum dot (QD)-embedded photodiodes have demonstrated great potential for use as detectors. A modulation of QD charging opens intriguing possibilities for adaptive sensing with bias-tunable detector characteristics. Here, we report on a p-i-n GaAs photodiode with InAs QDs whose charging is tunable due to unintentional Be diffusion and trap-assisted tunneling of holes, from bias- and temperature (T)-dependent photocurrent spectroscopy. For the sub-bandgap spectra, the T-dependent relative intensities “QD-s/WL” and “WL/GaAs” (WL: wetting layer) indicate dominant tunneling under −0.9 V (trap-assisted tunneling from the top QDs) and dominant thermal escape under −0.2 ∼ 0.5 V (from the bottom QDs since the top ones are charged and inactive for optical absorption) from the QD s-state, dominant tunneling from WL, and enhanced QD charging at >190 K (related to trap level ionization). For the above-bandgap spectra, the degradation of the spectral profile (especially near the GaAs bandedge) as the bias and T tune (especially under −0.2 ∼ 0.2 V and at >190 K) can be explained well by the enhanced photoelectron capture in QDs with tunable charging. The dominant spectral profile with no degradation under 0.5 V is due to a saturated electron capture in charged QDs (i.e., charging neutralization). QD level simulation and schematic bandstructures can help one understand these effects.

  3. Simulation and analysis of the absorption enhancement in p-i-n InGaN/GaN solar cell using photonic crystal light trapping structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil Deep; Janyani, Vijay

    2016-10-01

    The structure of p-i-n InGaN/GaN based solar cell having a photonic crystal (PhC)-based light trapping structure (LTS) at the top assisted by the planar metallic (aluminum) back reflector (BR) is proposed. We propose two different designs for efficiency enhancement: in one we keep the PhC structure etching depth extending from the top antireflective coating (ARC) of indium tin oxide (ITO) up to the p-GaN layer (which is beneath the ITO and above the active layer), whereas in the other design, the PhC LTS etching depth has been extended up to the InxGa1-xN absorbing layer, starting from the top ITO layer. The theoretical optical simulation studies and optimization of the required parameters of the structure, which help to investigate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the LTS in the efficiency enhancement of the structure, are presented. The work also demonstrates the Lambertian light trapping limits for the practical indium concentrations in a InxGa1-xN active layer cell. The paper also presents the comparison between the proposed designs and compares their results with that of a planar reference cell. The studies are carried out for various indium concentrations. The results indicate considerable enhancement in the efficiency due to the PhC LTS, mainly because of better coupling, low reflectance, and diffraction capability of the proposed LTS, although it is still under the Lambertian limits. The performance evaluation of the proposed structure with respect to the angle of incident light has also been done, indicating improved performance. The parameters have been optimized and calculated by means of rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method.

  4. Multistability, ionic doping, and charge dynamics in electrosynthesized polypyrrole, polymer-nanoparticle blend nonvolatile memory, and fixed p-i-n junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Daniel Theodore

    -assembled monolayer (SAM) at the cathode-polymer interface. The addition of the SAM causes a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Photovoltaic analysis indicates that the SAM increases both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Current versus voltage data are presented which indicate that the SAM does not simply introduce an interfacial dipole layer, but rather provides a fixed doping region, and thus a more stable p-i-n structure.

  5. Specific features of light current-voltage characteristics of p-i-n structures based on amorphous silicon in the case of the tunnel-drift mechanism of dark current transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of p-i-n structures based on amorphous silicon ({alpha}-Si:H) with small hole diffusion lengths (shorter than the thickness of the i-layer of a p-i-n structure) have been experimentally studied with and without illumination. It is shown that forward I-V characteristics of structures of this kind can be described by a dependence inherent in diodes, with a diode ideality factor two-three times the maximum value of 2, theoretically predicted for generation-recombination currents in p-n junctions. The dark current is always substantially lower than the photocurrent in a cell biased with a voltage approximately equal to the opencircuit voltage of the photocell. Dark currents cannot contribute to the I-V characteristic under illumination. The photocurrent decreases with increasing photovoltage at a bias lower than the open-circuit voltage because of a decrease in the collection coefficient and the increasingly important role of back diffusion of electrons into the p-contact, rather than as a result of the dark injection. In the case of biases exceeding the open-circuit voltage, back diffusion becomes the predominant component of the current.

  6. Improved organic p-i-n type solar cells with n-doped fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives HATNA-F{sub 6} and HATNA-F{sub 12} as transparent electron transport material

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, Franz Falkenberg, Christiane Leo, Karl Riede, Moritz; Hamburger, Manuel Baumgarten, Martin Müllen, Klaus

    2014-02-07

    We study new electron transport materials (ETM) to replace the reference material C{sub 60} in p-i-n type organic solar cells. A comprehensive material characterization is performed on two fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives, HATNA-F{sub 6} and HATNA-F{sub 12}, to identify the most promising material for the application in devices. We find that both HATNA derivatives are equally able to substitute C{sub 60} as ETM as they exhibit large optical energy gaps, low surface roughness, and sufficiently high electron mobilities. Furthermore, large electron conductivities of 3.5×10{sup −5} S/cm and 2.0×10{sup −4} S/cm are achieved by n-doping with 4 wt. % W{sub 2}(hpp){sub 4}. HOMO levels of (7.72 ± 0.05) eV and (7.73 ± 0.05) eV are measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and subsequently used for estimating LUMO values of (4.2 ± 0.8) eV and (4.3 ± 0.8) eV. Both fluorinated HATNA derivatives are successfully applied in p-i-n type solar cells. Compared to identical reference devices comprising the standard material C{sub 60}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be increased from 2.1 % to 2.4 % by using the new fluorinated HATNA derivatives.

  7. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-19

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  8. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-01

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  9. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  10. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  11. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  12. Commercialization of multijunction a-Si modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. E.; Arya, R. R.; Chen, L.-F.; Oswald, R.; Newton, J.; Rajan, K.; Romero, R.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1997-02-01

    Solarex has just completed building a plant in James City County, Virginia that has the capacity to produce 10 MW per year of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules. The plant will start commercial production of 8.6 ft2 tandem modules in early 1997. The tandem device structure consists of two stacked p-i-n junctions, a front junction containing amorphous silicon and a back junction containing an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. All amorphous silicon alloys are deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the large-area monolithic modules are interconnected using computerized laser scribing coupled with a machine vision system. The principle products will be monolithic modules (26″×48″) with nominal stabilized power ratings of 56, 50 and 43 peak watts. All modules will be fabricated using a glass-EVA-glass encapsulation to ensure long-term reliability. These products are expected to be widely used in both remote and grid-tied applications.

  13. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  14. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  15. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  16. Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Madan, A.

    1984-12-10

    A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

  17. Hybrid method of making an amorphous silicon P-I-N semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Morel, Don L.; Abeles, Benjamin

    1983-10-04

    The invention is directed to a hydrogenated amorphous silicon PIN semiconductor device of hybrid glow discharge/reactive sputtering fabrication. The hybrid fabrication method is of advantage in providing an ability to control the optical band gap of the P and N layers, resulting in increased photogeneration of charge carriers and device output.

  18. Coplanar waveguide discontinuities for P-I-N diode switches and filter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, N. I.; Katehi, P. B.; Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1990-01-01

    A full wave space domain integral equation (SDIE) analysis of coplanar waveguide (CPW) two port discontinuities is presented. An experimental setup to measure the S-parameters of such discontinuities is described. Experimental and theoretical results for CPW realizations of pass-band and stop-band filters are presented. The S-parameters of such structures are plotted in the frequency range 5 to 25 GHz.

  19. Properties of InGaN P-I-N ultraviolet detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yidan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiang-yang

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication and characterization of InGaN ultraviolet photodetector were reported in this work. The effects of thermal annealing were investigated on the properties of ohmic contact. Experiments showed that the zero bias resistance was lowest when the sample was annealed at 550 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes. The current-voltage (I-V) curve showed that current at zero bias was 3.70×10-13A and the resistance was 4.53×1010 Ω. A flat band spectral response was achieved in the 360nm~390nm. The detector displayed an unbiased response of 0.22A/W at 378 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency of 88%. R0A values up to 1.3×108Ω·cm2 was obtained corresponding to D*=1.97×1013cm•Hz1/2•W-1.

  20. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  1. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  2. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  3. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  4. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  5. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  6. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  7. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  8. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  9. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  10. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  11. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  13. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  14. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  15. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  16. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  17. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  18. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  19. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  20. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  1. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  2. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  3. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  4. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  5. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  6. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  7. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  8. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  9. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  10. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  11. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  12. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  13. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  14. Commercial Parts Radiation Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSE/Keith Avery 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0172 TR-2014-0172 COMMERCIAL PARTS RADIATION TESTING Craig J. Kief COSMIAC at UNM 2350 Alamo Avenue SE Suite 300...Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE

  15. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    DOE PAGES

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; ...

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface andmore » in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.« less

  16. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; Pan, Janet L.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Tu, Charles W.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface and in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.

  17. UV micro-imprint patterning for tunable light trapping in p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Han, Bing; Bai, Lisha; Zhao, Huixu; Yang, Fu; Liang, Junhui; Huang, Qian; Chen, Xinliang; Zhao, Ying

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we used UV micro-imprint lithography periodic patterning combined with self-textured BZO films with a wide range of texture distributions for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. It was found that the feature size of the periodic textures has a significant influence on the light trapping capacity of the glass substrate and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon solar cells, deposited on periodic textures of 5 μm, showed an improved photocurrent density without any loss in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor; hence, resulting in an overall efficiency increase of 6.28%.

  18. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    power sources are measured in decades, not years. The energy density of isotopes (J/kg) is 106 greater than that of chemical batteries. The energy...Device fabrication, structure design, and packaging with strict quality requirements are needed to improve the ability of the betavoltaic to produce...material, reducing their efficiency. It is not until recently that wafer quality of SiC has been improved due to wider use in power components

  19. Portable γ- and X-ray analyzers based on CdTe p-i-n detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusainov, A. K.; Antonova, T. A.; Bahlanov, S. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Lysenko, V. V.; Morozov, F.; Mouratov, V. G.; Muratova, V. N.; Petukhov, Y. A.; Pirogov, A. M.; Polytsia, O. P.; Saveliev, V. D.; Solovei, V. A.; Yegorov, K. A.; Zhucov, M. P.

    1999-06-01

    Several portable instruments are designed using previously reported CdTe detector technology. These can be divided into three groups according to their energy ranges: (1) 3-30 keV XRF analyzers, (2) 5-120 keV wide range XRF analyzers and (3) γ-ray spectrometers for operation up to 1500 keV. These instruments are used to inspect several hundreds of samples in situ during a working day in applications such as a metal alloy verification at customs control. Heavy metals are identified through a 3-100 mm thick package with these instruments. Surface contamination by heavy metals (for example toxins such as Hg, Th and Pb in housing environmental control), the determination of Pb concentration in gasoline, geophysical control in mining, or nuclear material control are other applications. The weight of these XRF probes is about 1 kg and two electronic designs are used: one with embedded computer and another based on a standard portable PC. The instruments have good precision and high productivity for measurements in situ. The detection limit of Ce is about 0.03% when measured in the presence of 10% barium for 15 s. The detection limit when measuring K-shell X-ray of heavy metals contamination is about 0.1 mg/cm 2 for 15 s. Two types of probes for γ-spectrometry with small and large (>30 mm 3) detector volumes provide both high- and low-activity of nuclear fuel analysis. The maximum distance between the probes and electronics unit is 20 m. The γ-spectrometers are equipped with electronics to correct signal distortion due to slow carrier effects. This allows the instrument to achieve an energy resolution of about 2.5 keV at 662 keV. Several modes to process spectra are possible including semiquantitative and total real-shape fitting.

  20. Study of the Staebler-Wronski degradation effect in a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, H. A.; Brown, W. D.; Ang, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into electricity using environmentally safe and clean photovoltaic methods to supplement the ever increasing energy needs has been a cherished goal of many scientists and engineers around the world. Photovoltaic solar cells on the other hand, have been the power source for satellites ever since their introduction in the early sixties. For widespread terrestrial applications, however, the cost of photovoltaic systems must be reduced considerably. Much progress has been made in the recent past towards developing economically viable terrestrial systems, and the future looks highly promising. Thin film solar cells offer cost reductions mainly from their low processing cost, low material cost, and choice of low cost substrates. These are also very attractive for space applications because of their high power densities (power produced per kilogram of solar cell pay load) and high radiation resistance. Amorphous silicon based solar cells are amongst the top candidates for economically viable terrestrial and space based power generation. Despite very low federal funding during the eighties, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies have continually been improved - from a low 3 percent to over 13 percent now. Further improvements have been made by the use of multi-junction tandem solar cells. Efficiencies close to 15 percent have been achieved in several labs. In order to be competitive with fossil fuel generated electricity, it is believed that module efficiency of 15 percent or cell efficiency of 20 percent is required. Thus, further improvements in cell performance is imperative. One major problem that was discovered almost 15 years ago in amorphous silicon devices is the well known Staebler-Wronski Effect. Efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells was found to degrade upon exposure to sunlight. Until now their is no consensus among the scientists on the mechanism for this degradation. Efficiency may degrade anywhere from 10 percent to almost 50 percent within the first few months of operation. In order to improve solar cell efficiencies, it is clear that the cause or causes of such degradation must be found and the processing conditions altered to minimize the loss in efficiency. This project was initiated in 1987 to investigate a possible link between metallic impurities, in particular, Ag, and this degradation. Such a link was established by one of the NASA scientists for the light induced degradation of n+/p crystalline silicon solar cells.

  1. Study of Staebler-Wronsky degradation effect in a Si:H based P-I-N solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, Hameed; Herman, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the stability and efficiency of thin solar cells with emphasis on a-Si:H devices. The research project was broken down into three main phases. The first involves designing and building a UHV glow discharge system; the second involves making good quality films and eventually efficient cells; the final phase will be analytical.

  2. Study of Charge Transport in Vertically Aligned Nitride Nanowire Based Core Shell P-I-N Junctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    approach combines the precision and scalability of top-down processing with the enhanced material quality obtained through selective epitaxy to...overgrowths with an aim to improve material quality , and 3) fabrication of device structures and their extensive characterization. The emphasis of all...unlimited. July 2016 Grant HDTRA1-14-1-0003 Sergiy Krylyuk Prepared by: University of Maryland 3112 Lee Building College Park, MD 20742

  3. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  4. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  5. Options for commercial tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

  6. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  7. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  8. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  9. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  10. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  12. TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…

  13. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  14. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  15. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  16. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  17. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2011-01-01

    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  18. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  19. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  20. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Commercial users panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

    1987-01-01

    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  2. Fundamentals of Commercial Art. Module 1. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane; Tadrick, Christine

    This module is the first of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on fundamentals of commercial art are six instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit…

  3. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  4. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  5. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucas, Larry

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  6. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  7. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  9. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O`Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a "pathway toward commercialization".

  10. The puzzle of graphene commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongjun

    2016-11-01

    The commercialization of graphene-based products is challenging, because many engineering and economical aspects have to be taken into consideration. A stronger collaboration between academia and industry would be beneficial for accelerating the process.

  11. Commercial and Institutional Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Throughout the country, commercial and institutional (CI) building owners and facility managers are taking actions to reduce their water use, implementing many of the operations and maintenance, retrofit, and replacement projects.

  12. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  13. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  14. Commercial Crew Planning Status Forum

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA presents an overview of common themes captured from industry responses provided to NASA's Commercial Crew Initiative Request for Information (RFI) published on May 21, 2010. The forum includes...

  15. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  16. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  17. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  18. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  20. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  1. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  2. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger...

  3. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger...

  4. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  5. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  6. On Selecting Commercial Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Möhr, J.R.; Sawinski, R.; Kluge, A.; Alle, W.

    1984-01-01

    As more commercial information systems become available, the methodology for their selection gains importance. An instances where the method employed for the selection of laboratory information systems was multilevel assessment. The method is described and the experience gained in the project is summarized and discussed. Evidence is provided that the employed method is comprehensive, reproducible, valid and economic.

  7. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  8. Commercial Theme-Writing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Joan; Kent, Laura

    This survey of the Higher Education Panel (HEP) of the American Council on Education was conducted in response to the growing concern among many members of the academic community about the threat posed to our higher education system by a new commercial service for college students, the theme writing firm. These companies make available to…

  9. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  10. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  11. Commercial Uses of Broadband Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Ephraim

    The need for commercial communications is expected to grow substantially in the future. Whether telephone companies meet most of this demand seems to depend on three major factors: regulatory actions, the development of alternative technology, and the telephone companies themselves. The Federal Communications Commission is considering requiring…

  12. Commercial expendable launch vehicle liability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearings before a subcommittee of the House Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented. Cost and availability of insurance for commercial launch providers was discussed. The contribution of the domestic launch industry to the Space Program is examined. All written testimony and submittals for the record are also included.

  13. Commercial Software for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William L.

    Computer software packages that are commercially available for physics instruction are compiled in this paper. Information for each program includes: the broad subject category (i.e., mechanics, waves and sound, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics and light, modern physics, mathematical models, or general reference/testing…

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Commercial Antifreezes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    accomplished by atomic absorption spectroscopy . No attempt \\%as made to identify minor components. Conley, James H.’and Jamison, Robert G.. "Evaluation...freeze point depressant. Analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy shows that all products, except Antifreeze G, contain boron. All II commercial

  15. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  16. 78 FR 37474 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 13 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... years, the information collection associated with commercial radio licenses, as well as for Commercial Operator License Examination Managers (COLEM(s)) that administer commercial radio operator licenses...

  17. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish...

  18. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  19. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish...

  20. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  1. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has...

  2. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  3. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  4. Commercialization of nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Metallurgists are taught that intermetallics are brittle phases and should be avoided in alloys of commercial interest. This education is so deeply rooted that irrespective of significant advances made in ductilization of aluminides,the road to their acceptance commercialization is extremely difficult. This paper identifies the requirements for commercialization of any new alloys and reports the activities carried out to commercialize Ni and Fe aluminides. The paper also identifies areas which meet the current commercialization requirements and areas needing additional effort.

  5. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  6. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  7. Viruses of commercialized insect pollinators.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2016-08-03

    Managed insect pollinators are indispensable in modern agriculture. They are used worldwide not only in the open field but also in greenhouses to enhance fruit set, seed production, and crop yield. Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera, Apis cerana) colonies provide the majority of commercial pollination although other members of the superfamily Apoidea are also exploited and commercialized as managed pollinators. In the recent past, it became more and more evident that viral diseases play a key role in devastating honey bee colony losses and it was also recognized that many viruses originally thought to be honey bee specific can also be detected in other pollinating insects. However, while research on viruses infecting honey bees started more than 50years ago and the knowledge on these viruses is growing ever since, little is known on virus diseases of other pollinating bee species. Recent virus surveys suggested that many of the viruses thought to be honey bee specific are actually circulating in the pollinator community and that pollinator management and commercialization of pollinators provide ample opportunity for viral diseases to spread. However, the direction of disease transmission is not always clear and the impact of these viral diseases on the different hosts remains elusive in many cases. With our review we want to provide an up-to-date overview on the viruses detected in different commercialized pollinators in order to encourage research in the field of pollinator virology that goes beyond molecular detection of viruses. A deeper understanding of this field of virology is urgently needed to be able to evaluate the impact of viruses on pollinator health and the role of different pollinators in spreading viral diseases and to be able to decide on appropriate measures to prevent virus-driven pollinator decline.

  8. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  9. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  10. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  11. Application and commercialization of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2013-07-01

    While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  13. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the identities of building owners might be revealed and

  14. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI... commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or... commercial entities by the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, the United States Department of...

  15. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  16. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  17. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  18. Commercial Products from Demilitarization Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    NaAsO2 + H+ - HAsO 2 + Na+ Step (3) is the couversion of sodium metaarsenite to metaarsenious acid . (4) HAsO2 +-H+ Cd - As +H 20 + Cd+2 Step (4...shows the electrochemical reduction of metaarsenious acid in sulfuric acid at pH 2.32 5 SECTION 5 PREPARATION OF HIGH-PURITY ARSENIC A number of methods...reutralization of the acid can drive the reaction to the right. No commentary regarding the commercial use of thiodiglycol. 3. Study of the Conversion of

  19. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce administrative...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the...

  20. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  1. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  2. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  3. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  4. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  5. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  6. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  7. An Evolutionary Approach to Space Launch Commercialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    target profits . We are ignoring the award fee in the discussion here. Utilization of Commercial Launch Services 33 ities are 98 percent in the last 10...reluctant to charge a commercial customer a lower price for fear of lowering the profit margin on government contracts, even if commercial launches... Commercialization Brian G. Chow Prepared fir the Under Secretary of Defensefor Acquisition National Defense Research Institute Approved for public release

  8. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  9. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  10. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  11. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  12. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  13. Exercise among commercial truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.

  14. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  15. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  16. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  17. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  18. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  19. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  20. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  1. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  2. Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    STRATEGIES FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS by Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 Occasional...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 The Occasional papers series was

  3. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  4. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  5. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may...

  7. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report... relating to the Commercial Mobile Alert System rules contained in the Commission's Second Report and...

  8. The Commercial Transformation of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This essay reviews the history of school commercialization in the USA and the forms that it has taken over time, with particular attention paid to research measuring the scope and variety of commercialization trends in US public schools. The implications of commercialization activities such as those that promote the consumption of nutritionally…

  9. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  10. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  12. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  14. Coal gasifiers: commercial and technical risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    At present, only two gasifier designs (Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi) are offered on the basis of the offerer having recent commercial experience with the design. Development and demonstration programs will soon add five new concepts to the list of offerings that lie within the realm of reasonable commercial risk. These include the Allis-Chalmers, British slagging Lurgi, Saarberg-Otto, Texaco, and Westinghouse gasifiers. The actual date these units will become commercial depends on when the developers actually get their demonstration unit on line and operating. Other developers may assume a greater portion of the commercial risk in order to accelerate the introduction of their process into a commercial setting.

  15. Leasecraft - A commercial space platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrowbridge, D. R.

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) is the result of a NASA program concerned with the identification of new approaches to spacecraft design. A mandatory requirement regarding the MMS was flexibility to accommodatae a wide variety of payloads. MMS derived subsystems will provide a platform in low orbit for scientific, commercial, and government users on a leased or service contract basis. The payload may consist of scientific instruments, materials processing equipment, or remote sensors. Secondary payloads may be mounted in standard MMS module boxes. The platform forms a part of the 'Leasecraft' system, which was developed by an American aerospace company. Attention is given to the Leasecraft vehicle, details regarding the Leasecraft platform, and payload accommodations and Leasecraft missions.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  17. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G C; Bentley, R D; Horwood, N A; Hunter, R; Iles, R H; Jones, J B L; Powell, D; Thomas, D J

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%.

  18. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  19. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  20. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Comb and Centipede Multigraft Copolymers PnBA-g-PS with High Molecular Weight Using Miniemulsion Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Weiyu; Lu, Xinyi; Bobade, Sachin; Chen, Jihua; Kang, Nam-goo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Mays, Jimmy

    2014-10-23

    For this study, comb and centipede multigraft copolymers, poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-polystyrene (PnBA-g-PS) with PnBA backbones and PS side chains, were synthesized via high-vacuum anionic polymerization and miniemulsion polymerization. Single-tailed and double-tailed PS macromonomers were synthesized by anionic polymerization and Steglich esterification. Subsequently, the copolymerization of each macromonomer and nBA was carried out in miniemulsion, and multigraft copolymers were obtained. The latex particles of multigraft copolymers were characterized using dynamic light scattering. The molecular weights of macromonomers and multigraft copolymers were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. Moreover, the molecular weights and structures of macromonomers were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The weight contents of PS in comb and centipede multigraft copolymers were calculated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The thermal properties of multigraft copolymers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microphase separation of multigraft copolymers was observed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Rheological measurements showed that comb and centipede multigraft copolymers have elastic properties when the weight content of PS side chains is 26–32 wt %. Centipede multigraft copolymers possess better elastic properties than comb multigraft copolymers with the similar weight content of PS. In conclusion, these findings are similar to previous results on poly(isoprene-g-polystyrene) comb and centipede copolymers made by anionic polymerization.

  2. Effect of strain relaxation on forward bias dark currents in GaAs/InGaAs multiquantum well p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, P. R.; Barnes, J.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Haarpaintner, G.; Mazzer, M.; Zanotti-Fregonara, C.; Grünbaum, E.; Olson, C.; Rohr, C.; David, J. P. R.; Roberts, J. S.; Grey, R.; Pate, M. A.

    1996-11-01

    The effect of the dislocation line density produced by the relaxation of strain in GaAs/InxGa1-xAs multiquantum wells where x=0.155-0.23 has been studied. There is a strong correlation between the dark line density, observed by cathodoluminescence, before processing of the wafers into photodiode devices, and the subsequent low forward bias (<1.5 V) dark current densities of the devices. A comparison is made of the correlation between the reverse bias current density and dark line density and it is found that, in this range of strain, the forward bias current density varies more. Two growth methods, molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, have been used to produce the wafers and no difference between the growth methods has been found in dark line or current density variations with strain.

  3. PiN photodiode performance comparison for dosimetry in radiology applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Charles N P; Khoury, Helen J; Santos, Edval J P

    2016-12-01

    Performance comparison of selected photodiodes for usage as radiation detectors for radio-protection is presented. In this study, based on the criteria of minimum sensitive area of 5mm(2), minimum half angle 60° and low cost, four commercial photodiodes are selected for evaluation: SFH205, SFH206, BPW34, and BPX90F. Photodiodes are low cost, small volume and lightweight detectors. As an electronic transducer, photodiode detector is an attractive approach for the development of low power portable electronic dosimeter for direct-reading real-time radiation dose measurement. The devices have been studied with respect to sensitivity (efficiency) in X-rays and gamma rays detection, repeatability and linearity in air kerma.

  4. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  5. Advanced technology commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Walker, T. H.; Johnson, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing's program for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) has focused on the manufacturing and performance issues associated with a wide body commercial transport fuselage. The primary goal of ATCAS is to demonstrate cost and weight savings over a 1995 aluminum benchmark. A 31 foot section of fuselage directly behind the wing to body intersection was selected for study purposes. This paper summarizes ATCAS contract plans and review progress to date. The six year ATCAS program will study technical issues for crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage. All structural details in these areas will be included in design studies that incorporate a design build team (DBT) approach. Manufacturing technologies will be developed for concepts deemed by the DBT to have the greatest potential for cost and weight savings. Assembly issues for large, stiff, quadrant panels will receive special attention. Supporting technologies and mechanical tests will concentrate on the major issues identified for fuselage. These include damage tolerance, pressure containment, splices, load redistribution, post-buckled structure, and durability/life. Progress to date includes DBT selection of baseline fuselage concepts; cost and weight comparisons for crown panel designs; initial panel fabrication for manufacturing and structural mechanics research; and toughened material studies related to keel panels. Initial ATCAS studies have shown that NASA's Advanced Composite Technology program goals for cost and weight savings are attainable for composite fuselage.

  6. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  7. Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Andrea; Simonetti, Javier A

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of fauna in commercial plantations is often associated with structural complexity. Through a meta-analysis, we tested whether the structural complexity of plantations could enhance bird species assemblages and whether bird assemblages respond differently depending on taxonomic affiliation, body size, and diet. Our analyses included 167 case studies in 31 countries in which bird assemblages in forests and plantations were compared and 42 case studies in 14 countries in which bird assemblages in plantations of different structural complexity were compared. Species richness, but not abundance, was higher in forests than in plantations. Both species richness and abundance were significantly higher in complex than in structurally simple plantations. Taxonomic representation and body size did not differ between forest and plantations, except that there were fewer insectivorous birds in plantations than in forests. In the comparison of simple versus complex plantations, abundance of all taxonomic and dietary groups was higher in complex plantations. Body size did not affect bird species richness or abundance. Independent of the type of plantation, bird richness and abundance were greater in structurally complex plantations. Enhancing the structural complexity of plantations may mitigate their impact and offer habitat for some native species.

  8. Mycoflora in commercial pet foods.

    PubMed

    Bueno, D J; Silva, J O; Oliver, G

    2001-05-01

    This article reports on the identification of mycoflora of 21 dry pet foods (12 belonging to dogs and 9 to cats) that corresponded to 8 commercial brands made in Argentina and imported. The isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera are compared too. Ten genera and fungi classified as Mycelia sterilia were identified. The predominant genera were Aspergillus (62%), Rhizopus (48%), and Mucor (38%). The most prevalent among Aspergillus was Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. The predominant Mucor was Mucor racemosus followed by Mucor plumbeus and Mucor globosus. The moisture content of these foods ranged from 5.6 to 10.0% and from 7.2 to 9.9% for dog and cat foods, respectively. A greater moisture content in food for the senior category (9.5 +/- 0.2) was observed only in comparison to adult and kitten/puppy. If the moisture content can be maintained at these levels, mold growth would be prevented or at least it would remain at an insignificant level. Some genera and species isolated and identified from the foods analyzed are potentially producing toxins, which are known as mycotoxins. This involves a risk for animal health.

  9. System approach to MEMS commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganov, Vladimir I.; Belov, Nickolai; in't Hout, Sebastiaan R.

    2003-04-01

    It is common to underestimate the challenges of integrating the at least four technologies in any MEMS product: the three technologies of any semiconductor device (electronics, packaging and testing) plus the MEMS microstructure. For some specific areas of application, for example for photonics, optics technology/components must also be integrated. While traditional semiconductor devices utilize standardized and inexpensive packaging and testing procedures and equipment, MEMS require custom solutions that introduce multiple physical domains, such as light in the case of photonics, directly to a potentially moving structure on the die. This heightened complexity coupled with nonstandard packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies has a dramatic impact on functionality, reliability and cost. Being developed and successfully proven for a period of about twenty-five years the System Approach to MEMS Commercialization is based on three major principles: A priori understanding of the interdependence of technologies integrated into MEMS products: micro-machining, IC technology, packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies. Parallel development or implementation of these technologies within the MEMS product. Redistribution of manufacturing complexity from individual to batch realm. Integrating packaging and testing and other (optics) components into the microstructure and including some of the testing and functional algorithms in the ASIC reduce cost by simplifying more expensive individual manufacturing steps. The overall results of redistribution complexity from individual manufacturing technologies into batch manufacturing technologies are dramatic cost reduction, performance and quality improvement and shorter time to market.

  10. Non-US approaches to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The approaches to the commercialization of space taken by the four foreign countries most active in the field - Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan are described. National space program elements with commercial potential are examined in the context of national industrial and science policies, with special attention to objectives, timetables, and budgetary priority relative to other sectors. The role of the European Space Agency in attaining national and regional commercialization objectives is also examined.

  11. Fifty years of commercial caesium clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    2005-06-01

    The first commercial caesium-beam clock was the Atomichron, developed by National Company. The first unit was delivered in 1956. This paper first presents a brief history of commercial caesium-beam clocks. It then covers many of the sources of frequency error and frequency instability. Some details of the technical design of the caesium-tube and electronics are presented. Finally, we present some possible directions for future commercial caesium clocks.

  12. Advanced materials systems as commercial opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper shows that commercial opportunities in the materials area lie principally in materials systems, and much less in components made from differentiated individual materials. Examples are given.

  13. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  14. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  15. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  16. Biosensor commercialization strategy - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Tsai; Wang, Su-Man

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors are analytical devices, which use biological interactions to provide either qualitative or quantitative results. They are extensively employed in many fields such as clinical diagnosis and biomedicine, military applications, anti-terrorism, farm, garden and veterinary analysis, process control, fermentation control and analysis, pharmaceutical and drug analysis, food and drink production and analysis, pollution control and monitoring, microbiology, bacterial and viral analysis, mining, and industrial and toxic gases. The biosensor market has significantly increased and will be mushrooming in the next decade. The total biosensor market is estimated to be 10.8 billion dollars by 2007. The emerging biosensor market presents both opportunities and obstacles to start-up biosensor entrepreneurs. The major challenge and threat for these entrepreneurs is how to predict the biosensor market and how to convert promising biosensor technology into commercialized biosensors. By adopting a simple commercialization strategy framework, we identify two key elements of biosensor commercialization strategy: excludability and complementary asset. We further divide biosensor commercialization environments into four distinct sub-environments: the Attacker's Advantage, Reputation-Based Idea Trading, Greenfield Competition and Ideas Factories. This paper explains how the interaction between these two key elements shapes biosensor commercialization strategy and biosensor industry dynamics. This paper also discusses alternative commercialization strategies for each specific commercialization environment and how to choose from these alternatives. The analysis of this study further provides a good reference for start-up biosensor entrepreneurs to formulate effective biosensor commercialization strategy.

  17. Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. D.; Catanzarite, D. M.; St. Clair, K. A.

    Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical devices is discussed.

  18. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80, and 87 Commercial Radio Operators Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation radio stations who perform certain functions performed within the commercial radio operators service, to determine which rules can be clarified, streamlined,...

  19. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80 and 87 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends our rules concerning commercial radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation radio stations in order to reduce administrative burdens in the...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE... filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the use of...

  1. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE... filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the use of...

  2. Solicitation on Campus: Free Speech or Commercialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Annette

    1986-01-01

    The issue of whether the First Amendments right to freedom of speech applies to commercial vendors on campuses as it does to nonprofit solicitation is addressed and guidelines provided. Banning commercial solicitation from residence halls, but allowing it on a limited basis in campus centers is recommended. (Author/ABB)

  3. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005... transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge to another person, or...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005... transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge to another person, or...

  5. Commercial Practices for Defense Acquisition Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    acquisitions through adoption of Navy. Shipbuilding and Logistics). The commercial practices. same is tnie of the " beso practices" 12 Chapter I...similarities between commercial Operated Civil Enit-ineer Supply Store supply and Government inventory management automotive and civil engineering paris

  6. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  7. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  8. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  9. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  11. Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

    This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

  12. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster shall be conducted with commercial hexane in accordance with § 798... recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster conducted with commercial hexane pursuant to paragraph (c... effective date of the final rule. (3) The sex-linked recessive-lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster...

  13. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster shall be conducted with commercial hexane in accordance with § 798... recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster conducted with commercial hexane pursuant to paragraph (c... effective date of the final rule. (3) The sex-linked recessive-lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster...

  14. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  15. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  16. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  17. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  18. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  19. 47 CFR 73.4075 - Commercials, loud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercials, loud. 73.4075 Section 73.4075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4075 Commercials, loud. See Memorandum Opinion and...

  20. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  1. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS... June 15, 2011, provided that: (i) The fishing is conducted in accordance with a valid commercial... after June 15, 2011. (c) General requirements. Any commercial fishing within the Monument shall...

  2. Children's Television Commercials; A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Charles; And Others

    The purpose of the study described in this book was to determine the content parameter of television commercials addressed to children. A total of 236 commercials were collected from advertising agencies representing cereals, candy, drinks, foods for meals, restaurants, cookies, miscellaneous, cakes, ice cream, vitamins, and crunchy snacks. Each…

  3. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  4. 47 CFR 73.4075 - Commercials, loud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercials, loud. 73.4075 Section 73.4075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4075 Commercials, loud. See Memorandum Opinion and...

  5. Television Commercials and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Michael T.; Marsden, Madonna P.

    1978-01-01

    Because of their effectiveness, as well as their accessiblity as points of reference, TV commercials can provide excellent bridges in teaching concepts of good, effective writing. Specificity through metaphor is only one of the many basic writing course topics that can be effectively illustrated through TV commercials. (Author/EB)

  6. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section...

  7. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  8. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  9. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial photography. 1005.5....5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  10. Suborbital commercial spaceflight crewmember medical issues.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    As directed by the Council of the Aerospace Medical Association, the Commercial Spaceflight Working Group has developed the following position paper concerning medical issues for commercial suborbital spaceflight crewmembers. This position paper has been approved by the AsMA Council to become a policy of the AsMA.

  11. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  12. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  13. The Commercial Course: Defense et Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavillo, Anthony

    The development of commercial foreign language courses by colleges and universities would help to satisfy the need for language enrollments and the expressed need of the international business community for foreign language skills in American business employees. Three major problems inhibit commercial language course development: limited…

  14. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  15. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  16. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... information from interested parties regarding product markets, energy use, test procedures, and energy efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... procedures, and energy efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps as prescribed by...

  17. Synthesis of the Commercial Antidepressant Moclobemide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Jesse D.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory is described in which students synthesize the commercial antidepressant drug moclobemide, marketed under the trade name Manerix. This one-step synthesis starts from commercially available material and produces moclobemide in high yield. The product is initially isolated as its…

  18. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    .... ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: NASA proposes to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to include guidance consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial...

  19. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  20. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software...

  1. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software...

  2. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software...

  3. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software...

  5. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'': Mr. Brian Shrager, Energy...

  6. Sponsored Schools and Commercialized Classrooms: Schoolhouse Commercializing Trends in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    This report analyzes commercializing trends in America's schools and classrooms, using data from database searches in seven categories of schoolhouse commercialism in the period 1990-97. The number of citations relating to commercializing activities can provide only a rough approximation of the scope and development of the phenomenon. The number…

  7. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  8. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  9. Incorporating knowledge into commercially available systems.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    2000-01-01

    The ways in which a potential commercial 'user' treats different knowledge types are explored in this paper. The issues are dealt with by the pragmatism with which a marketing manager might evaluate an opportunity. Academics are typically motivated by drivers that are different from a commercial 'push'. Thus partnership is needed for a productive compromise; addressing questions such as why should academic institutions let commercial organizations have their intellectual capital. The paper considers issues of hand-over, product maintenance and a continued development partnership, especially in a volatile [Inter] net-based age.

  10. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  11. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  12. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  13. Florida, National Space Club Embrace Commercial Endeavors

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Manager Ed Mango and Florida's Lt. Gov. Jennifer Carroll were guest speakers at the National Space Club Florida Committee's luncheon at the Radisson Resort at t...

  14. Effects of Radiation on Commercial Power Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selva, Luis; Becker, Heidi; Chavez, Rosa; Scheick, Leif

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiation on various commercial power devices are presented. The devices have proved to be very fragile to single event effects, with some of the devices actually succumbing to catastrophic SEE with protons.

  15. Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmoyer, Allan

    2006-01-01

    U.S. space policy directs pursuit of commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services low Earth orbit and beyond. COTS Project established to implement policy. COTS strategy: Phase 1) Assist industry with system development/demonstrations (COTS Demos); Phase 2) Procure commercial services for ISS logistics support. COTS Demonstrations competition completed in 10 months. Two industry partners selected for funded Space Act Agreements: 1) SpaceX & Rocketplane-Kistler; and 2) Unfunded Space Act Agreements in work with other competitors. COTS budget of $500 M thru 2010, with pay for performance milestone approach. Cargo flight demonstrations planned for 2008 and 2009: Crew flight demonstration options for 2011-2012. Commercial cargo transportation services potentially available as early as 2009-2010. Successful COTS partners may open new space markets and provide reliable, cost effective cargo and crew transportation services, a new era for commercial space.

  16. Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

  17. Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    This document discusses the types of commercial planes ordered by Air France. Characteristics of the Wibault 670, the Dewoitine D.620, Bloch 300, and the Potez 620 airplanes are included. Pictures and diagrams of these aircraft are also included.

  18. NASA commercial technology. Agenda for change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The essence of NASA's new way of doing business to support the agency's commercial technology mission objectives is described. A summary description of the various changes needed to successfully perform this mission is provided.

  19. List of Independent Commercial Importers (ICIs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a list of Independent Commercial Importers (ICIs) who currently hold a valid certificate of conformity from EPA allowing importation of certain nonconforming vehicles into the United States. (EPA publication # EPA-420-F-13-036)

  20. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  1. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles.

  2. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2016-07-15

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  3. The practical difficulties of commercial flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtney, F T

    1924-01-01

    This paper relates some of the problems commercial aircraft companies have in attracting larger numbers of paying customers. The author discusses some remedies such as changing the public perception of flying as dangerous.

  4. Commercial tanning salons and melanoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoel, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There have been many case-control studies of melanoma and the use of indoor tanning equipment. A recent meta analysis of 8 credible studies in North America estimated an overall significant odds ratio of 1.23. Three of these 8 studies also reported separately on commercial use and home use of indoor tanning equipment. For home use the overall odds ratio was a significant 1.53 while for commercial use there was a non significant 1.05.

  5. Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    18th ICCRTS “C2 in Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments” Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge Topics: (7...Architectures, Technologies , and Tools (8): Networks and Networking Jonathan R. Agre Institute for Defense Analyses 4850 Mark Center Drive...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. Facial nerve palsy aboard a commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Ulanovski, David; Barenboim, Erez; Azaria, Bella; Goldstein, Liav

    2004-12-01

    Facial baroparesis is facial nerve palsy secondary to barotrauma. This phenomenon is frequently seen in divers, but is under-reported there and has rarely been described in aviators or passengers aboard commercial aircraft. We describe a 24-yr-old healthy aviator who experienced an episode of facial nerve palsy during ascent while traveling as a passenger aboard a commercial flight. The probable pathogenesis of this phenomenon in this case is described.

  7. Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-13

    Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.

  8. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India.

    PubMed

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene

    2015-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions.

  9. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  10. 48 CFR 12.213 - Other commercial practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other commercial practices... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.213 Other commercial practices. It is a common practice in the commercial marketplace for...

  11. 10 CFR 429.44 - Commercial water heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial water heating equipment. 429.44 Section 429.44... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.44 Commercial water heating equipment... to commercial WH equipment; and (2) For each basic model of commercial water heating (WH)...

  12. NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1995-01-01

    The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

  13. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  14. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  15. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  16. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY... given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has been renewed for a 2.... commercial space transportation industry. The ] primary goals of the Committee are to evaluate...

  17. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  18. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) requests...

  19. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation... development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system, which supports the National...

  20. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  1. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

  2. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE`s Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE`s EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies.

  3. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE`s Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE`s EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies.

  4. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  5. Commercialization of cellular immunotherapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony; Johnson, Robert

    2016-04-15

    Successful commercialization of a cell therapy requires more than proving safety and efficacy to the regulators. The inherent complexity of cellular products delivers particular manufacturing, logistical and reimbursement hurdles that threaten commercial viability for any therapy with a less than spectacular clinical profile that truly changes the standard of care. This is particularly acute for autologous cell therapies where patients receive bespoke treatments manufactured from a sample of their own cells and where economies of scale, which play an important role in containing the production costs for small molecule and antibody therapeutics, are highly limited. Nevertheless, the promise of 'game-changing' efficacy, as exemplified by very high levels of complete responses in refractory haematological malignancies, has attracted capital investments on a vast scale, and the attendant pace of technology development provides promising indicators for future clinical and commercial success.

  6. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  7. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  8. Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Tolson, Charles B; Vest, Randy G; Jensen, Summer; Lundell, Travis G

    2006-01-01

    The popularity of noni juice is increasing globally. As such, knowledge of its nutritional properties is needed to make informed decisions regarding its use. This industry-wide mineral profile was determined by analyses of 177 brands of commercial noni juice according to a modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists protocol. A large degree of variability was found in the concentrations of nine minerals. While potassium was found to be the most prominent mineral, its concentration in most commercial brands is of minor nutritional significance. The wide variability among the many brands of commercial noni juice precludes the assumption that all are the same. Many have a different nutrient profile to that published by the European Union for Tahitian Noni Juice. Such variances may thus require consumers, dieticians, and other healthcare professionals to obtain unlabelled nutrient information from manufacturers.

  9. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  10. ISS Update: Brent Jett Discusses the Commercial Crew Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brent Jett, Commercial Crew Program Deputy Manager, talks about how NASA and its commercial partners are proceeding with vehicle development to launch astronauts to the International Space Station ...

  11. Evaluation of Space Food for Commercial Astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, Britt Karin

    As commercial aerospace companies advance toward manned spaceflight, they must overcome many hurdles - not only technical, but also human. One of the greatest human challenges they face is food. Throughout the history of human spaceflight, astronauts have primarily eaten food developed by government space agencies. Now, with manned commercial flights on the horizon, astronauts will be provided with an entirely new diet - one comprised of commercially available, ready-to-eat food. Yet will this diet keep astronauts nourished, satisfied with their diet, and both psychologically and physically healthy? The purpose of this parallel crossover design study was to evaluate (a) nutrient intake, (b) food satisfaction, (c) psychological health, and (d) physical health in commercial aerospace employees (N = 7) as they ate a diet of commercial, ready-to-eat food for four days, as compared to eating as normal for four days. Findings from this study showed that the ready-to-eat diet did not lead to any significant changes in caloric intake, psychological health, or physical health, aside from weight loss. It is not clear whether this weight loss was due to the loss of body fat, muscle, or water. When eating the ready-to-eat food, participants reported being slightly less satisfied with the variety, reported lower cravings for sweets, and reported the food was slightly less hedonically rewarding. In post-study interviews, participants reported they wanted to see more meats, fruits, vegetables, and desserts added to the ready-to-eat diet, so as to provide more meal-like structure. Overall, these findings show the diet could be used in commercial spaceflight after making simple changes. The diet could also be used by individuals in remote areas on Earth and to provide food assistance to individuals in disaster or emergency situations. Due to the increasing popularity of ready-to-eat food around the world, these findings also provide knowledge about the potential consequences of

  12. Commercial Space Research: Entering a New Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Act which established NASA included direction that NASA is to foster to the maximum extent possible the commercial use of space. In order to achieve this, NASA began establishing in 1985, Commercial Space Centers (CSCs). These centers are a consortium of industry, academia, and government. Primarily university based, the CSCs are chartered to partner with industry to help companies learn how using space can improve their bottom line. Responsibility for the Commercial Space Centers rests with the Space Product Development Office at Marshall Space Flight Center. Since the program was established in 1985, SPD has sponsored nearly 180 commercial microgravity research payloads on 30 Shuttle missions. The vast majority of these missions were on the order of 6 days. Most companies have only had on average three flight opportunities to advance their product development efforts. From the product development standpoint of an individual company only three weeks of microgravity time have been obtained to date. Of key importance to a company is the fact that this time has not been continuous. Anywhere from one to three years elapses between flights. Despite these flight constraints, the companies in the SPD program have made considerable progress. For example, over the course of the program through 1999, industry has invested over half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind. Over a dozen new product lines are in development by the industrial partners of the Commercial Space Centers. Now the companies partnered with the SPD program have a new opportunity in the International Space Station. The long duration capability provided by the Station will provide double the amount of per company average microgravity time in just the first increment. Current planning through planning increment 5 shows that commercial investment in space research should now be positioned for greater returns.

  13. Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

  14. Cooperative commercial recycling programs for small business

    SciTech Connect

    Tennes, A.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a pilot commercial recycling program implemented in Illinois from June 1994 through June 1995. The Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) was responsible for program development, implementation and education, solicitation of proposals and funding, and procurement of equipment. Despite poor program continuation response by merchants, the pilot was considered successful in diverting a significant amount of material from landfill and demonstrating that routing density, materials standardization, and container sharing can provide cost-effective commercial recycling. A similar program implemented by SWANCC is also described, which incorporates a committment from volunteer Environmental Control Commission members to actively encourage businesses to continue recycling.

  15. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates, Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. A number of Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) syringes like this one will be used in the experiments. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  16. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  17. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  18. Pulmonary function in commercial glass blowers.

    PubMed

    Munn, N J; Thomas, S W; DeMesquita, S

    1990-10-01

    This study examined the pulmonary function of 87 male commercial glass factory workers. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that workers with full-time glass blowing job descriptions had significantly higher percent predicted values for FVC, FEV1 and significantly higher maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle pressures than their cohorts with minimal or nonglass blowing job descriptions. The results of this study indicate that persons using their respiratory muscles as full-time blowers to manufacture commercial blown glass products have significantly greater lung function values than part-time blowers or their nonglass blowing co-workers.

  19. Carbon nanotubes: present and future commercial applications.

    PubMed

    De Volder, Michael F L; Tawfick, Sameh H; Baughman, Ray H; Hart, A John

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

  20. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  1. Lessons learned from commercial reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragola, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    As design concepts involving nuclear power are developed for space missions, prudence requires a consideration of the historical perspective provided by the commerical nuclear power generating station industry. This would allow the aerospace industry to take advantage of relevant historical experience, drawing from the best features and avoiding the pitfalls which appear to have stifled the growth of the commercial nuclear industry as a whole despite its comparatively admirable safety performance record. This paper provides some history of the development of commercial nuclear plant designs, and discusses the lessons which have been learned and how they apply to the space nuclear propulsion situation.

  2. The commercialization of nanomaterials: Today and tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Todd M.; Rardon, Daniel E.; Friedman, Lawrence B.; Vega, Luis Fanor

    2006-04-01

    Nanomaterials are receiving increasing attention in the technical community and the public at large. There are numerous activities throughout the world focusing on a wide range of developments, including privately and publicly funded work. From an industrial perspective, the measure of success of these programs will be the number of new products that are introduced to the market. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues related to the commercialization of nano-enhanced materials as well as to propose areas for future commercial developments.

  3. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation...

  5. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... rule amends the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and establishes new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the... compliance--general requirements. * * * * * (f) A State must come into substantial compliance with...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation...

  9. Understanding the Environment of the Commercializing University Researcher: Cases for Commercial Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, James R.

    2012-01-01

    As the U.S. continues its transition from an economy based upon manufacturing to one based upon innovation, one must look at the environment of the person at the epicenter of this change: The commercializing university researcher. This investigation provides insight into the cultural and regulatory life of the commercializing researcher, with the…

  10. 30 CFR 585.637 - When may I commence commercial operations on my commercial lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial lease? 585.637 Section 585.637 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...: (a) Do not require a FERC license (i.e., wind), then you may commence commercial operations 30...

  11. 30 CFR 585.637 - When may I commence commercial operations on my commercial lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial lease? 585.637 Section 585.637 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...: (a) Do not require a FERC license (i.e., wind), then you may commence commercial operations 30...

  12. 30 CFR 585.637 - When may I commence commercial operations on my commercial lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial lease? 585.637 Section 585.637 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...: (a) Do not require a FERC license (i.e., wind), then you may commence commercial operations 30...

  13. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  14. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  15. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-14

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  16. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  17. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Included in the guide are 15 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications…

  18. Commercial requirements for synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Dale W. S.; Williamson, H. Dawn; Whitelaw, Alan S.; Howes, Sally; Keyte, Gordon E.

    1994-12-01

    Structured interviews were used to gather information on the commercial requirements and value of SAR data from about 2005 for the global sample of market sectors using cartographic information and spatial statistics. The results show the relative importance of major application areas as commercial prospects. The annual market projection for the period around 2005 using as yet an incomplete global sample is for over 20,000 scenes with a value of the order of $75 million. The most significant markets are expected to be for topographic maps, oceans and ice and agriculture. However, SAR is unlikely to be the sole source of information for any application but will be incorporated with other data as available. The results of the interviews have been used to define customer requirements on the ground segment, which showed that commercial partnership in the mission operations was essential. A hierarchial market model was developed to support the sampling strategy and to relate customer requirements to the SAR design. The work has established a baseline of information on which to plan a commercial SAR mission in the next century.

  19. A Comparison of Three Commercial Online Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Compares database update currency, number of hits, elapsed time, number of offline prints or online types, offline print turnaround time, vendor rates, total search cost, and discounted search cost based on vendor discount rates for five simple searches run on three major commercial vendors' online systems. (CWM)

  20. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  1. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the prevention of forest fires. (2) That the proposed use is consistent with the status of Smokey Bear as the symbol of forest fire prevention and does not in any way detract from such status. (3) That... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license....

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  3. Alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washing procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  4. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  5. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  6. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  7. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  8. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hexane. (2) Exposure conditions. Animals shall be dosed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 90 days. (ii... of test substance. Animals shall be exposed to commercial hexane by inhalation. (ii) Reporting... report is submitted to EPA. (3) Reproduction and fertility effects—(i) Required testing. (A)...

  9. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6 Section 5.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  10. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6 Section 5.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  11. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6 Section 5.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  12. Content and Effect of Children's Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Henry; And Others

    The 3 studies described in this paper focused on the image of the child in television advertising directed toward children between the ages of 2 and 11. Using an analysis code containing 16 operationally-defined categories, the first study analyzed the behaviors of children depicted in 37 commercials for toys, food, and clothing from Saturday…

  13. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, W.G.; Lighthipe, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  14. An Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, commercial eggs are washed with water containing an alkali detergent at approximately pH 11 followed by a chlorine rinse. At this pH, it is likely that there is little, if any, free chlorine in the final rinse to act as an antimicrobial against pathogens like Salmonella. Using a chlorine ...

  15. Basic Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document includes a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary basic commercial art programs. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission…

  16. Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document contains a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary commercial art. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission criteria,…

  17. Commercial aircraft repatriation of patients with pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Francois-Xavier; Legrand, Jean-Michel; Verner, Laurent; Brady, William J

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of patients with a pneumothorax via a commercial airline involves many medical, aeronautic, and regulatory considerations. In an attempt to further investigate these issues, we reviewed the medical records of 32 patient cases with a pneumothorax who were repatriated on commercial aircrafts. Sixteen patients were transferred with the thoracostomy tube in place and were escorted by medical personnel at an average of 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4-7 days) from diagnosis. Five patients without initial intercostal drainage (who either showed very limited air collection or underwent immediate surgical treatment) were all escorted by a physician at an average of 24 days (IQR, 18-25 days) of diagnosis. Eleven patients were transferred without medical escort aboard a commercial flight after removal of the chest tube at an average of 15 days (IQR, 9-17 days) of the diagnosis. This case review suggests that physicians recommend and follow markedly different management plans for the patient with a pneumothorax who is being transferred nonurgently by a commercial airliner. This differing practice management also is noted in the various existing specialty and industry guidelines, which are not evidence based; our review shows that poor agreement exists not only in these various guidelines but also among medical practitioners.

  18. 36 CFR 331.19 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial activities. 331.19 Section 331.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  19. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  20. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

  1. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  2. Commercial casting of nickel aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, J.E.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-11-01

    Commercial development of nickel aluminides has been limited in the past by a lack of technological know-how for melting and casting these alloys. However, the Exo-Melt method, a patented process previously described in AM and P (June 1995), has recently been used to successfully melt and pour commercial-sized heats of this new class of engineering materials. As of August 1995, more than 3,400 kg (7,500 lb) of nickel aluminide alloys have been successfully melted using the Exo-Melt process in an induction furnace under argon cover. This work has been performed by United Defense LP, which is the sole foundry licensed to melt and pour nickel aluminide-based alloys, in conjunction with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This article provides a close look at the commercialization of the Exo-Melt process at United Defense LP, and at the nickel aluminide-based alloys--their physical and mechanical properties, commercial applications,and some comparisons with traditional heat-resistant alloys.

  3. Evaluation of commercially available exterior digital VMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, C.E.; Hoover, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of thirteen commercially available exterior digital video motion detection (VMD) systems. The systems were evaluated for use in a specific outdoor application. The report focuses primarily on the testing parameters, each system`s advertised features, and the nuisance alarm and detection test results.

  4. Evaluation of commercially available lighting design software

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report addresses the need for commercially available lighting design computer programs and evaluates several of these programs. Sandia National Laboratories uses these programs to provide lighting designs for exterior closed-circuit television camera intrusion detection assessment for high-security perimeters.

  5. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 59339] [FR Doc No: 2012-23917] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code...

  6. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  7. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  8. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  9. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  10. Using Commercial Resources in Population Communications Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, William O.

    The author defines populations communications as all information, education, and other activities which can produce changes in attitudes and behavior towards contraception, family planning, and population growth. He discusses in this paper the effort made in 27 nations to utilize commercial, profit-making goods and services for the purpose of…

  11. Commercial Refrigeration Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The program guide for commercial refrigeration technology courses in Florida identifies primary considerations for the organization, operation, and evaluation of a vocational education program. Following an occupational description for the job title for refrigeration mechanic, and its Dictionary of Occupational Titles code, are six sections…

  12. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  13. Composite structures for commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    The development of graphite-epoxy composite structures for use on commercial transport aircraft is considered. Six components, three secondary structures, and three primary structures, are presently under development. The six components are described along with some of the key features of the composite designs and their projected weight savings.

  14. Commercial Foods. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  15. Model Curriculum for Commercial Driving Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Safety Center.

    Eight units of study, each divided into three or four episodes, make up this Illinois driver's education curriculum for commercial schools. Each unit contains behavioral objectives for the unit and for the individual episodes, each of which is broken down into sub-objectives with corresponding content information or tasks to be performed. The…

  16. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  17. Le spot publicitaire radiophonique (Radio Commercials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doray, Henri-Paul

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the sound components of radio commercials, proposing some guidelines for the study of their functions. Particularly discusses the relationship between the linguistic and the paralinguistic elements of the message and the evocative function of sound effects and music. Finally, outlines a discourse typology based on their rhetorical…

  18. Commercial French Radio in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melpignano, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes several techniques for implementing commercial radio to improve listening comprehension skills in the foreign language student. Canadian radio, accessible to much of the northern United States, brings news, weather, and sports, in French, to the student of French and provides major components for sharpening comprehension skills. (PJM)

  19. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  20. Commercial communications technology on the digital battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomiris, Vasilios E.; Hafer, Tom

    1996-06-01

    To meet its objectives of winning the information ware and digitizing the battlefield, the U.S. Army must leverage advances in commercial technology. The Department of Defense has adopted a new approach to acquiring and fielding systems in response to economic realities and the need to incorporate rapidly advancing commercial technology into Army systems. This approach calls for the evaluation of commercial breakthroughs in a laboratory environment followed by evaluation by the user in a warfighting experiment. The most promising products are then transitioned to a program executive officer/project manager for accelerated acquisition and fielding. The U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Research, Development and Engineering Center Space & Terrestrial Communications Directorate is working with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to study the applicability of personal communications systems and related technologies for Army applications. The results of this cooperative effort were demonstrated in 1995 through the use of the trunked Land Mobile Radio (LMR) during field exercises. This paper will describe the joint CECOM/ARPA programs that sponsor the evaluation of commercial technologies, characteristics of the LMR and the details of its interface with the legacy systems, and current plans for further experimentation/evaluation.

  1. 36 CFR 331.19 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 331.19 Section 331.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  2. Commercial Use Without Consent: Privacy or Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sam G.; Shandle, Jack

    The question of whether protection against unauthorized use of a person's name of likeness for commercial gain is subsumed under property rights or the right to privacy remains unsettled. The thesis of this article is that either area may be appropriate, depending on the plaintiff's motivation in bringing the action. The case of Lugosi v.…

  3. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  4. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  5. Use of NGS in Commercial Broiler Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the development and evolution of next generation sequencing technologies, these powerful tools can be applied to a variety of aspect of commercial broiler production, especially in respect to food safety issues. NGS technologies allow for a deeper understanding of the complex microbiota inhere...

  6. Design of large format commercial display holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John F. W.

    1989-05-01

    Commercial display holography is approaching a critical stage where the ability to compete with other graphic media will dictate its future. Factors involved will be cost, technical quality and, in particular, design. The tenuous commercial success of display holography has relied heavily on its appeal to an audience with little or no previous experience in the medium. Well designed images were scarce, leading many commercial designers to avoid holography. As the public became more accustomed to holograms, the excitement dissipated, leaving a need for strong visual design if the medium is to survive in this marketplace. Drawing on the vast experience of TV, rock music and magazine advertising, competitive techniques such as video walls, mural duratrans, laser light shows and interactive videos attract a professional support structure far greater than does holography. This paper will address design principles developed at Holographics North for large format commercial holography. Examples will be drawn from a number of foreign and domestic corporate trade exhibitions. Recommendations will also be made on how to develop greater awareness of a holographic design.

  7. English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study completed in Quito, Ecuador that investigates the attitudinal perceptions toward English in advertising in the Ecuadorian commercial context. Findings are the result of four data collection procedures; a questionnaire administered to advertising experts, an analysis of business names in ten shopping centers, an analysis of…

  8. Commercial Web Sites: Lost in Cyberspace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 60,087 commercial worldwide Web sites that investigated their design and rate of search engine registration. Discusses the need to register sites with search engines to make them more accessible to potential customers and recommends the use of HTML META tags for proper indexing. (Author/LRW)

  9. Commercial Crew Program: Boeing Breakout Video

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and The Boeing Company of Houston signed a funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) in March 2011 for the company’s CST-100. Under the $92.3 million agreement, NASA’s Commercial Crew Program (...

  10. Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mark (Editor); Soffen, Gerald (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from the workshop on Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities are presented. The meeting attracted researchers in environmental and bioregenerative systems. The role of biological support technologies was evaluated in the context of the global environmental challenge on Earth and the space exploration initiative, with its goal of a permanent space station, lunar base, and Mars exploration.

  11. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  12. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  13. The ROCKOT vehicle qualified for commercial launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnersley, Mark; Schefold, Karsten

    2001-02-01

    The Commercial Demonstration Flight (CDF) of the ROCKOT launch vehicle from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia was successfully completed on 16th May 2000. The booster is marked by EUROCKOT Launch Services GmbH, Germany which is jointly owned by Astrium GmbH, Germany, and Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Russia. The booster's maiden fully commercial mission was its first flight under Eurockot auspices. The new commercial BREEZE-KM upper stage was used for the first time. With the successful mission, the vehicle and the dedicated facilities at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome attained their full operational capability. The goal of the CDF was the commissioning of the ROCKOT as an operational, commercial launch vehicle as well as the qualification of the dedicated EUROCKOT launch facilities at Plesetsk following their recent completion. ROCKOT simulated a commercial mission by successfully deploying two dummy satellites into a circular 547 km, 86.4 degree inclined orbit (osculating values). Confidence and reliability are assured by the heritage of the ROCKOT precursor, the two-stage SS-19 strategic missile flight proven more than 140 times with over 80 successes in a row. Three precursor test flights of the ROCKOT vehicle had successfully been carried out from a Baikonur silo with a 100% record. ROCKOT launches are especially useful for injection of large payload masses into highly inclined and Sun Synchronous Orbits. Rockot can place single payloads as well as deploy multiple payloads using its unique multiple re-startable upper stage. Main CDF flight results in the field of operations, performance, mission analysis and payload pre- and in-flight environment is presented and assessed in the article. .

  14. 10 CFR 429.46 - Commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial clothes washers. 429.46 Section 429.46 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.46 Commercial clothes washers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to commercial...

  15. 10 CFR 429.46 - Commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial clothes washers. 429.46 Section 429.46 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.46 Commercial clothes washers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to commercial...

  16. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio services (including any...

  17. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio services (including any...

  18. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial...

  19. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio...

  20. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio services (including any...

  1. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial...

  2. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial...

  3. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial...

  4. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio services (including any...

  5. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial...

  6. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  7. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  8. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  9. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  10. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  11. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  12. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  13. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  14. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013. The following...

  15. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings by that System bank. (b) The Financial Assistance Corporation may borrow from commercial banks...

  18. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commercial Items. 52.244-6 Section 52.244-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.244-6 Subcontracts for Commercial Items. As prescribed in 44.403, insert the following clause: Subcontracts for Commercial Items (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Commercial item has...

  19. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  20. 41 CFR 101-29.214 - Commercial-type product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial-type product... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.214 Commercial-type product. A commercial-type product is defined as: (a) Any product similar to the commercial product but modified or altered in compliance with...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  2. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.208 - Commercial item description (CID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial item... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.208 Commercial item description (CID). A commercial item... characteristics of available, acceptable commercial products that will satisfy the Government's needs....

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  5. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  6. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  7. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  8. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  9. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial marina... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.404 Commercial marina harbor limits. The landward limits of commercial marina... of harbors at commercial marinas will be designated by TVA on the basis of the size and extent...

  10. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial marina... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.404 Commercial marina harbor limits. The landward limits of commercial marina... of harbors at commercial marinas will be designated by TVA on the basis of the size and extent...

  11. Mutual Images: Americans and Japanese in TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Yayoi; And Others

    To explore the portrayals of Americans in Japanese television commercials and Japanese in American television commercials, and how those portrayals are perceived by each nationality, a two-part study examined 745 American commercials and 956 Japanese commercials. Researchers first coded the number of American males and females who appeared in the…

  12. 10 CFR 429.44 - Commercial water heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial water heating equipment. 429.44 Section 429.44... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.44 Commercial water heating equipment... each basic model of commercial water heating (WH) equipment, efficiency must be determined either...

  13. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine.

  14. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  15. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory guidance and applicability of ``tank vehicle'' definition. SUMMARY... Commercial Learner's Permit Standards.'' Among other things, the rule revised the definition of ``tank vehicle.'' The change required additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks...

  16. Public Good or Commercial Opportunity: Case Studies in Remote Sensing Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Shaida; Cordes, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Government is once again attempting to commercialize the Landsat program and is asking the private sector to develop a next generation mid-resolution remote sensing system that will provide continuity with the thirty-year data archive of Landsat data. Much of the case for commercializing the Landsat program rests on the apparently successful commercialization of high-resolution remote sensing activities coupled with the belief that conditions have changed since the failed attempt to commercialize Landsat in the 1980s. This paper analyzes the economic, political and technical conditions that prevailed in the 1980s as well as conditions that might account for the apparent success of the emerging high-resolution remote sensing industry today. Lessons are gleaned for the future of the Landsat program.

  17. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  18. Evaluation of the commercial FBR introduction date

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.K.; Merrill, E.T.

    1981-09-01

    This report examines one criterion for introducing a commercial FBR: economic competitiveness with a Light Water Reactor (LWR). For this analysis, the commercial FBR is assumed to be the fifth-of-a kind replicate which represents an economically mature plant. This FBR is deemed economically competitive when its life-cycle energy cost is less than or equal to that of an LWR. Results of this analysis are used in a comparative analysis of alternative FBR development stategies. The strategies evaluated in these studies assume both 1000- and 1457-MWe FBRs. Since the capital costs per kilowatt, and therefore the energy costs, for these two FBR sizes are different, they will become economically competitive at different times. The probability density function for the 1457-MW(e) FBR has an expected value date or weighted average date of 2030, compared with 2033 for the probability density function for the 1000-MW(e) FBR.

  19. Commercializing solar for industry in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudelson, J.

    1980-10-01

    The State of California has begun a commercialization program for increasing the rate of solar applications in industry. The components of this program include low interest loans, tax credits, revenue bonds and educational efforts. Many California industries appear to be likely candidates for solar systems, but as yet only a few companies have elected to install them. The various barriers to solar use by industry are primarily perceptual and financial. The emphasis of the state program for commercialization is turning increasingly towards educational seminars for industry groups and development of creative financial tools and arrangements. There are a few remaining legislative changes at state and federal levels, primarily involving leasing and tax laws which, if enacted, would overcome all of the remaining financial barriers to widespread adoption of solar applications by industry.

  20. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.