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Sample records for bpw34 commercial p-i-n

  1. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  2. Study of effective carrier lifetime and ideality factor of BPW 21 and BPW 34B photodiodes from above room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, P.; Manik, N. B.; Basu, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the temperature dependence of two most important characteristics of the photodiodes (BPW 21and BPW 34B), namely, the ideality factor and the carrier lifetime; both of which are found to change significantly at low temperature. The effective carrier lifetime measured by the Open Circuit Voltage Decay method (OCVD) shows a gradual increase in value from 350 K to about 250 K then sharply decreases by about thirty percent of its highest value at liquid nitrogen temperature, the trend being similar for both the devices. The dark forward current-voltage characteristics over the same temperature range yield the value of ideality factor which increases nearly by a factor of three for both the photodiodes at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The nature of variation of both the parameters has been qualitatively accounted for in terms of the recent tunneling models. The data generated for the first time for the devices and their broad theoretical understanding will help to improve design and application of the photodiodes, particularly at low temperature.

  3. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOEpatents

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  4. Graph design of p-i-n diode phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Arima, M.

    1981-08-01

    A synthesis procedure of the impedance-transforming network in a p-i-n diode phase shifter is given. A representation of a reflection performance on the impedance plane is used successfully to determine the impedance matrix of the network. The procedure is straightforward and its validity is demonstrated by a prototype 90% phase shifter at 10 GHz.

  5. Selective p-i-n photodetector with resonant tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Mil'shtein, S.; Wilson, S.; Pillai, A.

    2014-05-15

    There are different fundamental approaches to designing selective photodetectors, where the selectivity of optical spectra is produced by a filtering aperture. However, manufacturing of multilayered filters is cumbersome for epitaxial technology. In the current study, we offer a novel approach in design of selective photodetectors. A p-i-n photodetector with superlattices in top n-layer becomes transparent for photons where hν<>E{sub ng}+E{sub n1}, the light will be absorbed, simultaneously producing high energy (hot) electrons. The designed thickness of the structure does prevent thermal relaxation of high energy electrons by thus enhancing the selectivity of the photodetector. However the most important selectivity element is the resonant tunneling which does happen only for electrons occupying E{sub n1} energy levels as they transfer to levels E{sub i1}aligned under reverse biasing.

  6. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  7. Measurement and modeling of high-performance lateral p-i-n photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giziewicz, W. P.; Choy, Henry K.; Fonstad, Clifton G., Jr.; Prasad, Sheila

    2004-04-01

    Laterial p-i-n photodiodes have been produced in a standard, unmodified commercial GaAs integrated circuit process (Vitesse Semiconductor Inc. HGaAs IV and V). The devices were modelled using the MEDICI simulation package, achieving a very good fit to both capacitance and DC light response measuremnts. The simulation recreated an interesting feature of the devices, wherein the detectors go from a low-performance to high-performance regime abruptly at a specific reverse bias. An analysis of the simulated behavior of the depletion region in the nominally intrinsic region of the device provided a partial answer to the physics behind this bias point. A second generation of devices of different geometries was fabricated and tested. The newer fabrication process showed a lower performance transition (~0.6 V) than the previous process (~4 V) for an identical layout geometry. Preliminary high-speed measurements of the newer devices are quite encouraging.

  8. Improved charge collection of the buried p-i-n a-Si:H radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Conti, M.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.; Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA )

    1989-09-01

    Charge collection in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) radiation detectors is improved for high LET particle detection by adding thin intrinsic layers to the usual p-i-n structure. This buried p-i-n structure enables us to apply higher bias and the electric field is enhanced. When irradiated by 5.8 MeV {alpha} particles, the 5.7 {mu}m thick buried p-i-n detector with bias 300V gives a signal size of 60,000 electrons, compared to about 20,000 electrons with the simple p-i-n detectors. The improved charge collection in the new structure is discussed. The capability of tailoring the field profile by doping a-Si:H opens a way to some interesting device structures. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Carbon nanotube intramolecular p-i-n junction diodes with symmetric and asymmetric contacts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changxin; Liao, Chenghao; Wei, Liangming; Zhong, Hanqing; He, Rong; Liu, Qinran; Liu, Xiaodong; Lai, Yunfeng; Song, Chuanjuan; Jin, Tiening; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    A p-i-n junction diode based on the selectively doped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) had been investigated, in which two opposite ends of individual SWCNT channel were doped into the p- and n-type SWCNT respectively while the middle segment of SWCNT was kept as the intrinsic. The symmetric and asymmetric contacts were used to fabricate the p-i-n junction diodes respectively and studied the effect of the contact on the device characteristics. It was shown that a low reverse saturation current of ~20 pA could be achieved by these both diodes. We found that the use of the asymmetric contact can effectively improve the performance of the p-i-n diode, with the rectification ratio enhanced from ~102 for the device with the Au/Au symmetric contact to >103 for the one with the Pd/Al asymmetric contact. The improvement of the device performance by the asymmetric-contact structure was attributed to the decrease of the effective Schottky-barrier height at the contacts under forward bias, increasing the forward current of the diode. The p-i-n diode with asymmetric contact also had a higher rectification ratio than its counterpart before doping the SWCNT channel, which is because that the p-i-n junction in the device decreased the reverse saturated current. PMID:26915400

  10. Carbon nanotube intramolecular p-i-n junction diodes with symmetric and asymmetric contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changxin; Liao, Chenghao; Wei, Liangming; Zhong, Hanqing; He, Rong; Liu, Qinran; Liu, Xiaodong; Lai, Yunfeng; Song, Chuanjuan; Jin, Tiening; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-02-01

    A p-i-n junction diode based on the selectively doped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) had been investigated, in which two opposite ends of individual SWCNT channel were doped into the p- and n-type SWCNT respectively while the middle segment of SWCNT was kept as the intrinsic. The symmetric and asymmetric contacts were used to fabricate the p-i-n junction diodes respectively and studied the effect of the contact on the device characteristics. It was shown that a low reverse saturation current of ~20 pA could be achieved by these both diodes. We found that the use of the asymmetric contact can effectively improve the performance of the p-i-n diode, with the rectification ratio enhanced from ~102 for the device with the Au/Au symmetric contact to >103 for the one with the Pd/Al asymmetric contact. The improvement of the device performance by the asymmetric-contact structure was attributed to the decrease of the effective Schottky-barrier height at the contacts under forward bias, increasing the forward current of the diode. The p-i-n diode with asymmetric contact also had a higher rectification ratio than its counterpart before doping the SWCNT channel, which is because that the p-i-n junction in the device decreased the reverse saturated current.

  11. Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hagir M; Balkan, Naci

    2014-01-13

    We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling.

  12. Waveguide photonic crystals with characteristics controlled with p-i-n diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, D. A. Skripal, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Bogolyubov, A. S.; Skvortsov, V. S.; Merdanov, M. K.

    2010-12-15

    A one-dimensional waveguide photonic structure-specifically, a photonic crystal with a controllable frequency characteristic-is designed. The central frequency of the spectral window of the photonic crystal can be tuned by choosing the parameters of disturbance of periodicity in the photonic crystal, whereas the transmission coefficient at a particular frequency can be controlled by varying the voltage at a p-i-n diode. It is shown that the possibility exists of using the waveguide photonic crystal to design a microwave device operating in the 3-cm-wavelength region, with a transmission band of 70 MHz at a level 3 dB and the transmission coefficient controllable in the range from -1.5 to -25 dB under variations in the forward voltage bias at the p-i-n diode from zero to 700 mV.

  13. Performance investigation of p-i-n ZnO-based thin film homojunction ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Shun; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2012-11-01

    The p-i-n ZnO-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors was deposited using the vapor cooling condensation system. The rejection ratio between the ultraviolet and the visible was 2.82 × 103 measured at a reverse bias of -1 V. The low-frequency noise, which was dominated by the flicker noise, exhibited the noise equivalent power of 1.70 × 10-12 W and the high detectivity of 5.53 × 1011 cm Hz1/2W-1 with the illumination wavelength of 360 nm at the reverse bias voltage of -1 V. The high performances were attributed to the low defects and interface states present in the p-i-n ZnO-based ultraviolet photodetectors prepared using the vapor cooling condensation system.

  14. Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling. PMID:24417767

  15. A p-i-n junction diode based on locally doped carbon nanotube network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Changxin; Wei, Liangming; Hu, Nantao; Song, Chuanjuan; Liao, Chenghao; He, Rong; Dong, Xusheng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qinran; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    A p-i-n junction diode constructed by the locally doped network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was investigated. In this diode, the two opposite ends of the SWNT-network channel were selectively doped by triethyloxonium hexachloroantimonate (OA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to obtain the air-stable p- and n-type SWNTs respectively while the central area of the SWNT-network remained intrinsic state, resulting in the formation of a p-i-n junction with a strong built-in electronic field in the SWNTs. The results showed that the forward current and the rectification ratio of the diode increased as the doping degree increased. The forward current of the device could also be increased by decreasing the channel length. A high-performance p-i-n junction diode with a high rectification ratio (~104), large forward current (~12.2 μA) and low reverse saturated current (~1.8 nA) was achieved with the OA and PEI doping time of 5 h and 18 h for a channel length of ~6 μm. PMID:26996610

  16. Improved designs for p-i-n OLEDs towards the minimal power loss of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dashan

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the low yield, high power loss, and poor stability of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) panels are remaining as the obstacles to the fast growth of the OLED industry, especially for the lighting application. The p-i-n OLEDs have been widely recognized as the promising method to circumvent these bottleneck factors, due to the unique merit of the electrical doping to enable low power loss. In p-i-n OLEDs, the frequently used n-doped electron transport layers (n-ETL1) such as n-BCP, n-Alq3 possess markedly lower conductivities but better capabilities of injecting electrons into ETL such as BCP, Alq3, as compared to another class of n-doped ETLs (n-ETL2), e.g., n-NTCDA, n-PTCDA, n-C60. Thus, in order to minimize the electron loss, we provide the structure of uniting two n-doped layers, cathode/ n-ETL2/ n-ETL1/ ETL. In p-i-n OLEDs, the hole current injected from the single p-doped hole transport layer (p-HTL) into the neat HTL must be limited, because the higher conductivity p-HTL has the higher lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, leading to a larger hole transport energy barrier (φB) at the interface with the neat HTL. Therefore, in order to minimize the hole loss, we suggest the structure of uniting two p-HTLs, anode/ p-HTL2/ p-HTL1/ HTL. The p-HTL2 possesses high-lying HOMO level and thereby high conductivity, decreasing the ohmic loss in the hole conduction; the p-HTL1 features a low-lying HOMO level, reducing the φB.

  17. Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, V.; Bramanti, A.; Carallo, S.; Cingolani, R.; Gigli, G.

    2010-03-01

    A bottom contact/top gate ambipolar "p-i-n" layered light emitting field effect transistor with the active medium inserted between two doped transport layers, is reported. The doping profile results crucial to the capability of emitting light, as well as to the electrical characteristics of the device. In this sense, high output current at relative low applied gate/drain voltage and light emission along the whole large area transistor channel are observed, putting the basis to full integration of organic light emitting field effect transistors in planar complex devices.

  18. GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Guo-En; Cheng, H. H.; Mashanov, Vladimir I.

    2014-12-08

    We report an investigation on GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors grown on a Ge-buffered Si wafer. In comparison with a reference Ge detector, the GeSn detector shows an enhanced responsivity in the measured energy range, mainly attributed to the smaller bandgap caused by Sn-alloying. Analysis of the quantum efficiency indicates that increasing the Sn content in the active layers can significantly shorten the required device length to achieve the maximum efficiency. The present investigation demonstrates the planar photodetectors desired for monolithic integration with electronic devices.

  19. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    zero level marks etched 100nm into the GaN by Cl2- based inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching . The implanted dopants were activated using the...extension, and vertical p-i-n diodes will be enhanced and enabled by the ability to selectively dope GaN without the need for etching or regrowth [1-4...in surface roughness from, 0.51 nm to 1.33 nm, as shown in Figure 5. This was traced to the capping process, which involed a 10W plasma clean

  20. High-performance p-i-n/HBT monolithic photoreceivers for lightwave communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, Chandra S.; Lunardi, Leda M.

    1995-12-01

    Long wavelength optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) have made impressive progress in the last decade and their performance has become attractive enough to be considered as part of lightwave communication systems. This paper reviews these aspects of OEICs, with emphasis on monolithic photoreceivers which incorporate heterojunction bipolar transistors for the electronic functions. We review single channel p-i-n/HBT photoreceivers with speeds up to 12 Gb/s and multi-channel array-type receivers suitable for WDM applications with an aggregate throughput of 20 Gb/s.

  1. Electrophysical Properties of GaAs P-I-N Structures for Concentrator Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kósa, Arpád; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Stuchlíková, Ľubica; Harmatha, Ladislav; Dawidowski, Wojciech; Ściana, Beata; Tłaczała, Marek

    2016-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to electro-physical characterisation of a GaAs p-i-n structure grown for solar cell applications, which was carried out by light and dark current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS) methods. The conversion efficiency and open-circuit voltage were determined from I-V measurement at 1 and 20× sun light concentrations. Three electron like defects TAn1, TAn2, TDn and one hole like defect TBp obtained by DLTFS measurements were confirmed. The origin of these defect states was stated as native GaAs impurities.

  2. Density of states measurements in a p-i-n solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Wang, Q.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe results of density of states (DOS) profiling in p-i-n solar-cell devices using drive-level capacitance (DLC) techniques. Near the p-i interface the defect density is high, decreasing rapidly into the interior, reaching low values in the central region of the cell, and rising rapidly again at the n-i interface. They show that the states in the central region are neutral dangling-bond defects, whereas those near the interfaces with the doped layers are charged dangling bonds.

  3. Highly Efficient White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-i-n Tandem Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Meiso; Su, Shui-Hsiang; Hou, Cheng-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Ta; Kung, Chun-Hao

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with a p-i-n tandem structure using lithium (Li)-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)-doped 4,4',4''-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino] triphenylamine (2-TNATA) as an effective interconnecting layer (ICL). The tandem device exhibited a luminance of 3800 cd/m2, a luminous efficiency of 18.8 cd/A, a power efficiency of 5.48 lm/W, an external quantum efficiency of 6.5%, and the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (x=0.312, y=0.396) at 20 mA/cm2. The electroluminescence color of this p-i-n tandem device nearly did not change significantly with driving voltage variation and viewing angle. The various interfaces of ICL in such a tandem device were studied using a photovoltaic setup and were used to elucidate the mechanisms of the tandem devices.

  4. Planarization of High Aspect Ratio P-I-N Diode Pillar Arrays for Blanket Electrical Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, L F; Shao, Q; Reinhardt, C E; Graff, R T; Conway, A M; Nikolic, R J; Deo, N; Cheung, C L

    2009-03-05

    Two planarization techniques for high aspect ratio three dimensional pillar structured P-I-N diodes have been developed in order to enable a continuous coating of metal on the top of the structures. The first technique allows for coating of structures with topography through the use of a planarizing photoresist followed by RIE etch back to expose the tops of the pillar structure. The second technique also utilizes photoresist, but instead allows for planarization of a structure in which the pillars are filled and coated with a conformal coating by matching the etch rate of the photoresist to the underlying layers. These techniques enable deposition using either sputtering or electron beam evaporation of metal films to allow for electrical contact to the tops of the underlying pillar structure. These processes have potential applications for many devices comprised of 3-D high aspect ratio structures. Two separate processes have been developed in order to ensure a uniform surface for deposition of an electrode on the {sup 10}Boron filled P-I-N pillar structured diodes. Each uses S1518 photoresist in order to achieve a relatively uniform surface despite the non-uniformity of the underlying detector. Both processes allow for metallization of the final structure and provide good electrical continuity over a 3D pillar structure.

  5. Design and characterization of GaN p-i-n diodes for betavoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad R.; Smith, Joshua R.; Tompkins, Randy P.; Kelley, Stephen; Litz, Marc; Russo, John; Leathersich, Jeff; Shahedipour-Sandvik, Fatemeh (Shadi); Jones, Kenneth A.; Iliadis, Agis

    2017-10-01

    The performance of gallium nitride (GaN) p-i-n diodes were investigated for use as a betavoltaic device. Dark IV measurements showed a turn on-voltage of approximately 3.2 V, specific-on-resistance of 15.1 mΩ cm2 and a reverse leakage current of -0.14 mA/cm2 at -10 V. A clear photo-response was observed when IV curves were measured under a light source at a wavelength of 310 nm (4.0 eV). In addition, GaN p-i-n diodes were tested under an electron-beam in order to simulate common beta radiation sources ranging from that of 3H (5.6 keV average) to 63Ni (17 keV average). From this data, we estimated output powers of 53 nW and 750 nW with overall efficiencies of 0.96% and 4.4% for our device at incident electron energies of 5.6 keV and 17 keV corresponding to 3H and 63Ni beta sources respectively.

  6. High performance guard ring P-i-N photodetectors for microwave subcarrier wavelength division multiplexed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odubanjo, Babatunde A.

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and fabrication of high performance guard ring photodetectors suitable for use in very dense WDM microwave subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) networks and Passive Optical Networks (PONs). Two issues are addressed. The first obvious quantity of concern is the problem of nonlinearity distortion characteristics of the detector arising from- internal electric field perturbation due to space charge and external loading induced effects-intermodulation effects due to the mixing between different microwave subcarriers-and optical beat notes interference issue. The second is the problem of slower responses due to diffusion currents. Our investigation begins with an analytic study of the transient response of a typical p-i-n and avalanche photodetectors (APDs) to determine the origin of their nonlinearities and slow response and their suitability for use in a narrow-band receiver required for SCM networks. We found that for a single channel link where the total receiver photocurrent is of the same magnitude as the signal photocurrent, avalanche photodetectors can dramatically increase receiver sensitivity. However in microwave subcarrier multiplexed networks the photodiodes in each receiver detect all subcarrier channels therefore the total received photocurrent is greater than that of a single channel by many orders. Thus under these criteria, APDs cannot provide any improvement in the receiver sensitivity. In fact avalanche gain noise mechanism degrades the expected S/N ratio due to its intrinsic excess noise factor. Furthermore, APDs typically require large bias voltage. There is also the problem of limited gain-bandwidth product which makes avalanche photodetectors unsuitable for very dense WDM networks. The clear choice for SCM-based networks is therefore the p-i-n photodiode which is shot-noise limited in high speed applications. We use our analysis to optimize a typical p-i-n photodiode. The result is a novel guard ring

  7. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGES

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  8. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandro; Pangallo, Giovanni; Della Corte, Francesco Giuseppe

    2016-01-06

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34-40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature.

  9. Metallic oxide p-I-n junctions with ferroelectric as the barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Wu, H.; Cao, L. X.; Zhao, L.; Jin, K.; Zhu, B. Y.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhong, J. P.; Miao, J.; Xu, B.; Qi, X. Y.; Qiu, X. G.; Duan, X. F.; Zhao, B. R.

    2007-03-01

    The authors report the formation of the metallic oxide p-I-n junctions with the ferroelectric (Ba ,Sr)TiO3 (BST) as the barrier. The junctions with different thicknesses of BST are investigated. With appropriate thickness, the junctions possess definite parameters, such as the negligible reversed current density (⩽10-7A/cm2), large breakdown voltage (>7V), and ultrahigh rectification (>2×104) in the bias voltage ⩽2.0V and temperature range from 5to300K. It is under consideration that the built-in field V0, the ferroelectric reversed polarized field Vrp, and the resistivity of the BST layer together decide the transport properties of the junctions.

  10. GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaojian; Cheng, Buwen; Xue, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Cao, Quan; Xue, Haiyun; Hu, Weixuan; Zhang, Guangze; Zuo, Yuhua; Wang, Qiming

    2011-03-28

    Using a 820 nm-thick high-quality Ge0.97Sn0.03 alloy film grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy, GeSn p-i-n photodectectors have been fabricated. The detectors have relatively high responsivities, such as 0.52 A/W, 0.23 A/W, and 0.12 A/W at 1310 nm, 1540 nm, and 1640 nm, respectively, under a 1 V reverse bias. With a broad detection spectrum (800-1800 nm) covering the whole telecommunication windows and compatibility with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) technology, the GeSn devices are attractive for applications in both optical communications and optical interconnects.

  11. A full free spectral range tuning of p-i-n doped gallium nitride microdisk cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Liu, Tsung-Li; Aharonovich, Igor; Russell, Kasey J.; Woolf, Alexander; Sadler, Thomas C.; El-Ella, Haitham A. R.; Kappers, Menno J.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2012-10-01

    Effective, permanent tuning of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of p-i-n doped GaN microdisk cavity with embedded InGaN quantum dots over one free spectral range is demonstrated by irradiating the microdisks with a ultraviolet laser (380 nm) in DI water. For incident laser powers between 150 and 960 nW, the tuning rate varies linearly. Etching of the top surface of the cavity is proposed as the driving force for the observed shift in WGMs and is supported by experiments. The tuning for GaN/InGaN microdisk cavities is an important step for deterministically realizing nanophotonic devices for studying cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  12. Optical characterization of GaInP p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Guang; Lin, Der-Yuh; Ko, Tsung-Shine; Wu, Jenq-Shinn; Wu, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Yu-Li; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Zen

    2015-04-01

    Four p-i-n GaInP solar cells were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with different intrinsic layer thicknesses from 0.25 to 1 µm. A series of optical measurements, including electroreflectance (ER), photoluminescence (PL), electric luminescence (EL), and photocurrent (PC) measurements, have been performed to study the built-in electric field effect and to determine the suitable thickness of an intrinsic layer. The PL and EL spectra reflected the crystal quality of the GaInP layers. Furthermore, from the obtained ER spectrum, the built-in electric field in the intrinsic layer can be revealed. From the PC spectra under various bias voltages, the effect of built-in electric fields on the collection of photogenerated carriers has been studied.

  13. Absorption properties of GaAsBi based p-i-n heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhize; Mendes, Danuta F.; Richards, Robert D.; Bastiman, Faebian; David, John PR

    2015-09-01

    The absorption properties of GaAsBi have been investigated using GaAsBi based p-i-n diodes with different bismuth compositions (˜2.1 and ˜3.4%). The absorption behaviour of GaAsBi as a function of incident photon energy above the band gap follows that of a direct band gap material. With increasing bismuth content, the absorption of photons with energy lower than the band gap in GaAsBi is enhanced, probably due to localized states caused by Bi-related defects. A simplified analysis has been undertaken on the behaviour of absorption as a function of bias voltage. By undertaking photoresponsivity measurements as a function of reverse bias, the background doping type and the minority carriers diffusion lengths in GaAsBi have been determined.

  14. Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Lars; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud; Winzer, Georg; Tian, Hui; Elschner, Robert; Richter, Thomas; Schubert, Colja; Tillack, Bernd; Petermann, Klaus

    2012-06-04

    In this paper we present four-wave mixing (FWM) based parametric conversion experiments in p-i-n diode assisted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nano-rib waveguides using continuous-wave (CW) light around 1550 nm wavelength. Using a reverse biased p-i-n waveguide diode we observe an increase of the wavelength conversion efficiency of more than 4.5 dB compared to low loss nano-rib waveguides without p-i-n junction, achieving a peak efficiency of -1 dB. Conversion efficiency improves also by more than 7 dB compared to previously reported experiments deploying 1.5 µm SOI waveguides with p-i-n structure. To the best of our knowledge, the observed peak conversion efficiency of -1dB is the highest CW efficiency in SOI reported so far.

  15. Comprehensive physics-based compact model for fast p-i-n diode using MATLAB and Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Fu, Guicui; Zhang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a physics-based model for the fast p-i-n diode is proposed. The model is based on the 1-D Fourier-based solution of ambipolar diffusion equation (ADE) implemented in MATLAB and Simulink. The physical characteristics of fast diode design concepts such as local lifetime control (LLC), emitter control (EMCON) and deep field stop are taken into account. Based on these fast diode design concepts, the ADE is solved for all injection levels instead of high-level injection only as usually done. The variation of high-level lifetime due to local lifetime control is also included in the solution. With the deep field stop layer taken into consideration, the depletion behavior in the N-base during reverse recovery is redescribed. Some physical effects such as avalanche generation and carrier recombination in the depletion region are also taken into account. To be self contained, a parameter extraction method is proposed to extract all the parameters of the model. In the end, the static and reverse recovery experiments for a commercial EMCON diode and a LLC diode are used to validate the proposed model. The simulation results are compared with experiment results and good agreement is obtained.

  16. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis by M Litz, W Ray, J Russo, S Kelley, and J Smith Approved for public...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion...Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Development of a P-I-N HgCdTe photomixer for laser heterodyne spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    An improved HgCdTe photomixer technology was demonstrated employing a p-i-n photodiode structure. The i-region was near intrinsic n-type HgCdTe; the n-region was formed by B+ ion implantation; and the p-region was formed either by a shallow Au diffusion or by a Pt Schottky barrier. Experimental devices in a back-side illuminated mesa diode configuration were fabricated, tested, and delivered. The best photomixer was packaged in a 24-hour LN2 dewar along with a cooled GaAs FET preamplifier. Testing was performed by mixing black-body radiation with a CO2 laser beam and measuring the IF signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio in the GHz frequency range. Signal bandwidth for this photomixer was 1.3 GHz. The heterodyne NEP was 4.4 x 10 to the -20 W/Hz out to 1 GHz increasing to 8.6 x 10 to the -10 W/Hz at 2 GHz. Other photomixers delivered on this program had heterodyne NEPs at 1 GHz ranging from 8 x 10 to the -20 to 4.4 x 10 to the -19 W/Hz and NEP bandwidths from 2 to 4 GHz.

  18. Diffusion doped p-i-n/p-n diodes for scalable silicon photonics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Riddhi; Kurudi, Sreevatsa; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion doped p-i-n/p-n diodes in SOI substrate is proposed for the fabrication of active silicon photonics devices with scalable waveguide cross-sections. The p-type and n-type diffusion doping parameters are optimized for the fabrication of tunable single-mode waveguide phase-shifters with microns to submicron cross-sectional dimensions. The simulations results show that the shape of depletion layer can be effectively engineered by suitably positioning the rib waveguide with respect to the gap between doping windows. We could thus introduce an additional control parameter to optimize over-all figure of merits of the phase-shifter for various applications. For an optimized set of diffusion parameters, the VπLπ of single-mode waveguides designed with 1μm, 0.5μm, and 0.25μm device layers (under reverse bias operating in TE-polarization at λ 1550 nm) are found as 2.7 V-cm, 2.1 V-cm, and 1.6 V-cm, respectively. The typical p-n junction capacitance of an optimized 0.25μm single-mode waveguide is estimated to be < 0.5 fF/μm, which is comparable to that of ion-implanted p-n waveguide junctions.

  19. Si Radial p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Arrays with Built-In Light Concentrators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Campbell, Ian H; Dayeh, Shadi A; Schuele, Paul; Evans, David; Picraux, S Tom

    2015-05-26

    High-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices require strong light absorption, low reflection and efficient photogenerated carrier collection for high quantum efficiency. Previous optical studies of vertical wires arrays have revealed that extremely efficient light absorption in the visible wavelengths is achievable. Photovoltaic studies have further advanced the wire approach by employing radial p-n junction architectures to achieve more efficient carrier collection. While radial p-n junction formation and optimized light absorption have independently been considered, PV efficiencies have further opportunities for enhancement by exploiting the radial p-n junction fabrication procedures to form arrays that simultaneously enhance both light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Here we report a concept of morphology control to improve PV performance, light absorption and quantum efficiency of silicon radial p-i-n junction arrays. Surface energy minimization during vapor phase epitaxy is exploited to form match-head structures at the tips of the wires. The match-head structure acts as a built-in light concentrator and enhances optical absorptance and external quantum efficiencies by 30 to 40%, and PV efficiency under AM 1.5G illumination by 20% compared to cylindrical structures without match-heads. The design rules for these improvements with match-head arrays are systematically studied. This approach of process-enhanced control of three-dimensional Si morphologies provides a fab-compatible way to enhance the PV performance of Si radial p-n junction wire arrays.

  20. An in situ gamma ray spectrometer with CsI/p-i-n detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Clarke X.; Williams, Ron R.

    1995-03-01

    The development of a portable gamma ray spectrometer based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator (1.8 cm×1.8 cm×4 cm) with integral p-i-n diode (1.8 cm×4 cm) is described. A single board computer containing the MC68HC11 microcontroller, a single-chip self-contained computer system, is used for system control. The total size of the instrument is only 12 in×7 in. including the spectrometer and power supply. The system provides a low cost, low power gamma ray spectrometer as compared to the more common PMT-based devices. Spectra can be collected in daily intervals for up to 1 week. Special software which monitors the proper working of the spectrometer insures long term stability. This spectrometer can be used for routine monitoring and detection of gamma ray emitting radio nuclides. Performance of the spectrometer as well as gamma ray spectra are presented. The qualitative and quantitative reliability have shown its potential as a stand alone field monitoring instrument due to its low power consumption and intelligence.

  1. Electrical Properties of Dilute Nitride GaAsPN/GaPN MQW p- i- n Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, T.; Ozen, Y.; Tataroglu, A.; Asar, T.; Cetin, S. S.; Ozcelik, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the electrical properties of dilute nitride GaAsPN/GaPN multi-quantum well p- i- n diodes were investigated by using current-voltage ( I- V) measurements at room temperature. The diode structure was grown on silicon (Si) (100) substrate misoriented by 4° towards the [110] direction using the molecular beam epitaxy technique, and ohmic contacts were formed on this structure by metallization process. The forward bias I- V characteristics of the diode were analyzed by the thermionic emission theory. Ideality factor ( n), barrier height (Φb) and series resistance ( R s), which are the main electrical parameters of diodes, were determined from I- V characteristic, Norde and Cheung methods. The obtained experimental results were compared with each other. From the I- V characteristic, the values of n and Φb were found to be 2.86 eV and 0.69 eV, respectively. The barrier height values, which were obtained from the Norde function and I- V characteristic, were in good agreement with each other. It was also found that the values of series resistance determined from the Norde and Cheung functions were compatible with each other.

  2. High-performance Ge p-i-n photodetector on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-qun; Huang, Xiang-ying; Li, Min; Huang, Yan-hua; Wang, Yue-yun; Yan, Guang-ming; Li, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    High-performance and tensile-strained germanium (Ge) p-i-n photodetector is demonstrated on Si substrate. The epitaxial Ge layers were prepared in an ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) system using low temperature Ge buffer technique. The devices were fabricated by in situ doping and using Si as passivation layer between Ge and metal, which can improve the ohmic contact and realize the high doping. The results show that the dark current of the photodetector with diameter of 24 μm is about 2.5×10-7 μA at the bias voltage of -1 V, and the optical responsivity is 0.1 A/W at wavelength of 1.55 μm. The 3 dB bandwidth (BW) of 4 GHz is obtained for the photodetector with diameter of 24 μm at reverse bias voltage of 1 V. The long diffusion time of minority carrier in n-type Ge and the large contact resistance in metal/Ge contacts both affect the performance of Ge photodetectors.

  3. High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jifeng; Michel, Jurgen; Giziewicz, Wojciech; Pan, Dong; Wada, Kazumi; Cannon, Douglas D.; Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae; Danielson, David T.; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Chen, Jian; Ilday, F. Ömer; Kärtner, Franz X.; Yasaitis, John

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate a high-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetector on Si platform with an extended detection spectrum of 650-1605 nm and a 3 dB bandwidth of 8.5 GHz measured at λ =1040nm. The full bandwidth of the photodetector is achieved at a low reverse bias of 1 V, compatible with the low driving voltage requirements of Si ultralarge-scale integrated circuits. Due to the direct bandgap shrinkage induced by a 0.20% tensile strain in the Ge layer, the device covers the entire C band and a large part of the L band in telecommunications. The responsivities of the device at 850, 980, 1310, 1550, and 1605 nm are 0.55, 0.68, 0.87, 0.56, and 0.11A/W, respectively, without antireflection coating. The internal quantum efficiency in the wavelength range of 650-1340 nm is over 90%. The entire device was fabricated using materials and processing that can be implemented in a standard Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process flow. With high speed, a broad detection spectrum and compatibility with Si CMOS technology, this device is attractive for applications in both telecommunications and integrated optical interconnects.

  4. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sandro; Pangallo, Giovanni; Della Corte, Francesco Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34–40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature. PMID:26751446

  5. Secondary electron emission contrast of quantum wells in GaAs p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, Enrique; Barkay, Zahava; Shapira, Yoram; Barnham, Keith W J; Bushnell, David B; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J; Mazzer, Massimo; Wilshaw, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The secondary electron (SE) signal over a cleaved surface of GaAs p-i-n solar cells containing stacks of quantum wells (QWs) is analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The InGaAs QWs appear darker than the GaAsP barriers, which is attributed to the differences in electron affinity. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for profiling the conduction band minimum across junctions and interfaces with nanometer resolution. The intrinsic region is shown to be pinned to the Fermi level. Additional SE contrast mechanisms are discussed in relation to the dopant regions themselves as well as the AlGaAs window at the p-region. A novel method of in situ observation of the SE profile changes resulting from reverse biasing these structures shows that the built-in potential may be deduced. The obtained value of 0.7 eV is lower than the conventional bulk value due to surface effects.

  6. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  7. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  8. Multimicron dimension optical p-i-n modulators in silicon-on-insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Peter D.; Reed, Graham T.

    1999-03-01

    Silicon has been proven to be a viable material for passive and active optoelectronic applications in the infrared region ((lambda) greater than 1.2 micrometer) of the electromagnetic spectrum. To date, light has been guided, modulated and switched in silicon. In this paper, novel silicon modulators incorporated into a rib waveguide will be discussed. The modulators are based upon transverse p-i-n structures, utilizing the plasma dispersion effect to produce the desired refractive index change in an optical rib waveguide. Although the devices measure several microns in cross sectional dimensions, they support a single optical mode, thereby simplifying fabrication and allowing efficient coupling to other single mode devices such as optical fibers. The modulators have been modeled extensively using the SILVACO semiconductor device simulator. SILVACO has been employed to optimize the overlap between the injected free carriers and the propagating optical mode. Both the dc and switching characteristics of the modulators have been evaluated. The device performance is encouraging. One of the devices studied requires a driving current of 2.8 mA to achieve a (pi) radian phase shift, corresponding to a current density of 112 A/cm2. Additionally the 10 - 90% rise and fall times are 29 ns and 4 ns respectively. We believe this to be the lowest predicted driving current or current density for modulators in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), although clearly experimental confirmation is required. Potential applications for silicon based optoelectronic devices include optical transmitters, optical receivers and optical sensor devices.

  9. Lead Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic as a Model p-i-n Diode.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Kenjiro; Tripathi, Neeti; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-16

    The lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells, especially the iodide compound CH3NH3PbI3 family, exhibited enormous progress in the energy conversion efficiency in the past few years. Although the first attempt to use the perovskite was as a sensitizer in a dye-sensitized solar cell, it has been recognized at the early stage of the development that the working of the perovskite photovoltaics is akin to that of the inorganic thin film solar cells. In fact, theoretically perovskite is always treated as an ordinary direct band gap semiconductor and hence the perovskite photovoltaics as a p-i-n diode. Despite this recognition, research effort along this line of thought is still in pieces and incomplete. Different measurements have been applied to different types of devices (different not only in the materials but also in the cell structures), making it difficult to have a coherent picture. To make the situation worse, the perovskite photovoltaics have been plagued by the irreproducible optoelectronic properties, most notably the sweep direction dependent current-voltage relationship, the hysteresis problem. Under such circumstances, it is naturally very difficult to analyze the data. Therefore, we set out to make hysteresis-free samples and apply time-tested models and numerical tools developed in the field of inorganic semiconductors. A series of electrical measurements have been performed on one type of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic cells, in which a special attention was paid to ensure that their electronic reproducibility was better than the fitting error in the numerical analysis. The data can be quantitatively explained in terms of the established models of inorganic semiconductors: current/voltage relationship can be very well described by a two-diode model, while impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a thick intrinsic layer with the help of a numerical solver, SCAPS, developed for thin film solar cell analysis. These results point to that CH3NH3PbI3 is an

  10. Dense nanoimprinted silicon nanowire arrays with passivated axial p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, A.; Pacifici, D.; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A. V.

    2015-03-28

    We report on the fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of vertical arrays of silicon axial p-i-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) epitaxy. NW surface passivation with silicon dioxide shell is shown to enhance carrier recombination time, open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), and fill factor (FF). The photovoltaic performance of passivated individual NW and NW arrays was compared under 532 nm laser illumination with power density of ∼10 W/cm{sup 2}. Higher values of V{sub OC} and FF in the NW arrays are explained by enhanced light trapping. In order to verify the effect of NW density on light absorption and hence on the photovoltaic performance of NW arrays, dense Si NW arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography to periodically arrange the gold seed particles prior to epitaxial growth. Compared to sparse NW arrays fabricated using VLS growth from randomly distributed gold seeds, the nanoimprinted NW array solar cells show a greatly increased peak external quantum efficiency of ∼8% and internal quantum efficiency of ∼90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying pitch (P) confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400–650 nm spectral range is calculated for a Si NW array with P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness.

  11. Enhanced efficiency and stability in organic light-emitting diodes by employing a p-i-n-p structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Dong-Ying; Wang, Bo; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Yun; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a p-i-n-p structure were developed by inserting a p-doped layer, MoO3 doped N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB), between an n-doped electron injection layer and the cathode. The device showed a 33.5% improvement in the power efficiency and 70.7% improvement in the half operational lifetime compared with the conventional p-i-n structure based device. The improved device performance is mainly ascribed to an improved conductivity, an enhanced thermal stability, and the protection of the electron injection layer by the NPB:MoO3 p-doped layer. The finding indicates that the p-i-n-p structure is beneficial for improving the efficiency and the stability of OLEDs.

  12. Electrically injected near-infrared light emission from single InN nanowire p-i-n diode

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Binh Huy; Zhao, Songrui; Tran, Nhung Hong; Mi, Zetian

    2014-12-08

    We report on the achievement of electroluminescence emission of single InN p-i-n nanowire devices. InN p-i-n nanowire structures were grown directly on Si substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and subsequently transferred to foreign substrate for the fabrication of single nanowire light emitting diodes. Electroluminescence emission with a peak energy of 0.71 eV (1.75 μm) was observed at 77 K. The measurement of near-bandgap electroluminescence provides unambiguous evidence for the achievement of p-type conduction of InN.

  13. Drift Phenomena of Forward and Reverse Recovery Characteristics in 0001 4H-SiC p-i-n Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Koji; Sugawara, Yoshitaka; Tsuchida, Hidekazu; Kimura, Chiharu; Aoki, Hidemitsu

    2011-04-01

    4H-SiC p-i-n diodes fabricated on the (0001) C-face showed smaller forward voltage drift and minimal changes in reverse recovery characteristics after a forward bias stress test compared to those observed on the (0001) Si-face. These drift phenomena in 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes could be explained by increased recombination along the perimeter of single Shockley-type stacking faults. It is suggested that the number of single Shockley-type stacking faults significantly decreased in the drift layer fabricated on (0001) C-face in comparison with that on (0001) Si-face.

  14. Design and Characterization of p-i-n Devices for Betavoltaic Microbatteries on Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Raziuddin A.

    Betavoltaic microbatteries convert nuclear energy released as beta particles directly into electrical energy. These batteries are well suited for electrical applications such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), implantable medical devices and sensors. Such devices are often located in hard to access places where long life, micro-size and lightweight are required. The working principle of a betavoltaic device is similar to a photovoltaic device; they differ only in that the electron hole pairs (EHPs) are generated in the device by electrons instead of photons. In this study, the performance of a betavoltaic device fabricated from gallium nitride (GaN) is investigated for beta particle energies equivalent to Tritium (3H) and Nickel-63 (N63) beta sources. GaN is an attractive choice for fabricating betavoltaic devices due to its wide band gap and radiation resistance. Another advantage GaN has is that it can be alloyed with aluminum (Al) to further increase the bandgap, resulting in a higher output power and increased efficiency. Betavoltaic devices were fabricated on p-i-n GaN structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The devices were characterized using current - voltage (IV) measurements without illumination (light or beta), using a laser driven light source, and under an electron beam. Dark IV measurements showed a turn on-voltage of ~ 3.4 V, specific-on-resistance of 15.1 m O-cm2, and a leakage current of 0.5 mA at -- 10 V. A clear photo-response was observed when IV curves were measured for these devices under a light source at a wavelength of 310 nm (4.0 eV). These devices were tested under an electron beam in order to evaluate their behavior as betavoltaic microbatteries without using radioactive materials. Output power of 70 nW and 640 nW with overall efficiencies of 1.2% and 4.0% were determined at the average energy emission of 3H (5.6 keV) and 63N (17 keV) respectively.

  15. Current impulse response of thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes using full band structure Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, A. H.; Cheang, P. L.

    2007-02-01

    A random response time model to compute the statistics of the avalanche buildup time of double-carrier multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using full band structure Monte Carlo (FBMC) method is discussed. The effect of feedback impact ionization process and the dead-space effect on random response time are included in order to simulate the speed of APD. The time response of InP p+-i-n+ diodes with the multiplication region of 0.2μm is presented. Finally, the FBMC model is used to calculate the current impulse response of the thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes with multiplication lengths of 0.05 and 0.2μm using Ramo's theorem [Proc. IRE 27, 584 (1939)]. The simulated current impulse response of the FBMC model is compared to the results simulated from a simple Monte Carlo model.

  16. High-Speed Widely-Tunable 90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 8:45am - 9...00am WB2 High-Speed Widely-Tunable >90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes Necmi Biyiklia. Ibrahim Kimukinb. Orhan ...Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. b Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. c Department of Electrical and Computer

  17. One Month Continuous Operation of Organic p-i-n Solar Cells Covered with a Zinc Oxide Protection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramoto, Masahiro; Shiokawa, Hiroki

    2010-08-01

    Organic p-i-n solar cells comprising metal-free phthalocyanine and fullerene, which was covered with an aluminum doped zinc oxide protection layer, were successfully operated for 42 days under white light (100 mW cm-2) irradiation. Decreases in the short-circuit photocurrent density and conversion efficiency during this period were just 3 and 5%, respectively. These results suggest that organic solar cells possess sufficient potential for practical long-term durability.

  18. Large lateral photovoltaic effect in µc-SiOx:H/a-Si:H/c-Si p-i-n structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Xinhui; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on a large lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a hydrogenated microcrystal silicon-oxygen (µc-SiOx:H)-based p-i-n structure. Compared with LPE in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based p-i-n structure, this structure showed an abnormal current-voltage (I-V) curve with a lower photoelectric conversion efficiency, but exhibited a much higher LPE with the highest position sensitivity of 64.3 mV/mm. We ascribe this to the enhancement of the lateral gradient of excess transmitted carriers induced by increasing both Schottky barrier and p-type layer body conductivity. Our results suggest that this µc-SiOx:H-based p-i-n structure may be a promising candidate for position-sensitive detectors (PSDs). Moreover, our results may also imply that solar cell devices with abnormal I-V curves (or low efficiency) could find their new applications in other aspects.

  19. Simulation of GaN and InGaN p i n and n i n photo-devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poochinda, Kunakorn; Chen, Tai-Chang; Stoebe, Thomas G.; Ricker, N. Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related materials have attracted an intense interest in their potential applications in high-power switching, high-temperature, and high-frequency device applications. A major advantage of the GaN system for optical applications is that the energy band gap can be reduced by alloying with InN. The InGaN alloy can provide a coverage from the near UV to the near infrared, including the visible spectrum. This research will provide the photonic and electrical properties of InGaN photo-devices by simulation. GaN and InGaN photo-devices, such as p-i-n and n-i-n devices, were simulated using ATHENA and ATLAS developed by Silvaco International, Inc. The spectral responsivity and the dark current were evaluated. These simulation results are comparable to the experimental result by Kung et al. with a 400×400 μm mesa structure of p-i-n GaN (SPIE 3287 (1998) 214). Since the heavily p-doping is still relatively hard to achieve currently, n-i-n photo-devices are evaluated and compared to p-i-n devices.

  20. Interpretation of non-linear Si p-i-n detector response data to low-/Z ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Alfaro, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.

    2003-02-01

    The remarkable non-linear response of a Si p-i-n detector to relatively low- Z (<26) ions recently reported by Whitlow and Zhang [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 190 (2002) 375] is interpreted as charge-collection inefficiencies associated to the recombination occurring in high energy density regions near the particle track. Model calculations taking into account the geometry of the resulting charge-carrier distribution are shown to closely reproduce the data, reducing the calibration exercise from their proposed four parameters per Z, to just three overall quantities, which have a simple physical interpretation.

  1. Si nanocrystal p-i-n diodes fabricated on quartz substrates for third generation solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Hao, Xiaojing; Gentle, Angus; Kim, Dong-Ho; Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin. A.

    2009-10-01

    We fabricated p-i-n diodes by sputtering alternating layers of silicon dioxide and silicon rich oxide with a nominal atomic ratio O/Si=0.7 onto quartz substrates with in situ boron for p-type and phosphorus for n-type doping. After crystallization, dark and illuminated I-V characteristics show a diode behavior with an open circuit voltage of 373 mV. Due to the thinness of the layers and their corresponding high resistivity, lateral current flow results in severe current crowding. This effect is taken into account when extracting the electronic bandgap based on temperature dependent diode I-V measurements.

  2. Low power and fast electro-optic silicon modulator with lateral p-i-n embedded photonic crystal nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2009-12-07

    We have fabricated high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities with a lateral p-i-n structure to demonstrate low-power and high-speed electro-optic modulation in a silicon chip. GHz operation is demonstrated at a very low (microW level) operating power, which is about 4.6 times lower than that reported for other cavities in silicon. This low-power operation is due to the small size and high-Q of the photonic crystal nanocavity.

  3. Growth of Shockley type stacking faults upon forward degradation in 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Naoyuki; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Kei; Ryo, Mina; Fujimoto, Takumi; Tawara, Takeshi; Miyazato, Masaki; Miyajima, Masaaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Ohtsuki, Akihiro; Kato, Tomohisa; Tsuchida, Hidekazu; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-03-01

    The growth of Shockley type stacking faults in p-i-n diodes fabricated on the C-face of 4H-SiC during forward current operation was investigated using Berg-Barrett X-ray topography and photoluminescence imaging. After forward current experiment, Shockley type stacking faults were generated from very short portions of basal plane dislocations lower than the conversion points to threading edge dislocations in the epitaxial layer. The growth behavior of Shockley type stacking faults was discussed. Growth of stacking faults in the substrates was not observed.

  4. Temperature spectra of conductance of Ge/Si p-i-n structures with Ge quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, Ihor I.; Fitsych, Olena I.; Pishchagin, Anton A.; Kokhanenko, Andrei P.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Nikiforov, Alexander I.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents results of investigation of Ge/Si p-i-n structures with Ge quantum dots in the i-region by the method of admittance spectroscopy. The structures contain multiple layers with Ge quantum dots separated by thin 5 nm layers of Si in the intrinsic region. Two peaks are observed on the temperature dependences of conductance of the investigated heterostructures. It is revealed that the second peak is broadened and corresponds to a system of closely lying energy levels.

  5. Comparative evaluation of InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid infrared detection: p-i-n versus residual doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Melih; Kaldirim, Melih; Arikan, Bulent; Serincan, Uğur; Aslan, Bulent

    2015-08-01

    We report on the opto-electronic characterization of an InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) midwave infrared p-i-n photodetector structure (pin-SL) in comparison with the same structure with no intentional doping (i-SL). Both structures were grown on an n-GaSb substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The nominally undoped structure (i-SL) presented p-i-n like behavior and showed a photovoltaic mode photoresponse due to the residual doping and native defects in this material system. For ˜77 K operation, 0.76 and 0.11 A W-1 responsivity values were obtained at 4 μm from the pin-SL and i-SL structures, respectively. Activation energy analysis showed that the recombination current was dominant in both structures but different recombination centers were involved. The same i-SL structure was also grown on a semi-insulating (SI)-GaAs substrate to study the contribution of the substrate to the carrier density in the SL layers. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements showed that the nominally undoped structure presented both n-type and p-type conductivities; however, the temperature at which the carrier type switched polarity was observed to be at higher values when the i-SL structure was grown on the SI-GaAs substrate. In addition, a higher carrier density was observed for i-SL on the GaSb substrate than on the GaAs substrate.

  6. Enhanced photovoltaic property by forming p-i-n structures containing Si quantum dots/SiC multilayers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunqing; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2014-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si QDs)/SiC multilayers were fabricated by annealing hydrogenated amorphous Si/SiC multilayers prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The thickness of amorphous Si layer was designed to be 4 nm, and the thickness of amorphous SiC layer was kept at 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the formation of Si QDs after 900°C annealing. The optical properties of the Si QDs/SiC multilayers were studied, and the optical band gap deduced from the optical absorption coefficient result is 1.48 eV. Moreover, the p-i-n structure with n-a-Si/i-(Si QDs/SiC multilayers)/p-Si was fabricated, and the carrier transportation mechanism was investigated. The p-i-n structure was used in a solar cell device. The cell had the open circuit voltage of 532 mV and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.28%. 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Pt; 88.40.jj.

  7. Electric field control of ferromagnetism at room temperature in GaCrN (p-i-n) device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Masry, N. A.; Zavada, J. M.; Reynolds, J. G.; Reynolds, C. L.; Liu, Z.; Bedair, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have demonstrated a room temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor based on GaCrN epitaxial layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Saturation magnetization Ms increased when the GaCrN film is incorporated into a (p-GaN/i-GaCrN/n-GaN) device structure, due to the proximity of mediated holes present in the p-GaN layer. Zero field cooling and field cooling were measured to ascertain the absence of superparamagnetic behavior in the films. A (p-GaN/i-GaCrN/n-GaN) device structure with room temperature ferromagnetic (FM) properties that can be controlled by an external applied voltage has been fabricated. In this work, we show that the applied voltage controls the ferromagnetic properties, by biasing the (p-i-n) structure. With forward bias, ferromagnetism in the GaCrN layer was increased nearly 4 fold of the original value. Such an enhancement is due to carrier injection of holes into the Cr deep level present in the i-GaCrN layer. A "memory effect" for the FM behavior of the (p-i-n) GaCrN device structure persisted for 42 h after the voltage bias was turned off. These measurements also support that the observed ferromagnetism in the GaCrN film is not due to superparamagnetic clusters but instead is a hole-mediated phenomenon.

  8. Te incorporation in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires and p-i-n axial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Estiak; Kasanaboina, P. K.; Karim, M. R.; Sharma, M.; Reynolds, C. L.; Liu, Y.; Iyer, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report on in situ Te-doping in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires (NWs) grown via self-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Enhanced Te incorporation in the NW at higher Te cell temperature was attested by the broadening of the x-ray diffraction peak and the presence of a strong coupled-LO phonon mode in the Raman spectra. Te-doping was estimated from the shift in the coupled-LO phonon mode to be ˜2.0 × 1018/cm3. The surfactant nature of the Te modulated the growth kinetics, which was manifested in an enhanced radial growth rate with improved photoluminescence (PL) characteristics at both room temperature (RT) and 4 K. No noticeable planar defects were observed as ascertained from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images and selected-area electron diffraction patterns. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental realization of a GaAs1-xSbx axial p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) structure on a Si substrate with Te as the n-type dopant. The GaAs1-xSbx p-i-n NW structures exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) behavior. The dopant concentration and the transport parameters estimated from the PL spectra and I-V curve were found to be in good agreement.

  9. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon based p-i-n structures with Si and Ge nanocrystals in i-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. A.; Krivyakin, G. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.; Kochubei, S. A.; Kamaev, G. N.; Dvurechendkii, A. V.; Purkrt, A.; Remes, Z.; Fajgar, R.; Stuchliková, T. H.; Stuchlik, J.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanocrystals and germanium nanolayers and nanocrystals were created into i-layers of p-i-n structures based on thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The nanocrystals were formed using pulsed laser annealing with an excimer XeCl laser generating pulses with the wavelength of 308 nm and the duration of 15 ns. The laser fluence was varied from 100 (that is below the melting threshold) to 250 mJ/cm2 (above the threshold). The laser treatment allowed the formation of the nanoscrystals with the average size from 2 to 5 nm, depending on the laser-annealing parameters. The size of nanocrystals (in Si and Ge layers) and their Si-Ge composition (in GeSi alloy structures) was estimated through Raman spectra analysis. The structural parameters of Si, Ge and GeSi nanocrystals were also studied using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Current-voltage measurements showed that the p-i-n structures exhibit diode characteristics. The diodes with Si nanocrystals produced the electroluminescence peak in the infrared range (0.9-1.0 eV), which spectral position was dependent on the laser annealing conditions. It was suggested that radiative transitions are related to the nanocrystal/amorphous silicon matrix interface states. The proposed approach can be used for producing of solar cells or light-emitting diodes on non-refractory substrates.

  10. Enhanced photovoltaic property by forming p-i-n structures containing Si quantum dots/SiC multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si QDs)/SiC multilayers were fabricated by annealing hydrogenated amorphous Si/SiC multilayers prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The thickness of amorphous Si layer was designed to be 4 nm, and the thickness of amorphous SiC layer was kept at 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the formation of Si QDs after 900°C annealing. The optical properties of the Si QDs/SiC multilayers were studied, and the optical band gap deduced from the optical absorption coefficient result is 1.48 eV. Moreover, the p-i-n structure with n-a-Si/i-(Si QDs/SiC multilayers)/p-Si was fabricated, and the carrier transportation mechanism was investigated. The p-i-n structure was used in a solar cell device. The cell had the open circuit voltage of 532 mV and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.28%. PACS 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Pt; 88.40.jj PMID:25489285

  11. In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodiodes with transparent cadmium tin oxide contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Paul R.; Dutta, Niloy K.; Zydzik, George; O'Bryan, H. M.; Keller, Ursula; Smith, Peter R.; Lopata, John; Sivco, D.; Cho, A. Y.

    1992-10-01

    A new type of p-i-n In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode having an optically transparent composite top electrode consisting of a thin semitransparent metal layer and a transparent cadmium tin oxide (CTO) layer was investigated. The composite functions as the n or p contact, an optical window, and an antireflection coating. The transparent contact also prevents shadowing of the active layer by the top electrode, thus allowing greater collection of incident light. Since the CTO contact is nonalloyed, interdiffusion into the i-region is not relevant avoiding an increased dark current. The photodiodes exhibited leakage currents of ≤8 nA and some as low as 23 pA, with reverse breakdown voltages of ≥15-17 V. Responsivity was measured using a 1.55 μm InGaAsP diode laser focused onto an unpassivated 60 μm diam p-i-n photodiode and was ≥0.41 A/W. Photoresponse of the diodes to 3 ps pulses from a Nd:YLF laser (λ=1.047 μm) was 169 and 86 ps for the 60 and 9 μm diodes, respectively. The maximum frequency response of the 9 μm diode is packaging limited, and is expected to have an intrinsic response time of 20-30 ps.

  12. Simulation for spectral response of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shiwei; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we introduced how to build a physical model of refer to the device structure and parameters. Simulations for solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes spectral characteristics were conducted in use of Silvaco TCAD, where device structure and parameters are comprehensively considered. In simulation, the effects of polarization, Urbach tail, mobility, saturated velocities and lifetime in AlGaN device was considered. Especially, we focused on how the concentration-dependent Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination model affects simulation results. By simulating, we analyzed the effects in spectral response caused by TAUN0 and TAUP0, and got the values of TAUN0 and TAUP0 which can bring a result coincides with test results. After that, we changed their values and made the simulation results especially the part under 255 nm performed better. In conclusion, the spectral response between 200 nm and 320 nm of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes were simulated and compared with test results. We also found that TAUN0 and TAUP0 have a large impact on spectral response of AlGaN material.

  13. N-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx x-ray image detectors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, Sen-Shyong; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Hwang, Huey-Liang

    2003-06-01

    An innovative hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiode based x-ray detector for medical imaging applications has been developed in this work. Basically, the detector is a p-i-n photodiode, with a very simple modification by depositing a stacked silicon nitride (SiNx) layer on the p-layer (n-i-p-SiNx) or n-layer (p-i-n-SiNx) of this diode. The dielectric layer functioned as the major charge storage element of the pixel, and p-i-n as the photon-charge converter, separately. The charge storage capacity is larger as the nitride layer is thinner. Consequently, dynamic range, linearity, and data retention of the image array were significantly improved. The novel detector also offers a scheme to independently optimize the photo sensitivity and charge storage capacity of a p-i-n photodiode based pixel. Instead of the conventional p-i-n photodiodes, the novel detectors are proposed to employ in the active matrix, flat-panel imager, with the favor that the signal readout electronics and the TFT driving circuitry are unchanged. The changes include only the bias voltage, whch as a bi-level waveform, as well as the timing for turning on/off the switching thin film transistors (TFTs). The fundamentals of the n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx detectors are addressed, and the performances of these two novel detectors and the conventional p-i-n photodiode are compared. Additionally, the different performances, such as the speed, between n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx will be particularly discussed.

  14. Systematic modulation of negative-differential transconductance effects for gated p+-i-n+ silicon ultra-thin body transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changmin; Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Sejoon

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate the precise control of the negative-differential transconductance (NDT) effects on a gated p+-i-n+ Si ultra-thin body transistor. The device clearly displays the N-shape transfer characteristic (i.e., NDT effect) at room temperature, and the NDT behavior is fully based on the gate-modulation of the electrostatic junction characteristics. The position and the current level of the peak in the NDT region are systematically controllable when modulating the potential profile at the channel-source junction. Namely, the NDT effect can be systematically modulated through modifying the band-to-band tunneling condition by controlling both gate- and drain-bias voltages. In-depth analyses on the transport characteristics and transport mechanisms are discussed.

  15. High-sensitivity silicon ultraviolet p+-i-n avalanche photodiode using ultra-shallow boron gradient doping

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Zhenyang; Zang, Kai; Liu, Dong; ...

    2017-08-21

    Photo detection of ultraviolet (UV) light remains a challenge since the penetration depth of UV light is limited to the nanometer scale. Therefore, the doping profile and electric field in the top nanometer range of the photo detection devices become critical. Traditional UV photodetectors usually use a constant doping profile near the semiconductor surface, resulting in a negligible electric field, which limits the photo-generated carrier collection efficiency of the photodetector. Here, we demonstrate, via the use of an optimized gradient boron doping technique, that the carrier collection efficiency and photo responsivity under the UV wavelength region have been enhanced. Moreover,more » the ultrathin p+-i-n junction shows an avalanche gain of 2800 and an ultra-low junction capacitance (sub pico-farad), indicating potential applications in the low timing jitter single photon detection area.« less

  16. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    SciTech Connect

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; Nie, H.; Disney, D.; Wierer, Jr., J.; Allerman, A. A.; Moseley, M. W.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remain superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.

  17. Effects of Be acceptors on the spin polarization of carriers in p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, I. T.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Galeti, H. V. A.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of Be acceptors on the electroluminescence and the spin polarization in GaAs/AlAs p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes. The quantum well emission comprise two main lines separated by ∼20 meV attributed to excitonic and Be-related transitions, which intensities show remarkably abrupt variations at critical voltages, particularly at the electron resonant peak where it shows a high-frequency bistability. The circular-polarization degree of the quantum-well electroluminescence also shows strong and abrupt variations at the critical bias voltages and it attains relatively large values (of ∼−75% at 15 T). These effects may be explored to design novel devices for spintronic applications such as a high-frequency spin-oscillators.

  18. High-sensitivity silicon ultraviolet p+-i-n avalanche photodiode using ultra-shallow boron gradient doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenyang; Zang, Kai; Liu, Dong; Zhou, Ming; Kim, Tong-June; Zhang, Huilong; Xue, Muyu; Park, Jeongpil; Morea, Matthew; Ryu, Jae Ha; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Kim, Jisoo; Gong, Shaoqin; Kamins, Theodore I.; Yu, Zongfu; Wang, Zhehui; Harris, James S.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-08-01

    Photo detection of ultraviolet (UV) light remains a challenge since the penetration depth of UV light is limited to the nanometer scale. Therefore, the doping profile and electric field in the top nanometer range of the photo detection devices become critical. Traditional UV photodetectors usually use a constant doping profile near the semiconductor surface, resulting in a negligible electric field, which limits the photo-generated carrier collection efficiency of the photodetector. Here, we demonstrate, via the use of an optimized gradient boron doping technique, that the carrier collection efficiency and photo responsivity under the UV wavelength region have been enhanced. Furthermore, the ultrathin p+-i-n junction shows an avalanche gain of 2800 and an ultra-low junction capacitance (sub pico-farad), indicating potential applications in the low timing jitter single photon detection area.

  19. A fast SOI-based variable optical attenuator with a p-i-n structure with low polarization dependent loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pei; Wu, Yuan-da; Wang, Yue; An, Jun-ming; Hu, Xiong-wei

    2016-01-01

    According to the plasma dispersion effect of silicon (Si), a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based variable optical attenuator (VOA) with p-i-n lateral diode structure is demonstrated in this paper. A wire rib waveguide with sub-micrometer cross section is adopted. The device is only about 2 mm long. The power consumption of the VOA is 76.3 mW (0.67 V, 113.9 mA), and due to the carrier absorption, the polarization dependent loss ( PDL) is 0.1 dB at 20 dB attenuation. The raise time of the VOA is 34.5 ns, the fall time is 37 ns, and the response time is 71.5 ns.

  20. GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H. H.; Li, H.; Mashanov, V.; Yang, Y. J.; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, G. E.; Soref, R. A.; Sun, G.

    2013-12-01

    We report an investigation of GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with an active GeSn layer that is almost fully strained. The results show that (a) the response of the Ge/GeSn/Ge heterojunction photodiodes is stronger than that of the reference Ge-based photodiodes at photon energies above the 0.8 eV direct bandgap of bulk Ge (<1.55 μm), and (b) the optical response extends to lower energy regions (1.55-1.80 μm wavelengths) as characterized by the strained GeSn bandgap. A cusp-like spectral characteristic is observed for samples with high Sn contents, which is attributed to the significant strain-induced energy splitting of heavy and light hole bands. This work represents a step forward in developing GeSn-based infrared photodetectors.

  1. GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H. H.; Li, H.; Mashanov, V.; Yang, Y. J.; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, G. E.; Soref, R. A.; Sun, G.

    2013-12-02

    We report an investigation of GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with an active GeSn layer that is almost fully strained. The results show that (a) the response of the Ge/GeSn/Ge heterojunction photodiodes is stronger than that of the reference Ge-based photodiodes at photon energies above the 0.8 eV direct bandgap of bulk Ge (<1.55 μm), and (b) the optical response extends to lower energy regions (1.55–1.80 μm wavelengths) as characterized by the strained GeSn bandgap. A cusp-like spectral characteristic is observed for samples with high Sn contents, which is attributed to the significant strain-induced energy splitting of heavy and light hole bands. This work represents a step forward in developing GeSn-based infrared photodetectors.

  2. Resonant metallic nanostructure for enhanced two-photon absorption in a thin GaAs p-i-n diode

    SciTech Connect

    Portier, Benjamin; Pardo, Fabrice; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Steveler, Emilie; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Lemaître, Aristide; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Vest, Benjamin; Jaeck, Julien; Rosencher, Emmanuel; Haïdar, Riad

    2014-07-07

    Degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) is investigated in a 186 nm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diode embedded in a resonant metallic nanostructure. The full device consists in the GaAs layer, a gold subwavelength grating on the illuminated side, and a gold mirror on the opposite side. For TM-polarized light, the structure exhibits a resonance close to 1.47 μm, with a confined electric field in the intrinsic region, far from the metallic interfaces. A 109 times increase in photocurrent compared to a non-resonant device is obtained experimentally, while numerical simulations suggest that both gain in TPA-photocurrent and angular dependence can be further improved. For optimized grating parameters, a maximum gain of 241 is demonstrated numerically and over incidence angle range of (−30°; +30°).

  3. Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Hagir M.; Royall, Ben; Mazzucato, Simone; Balkan, Naci

    2012-09-01

    The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out.

  4. Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hagir M; Royall, Ben; Mazzucato, Simone; Balkan, Naci

    2012-09-28

    The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out.

  5. A study of the coupling between LO phonons and plasmons in InP p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Dinh Nhu

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a study investigating the coupling between longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and plasmons in InP p-i-n diodes by a numerical simulation. A significant change is observed in the Fourier transform spectra of transient electric field when taking the coupling into account. The findings show two separate peaks instead of a single plasma peak as for non-coupling case. In addition, the bulk-like dispersion relations of the frequencies of those two peaks on the carrier density are found. Therefore, it is proposed that those behaviors manifest the LO phonon-plasmon coupling in the diodes. Also, there is evidence of the peak clipping by the diode itself, a phenomenon not being seen in the bulk InP semiconductor.

  6. Hump-shaped internal collection efficiency of degraded a-Si:H {ital p-i-n} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smole, F.; Topic, M.; Furlan, J.; Kusian, W.

    1997-07-01

    Measured internal collection efficiency (ICE) characteristics of annealed and degraded a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells were used for an analysis of their internal behavior. Using the numerical simulator ASPIN, simulations were performed in order to fit and explain pronounced hump-shaped voltage-dependent ICE characteristics of degraded structures under weak short-wavelength illumination. Agreement with measured ICE characteristics for a degraded cell was obtained only if in addition to the introduction of light-induced dangling bond defect states, their capture cross sections were also increased, in particular the capture cross section for the charged defect states were increased. This caused a change in the occupancy of defect states at the p-i interface and front part of the i layer under forward biases. Consequently, the electric field in the front part of the cell was sustained under higher forward biases, resulting in recovery of the ICE. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well p-i-n structures: A surface photovoltage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasy, N.; Leibovitch, M.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Shapira, Yoram; Barnham, K. W. J.; Nelson, J.; Barnes, J.

    1999-12-01

    The photovoltage (PV) response of single quantum well p-i-n structures under open circuit conditions has been studied experimentally and numerically. The numerical calculations show a monotonic increase in the PV response with decreasing well width, implying that the ensuing increase in carrier generation rate and band gap governs the PV response. The well layer has been shown to dominate the recombination of excess carriers generated throughout the structure, and their lifetime at the well has been found to be a critical structure parameter. Using a simple semi-empirical model, the effective carrier lifetimes at the well layer/interfaces for the different samples were estimated. The results demonstrate the benefits of using surface photovoltage spectroscopy for characterization and quality control of quantum well structures.

  8. An innovative a-Si:H p-i-n based X-ray medical image detector for low dosage and long exposure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, Sen-Shyong; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Hwang, Huey-Liang

    2003-05-01

    An innovative hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiode based X-ray detector for medical imaging applications was developed in this work, and the improvements of the device were also discussed. The detector consists of an a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode and a stacked dielectric layer, such as silicon nitride (SiN x), deposited on p-layer of this p-i-n diode (n-i-p-SiN x), as the major charge storage element. The detector operates as a capacitor, formed by this dielectric layer, in parallel with a reverse-biased p-i-n diode during the detection cycle. Consequently, the capacitance, for accumulating the photon-converted charges, of the p-i-n diode was enlarged by this stacked dielectric layer without decreasing the active area of the detector. As a result, the dynamic range, linearity and data retention capability of this novel detector are significantly improved. In particular, the photo sensitivity and charge storage capability of this novel detector can be separately optimized, and the drastically improved data retention, due to the high density and long release time of the trapped electrons in p-layer of the p-i-n diode, could facilitate this novel detector to be employed in the low dosage flux and long exposure applications.

  9. Low temperature pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance on a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Thomas; Seipel, Heather; McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph; Taylor, Craig; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Feng; Madan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has become one of the most important semiconductor materials, with applications including solar cells and thin film transistors. In spite of this, and more than 30 years of intensive studies of this material, the microscopic nature of various recombination mechanisms in this material are still not well understood. Recently, pulsed electrically and optically detected magnetic resonance (p-EDMR, p-ODMR, respectively) spectroscopy has provided a method for directly and quantitatively observing some of these microscopic processes. Here, we present p-EDMR measurements on a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells at temperatures T <= 40K, with a comparatively low light excitation density. After a short, coherent microwave excitation, we record transients for a range of externally applied magnetic fields. The results show the presence of a number of resonances, which we discuss with regard to previous continuous wave (cw-) ESR and cw-EDMR studies, as well as cw- and p-ODMR measurements.

  10. Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Matthew; Brendel, Corinna E.; Zang, Kai; Suh, Junkyo; Fenrich, Colleen S.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Huo, Yijie; Kamins, Theodore I.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Harris, James S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the effect of surface passivation on pseudomorphic multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors. A combination of ozone oxidation to form GeOx and GeSnOx on the surface of the diodes followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 for protection of these native oxides provides reduced dark current. With a temperature-dependent investigation of dark current, we calculate the activation energy to be 0.26 eV at a bias of -0.1 V and 0.05 eV at -1 V for the sample passivated by this ozone method. Based on these activation energy results, we find that the current is less dominated by bulk tunneling at lower reverse bias values; hence, the effect of surface passivation is more noticeable with nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in dark current for the ozone-passivated sample compared to control devices without the ozone treatment at a voltage of -0.1 V. Passivation also results in a significant enhancement of the responsivity, particularly for shorter wavelengths, with 26% higher responsivity at 1100 nm and 16% higher performance at 1300 nm.

  11. Effects of various dopants on properties of GaAs tunneling junctions and p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2017-08-01

    Several GaAs tunneling junctions (TJs) and p-i-n single junction solar cells grown using a planetary metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor utilizing various dopant species including Zn, C, S, and Te were investigated. The incorporation of Te atoms into GaAs was approximately two orders larger than that of S atoms. Although only 30% of Te atoms could be electrically activated, a carrier concentration of 1019 cm-3 was achieved. Highly C-doped GaAs was successfully obtained by decreasing the growth temperature and increasing the amount of H2 carrier gas in order to prevent the predecomposition of CBr4 dopant gas. A hole concentration of about 1020 cm-3 was realized with a growth temperature of 450 °C. The C-Te-doped GaAs TJ exhibited the best ohmic tunneling behavior with a resistivity of 12.5 mΩ·cm2, while the others had diode characteristics. The GaAs solar cell grown with the Zn-S dopant showed the highest conversion efficiency ascribed to a longer minority carrier lifetime.

  12. Dependence of device performance on carrier escape sequence in multi-quantum-well p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, A.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Freundlich, A.

    2006-04-01

    This work is a study relating device performance and carrier escape sequence in a large set of InAsP/InP p-i-n multi-quantum-well solar cells. The devices encompass nearly identical i-region thickness and built-in electric field and present similar absorption threshold energies. The escape sequence of the first confined electron-to-conduction band continuum and heavy/light holes-to-valence band continuum is extracted from the photoluminescence versus temperature analysis and by comparing the measured activation energies to calculated hole/electron well depths and thermionic escape times. Light holes, as expected for most III-V nanostructure systems, are found to be the fastest escaping carriers in all samples. The escape of electrons prior to heavy holes is shown to be a prerequisite to prevent severe open circuit voltage degradation. A possible explanation of the origin of this effect is offered. InP/InAsP multi-quantum-well solar cells with high built-in electric field and fast electronic escape time display better open circuit voltage and performance.

  13. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-01

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  14. Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jifeng; Cannon, Douglas D.; Wada, Kazumi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae; Danielson, David T.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate a 0.25% tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetector on Si platform that effectively covers both C and L bands in telecommunications. The direct band edge of the Ge film has been pushed from 1550 to 1623 nm with 0.25% tensile strain, enabling effective photon detection in the whole L band. The responsivities of the device at 1310, 1550, and 1620 nm are 600, 520, and 100mA /W under 0 V bias, which can be further improved to 980, 810, and 150mA/W with antireflection coating based on calculations. Therefore, the device covers the whole wavelength range used in telecommunications. The responsivities at 1310 and 1550 nm are comparable to InGaAs photodetectors currently used in telecommunications. In the spectrum range of 1300-1650 nm, maximum responsivity was already achieved at 0 V bias because carrier transit time is much shorter than carrier recombination life time, leading to ˜100% collection efficiency even at 0 V bias. This is a desirable feature for low voltage operation. The absorption coefficients of 0.25% tensile strained Ge in the L band have been derived to be nearly an order of magnitude higher than bulk Ge. The presented device is compatible with conventional Si processing, which enables monolithic integration with Si circuitry.

  15. The effect of hole transporting layer in charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatopoulos, Fedros; Savva, Achilleas; Papadas, Ioannis T.; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2017-07-01

    The charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells were investigated using three representative organic and inorganic hole transporting layer (HTL): (a) Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, Al 4083), (b) copper-doped nickel oxide (Cu:NiOx), and (c) Copper oxide (CuO). Through impedance spectroscopy analysis and modelling, it is shown that charge accumulation is decreased in the HTL/perovskite interface, between PEDOT:PSS to Cu:NiOx and CuO. This was indicative from the decrease in double layer capacitance (Cdl) and interfacial charge accumulation capacitance (Cel), resulting in an increase to recombination resistance (Rrec), thus decreased charge recombination events between the three HTLs. Through AFM measurements, it is also shown that the reduced recombination events (followed by the increase in Rrec) are also a result of increased grain size between the three HTLs, thus reduction in the grain boundary area. These charge accumulation properties of the three HTLs have resulted in an increase to the power conversion efficiency between the PEDOT:PSS (8.44%), Cu:NiOx (11.45%), and CuO (15.3%)-based devices.

  16. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Savanier, Marc Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-28

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  17. Influence of bilayer resist processing on p-i-n OLEDs: towards multicolor photolithographic structuring of organic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkus, Simonas; Nehm, Frederik; Janneck, Robby; Kalkura, Shrujan; Zakhidov, Alex A.; Schober, Matthias; Hild, Olaf R.; Kasemann, Daniel; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Recently, bilayer resist processing combined with development in hydrofluoroether (HFE) solvents has been shown to enable single color structuring of vacuum-deposited state-of-the-art organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). In this work, we focus on further steps required to achieve multicolor structuring of p-i-n OLEDs using a bilayer resist approach. We show that the green phosphorescent OLED stack is undamaged after lift-off in HFEs, which is a necessary step in order to achieve RGB pixel array structured by means of photolithography. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of both, double resist processing on red OLEDs and exposure of the devices to ambient conditions, on the basis of the electrical, optical and lifetime parameters of the devices. Additionally, water vapor transmission rates of single and bilayer system are evaluated with thin Ca film conductance test. We conclude that diffusion of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) through the fluoropolymer film is the main mechanism behind OLED degradation observed after bilayer processing.

  18. Atomic scale modeling of electrically doped p-i-n FET from adenine based single wall nanotube.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debarati; Roy, Pradipta; De, Debashis

    2017-09-01

    The Field Effect Transistor (FET) characteristics has been observed from a single-walled Adenine nanotube device using Density Functional Theory associated with Non Equilibrium Green's Function based First Principle approach. This device is electrically doped which shows both n and p channel characteristics of a p-i-n FET. This device is designed and originated from a single-walled biomolecular nanotube structure. The p and n regions have been induced at the two ends of the device using electrical doping process. Thus both n and p channel current-voltage response can be obtained within a single nano-scale device at room temperature operation. The device is 3.35nm long and 1.4nm wide. The quasi-ballistic quantum transmission property reveals impressive and almost ideal current-voltage characteristics of the FET. Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) gap reveals the possibility of quasi-ballistic coherent transmission of the device. The electronic properties based on Molecular Projected Self-consistent Hamiltonian are analyzed using Hilbert space spanned basis functions. The maximum tunneling current observed for the bio-molecular FET is 15.9μA for n-channel and 13.8μA for p-channel. The device is operated in atomic scale regime with 1000THz frequency. The present results reveal the role of quantum-ballistic tunneling phenomenon in the current-voltage characteristics and channel conductance properties of the bio nanotube structure, which is useful in future generation nano-electronics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. p-i-n heterojunctions with BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles and p- and n-type oxides: photovoltaic properties.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Soumyo; Bera, Abhijit; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-11-26

    We formed p-i-n heterojunctions based on a thin film of BiFeO3 nanoparticles. The perovskite acting as an intrinsic semiconductor was sandwiched between a p-type and an n-type oxide semiconductor as hole- and electron-collecting layer, respectively, making the heterojunction act as an all-inorganic oxide p-i-n device. We have characterized the perovskite and carrier collecting materials, such as NiO and MoO3 nanoparticles as p-type materials and ZnO nanoparticles as the n-type material, with scanning tunneling spectroscopy; from the spectrum of the density of states, we could locate the band edges to infer the nature of the active semiconductor materials. The energy level diagram of p-i-n heterojunctions showed that type-II band alignment formed at the p-i and i-n interfaces, favoring carrier separation at both of them. We have compared the photovoltaic properties of the perovskite in p-i-n heterojunctions and also in p-i and i-n junctions. From current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy, we have observed that two depletion regions were formed at the p-i and i-n interfaces of a p-i-n heterojunction. The two depletion regions operative at p-i-n heterojunctions have yielded better photovoltaic properties as compared to devices having one depletion region in the p-i or the i-n junction. The results evidenced photovoltaic devices based on all-inorganic oxide, nontoxic, and perovskite materials.

  20. Noise Properties of Indium Gallium Arsenide/indium Aluminum Arsenide Multiquantum-Well Heterostructure P-I -n Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Young-June

    The charge transport process in InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum-well (MQw) heterostructure p-i-n photodiodes is studied experimentally and theoretically. Current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), S-parameter, and noise measurements are performed at room temperature over a wide range of reverse bias. The devices under study consist of alternating, undoped, lattice matched InGaAs and InAlAs layers sandwiched between a heavily doped n and p layer of InGaAs. To determine the dependence of charge transport phenomena on quantum-well width, a set of three different quantum-well layers of, respectively, 30, 90, and 500 Angstrom wide were used. Upon illumination by a light-emitting-diode (1350 nm), measurements of the noise spectra were performed at frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 1 GHz. In the frequency range of 200 MHz and 1 GHz, the 90-90 and 500-500 Angstrom devices which have nontransparent barriers between neighboring quantum-wells, show distinctive sub-shot noise level at low bias. This sub-shot noise phenomenon is interpreted in terms of the trapping and detrapping of electrons in undepleted quantum-wells. The magnitude of the noise is proportional to 1/N, where N is the number of undepleted quantum-wells. The dependence of noise levels on bias indicates that quantum-wells located in the i-region are successively and gradually depleted with increasing reverse bias. C-V measurements support this finding. To explain the sub-shot noise levels, a MQW trapping noise model was developed employing the Transfer Impedance method. The excess noise observed at frequencies below 200 MHz is caused by the trapping and detrapping of electrons in heterojunction interface states. Current-voltage measurements performed under illumination indicated that the quantum efficiency of the photodiode is bias dependent. We established that the photocurrent is controlled by field assisted injection of optically generated electrons from the low bandgap absorption region into the intrinsic

  1. A final report for: Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1999-04-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the front surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed from a layer of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed from the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10{sup -12} amps at -1 V on a 3mm x 3mm diode, or a density of 1.1 x 10{sup -11} amps cm{sup -2}, with many of the diode structures tested having nearly similar results. The PIN diodes were significantly better than the Schottky barrier device, which had six orders of magnitude higher dark current. Diodes were characterized in terms of their current-mode response to 5.5 MeV alpha particles from 241-Americium. These radiation-induced currents were as high as 9.78 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -1} on a PIN device with an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As BSF. Simple PIN diodes had currents as high as 2.44 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2}, with thicker undoped layers showing better sensitivity. Boron coatings were applied, and response to neutrons tested at University of Michigan by Dr. Doug McGregor. Devices with PIN and Schottky barrier designs showed neutron detection efficiencies as high as 2% on 5 {micro}m thick devices, with no need for external bias voltages. PIN diodes showed higher breakdown voltages and lower noise

  2. 2.6 A, 0.69 MW cm -2 single-chip bulk GaN p-i-n rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irokawa, Y.; Luo, B.; Kang, B. S.; Kim, Jihyun; LaRoche, J. R.; Ren, F.; Baik, K. H.; Pearton, S. J.; Pan, C.-C.; Chen, G.-T.; Chyi, J.-I.; Park, S. S.; Park, Y. J.

    2004-02-01

    The performance of a 9 device array of 500 × 500 μm 2 GaN p-i-n rectifiers fabricated on epitaxial layers grown on a free-standing GaN template is reported. The forward turn-on voltage was ˜5.5 V at 25 °C, with an on-state resistance of ˜5 × 10 -3 Ω cm 2. The total forward current was 1 A at ˜8.8 V and 2.6 A at 18 V. The power figure-of-merit for the array, VB2/ RON, was 0.69 MW cm -2, with a reverse recovery time of ⩽300 ns. The individual p-i-n rectifiers were interconnected using electroplated Au and clamped in a Cu pressure pack for thermal management.

  3. Design Issues of GaAs and AlGaAs Delta-Doped p-i-n Quantum-Well APD's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yang

    1994-01-01

    We examine the basic design issues in the optimization of GaAs delta-doped and AlGAs delta-doped quantum-well avalanche photodiode (APD) structures using a theoretical analysis based on an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The devices are variations of the p-i-n doped quantum-well structure previously described in the literature. They have the same low-noise, high-gain and high-bandwidth features as the p-i-n doped quantum-well device. However, the use of delta doping provides far greater control or the doping concentrations within each stage possibly enhancing the extent to which the device can be depleted. As a result, it is expected that the proposed devices will operate at higher gain levels (at very low noise) than devices previously developed.

  4. Solution-processed conjugated polymer organic p-i-n light-emitting diodes with high built-in potential by solution- and solid-state doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sankaran; Zhou, Mi; Kumar, Aravind C.; Chen, Zhi-Li; Png, Rui-Qi; Chua, Lay-Lay; Ho, Peter K. H.

    2009-11-01

    Polymer p-i-n homojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprising p-doped poly(dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) hole-injection, intrinsic F8BT emitter, and n-doped F8BT electron-injection layers have been demonstrated. A thin F8BT film was photocrosslinked and bulk p-doped by nitronium oxidation, then overcoated with an F8BT layer which was then surface n-doped by contact printing with naphthalenide on an elastomeric stamp. These LEDs exhibit high built-in potential (Vbi=2.2 V), efficient bipolar injection, and greatly improved external electroluminescence efficiency compared to control devices without the p-i-n structure. A modulated photocurrent technique was used to measure this Vbi, which systematically improves with diode structure.

  5. Near-infrared electroluminescence and photo detection in InGaAs p-i-n microdisks grown by selective area growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellman, Jon Øyvind; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-06-16

    Microselective-area growth of p-i-n InGaAs disks on (111) silicon by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is a promising technology for III/V-on-Si integration. As a proof-of-concept, room-temperature electroluminescence is reported from ensembles of p-i-n InGaAs-on-Si micro-disks. The observed spectrum shows peak luminescence at 1.78 μm with a local maxima at 1.65 μm. The disks are also shown to generate a measurable photo current when illuminated by infrared light with less energy than the silicon bandgap energy. This makes these InGaAs-on-Si disks a promising technology for monolithic integration of light sources and detectors with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics for optical communication, sensing, and imaging.

  6. Simulation based comparative analysis of photoresponse in front- and back-illuminated GaN P-I-N ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Jin; Xie, Feng; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Haoran; Song, Man; Yi, Yuanyuan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the comparative analysis of influence of doping level and doping profile of the active region on zero bias photoresponse characteristics of GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors operating at front- and back-illuminated. A two dimensional physically-based computer simulation of GaN-based p-i-n UV photodetectors is presented. We implemented GaN material properties and physical models taken from the literature. It is shown that absorption layer doping profile has notable impacts on the photoresponse of the device. Especially, the effect of doping concentration and distribution of the absorption layer on photoresponse is discussed in detail. In the case of front illumination, comparative to uniform n-type doping, the device with n-type Gaussian doping profiles at absorption layer has higher responsivity. Comparative to front illumination, back illuminated detector with p-type doping profiles at absorption layer has higher maximum photoresponse, while the Gaussian doping profiles have a weaker ability to enhance the device responsivity. It is demonstrated that electric field distribution, mobility degradation, and recombinations are jointly responsible for the variance of photoresponse. Our work enriches the understanding and utilization of GaN based p-i-n UV photodetectors.

  7. Effect of Longitudinal Optical Phonon--Plasmon Coupling on the Transient Self-Consistent Field in GaAs p--i--n Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Dinh Nhu; The, Nguyen Phuoc

    2013-10-01

    The effect of longitudinal optical (LO) phonon--coherent plasmon coupling on the transient self-consistent field and then on frequency spectra of collective oscillations in GaAs p--i--n diodes without a biased field is investigated by the self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo method. The frequency spectra of collective oscillations in the diodes show that there are two new strong peaks in the terahertz range when the coupling is taken into account. These peaks replace the coupled phonon--plasmon peaks in the bulk semiconductor.

  8. Origin analysis of expanded stacking faults by applying forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shohei; Naijo, Takanori; Yamashita, Tamotsu; Miyazato, Masaki; Ryo, Mina; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Miyajima, Masaaki; Senzaki, Junji; Kato, Tomohisa; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Okumura, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Stacking faults expanded by the application of forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes were observed using a transmission electron microscope to investigate the expansion origin. It was experimentally confirmed that long-zonal-shaped stacking faults expanded from basal-plane dislocations converted into threading edge dislocations. In addition, stacking fault expansion clearly penetrated into the substrate to a greater depth than the dislocation conversion point. This downward expansion of stacking faults strongly depends on the degree of high-density minority carrier injection.

  9. Effect of doping on room temperature carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, D. G.; Chen, E. Y.; Polly, S. J.; Hubbard, S. M.; Doty, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of doping on the mechanisms of carrier escape from intermediate states in delta-doped InAs/GaAs intermediate band solar cells. The intermediate states arise from InAs quantum dots embedded in a GaAs p-i-n junction cell. We find that doping the sample increases the number of excited-state carriers participating in a cycle of trapping and carrier escape via thermal, optical, and tunneling mechanisms. However, we find that the efficiency of the optically-driven carrier escape mechanism is independent of doping and remains small.

  10. Nuclear radiation detectors based on a matrix of ion-implanted p-i-n diodes on undoped GaAs epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, F. M.; Britvich, G. I.; Chernykh, A. V.; Chernykh, S. V.; Chubenko, A. P.; Didenko, S. I.; Koltsov, G. I.

    2012-11-06

    Samples of nuclear detectors which represent matrices of p-i-n diodes were fabricated based on undoped gallium arsenide epitaxial layers by ion implantation technology. The detectors have a size of the active area of 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 0.4 and 0.9 Multiplication-Sign 0.9 cm{sup 2}. Electrical characteristics of fabricated detectors and results of measurements of fast neutrons spectra of {sup 241}Am-Be source by the recoil protons method are discussed.

  11. InGaAs/AlAs triple-barrier p-i-n junction diode for realizing superlattice-based FET for steep slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukimachi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The subthreshold slope of a conventional FET is over 60 mV/dec at room temperature. One of the proposed devices capable of overcoming this limitation is a superlattice FET (SLFET). In this study, we determined the feasibility of an SLFET experimentally. To overcome the limitations of conventional FETs, we proposed a “leaned” superlattice structure for an FET. With the help of calculations, we fabricated InGaAs/AlAs triple-barrier p-i-n diodes instead of FETs. By using measurements recorded at room and low temperatures, we confirmed the change in slope at the expected bias through calculations.

  12. Efficient gate control of spin-valve signals and Hanle signals in GaAs channel with p-i-n junction-type back-gate structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takumi; Akiho, Takafumi; Ebina, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Efficient gate control of spin-valve signals and Hanle signals was achieved in a GaAs channel with a p-i-n back-gate structure. Experiments showed that the amplitude of the spin-valve signal (ΔVNL) under constant-injection-current conditions increased for a cross nonlocal geometry when the channel was depleted by the gate voltage (VG). In contrast, the VG dependence of ΔVNL for a nonlocal geometry was complicated. The gate modulation efficiency of spin signals was approximately 50 times that with a graphene or Si channel.

  13. Experimental demonstration of efficient pulsed terahertz emission from a stacked GaAs/AlGaAs p-i-n-i heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisauskas, A.; Reklaitis, A.; Venckevičius, R.; Kašalynas, I.; Valušis, G.; Grigaliunaitė-Vonsevičienė, G.; Maestre, H.; Schmidt, J.; Blank, V.; Thomson, M. D.; Roskos, H. G.; Köhler, K.

    2011-02-01

    The pulsed optoelectronic terahertz emitter based on a δ-doped p-i-n-i GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, which was suggested by Reklaitis [Phys. Rev. B 77, 153309 (2008)], is investigated experimentally. It is shown that the heterostructure can serve as efficient antenna- and bias-free surface emitter. Its power exceeds the emission from InGaAs and InAs surfaces for optical excitation fluences below 0.7 μJ/cm2 at 82 MHz pulse repetition rate, respectively, 7 μJ/cm2 at 1 kHz, with potential for further improvement by carrier recombination management.

  14. Characterisation of Al0.52In0.48P mesa p-i-n photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, S.; Lioliou, G.; Krysa, A. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Results characterising the performance of thin (2 μm i-layer) Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy are reported at room temperature. Two 200 μm diameter and two 400 μm diameter Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes were studied. Dark current results as a function of applied reverse bias are shown; dark current densities <3 nA/cm2 were observed at 30 V (150 kV/cm) for all the devices analysed. Capacitance measurements as a function of applied reverse bias are also reported. X-ray spectra were collected using 10 μs shaping time, with the device illuminated by an 55Fe radioisotope X-ray source. Experimental results showed that the best energy resolution (FWHM) achieved at 5.9 keV was 930 eV for the 200 μm Al0.52In0.48P diameter devices, when reverse biased at 15 V. System noise analysis was also carried out, and the different noise contributions were computed.

  15. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications. PMID:26077658

  16. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  17. Metamorphic In(0.20)Ga(0.80)As p-i-n photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates for near infrared applications.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, K; Yang, L-M; Grassman, T J; Tabares, G; Guzman, A; Hierro, A; Mills, M J; Ringel, S A

    2011-04-11

    The growth and performance of top-illuminated metamorphic In(0.20)Ga(0.80)As p-i-n photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates using a step-graded In(x)Ga(1-x)As buffer is reported. The p-i-n photodetectors display a low room-temperature reverse bias dark current density of ~1.4×10(-7) A/cm(2) at -2 V. Responsivity and specific detectivity values of 0.72 A/W, 2.3×10(12) cm·Hz(1/2)/W and 0.69 A/W, 2.2×10(12) cm·Hz(1/2)/W are achieved for Yb:YAG (1030 nm) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser wavelengths at -2 V, respectively. A high theoretical bandwidth-responsivity product of 0.21 GHz·A/W was estimated at 1064 nm. Device performance metrics for these GaAs substrate-based detectors compare favorably with those based on InP technology due to the close tuning of the detector bandgap to the target wavelengths, despite the presence of a residual threading dislocation density. This work demonstrates the great potential for high performance metamorphic near-infrared InGaAs detectors with optimally tuned bandgaps, which can be grown on GaAs substrates, for a wide variety of applications.

  18. Influence of thin metal as a top electrode on the characteristics of P-I-N a- Si:H solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.; Anderson, W.A.; Lahri, R.; Coleman, J.

    1981-04-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-n junction solar cells have been fabricated which utilize various metals (Cr, Cu, Al, Pd, Ag) as a top electrode. Experimental and theoretical analysis of photovolatic performance in a-Si:H solar cells as a function of resistivity, optical transmittance, and work function of thin metal films are presented. Metal work function changes the effective built-in potential of p-n junction diodes. Furthermore, a lower work function metal forms a good Ohmic contact for substrate --P/sup +/-I-N/sup +/-- electrode cells, and high work function metals improve V/sub oc/ of substrate -N-I-P cells. Typical V/sub o/c values are 760 mV with Cr--, Cu--, and Al--N-I-P--stainless steel (SS), 700 mV with Pd--N-I-P-SS, 600 mV with Pd--P-I-N-SS, and 540 mV with Cr--P-I-N-SS. J/sub sc/ is strongly dependent on transmittance and resistivity of the metal films. Fill factor is independent of the choice of a top electrode. An efficient of 2% has been obtained on a 2 cm/sup 2/ solar cell.

  19. InGaP (GaInP) mesa p-i-n photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Butera, S; Lioliou, G; Krysa, A B; Barnett, A M

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, for the first time an InGaP (GaInP) photon counting X-ray photodiode has been developed and shown to be suitable for photon counting X-ray spectroscopy when coupled to a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The characterisation of two randomly selected 200 μm diameter and two randomly selected 400 μm diameter In0.5Ga0.5P p(+)-i-n(+) mesa photodiodes is reported; the i-layer of the p(+)-i-n(+) structure was 5 μm thick. At room temperature, and under illumination from an (55)Fe radioisotope X-ray source, X-ray spectra were accumulated; the best spectrometer energy resolution (FWHM) achieved at 5.9 keV was 900 eV for the 200 μm In0.5Ga0.5P diameter devices at reverse biases above 5 V. System noise analysis was also carried out and the different noise contributions were computed.

  20. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of Thin Film a-Si:H/nc-Si:H Micromorph Solar Cell Fabrication in the p-i-n Superstrate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiquan

    +nc)-Si:H thin films are obtained. The underlying materials for these depositions were newly-deposited intrinsic a-Si:H layers on thermal oxide coated crystalline silicon wafers, designed to simulate specific device configurations. As a result, these growth evolution diagrams can be applied to both p-i-n and n-i-p solar cell optimization. In this thesis, the n-layer growth evolution diagram expressed in terms of hydrogen dilution ratio was applied in correlations with the performance of p-i-n single junction devices in order to optimize these devices. Moreover, ex-situ mapping SE was also employed over the area of multilayer structures in order to achieve better statistics for solar cell optimization by correlating structural parameters locally with small area solar cell performance parameters. In the study of (a-Si:H p-i-n)/(nc-Si:H p-i-n) tandem solar cells, RTSE was successfully applied to monitor the fabrication of the top cell, and efforts to optimize the nanocrystalline p-layer and i-layer of the bottom cell were initiated.

  1. Improved efficiency of NiOx-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells by using PTEG-1 as electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Bart G. H. M.; Najafi, Mehrdad; Steensma, Bauke; Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Jahani, Fatemeh; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-07-01

    We present efficient p-i-n type perovskite solar cells using NiOx as the hole transport layer and a fulleropyrrolidine with a triethylene glycol monoethyl ether side chain (PTEG-1) as electron transport layer. This electron transport layer leads to higher power conversion efficiencies compared to perovskite solar cells with PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). The improved performance of PTEG-1 devices is attributed to the reduced trap-assisted recombination and improved charge extraction in these solar cells, as determined by light intensity dependence and photoluminescence measurements. Through optimization of the hole and electron transport layers, the power conversion efficiency of the NiOx/perovskite/PTEG-1 solar cells was increased up to 16.1%.

  2. Large Perovskite Grain Growth in Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Planar p-i-n Solar Cells by Sodium Addition.

    PubMed

    Bag, Santanu; Durstock, Michael F

    2016-03-02

    Thin-film p-i-n type planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells have the advantage of full low temperature solution processability and can, therefore, be adopted in roll-to-roll production and flexible devices. One of the main challenges with these devices, however, is the ability to finely control the film morphology during the deposition and crystallization of the perovskite layer. Processes suitable for optimization of the perovskite layer film morphology with large grains are highly desirable for reduced recombination of charge carriers. Here, we show how uniform thin films with micron size perovskite grains can be made through the use of a controlled amount of sodium ions in the precursor solution. Large micrometer-size CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite grains are formed during low-temperature thin-film growth by adding sodium ions to the PbI2 precursor solution in a two-step interdiffusion process. By adjusting additive concentration, film morphologies were optimized and the fabricated p-i-n planar perovskite-PCBM solar cells showed improved power conversion efficiences (an average of 3-4% absolute efficiency enhancement) compared to the nonsodium based devices. Overall, the additive enhanced grain growth process helped to reach a high 14.2% solar cell device efficiency with low hysteresis. This method of grain growth is quite general and provides a facile way to fabricate large-grained CH3NH3PbI3 on any arbitrary surface by an all solution-processed route.

  3. The open circuit voltage in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells and its relationship to material, device and dark diode parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, U.; Chatterjee, P.

    2004-08-01

    We review the sensitivity of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to material, device and dark diode parameters, and try to assess the possibilities of improving this quantity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells, having a wide band-gap emitter layer. We find that parameters that affect Voc can broadly be classified into two categories: those that alter the built-in potential (Vbi) appreciably, and those that produce small or no change in Vbi, but can still alter Voc by changing the dark recombination current in the intrinsic absorber or the interfaces. The study is carried out using an electrical-optical model based on the solution of the Poisson's and the continuity equations. In agreement with existing work, we find that Voc is very sensitive to all parameters that appreciably alter Vbi, viz., the transparent conducting oxide/P contact barrier height, the P layer thickness and its activation energy, although Voc is found to be more sensitive to these parameters than Vbi itself. However, we cannot correlate such changes in Voc to the dark diode parameters. On the other hand, parameters that have little effect on Vbi, but alter the dark recombination current, viz., the density of states, capture cross-sections and the Urbach edge, have only a minor influence on Voc, although these changes can qualitatively be linked to changes in the dark current. Also we find that the common belief that Voc decreases as the reverse bias generation current increases is not always true. Boron profiling of the P /I interface and its effect on Voc has also been studied. All in all our study indicates that in a-Si:H p-i-n cells under AM1.5 light, there is little scope of further improving Voc, while retaining the cell efficiency.

  4. Measured and Simulated Dark J-V Characteristics of a-Si:H Single Junction p-i-n Solar Cells Irradiated with 40 keV Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth; Woodyard, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 40 keV electron irradiation on a-Si:H p-i-n single-junction solar cells was investigated using measured and simulated dark J-V characteristics. EPRI-AMPS and PC-1D simulators were explored for use in the studies. The EPRI-AMPS simulator was employed and simulator parameters selected to produce agreement with measured J-V characteristics. Three current mechanisms were evident in the measured dark J-V characteristics after electron irradiation, namely, injection, shunting and a term of the form CV(sup m). Using a single discrete defect state level at the center of the band gap, good agreement was achieved between measured and simulated J-V characteristics in the forward-bias voltage region where the dark current density was dominated by injection. The current mechanism of the form CV(sup m) was removed by annealing for two hours at 140 C. Subsequent irradiation restored the CV(sup m) current mechanism and it was removed by a second anneal. Some evidence of the CV(sup m) term is present in device simulations with a higher level of discrete density of states located at the center of the bandgap.

  5. High performance planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells with crown-ether functionalized fullerene and LiF as double cathode buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Yi; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang

    2015-08-01

    Double cathode buffer layers (CBLs) composed of fullerene derivative functionalized with a crown-ether end group in its side chain (denoted as PCBC) and a LiF layer were introduced between the PCBM acceptor layer and the top cathode in planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells (pero-SCs) based on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX. The devices with the PCBC/LiF double CBLs showed significant improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and long-term stability when compared to the device with LiF single CBL. Through optimizing the spin-coating speed of PCBC, a maximum PCE of 15.53% has been achieved, which is approximately 15% higher than that of the device with single LiF CBL. The remarkable improvement in PCE can be attributed to the formation of a better ohmic contact in the CBL between PCBC and LiF/Al electrode arising from the dipole moment of PCBC, leading to the enhanced fill factor and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Besides the PCE, the long-term stability of the devices with PCBC interlayer is also superior to that of the device with LiF single CBL, which is due to the more effective protection for the perovskite/PCBM interface.

  6. Positively charged manganese acceptor disclosed by photoluminescence spectra in an n-i-p-i-n heterostructure with a Mn-doped GaAs base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, L. G.; Zheng, H. Z.; Zhu, H.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    A type of manganese impurity center with two holes bound in it is disclosed in a lightly Mn-doped base layer of an n-i-p-i-n heterostructure. In addition to the intensively investigated (e, AMn0) peak, a photoluminescence (PL) peak appears at 820.3 nm under zero bias and is continuously shifted to 822.5 nm by negatively biasing the structure. Its circular polarization has the same polarity as PL (e, AMn0), and has a magnetic dependence fitted by a paramagnetic Brillouin function with S = 1/2 and g = 2.09. These observations are consistent with the physical picture that in the AMn+ center both the - 3/2 and the - 1/2 holes occupy the lowest 1S hydrogenic orbit with their spins parallel to each other and antiparallel to the 5/2 local spin of the 3d shell. This spin coupling picture in the AMn+ center has been confirmed by a modified numerical calculation based upon effective mass theory. The feature of the ability to tune the impurity level of the AMn+ center makes it attractive for optically and electrically manipulating local magnetic spins in semiconductors.

  7. Solar-blind Al x Ga1- x N ( x > 0.45) p- i- n photodiodes with a polarization- p-doped emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, N. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Shmidt, N. M.; Karpov, S. Yu.; Rzheutskii, N. V.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Troshkov, S. I.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ber, B. Ya.; Lutsenko, E. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Jmerik, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Polarization-induced p-type doping of AlGaN layers with high aluminum content during plasmaassisted MBE growth has been studied. It is shown that a gradient of the AlN molar fraction in AlGaN (composition gradient) on a level of 0.005 nm-1 must be set in order to obtain a hole concentration of ~1018 cm-3 (measured by the C- V method) in Al x Ga1- x N:Mg ( x = 0.52-0.32) layers with dopant concentration [Mg] = 1.3 × 1018 cm-3. p- i- n photodiodes based on AlGaN heterostructures with such layers as p-emitters showed maximum photoresponsitivity in the solar-blind wavelength range (λ = 281 nm) about 35 and 48 mA/W at reverse bias voltage U = 0 and-5 V, respectively, and exhibited a dark current density of 3.9 × 10-8 A/cm2 at U =-5 V.

  8. High performance planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells with crown-ether functionalized fullerene and LiF as double cathode buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yi E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn Song, Bo E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn; Lei, Ming; Li, Yongfang E-mail: songbo@suda.edu.cn

    2015-08-10

    Double cathode buffer layers (CBLs) composed of fullerene derivative functionalized with a crown-ether end group in its side chain (denoted as PCBC) and a LiF layer were introduced between the PCBM acceptor layer and the top cathode in planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells (pero-SCs) based on CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−X}Cl{sub X}. The devices with the PCBC/LiF double CBLs showed significant improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and long-term stability when compared to the device with LiF single CBL. Through optimizing the spin-coating speed of PCBC, a maximum PCE of 15.53% has been achieved, which is approximately 15% higher than that of the device with single LiF CBL. The remarkable improvement in PCE can be attributed to the formation of a better ohmic contact in the CBL between PCBC and LiF/Al electrode arising from the dipole moment of PCBC, leading to the enhanced fill factor and short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). Besides the PCE, the long-term stability of the devices with PCBC interlayer is also superior to that of the device with LiF single CBL, which is due to the more effective protection for the perovskite/PCBM interface.

  9. Sn-based waveguide p-i-n photodetector with strained GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well active layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Chang, Guo-En; Li, Hui; Cheng, H H

    2017-05-01

    We report on Sn-based p-i-n waveguide photodetectors (WGPD) with a pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active layer on a Ge-buffered Si substrate. A reduced dark-current density of 59  mA/cm2 was obtained at a reverse bias of 1 V due to the suppressed strain relaxation in the GeSn/Ge active layer. Responsivity experiments revealed an extended photodetection range covering the O, E, S, C, and L telecommunication bands completely due to the bandgap reduction resulting from Sn-alloying. Band structure analysis of the pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge quantum well structures indicated that, despite the stronger quantum confinement, the absorption edge can be shifted to longer wavelengths by increasing the Sn content, thereby enabling efficient photodetection in the infrared region. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using GeSn/Ge MQW planar photodetectors as building blocks of electronic-photonic integrated circuits for telecommunication and optical interconnection applications.

  10. Sn-based Ge/Ge0.975Sn0.025/Ge p-i-n photodetector operated with back-side illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Li, H.; Huang, S. H.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    We report an investigation of a GeSn-based p-i-n photodetector grown on a Ge wafer that collects light signal from the back of the wafer. Temperature dependent absorption measurements performed over a wide temperature range (300 K down to 25 K) show that (a) absorption starts at the indirect bandgap of the active GeSn layer and continues up to the direct bandgap of the Ge wafer, and (b) the peak responsivity increases rapidly at first with decreasing temperature, then increases more slowly, followed by a decrease at the lower temperatures. The maximum responsivity happens at 125 K, which can easily be achieved with the use of liquid nitrogen. The temperature dependence of the photocurrent is analyzed by taking into consideration of the temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobility in the active layer, and the analysis result is in reasonable agreement with the data in the temperature regime where the rapid increase occurs. This investigation demonstrates the feasibility of a GeSn-based photodiode that can be operated with back-side illumination for applications in image sensing systems.

  11. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  12. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of interfacial states in ``buffer-free'' p-i-n GaSb/GaAs devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Ferrandis, Philippe; Mesli, Abdelmadjid; Hussain Mari, Riaz; Francisco Felix, Jorlandio; Sellai, Azzouz; Jameel, Dler; Al Saqri, Noor; Khatab, Almontaser; Taylor, David; Henini, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    A systematic study was carried out on defect states in Interfacial Misfit (IMF) unpassivated and Te-passivated IMF in p-i-n GaSb/GaAs devices using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace DLTS. Additionally, Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements were performed, which showed that the turn-on voltage (Von) of passivated samples is lower than that for unpassivated samples; an effect which can be explained by the introduction of new defects states near to the interface of GaSb/GaAs, where Te was incorporated to passivate the IMF. The Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) analysis demonstrates that these new states are the consequence of adding Te at the misfit of GaSb/GaAs. Furthermore, DLTS measurements reveal a distribution of states including a main midgap energy level, namely the well documented EL2 trap, with some peculiar behaviour. Most of these levels are related to interface states that are generated by the mismatch between GaAs and GaSb. Originally, the addition of Te atoms was thought to passivate these interface states. On the contrary, this paper, which attempts at correlating the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics to the DLTS results, shows clearly that Te atoms increase the density of interface states.

  13. Sn-based Ge/Ge{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}/Ge p-i-n photodetector operated with back-side illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Li, H.; Huang, S. H.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.

    2016-04-11

    We report an investigation of a GeSn-based p-i-n photodetector grown on a Ge wafer that collects light signal from the back of the wafer. Temperature dependent absorption measurements performed over a wide temperature range (300 K down to 25 K) show that (a) absorption starts at the indirect bandgap of the active GeSn layer and continues up to the direct bandgap of the Ge wafer, and (b) the peak responsivity increases rapidly at first with decreasing temperature, then increases more slowly, followed by a decrease at the lower temperatures. The maximum responsivity happens at 125 K, which can easily be achieved with the use of liquid nitrogen. The temperature dependence of the photocurrent is analyzed by taking into consideration of the temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobility in the active layer, and the analysis result is in reasonable agreement with the data in the temperature regime where the rapid increase occurs. This investigation demonstrates the feasibility of a GeSn-based photodiode that can be operated with back-side illumination for applications in image sensing systems.

  14. Highly Efficient p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells Utilizing Novel Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Hole Transport Materials with Linear π-Conjugated Structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Qiao, Bo; Huang, Di; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Youqin; Li, Xianggao; Liu, Xicheng; Xu, Xurong

    2016-09-01

    Alternative low-temperature solution-processed hole-transporting materials (HTMs) without dopant are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, two novel small molecule HTMs with linear π-conjugated structure, 4,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)biphenyl (TPASBP) and 1,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)benzene (TPASB), are applied as hole-transporting layer (HTL) by low-temperature (sub-100 °C) solution-processed method in p-i-n PSCs. Compared with standard poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, both TPASBP and TPASB HTLs can promote the growth of perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) film consisting of large grains and less grain boundaries. Furthermore, the hole extraction at HTL/CH3 NH3 PbI3 interface and the hole transport in HTL are also more efficient under the conditions of using TPASBP or TPASB as HTL. Hence, the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs is dramatically enhanced, leading to the high efficiencies of 17.4% and 17.6% for the PSCs using TPASBP and TPASB as HTL, respectively, which are ≈40% higher than that of the standard PSC using PEDOT:PSS HTL. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of tunable dot charging on photoresponse spectra of GaAs p-i-n diode with InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Xiangjun; Yu, Ying; Li, Mifeng; Wang, Lijuan; Zha, Guowei; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Pettersson, Håkan

    2015-12-28

    Quantum dot (QD)-embedded photodiodes have demonstrated great potential for use as detectors. A modulation of QD charging opens intriguing possibilities for adaptive sensing with bias-tunable detector characteristics. Here, we report on a p-i-n GaAs photodiode with InAs QDs whose charging is tunable due to unintentional Be diffusion and trap-assisted tunneling of holes, from bias- and temperature (T)-dependent photocurrent spectroscopy. For the sub-bandgap spectra, the T-dependent relative intensities “QD-s/WL” and “WL/GaAs” (WL: wetting layer) indicate dominant tunneling under −0.9 V (trap-assisted tunneling from the top QDs) and dominant thermal escape under −0.2 ∼ 0.5 V (from the bottom QDs since the top ones are charged and inactive for optical absorption) from the QD s-state, dominant tunneling from WL, and enhanced QD charging at >190 K (related to trap level ionization). For the above-bandgap spectra, the degradation of the spectral profile (especially near the GaAs bandedge) as the bias and T tune (especially under −0.2 ∼ 0.2 V and at >190 K) can be explained well by the enhanced photoelectron capture in QDs with tunable charging. The dominant spectral profile with no degradation under 0.5 V is due to a saturated electron capture in charged QDs (i.e., charging neutralization). QD level simulation and schematic bandstructures can help one understand these effects.

  16. Simulation and analysis of the absorption enhancement in p-i-n InGaN/GaN solar cell using photonic crystal light trapping structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil Deep; Janyani, Vijay

    2016-10-01

    The structure of p-i-n InGaN/GaN based solar cell having a photonic crystal (PhC)-based light trapping structure (LTS) at the top assisted by the planar metallic (aluminum) back reflector (BR) is proposed. We propose two different designs for efficiency enhancement: in one we keep the PhC structure etching depth extending from the top antireflective coating (ARC) of indium tin oxide (ITO) up to the p-GaN layer (which is beneath the ITO and above the active layer), whereas in the other design, the PhC LTS etching depth has been extended up to the InxGa1-xN absorbing layer, starting from the top ITO layer. The theoretical optical simulation studies and optimization of the required parameters of the structure, which help to investigate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the LTS in the efficiency enhancement of the structure, are presented. The work also demonstrates the Lambertian light trapping limits for the practical indium concentrations in a InxGa1-xN active layer cell. The paper also presents the comparison between the proposed designs and compares their results with that of a planar reference cell. The studies are carried out for various indium concentrations. The results indicate considerable enhancement in the efficiency due to the PhC LTS, mainly because of better coupling, low reflectance, and diffraction capability of the proposed LTS, although it is still under the Lambertian limits. The performance evaluation of the proposed structure with respect to the angle of incident light has also been done, indicating improved performance. The parameters have been optimized and calculated by means of rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method.

  17. Water-Soluble 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as the Hole-Transport Layer for Highly Efficient and Stable p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhaowei; Liu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Kaicheng; Yuan, Ligang; Zhou, Yi; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang

    2017-08-02

    As a hole-transport layer (HTL) material, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene-sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was often criticized for its intrinsic acidity and hygroscopic effect that would in the long run affect the stability of perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs). As alternatives, herein water-soluble two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2 and WS2 were used as HTLs in p-i-n Pero-SCs. It was found that the content of 1T phase in 2D TMDs HTLs is centrally important to the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of Pero-SCs, and the 1T-rich TMDs (as achieved from exfoliation and without postheating) lead to much higher PCEs. More importantly, as PEDOT:PSS was replaced by 2D TMDs, both the PCEs and stability of Pero-SCs were significantly improved. The highest PCEs of 14.35 and 15.00% were obtained for the Pero-SCs with MoS2 and WS2, respectively, whereas the Pero-SCs with PEDOT:PSS showed a highest PCE of only 12.44%. These are up to date the highest PCEs using 2D TMDs as HTLs. After being stored in a glovebox for 56 days, PCEs of the Pero-SCs using MoS2 and WS2 HTLs remained 78 and 72%, respectively, whereas the PCEs of Pero-SCs with PEDOT:PSS almost dropped to 0 over 35 days. This study demonstrates that water-soluble 2D TMDs have great potential for application as new generation of HTLs aiming at high performance and long-term stable Pero-SCs.

  18. Room-temperature electroluminescence from radial p-i-n InP/InAsP/InP nanowire heterostructures in the 1.5-µm-wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Sudo, Hisao; Matsuda, Manabu; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Crystal growth of radial p-i-n InP nanowires (NWs) with InAsP quantum well (QW) layers by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy was studied, and vertical NW light-emitting devices were fabricated. Radial p-i-n NWs were formed using position-controlled n-type InP NW cores. By optimizing the flow rates of the Zn source, Zn-doped p-type InP shells were grown on the sidewall of the radial QW structures while maintaining the photoluminescence intensity of the QWs. The fabricated devices showed current rectification originating from the p-i-n diode structures. Electroluminescence from the radial QWs was clearly observed in the 1.5-µm-wavelength region at room temperature for the first time.

  19. In-situ gallium-doping for forming p{sup +} germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuan; D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Vajandar, Saumitra; Lim, Sin Leng; Osipowicz, Thomas; Tok, Eng Soon

    2016-04-21

    The in-situ Ga doping technique was used to form heavily p-type doped germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}) layers by molecular beam epitaxy, avoiding issues such as Sn precipitation and surface segregation at high annealing temperatures that are associated with the alternative implant and anneal approach. In this way, an electrically active Ga concentration of up to ∼3.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} can be realized for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}. The impacts of varying the Ga concentration on the crystalline quality and the mobility of p-type Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} were investigated. High crystalline quality Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} can be realized with an active Ga concentration of up to ∼1.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. More than 98% of the Sn atoms are located on substitutional lattice sites, although the substitutionality of Sn in p-type Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} decreases with an increasing Ga concentration. When the Ga concentration introduced is higher than 3.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}, excess Ga atoms cannot be substitutionally incorporated, and segregation of Ga and Sn towards the surface during growth is observed. The in-situ Ga-doped Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} epitaxy was integrated in a Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085}-on-Si p-i-n (PIN) photodiode fabrication process, and well-behaved Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085}/Si PIN junction characteristics were obtained. A large forward-bias current to reverse bias current ratio of 6 × 10{sup 4} and a low reverse current (dark current) of 0.24 μA were achieved at V{sub bias} = −1 V.

  20. Multistability, ionic doping, and charge dynamics in electrosynthesized polypyrrole, polymer-nanoparticle blend nonvolatile memory, and fixed p-i-n junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Daniel Theodore

    -assembled monolayer (SAM) at the cathode-polymer interface. The addition of the SAM causes a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Photovoltaic analysis indicates that the SAM increases both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Current versus voltage data are presented which indicate that the SAM does not simply introduce an interfacial dipole layer, but rather provides a fixed doping region, and thus a more stable p-i-n structure.

  1. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    DOE PAGES

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm-2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19 V. Numericalmore » simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  2. Specific features of light current-voltage characteristics of p-i-n structures based on amorphous silicon in the case of the tunnel-drift mechanism of dark current transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of p-i-n structures based on amorphous silicon ({alpha}-Si:H) with small hole diffusion lengths (shorter than the thickness of the i-layer of a p-i-n structure) have been experimentally studied with and without illumination. It is shown that forward I-V characteristics of structures of this kind can be described by a dependence inherent in diodes, with a diode ideality factor two-three times the maximum value of 2, theoretically predicted for generation-recombination currents in p-n junctions. The dark current is always substantially lower than the photocurrent in a cell biased with a voltage approximately equal to the opencircuit voltage of the photocell. Dark currents cannot contribute to the I-V characteristic under illumination. The photocurrent decreases with increasing photovoltage at a bias lower than the open-circuit voltage because of a decrease in the collection coefficient and the increasingly important role of back diffusion of electrons into the p-contact, rather than as a result of the dark injection. In the case of biases exceeding the open-circuit voltage, back diffusion becomes the predominant component of the current.

  3. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of photocurrent oscillations in lattice matched Ga1−x In x N y As1−y /GaAs quantum well p-i-n photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Photocurrent oscillations, observed at low temperatures in lattice-matched Ga1−x In x N y As1−y /GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) p-i-n samples, are investigated as a function of applied bias and excitation wavelength and are modelled with the aid of semiconductor simulation software. The oscillations appear only at low temperatures and have the highest amplitude when the optical excitation energy is in resonance with the GaInNAs bandgap. They are explained in terms of electron accumulation and the formation of high-field domains in the GaInNAs QWs as a result of the disparity between the photoexcited electron and hole escape rates from the QWs. The application of the external bias results in the motion of the high-field domain towards the anode where the excess charge dissipates from the well adjacent to anode via tunnelling. PMID:24548551

  4. Improved organic p-i-n type solar cells with n-doped fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives HATNA-F{sub 6} and HATNA-F{sub 12} as transparent electron transport material

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, Franz Falkenberg, Christiane Leo, Karl Riede, Moritz; Hamburger, Manuel Baumgarten, Martin Müllen, Klaus

    2014-02-07

    We study new electron transport materials (ETM) to replace the reference material C{sub 60} in p-i-n type organic solar cells. A comprehensive material characterization is performed on two fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives, HATNA-F{sub 6} and HATNA-F{sub 12}, to identify the most promising material for the application in devices. We find that both HATNA derivatives are equally able to substitute C{sub 60} as ETM as they exhibit large optical energy gaps, low surface roughness, and sufficiently high electron mobilities. Furthermore, large electron conductivities of 3.5×10{sup −5} S/cm and 2.0×10{sup −4} S/cm are achieved by n-doping with 4 wt. % W{sub 2}(hpp){sub 4}. HOMO levels of (7.72 ± 0.05) eV and (7.73 ± 0.05) eV are measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and subsequently used for estimating LUMO values of (4.2 ± 0.8) eV and (4.3 ± 0.8) eV. Both fluorinated HATNA derivatives are successfully applied in p-i-n type solar cells. Compared to identical reference devices comprising the standard material C{sub 60}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be increased from 2.1 % to 2.4 % by using the new fluorinated HATNA derivatives.

  5. An analytical study of the minority carrier distribution and photocurrent of a p-i-n quantum dot solar cell based on the InAs/GaAs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sayantan; Sinha, Amitabha

    2017-10-01

    An analytical study has been carried out on the InAs/GaAs p+-i-n+ quantum dot solar cell, taking into consideration the contributions of each region of the cell to the total photocurrent. The expressions for the excess minority carrier concentration and photocurrent from the front and the rear regions of the device have been obtained and their variations with different device parameters have been studied. Also, based on the investigations reported by some researchers earlier, the photocurrent contribution from the intrinsic region of the solar has been studied, taking into account the quantum dot ensemble absorption coefficient, which depends significantly on the quantum dot size and size dispersion. It is observed that all the three regions of the cell contribute to the overall internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the cell. The contribution of each region of the solar cell to the total IQE has been shown graphically. From these studies it is observed that the incorporation of the quantum dots in the intrinsic region enhance the photocurrent density and hence the IQE of such solar cell, as it absorbs low energy photons, which are beyond the absorption range of GaAs. Finally, the fill factor of the solar cell has been calculated.

  6. Compressively strained SiGe band-to-band tunneling model calibration based on p-i-n diodes and prospect of strained SiGe tunneling field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; Meyer, Kristin De; Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Douhard, Bastien; Delmotte, Joris; Bender, Hugo; Richard, Olivier; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Simoen, Eddy; Hikavyy, Andriy; Loo, Roger; Arstila, Kai; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Heyns, Marc M.

    2014-12-07

    Band-to-band tunneling parameters of strained indirect bandgap materials are not well-known, hampering the reliability of performance predictions of tunneling devices based on these materials. The nonlocal band-to-band tunneling model for compressively strained SiGe is calibrated based on a comparison of strained SiGe p-i-n tunneling diode measurements and doping-profile-based diode simulations. Dopant and Ge profiles of the diodes are determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance-voltage measurements. Theoretical parameters of the band-to-band tunneling model are calculated based on strain-dependent properties such as bandgap, phonon energy, deformation-potential-based electron-phonon coupling, and hole effective masses of strained SiGe. The latter is determined with a 6-band k·p model. The calibration indicates an underestimation of the theoretical electron-phonon coupling with nearly an order of magnitude. Prospects of compressively strained SiGe tunneling transistors are made by simulations with the calibrated model.

  7. Polarization compensation at low p-GaN doping density in InGaN/GaN p-i-n solar cells: Effect of InGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Basant; Adhikari, Sonachand; Pal, Suchandan; Kapoor, Avinsahi

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of polarization matching layer (PML) between i-InGaN/p-GaN is studied numerically for Ga-face InGaN/GaN p-i-n solar cell at low p-GaN doping (∼5e17 cm-3). The simulations are performed for four InxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures (x = 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%), thus investigating the impact of PML for low as well as high indium containing absorber regions. Use of PML presents a suitable alternative to counter the effects of polarization-induced electric fields arising at low p-GaN doping density especially for absorber regions with high indium (>10%). It is seen that it not only mitigates the negative effects of polarization-induced electric fields but also reduces the high potential barriers existing at i-InGaN/p-GaN heterojunction. The improvement in photovoltaic properties of the heterostructures even at low p-GaN doping validates this claim.

  8. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Min-Chu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI) substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT), 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI. PMID:28788494

  9. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-01

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  10. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-19

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  11. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  12. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  13. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  14. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  15. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  16. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  17. Commercialization of multijunction a-Si modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. E.; Arya, R. R.; Chen, L.-F.; Oswald, R.; Newton, J.; Rajan, K.; Romero, R.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1997-02-01

    Solarex has just completed building a plant in James City County, Virginia that has the capacity to produce 10 MW per year of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules. The plant will start commercial production of 8.6 ft2 tandem modules in early 1997. The tandem device structure consists of two stacked p-i-n junctions, a front junction containing amorphous silicon and a back junction containing an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. All amorphous silicon alloys are deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the large-area monolithic modules are interconnected using computerized laser scribing coupled with a machine vision system. The principle products will be monolithic modules (26″×48″) with nominal stabilized power ratings of 56, 50 and 43 peak watts. All modules will be fabricated using a glass-EVA-glass encapsulation to ensure long-term reliability. These products are expected to be widely used in both remote and grid-tied applications.

  18. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  19. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  20. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  1. Characteristics of p-i-n diodes basing on displacement damage detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Sun; Qi, Guo; Xin, Yu; Cheng-Fa, He; Wei-Lei, Shi; Xing-Yao, Zhang

    2017-10-01

    A displacement damage detector is designed and its characteristics are tested with 10 MeV proton irradiation. The testing result shows that the detector's readout changes linearly with the fluence of proton beam up to 1012 proton/cm2. However, a significant damage enhancement factor has been observed for 1.8 MeV electron irradiation when the classic non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) is used for calculating equivalent displacement damage. Since the prediction based on classical NIEL model cannot fit low energy incident well, low energy particles induced displacement damage mechanism, defect generation, recombination and effective NIEL modification is discussed by molecular dynamics (MD) model. The effective NIEL is validated by measuring the detector's response under 1.8 MeV electron irradiation. The equivalent displacement damage between different particles is discussed through scaling factor, damage factor, and damage enhancement factor. By this method, the application of degradation function can be expanded to low energy particles by using effective NIEL.

  2. Coplanar waveguide discontinuities for P-I-N diode switches and filter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, N. I.; Katehi, P. B.; Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1990-01-01

    A full wave space domain integral equation (SDIE) analysis of coplanar waveguide (CPW) two port discontinuities is presented. An experimental setup to measure the S-parameters of such discontinuities is described. Experimental and theoretical results for CPW realizations of pass-band and stop-band filters are presented. The S-parameters of such structures are plotted in the frequency range 5 to 25 GHz.

  3. Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Structure Acting as Light and Temperature Sensor

    PubMed Central

    de Cesare, Giampiero; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a multi-parametric sensor able to measure both temperature and radiation intensity, suitable to increase the level of integration and miniaturization in Lab-on-Chip applications. The device is based on amorphous silicon p-doped/intrinsic/n-doped thin film junction. The device is first characterized as radiation and temperature sensor independently. We found a maximum value of responsivity equal to 350 mA/W at 510 nm and temperature sensitivity equal to 3.2 mV/K. We then investigated the effects of the temperature variation on light intensity measurement and of the light intensity variation on the accuracy of the temperature measurement. We found that the temperature variation induces an error lower than 0.55 pW/K in the light intensity measurement at 550 nm when the diode is biased in short circuit condition, while an error below 1 K/µW results in the temperature measurement when a forward bias current higher than 25 µA/cm2 is applied. PMID:26016913

  4. Temperature dependent characterization of gallium arsenide X-ray mesa p-i-n photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lioliou, G. Barnett, A. M.; Meng, X.; Ng, J. S.

    2016-03-28

    Electrical characterization of two GaAs p{sup +}-i-n{sup +} mesa X-ray photodiodes over the temperature range 0 °C to 120 °C together with characterization of one of the diodes as an X-ray detector over the temperature range 0 °C to 60 °C is reported as part of the development of photon counting X-ray spectroscopic systems for harsh environments. The randomly selected diodes were fully etched and unpassivated. The diodes were 200 μm in diameter and had 7 μm thick i layers. The leakage current density was found to increase from (3 ± 1) nA/cm{sup −2} at 0 °C to (24.36 ± 0.05) μA/cm{sup −2} at 120 °C for D1 and from a current density smaller than the uncertainty (0.2 ± 1.2) nA/cm{sup −2} at 0 °C to (9.39 ± 0.02) μA/cm{sup −2} at 120 °C for D2 at the maximum investigated reverse bias (15 V). The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) was achieved at 5 V reverse bias, at each temperature; 730 eV at 0 °C, 750 eV at 20 °C, 770 eV at 40 °C, and 840 eV at 60 °C. It was found that the parallel white noise was the main source of the photopeak broadening only when the detector operated at 60 °C, at 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V reverse bias and at long shaping times (>5 μs), whereas the sum of the dielectric noise and charge trapping noise was the dominant source of noise for all the other spectra.

  5. Properties of InGaN P-I-N ultraviolet detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yidan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiang-yang

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication and characterization of InGaN ultraviolet photodetector were reported in this work. The effects of thermal annealing were investigated on the properties of ohmic contact. Experiments showed that the zero bias resistance was lowest when the sample was annealed at 550 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes. The current-voltage (I-V) curve showed that current at zero bias was 3.70×10-13A and the resistance was 4.53×1010 Ω. A flat band spectral response was achieved in the 360nm~390nm. The detector displayed an unbiased response of 0.22A/W at 378 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency of 88%. R0A values up to 1.3×108Ω·cm2 was obtained corresponding to D*=1.97×1013cm•Hz1/2•W-1.

  6. Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Madan, A.

    1984-12-10

    A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

  7. Hybrid method of making an amorphous silicon P-I-N semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Morel, Don L.; Abeles, Benjamin

    1983-10-04

    The invention is directed to a hydrogenated amorphous silicon PIN semiconductor device of hybrid glow discharge/reactive sputtering fabrication. The hybrid fabrication method is of advantage in providing an ability to control the optical band gap of the P and N layers, resulting in increased photogeneration of charge carriers and device output.

  8. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  9. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  10. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  11. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  12. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  13. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  14. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  15. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  16. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  17. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  18. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  19. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  20. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  1. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  2. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  3. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  4. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  5. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  6. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  7. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  8. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  9. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5094 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), stands at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  10. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  11. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  12. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  13. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  14. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  15. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  16. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  17. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  18. Commercialization of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kathinka; Forsberg, Joanna; Hansson, Mats

    2012-02-01

    Biobank policy and regulations profoundly vary between different societies. One area with profound differences in culture and tradition concerns commercialization, and the possibility of using the human body as a capital resource. In the United States there is acceptance of this possibility, whereas European law is based on principles that categorically prohibit selling parts of the human body. We suggest that questions of commercialization in the area of biobanking must be considered in relation to different ethical values, notably the principle of best possible use of collected biobank materials for the benefit of vital patient interests.

  19. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  20. Commercial Fisheries Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Richards, R. Anne; Murphy, Brian R.; Willis, David W.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

  1. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  3. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  4. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  5. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5093 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), makes a visual check of the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), a single-rack-mounted facility in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  6. Frameworks for commercial success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    Taking chemical technology from the bench to the consumer is a formidable challenge, but it is how research can ultimately benefit wider society. Companies are now beginning to incorporate metal-organic frameworks into commercial products, heralding a new era for the field.

  7. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  8. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  9. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  10. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  11. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  12. Commercial Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    blank) 9 Naval Research Advisory Committee ABB Helsinki, Finland ALCATEL Paris, France ALSTOM Rugby, England Nokia Helsinki, Finland Siemens Erlangen...DON CTO Telecommunications Siemens Telecommunications Nokia Telecommunications Alcatel Power Electronics ABB Marine Power Electronics Alstom Power...panel received many briefs, including presentations on commercial research issues from multiple speakers at Siemens, Nokia, Alcatel, ABB and Alstom . To

  13. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  14. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  15. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  16. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  17. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  18. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks, as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, left, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station look on during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    From left, NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, are seen during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  2. Opportunities for commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardaman, W. K.; Atkins, H.; Taylor, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible applications of technology of materials processing in low gravity is discussed. A special office established by NASA to familiarize commercial organizations with materials processing in low gravity is described. This office provides information on present research and will, if requested, hold a seminar to present the technological and business aspects of joint investigations and joint endeavors to interested organizations. Arrangements can be made for visits to laboratories where ground based research is in progress.

  3. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  5. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; Pan, Janet L.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Tu, Charles W.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface and in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.

  6. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    DOE PAGES

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; ...

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface andmore » in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.« less

  7. Study of Charge Transport in Vertically Aligned Nitride Nanowire Based Core Shell P-I-N Junctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    C kg –1 ) rad [absorbed dose] 1 × 10 –2 joule per kilogram (J kg –1 ) [gray (Gy)] rem [equivalent and effective dose] 1 × 10–2 joule per kilogram...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-34 Study of Charge Transport in...degree Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) − 32]/1.8 degree Celsius ( o C ) degree Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) + 459.67]/1.8 kelvin (K) Radiation curie

  8. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; Pan, Janet L.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Tu, Charles W.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface and in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.

  9. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Pan, Janet L.; Breeden, Michael C.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Tu, Charles W. E-mail: sdayeh@ece.ucsd.edu; Dayeh, Shadi A. E-mail: sdayeh@ece.ucsd.edu

    2016-08-07

    We report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface and in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. The comprehensive understanding presented in this work suggests that performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.

  10. Portable γ- and X-ray analyzers based on CdTe p-i-n detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusainov, A. K.; Antonova, T. A.; Bahlanov, S. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Lysenko, V. V.; Morozov, F.; Mouratov, V. G.; Muratova, V. N.; Petukhov, Y. A.; Pirogov, A. M.; Polytsia, O. P.; Saveliev, V. D.; Solovei, V. A.; Yegorov, K. A.; Zhucov, M. P.

    1999-06-01

    Several portable instruments are designed using previously reported CdTe detector technology. These can be divided into three groups according to their energy ranges: (1) 3-30 keV XRF analyzers, (2) 5-120 keV wide range XRF analyzers and (3) γ-ray spectrometers for operation up to 1500 keV. These instruments are used to inspect several hundreds of samples in situ during a working day in applications such as a metal alloy verification at customs control. Heavy metals are identified through a 3-100 mm thick package with these instruments. Surface contamination by heavy metals (for example toxins such as Hg, Th and Pb in housing environmental control), the determination of Pb concentration in gasoline, geophysical control in mining, or nuclear material control are other applications. The weight of these XRF probes is about 1 kg and two electronic designs are used: one with embedded computer and another based on a standard portable PC. The instruments have good precision and high productivity for measurements in situ. The detection limit of Ce is about 0.03% when measured in the presence of 10% barium for 15 s. The detection limit when measuring K-shell X-ray of heavy metals contamination is about 0.1 mg/cm 2 for 15 s. Two types of probes for γ-spectrometry with small and large (>30 mm 3) detector volumes provide both high- and low-activity of nuclear fuel analysis. The maximum distance between the probes and electronics unit is 20 m. The γ-spectrometers are equipped with electronics to correct signal distortion due to slow carrier effects. This allows the instrument to achieve an energy resolution of about 2.5 keV at 662 keV. Several modes to process spectra are possible including semiquantitative and total real-shape fitting.

  11. No benefit from microcrystalline silicon N layers in single junction amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poissant, Y.; Chatterjee, P.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of phosphorous-doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) as the n-type electrode in single junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells has been studied both experimentally and through computer modeling. The aim is to understand why, in spite of a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the n layer—from 0.2 eV in n-a-Si:H to 0.03 eV in n-μc-Si:H—the open-circuit voltage of solar cells fabricated using these two types of n layer remains almost unchanged. Experimental determination of the work function of n-μc-Si:H and n-a-Si:H by the "flatband heterojunction" technique, has revealed that n-μc-Si:H has a higher electron affinity. Thus, in spite of the fact that the difference in activation energy is 0.17 eV, the difference in built-in potential between the two types of cells reduces to about half. Moreover, modeling of the output characteristics of solar cells, having these two types of N layer, indicates a sharp localization of the field at the N/I interface for the cell with a μc-Si:H N layer. As a consequence, the field in the bulk of the intrinsic layer and, hence, the open-circuit voltage for the two types of cell, remain unchanged.

  12. Study of Staebler-Wronsky degradation effect in a Si:H based P-I-N solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, Hameed; Herman, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the stability and efficiency of thin solar cells with emphasis on a-Si:H devices. The research project was broken down into three main phases. The first involves designing and building a UHV glow discharge system; the second involves making good quality films and eventually efficient cells; the final phase will be analytical.

  13. UV micro-imprint patterning for tunable light trapping in p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Han, Bing; Bai, Lisha; Zhao, Huixu; Yang, Fu; Liang, Junhui; Huang, Qian; Chen, Xinliang; Zhao, Ying

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we used UV micro-imprint lithography periodic patterning combined with self-textured BZO films with a wide range of texture distributions for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. It was found that the feature size of the periodic textures has a significant influence on the light trapping capacity of the glass substrate and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon solar cells, deposited on periodic textures of 5 μm, showed an improved photocurrent density without any loss in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor; hence, resulting in an overall efficiency increase of 6.28%.

  14. Study of the Staebler-Wronski degradation effect in a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, H. A.; Brown, W. D.; Ang, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into electricity using environmentally safe and clean photovoltaic methods to supplement the ever increasing energy needs has been a cherished goal of many scientists and engineers around the world. Photovoltaic solar cells on the other hand, have been the power source for satellites ever since their introduction in the early sixties. For widespread terrestrial applications, however, the cost of photovoltaic systems must be reduced considerably. Much progress has been made in the recent past towards developing economically viable terrestrial systems, and the future looks highly promising. Thin film solar cells offer cost reductions mainly from their low processing cost, low material cost, and choice of low cost substrates. These are also very attractive for space applications because of their high power densities (power produced per kilogram of solar cell pay load) and high radiation resistance. Amorphous silicon based solar cells are amongst the top candidates for economically viable terrestrial and space based power generation. Despite very low federal funding during the eighties, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies have continually been improved - from a low 3 percent to over 13 percent now. Further improvements have been made by the use of multi-junction tandem solar cells. Efficiencies close to 15 percent have been achieved in several labs. In order to be competitive with fossil fuel generated electricity, it is believed that module efficiency of 15 percent or cell efficiency of 20 percent is required. Thus, further improvements in cell performance is imperative. One major problem that was discovered almost 15 years ago in amorphous silicon devices is the well known Staebler-Wronski Effect. Efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells was found to degrade upon exposure to sunlight. Until now their is no consensus among the scientists on the mechanism for this degradation. Efficiency may degrade anywhere from 10 percent to almost 50 percent within the first few months of operation. In order to improve solar cell efficiencies, it is clear that the cause or causes of such degradation must be found and the processing conditions altered to minimize the loss in efficiency. This project was initiated in 1987 to investigate a possible link between metallic impurities, in particular, Ag, and this degradation. Such a link was established by one of the NASA scientists for the light induced degradation of n+/p crystalline silicon solar cells.

  15. Single-photon detection beyond 1 µm: performance of commercially available germanium photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lacaita, A; Francese, P A; Zappa, F; Cova, S

    1994-10-20

    Germanium avalanche photodiodes (APD's) working biased above the breakdown voltage detect single optical photons in the near-infrared wavelength range. We give guidelines for the selection of devices suitable for photon-counting applications among the commercial samples, and we discuss in detail how the devices should be operated to achieve the best performance, both in terms of noise-equivalent power (NEP) and the timing-equivalent bandwidth. We introduce the driving electronics and we show that, in the measurements of fast optical signals, the adoption of single-photon techniques is very favorable, notwithstanding that presently available photodiodes are not designed for this purpose. On the contrary, in the detection of cw signals, the lower NEP values achieved in photon counting may not be sufficient to justify the replacement of conventional analog p-i-n germanium detectors, which offer comparable performance with a definitely larger sensitive area. Finally, we show that, by properly choosing theoperating conditions, some selected APD's achieve an 85-ps time resolution in the detection of optical photons at a 1.3-µm wavelength, which corresponds to a timing-equivalent bandwidth of 1.8 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this time resolution is the lowest reported to date for single-photon detectors in the near infrared.

  16. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  17. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  18. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Several approaches to initiating the provision of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) commercial infrastructure are discussed, including proposals from the private sector, the commercial development of infrastructure, and the commercial operation of infrastructure. Specific options for SSF commercial infrastructure which are currently being studied by NASA are described. One candidate for commercial service is the supplemental power for SSF beyond the Assembly Complete phase. The methods which a company could use in providing supplemental power are discussed, with special attention given to the use of solar dynamic power elements attached ot the SSF evolution structure. Another option under evaluation is commercial provision of SSF logistics services using ELVs.

  19. Options for commercial tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

  20. Process economics and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Doncheck, J.

    1995-12-31

    This session has been organized to present new developments in biomass conversion that could improve process economics and lead toward commercialization of such novel technology. Papers in this session will cover such matters as design and testing of pilot facilities for new biomass conversion technology. The technical and economic evaluation approach will also be covered for traditional and unique reactors, as well as for overall installations for conversion of cellulosic wastes to fuels and chemicals. papers will cover not only the major current interest in ethanol, but also other products, such as acetic and lactic acids, which can be produced by bioconversion of biomass.

  1. Commercialization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C Servo, Ph D

    2008-02-15

    The Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP) is offered to Phase II awardees of the Department of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. The purpose of this program is to increase both the likelihood and speed of technology transition to Phase III of technologies which DOE has funded. This program has been offered to DOE SBIR firms since 1990 and has resulted in significant and well documented return on investment. This final report decribes the results of the CAP that was offered to participants during the last cycle.

  2. Management: Commercial Activities Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    or agreements with commercial sources, state and local governments, and federal agencies outside the Department of Defense. This regu- lation...s t a n d o b t a i n H Q D A a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h MACOM before transferring contracted work to a MTOE unit . When the unit departs the...the Department of Labor . The contracting officer will request a wage determination from Department of Labor no earlier than 120 calen- dar days, and no

  3. Commercial television bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vande Walle, J; Theunis, M; Renson, C; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P

    1995-05-01

    Bladderdysfunction seems to have an increasing frequency in infancy, and especially in children without obvious congenital organic or functional bladderdysfunction. The disorder seems is related with changes in our behaviour, that are stimulated by familial and social pseudo-reasons. Commercial interests and marketing play a major role. This leads to wrong dry-training, an exaggerated hygienic education, prudisheness, wrong toilet-posture, lack of time to void, post-poning, wrong drink- and void-pattern, wrong food-pattern and increasing constipation. Prevention is necessary by an adapted reeducation of parents ans society.

  4. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  5. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  6. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  9. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  10. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  11. TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…

  12. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  13. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, announces the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida looks on at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to a reporter’s question after he announced the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  18. Multilayer ceramic actuator commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Andrew P.

    1995-05-01

    AVX is the largest US manufacturer of multilayer ceramic capacitors, producing 10's of millions per day. Multilayer ceramic actuators are manufactured using virtually identical fabrication methods. Fabrication from this ceramic tape allows tremendous latitude in device shape, size and material choice. This paper will discuss several different actuator configurations-including stacks, plates and chips- with respect to performance and cost tradeoffs. Virtually all developing smart material applications are 'technology driven,' however the widespread availability of devices at commercial scale relies on 'market pull' to achieve a balance of high annualized volumes and low cost. Given sufficient demand, devices can be produced such that the raw materials themselves dominate the unit cost. Generalized price-volume-performance relationships for the different actuator configurations can both guide system designers and focus long-term component development efforts.

  19. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  20. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  1. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2011-01-01

    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  2. Taxol commercial supply strategy.

    PubMed

    DeFuria, M D; Horovitz, Z

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of Taxol's safety and efficacy for treatment of refractory ovarian cancer convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to seek a pharmaceutical partner and approval. After an open competition, NCI entered a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) to obtain approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) so that Taxol could be marketed as well as to provide supplies for clinical trials and compassionate use. To assure a successful commercialization of Taxol, BMS developed a strategic plan for expanding drug supplies. The strategy included immediately increasing the amount of Taxol derived from yew bark and establishing a broad research program to evaluate alternative sourcing options and their commercial feasibility. The options included precursor isolation and semisynthesis, yew plantations for biomass production, plant cell culture, and total synthesis. A number of both academic and industrial investigators, already interested in various Taxol supply issues, were enlisted for collaborations with the company. Progress on this research during the first 18 months has enabled BMS to do the following: 1) double the yield of Taxol from bark extraction; 2) exceed NCI's request for drug supplies in 1991, permitting establishment of an ovarian cancer treatment referral center (TRC) with a national network of comprehensive cancer centers; 3) increase NCI supplies from 5000 to 50,000 vials/month in 1992, permitting establishment of TRC protocol for breast cancer; 4) identify several potentially viable alternative sources; 5) schedule production of large amounts of Taxol by precursor conversion during 1993; and 6) ensure that sufficient quantities of the product will be available for treatment and continued clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  4. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  5. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Commercial users panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

    1987-01-01

    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  7. Negotiating Commercial Interests in Biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Proposed changes to the Common Rule would require publicly funded researchers to disclose whether a subject's biospecimens could be used for commercial profit and whether the subject will share in those proceeds. Disclosing commercial interests will inform research participants that their tissue may have commercial value, a possibility that those individuals might not have previously considered. The proposed changes may then provide people with an opportunity to negotiate commercial rights in their biospecimens despite the well-accepted legal precedent that individuals maintain no interests in their excised tissue.

  8. Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creating…

  9. Commercial potential of RNAi.

    PubMed

    Jain, K K

    2006-11-01

    The commercial potential of RNAi is assessed on the basis of successful translation of technology into applications in three areas: (1) drug discovery and research-currently the biggest segment; (2) potential therapeutic applications; and (3) the role of microRNA in molecular diagnostics. RNAi is an important method for analyzing gene function and identifying new drug targets that use dsRNA to knock down or silence specific genes. Sets of siRNAs focused on a specific gene class (siRNA libraries) have the capacity to greatly increase the pace of pathway analysis and functional genomics. RNAi plays an important role in drug discovery by facilitating target validation. The discovery of the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in various pathological processes opens up possible applications in molecular diagnostics, particularly that of cancer. The advantages of RNAi-based therapeutics over traditional pharmaceuticals include the capability for more specific therapies with small molecule siRNA. Drawbacks include the development of resistance in cancer and viral infections as well as the interferon effect. RNAi is closely related to gene therapy and the vectors developed for gene therapy are also being used for delivery of siRNAs. RNAi, along with other related technologies, will contribute to the development of personalised medicine. Although none of the RNAi-based drugs is in the market yet, some are in clinical trials. By the year 2010 the market for RNAi-based drugs is expected to be worth 3.5 billion dollars and is expected to expand to 10.5 billion dollars by the year 2015.

  10. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  11. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  12. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucas, Larry

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  13. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  14. Getting smarter about commercialization opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Pamela; McMakin, Andrea H.; Arnold, Todd

    2005-08-31

    The Disruptive Market Research method, pioneered by Dr. Pam Henderson of Meridian Strategies, helps technology developers make better commercialization decisions and find industry parters. More than 120 entrepreneurial organizations, ranging from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to Fortune 500 firms, have used the method to evaluate the commercial potential of new products and to shape business strategies.

  15. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  16. Advanced Technologies for Commercial Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    263-page report addresses what advanced electrical and electronic spacecraft technologies can be applied in commercial airplanes. Report discusses a study in which technologies used in the Space Shuttle were evaluated for their potential in commercial transports. Describes new technologies, airplanes, tradeoffs and methods of evaluation. Concludes that major beneficiary would be an advanced wide-body transport (500 passenger).

  17. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  18. NASA's approach to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, Isaac T., IV

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  20. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  1. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O`Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a "pathway toward commercialization".

  2. The puzzle of graphene commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongjun

    2016-11-01

    The commercialization of graphene-based products is challenging, because many engineering and economical aspects have to be taken into consideration. A stronger collaboration between academia and industry would be beneficial for accelerating the process.

  3. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  4. Commercial and Institutional Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Throughout the country, commercial and institutional (CI) building owners and facility managers are taking actions to reduce their water use, implementing many of the operations and maintenance, retrofit, and replacement projects.

  5. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  6. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  7. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  8. Commercial Crew Planning Status Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA presents an overview of common themes captured from industry responses provided to NASA's Commercial Crew Initiative Request for Information (RFI) published on May 21, 2010. The forum includes...

  9. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  10. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  11. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  12. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  13. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  14. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-10-02

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry (DG) algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms the median minimum RMSDs measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit DG algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the mid-ranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parameterize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  15. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  16. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  17. Evaluation of commercial compost quality.

    PubMed

    Tomati, Umberto; Belardinelli, Monica; Andreu, Monica; Galli, Emanuela; Capitani, Donatella; Proietti, Noemi; De Simone, Claudio

    2002-10-01

    Ten commercial composts were evaluated on the basis of chemical, physical and biological characteristics and compared with a compost produced by a safe matrix in controlled conditions. FT-IR spectra, (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and molecular weights were also assayed on humic acids extracted from the composts. The results show that the origin of the starting materials affects the quality of the end products especially for their heavy metal content and genotoxic effect. The presence of a high percentage of low molecular weight fractions generally recorded in the humic acids from commercial composts could be due to uncorrected composting process. FT-IR and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra agree with functional group assignments, characterising the level of humification. The results show that commercial composts can display harmful properties probably due to the origin of the starting material, therefore a regulation about both compost production and characterisation should be suitable.

  18. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  19. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate contents of commercial probiotic products marketed for veterinary or human administration. Microbiologic culture assay. 8 veterinary probiotics and 5 human probiotics. Quantitative bacteriologic culture was performed on all products, and isolates were identified via biochemical characteristics. Comparison of actual contents versus label claims was performed. Label descriptions of organisms and concentrations accurately described the actual contents of only 2 of 13 products. Five veterinary products did not specifically list their contents. Most products contained low concentrations of viable organisms. Five products did not contain 1 or more of the stated organisms, and 3 products contained additional species. Some products contained organisms with no reported probiotic effects; some of these organisms could be pathogens. Most commercial veterinary probiotic preparations are not accurately represented by label claims. Quality control appears to be poor for commercial veterinary probiotics.

  20. Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Major considerations associated with "Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Government use of commercial frequencies vs. commercial use of commercial frequencies for government use; 2) Commercial use of government frequencies; 3) Government vs commercial: Access techniques, data formats, and modulation and coding; 4) Government need for multiple sources: backup and competition; 5) Government in perceived competition with commercial service providers if TDRSS is used for commercial purposes; and 6) Coordination required among plans for CSOC, NSCP, and satellite industry.

  1. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  2. Patient Transport via Commercial Airlines

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, Andrew John

    1992-01-01

    Because the frequency of patient transport from one hospital to another is increasing and the popularity of air travel continues to rise, physicians should be aware of the procedures for patient transport by commercial airlines. Major airlines in Canada have experienced personnel and established procedures that facilitate the transportation of patients with special medical needs. By working with the airline medical health officers and using up-to-date equipment, physicians can achieve safe, cost-effective transport of appropriate patients via commercial aircraft. PMID:21221401

  3. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  4. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Commercial Antifreezes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    accomplished by atomic absorption spectroscopy . No attempt \\%as made to identify minor components. Conley, James H.’and Jamison, Robert G.. "Evaluation...freeze point depressant. Analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy shows that all products, except Antifreeze G, contain boron. All II commercial

  6. Commercial expendable launch vehicle liability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearings before a subcommittee of the House Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented. Cost and availability of insurance for commercial launch providers was discussed. The contribution of the domestic launch industry to the Space Program is examined. All written testimony and submittals for the record are also included.

  7. Commercial Art 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    As part of the high school vocational industrial program in Manitoba, this course has been designed to provide students with the foundation for a career in commercial art. The program introduces and provides opportunities for student skill development in the theories and techniques of drawing, lettering, composition and design, graphics,…

  8. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden's reflection is seen in a TV monitor during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp. is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Robert Millman of Blue Origin is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Commercial Uses of Broadband Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Ephraim

    The need for commercial communications is expected to grow substantially in the future. Whether telephone companies meet most of this demand seems to depend on three major factors: regulatory actions, the development of alternative technology, and the telephone companies themselves. The Federal Communications Commission is considering requiring…

  15. Commercial Theme-Writing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Joan; Kent, Laura

    This survey of the Higher Education Panel (HEP) of the American Council on Education was conducted in response to the growing concern among many members of the academic community about the threat posed to our higher education system by a new commercial service for college students, the theme writing firm. These companies make available to…

  16. Commercial Software for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William L.

    Computer software packages that are commercially available for physics instruction are compiled in this paper. Information for each program includes: the broad subject category (i.e., mechanics, waves and sound, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics and light, modern physics, mathematical models, or general reference/testing…

  17. College Companies and Commercial Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A feasibility study determined the number and scope of existing college companies set up by permission of the Commercial Activities in Further Education Act in Great Britain. A sample of six colleges was studied; managing directors of the six companies took part in semistructured interviews to explore some issues in greater depth. The advantages…

  18. Commercial Software for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William L.

    Computer software packages that are commercially available for physics instruction are compiled in this paper. Information for each program includes: the broad subject category (i.e., mechanics, waves and sound, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics and light, modern physics, mathematical models, or general reference/testing…

  19. Technology Transfer/Commercialization Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Who we are. (2) Technology opportunities and successes in 2002: Hilbert-Huang transform; new sensors via sol-gel-filled fiber optics; hierarchical segmentation software. (3) Activities in 2002: encouraging researcher involvement; inventorying new technologies; patenting Goddard technologies; promoting Goddard technologies; establishing new agreements;seeking and bestowing awards. (4) How to reach Goddard's: technology commercialization office.

  20. Albatros Commercial Airplane L 73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhl, Karl; Wiederhold, Hasso

    1926-01-01

    The Albatros was a two engine commercial biplane carrying 2 pilots, eight passengers, and 160 KG of baggage. The framework is metal, the wings having plywood and fabric over the steel tubing. The L 73 was the first 2 engine biplane to be made in Germany.

  1. On Selecting Commercial Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Möhr, J.R.; Sawinski, R.; Kluge, A.; Alle, W.

    1984-01-01

    As more commercial information systems become available, the methodology for their selection gains importance. An instances where the method employed for the selection of laboratory information systems was multilevel assessment. The method is described and the experience gained in the project is summarized and discussed. Evidence is provided that the employed method is comprehensive, reproducible, valid and economic.

  2. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  3. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  4. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  5. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  6. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  7. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  8. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  9. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  10. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  11. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of January 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ovens.pr_crit_comm_ovens

  13. 78 FR 37474 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 13 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... years, the information collection associated with commercial radio licenses, as well as for Commercial Operator License Examination Managers (COLEM(s)) that administer commercial radio operator licenses across...

  14. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  15. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  16. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has...

  17. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge...

  18. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge...

  19. Exploiting The New Commercial Space Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    strategy anticipated a strong market for launching commercial satellites that would drive down cost for launching government satellites. The commercial... market demand failed to materialize. Since 2006, a joint venture created between Lockheed Martin and Boeing, United Launch Alliance (ULA), has...strategy relied on the strong commercial viability of both vehicles to lower unit costs. The anticipated commercial market demand failed to materialize

  20. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  1. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  2. Commercialization of nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Metallurgists are taught that intermetallics are brittle phases and should be avoided in alloys of commercial interest. This education is so deeply rooted that irrespective of significant advances made in ductilization of aluminides,the road to their acceptance commercialization is extremely difficult. This paper identifies the requirements for commercialization of any new alloys and reports the activities carried out to commercialize Ni and Fe aluminides. The paper also identifies areas which meet the current commercialization requirements and areas needing additional effort.

  3. Commercial space initiatives - Signs of hope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the evolution and status of commercial space development along with the U.S. Government's role in commercial development. Special attention is given to several activities in the NASA program in this area. These activities include the development of space technology to meet the needs of promising commercial applications (such as new satellite communications and remote sensing technology), serving as a customer to commercial space ventures, and providing direct assistance to private sector commercial space initiatives.

  4. Commercial applications of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in the next decade the oceans' commercial users will require an operational oceanographic satellite system or systems capable of maximizing real-time coverage over all ocean areas. Seasat studies suggest that three spacecraft are required to achieve this. Here, the sensor suite would measure surface winds, wave heights (and spectral energy distribution), ice characteristics, sea-surface temperature, ocean colorimetry, height of the geoid, salinity, and subsurface thermal structure. The importance of oceanographic data being distributed to commercial users within two hours of observation time is stressed. Also emphasized is the importance of creating a responsive oceanographic satellite data archive. An estimate of the potential dollar benefits of such an operational oceanographic satellite system is given.

  5. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  6. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  7. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  8. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  9. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren speaks during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren are seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Mark Sirangelo, VP and Chair, SNC Space Systems Board, Sierra Nevada Corp. is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  13. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  14. CFZF - Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-05

    STS077-392-033 (19-29 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist, works at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Garneau, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and five other astronauts went on to spend almost ten-days aboard Endeavour in support of the Spacehab 4 mission and a number of other payloads.

  15. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  16. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  17. Viruses of commercialized insect pollinators.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2017-07-01

    Managed insect pollinators are indispensable in modern agriculture. They are used worldwide not only in the open field but also in greenhouses to enhance fruit set, seed production, and crop yield. Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera, Apis cerana) colonies provide the majority of commercial pollination although other members of the superfamily Apoidea are also exploited and commercialized as managed pollinators. In the recent past, it became more and more evident that viral diseases play a key role in devastating honey bee colony losses and it was also recognized that many viruses originally thought to be honey bee specific can also be detected in other pollinating insects. However, while research on viruses infecting honey bees started more than 50years ago and the knowledge on these viruses is growing ever since, little is known on virus diseases of other pollinating bee species. Recent virus surveys suggested that many of the viruses thought to be honey bee specific are actually circulating in the pollinator community and that pollinator management and commercialization of pollinators provide ample opportunity for viral diseases to spread. However, the direction of disease transmission is not always clear and the impact of these viral diseases on the different hosts remains elusive in many cases. With our review we want to provide an up-to-date overview on the viruses detected in different commercialized pollinators in order to encourage research in the field of pollinator virology that goes beyond molecular detection of viruses. A deeper understanding of this field of virology is urgently needed to be able to evaluate the impact of viruses on pollinator health and the role of different pollinators in spreading viral diseases and to be able to decide on appropriate measures to prevent virus-driven pollinator decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  19. Commercial-Aircraft Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Russell L., Jr.; Wolff, Peter H.

    2004-09-01

    Recent world events have identified needs for a commercial aircraft defense system against Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), such as SA-7 and Stinger shoulder launched surface-to-air missiles. Technical challenges include target detection, identification and countermeasures. Political and societal challenges include cost, time to deployment, ground and air safety, and reliability. These challenges, as well as many others, have been met and overcome with the development of Thor Systems' Commercial-Aircraft Protection System (C-APS). C-APS makes use of commercial technology such as radar and infrared sensors with a laser-based countermeasure. Unlike adapted military systems, C-APS detects the threat long before the military versions by employing a 360 degree hemispherical scan, identifying the threat with an infrared sensor and employing a directed laser to not only deflect the target but to permanently disable its seeker. Enhanced capabilities include multiple threat elimination and closed-loop technology for kill verification. All of this is accomplished with development costs less than half that required to convert military technology, manufacturing costs significantly less than competitive products, and a maintenance cycle coincident with standard FAA requirements, which are significantly longer than current systems.

  20. Application and commercialization of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2013-07-01

    While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species.

  1. Commercialization of New Beam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  2. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the identities of building owners might be revealed and

  3. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI... commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or... commercial entities by the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, the United States Department of...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation....

  5. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  6. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    From left, Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp., Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing, Robert Millman of Blue Origin and Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance are seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to his introduction by Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  9. Transitioning HELs to Commercial Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    laser concepts such as thin disks and high efficiency diode lasers are reviewed. 11.. iv S6 Chemical - EDL’s - Solid State Laser tMSAIIM irnCS...commercial use and are part of open literature throughout the world in the laser field ;2, IV .. W a’ Real HEL’s Uses and Needs .,... Military uses...Chemical Lasers: COIL., HF, DF, (CO2) -Platforms: ABL, THEL, SBL, ATL Why have Electric Lasers not been a viable option? *Low- costo Future Needs

  10. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1994-09-01

    Toroidal magnetic systems offer the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They have, between them, all the features needed; however, no one system yet meets the ideal requirements. The tokamak is the most advanced system, and the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will build upon the existing program to prepare for an advanced tokamak demonstration plant. Complementary toroidal systems such as the spherical torus, stellarator, reversed-field pinch, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak offer, between them, potential advantages in each area and should be studied in a balanced fusion development program.

  11. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  12. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  13. Commercial Products from Demilitarization Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    NaAsO2 + H+ - HAsO 2 + Na+ Step (3) is the couversion of sodium metaarsenite to metaarsenious acid . (4) HAsO2 +-H+ Cd - As +H 20 + Cd+2 Step (4...shows the electrochemical reduction of metaarsenious acid in sulfuric acid at pH 2.32 5 SECTION 5 PREPARATION OF HIGH-PURITY ARSENIC A number of methods...reutralization of the acid can drive the reaction to the right. No commentary regarding the commercial use of thiodiglycol. 3. Study of the Conversion of

  14. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.

    2003-01-01

    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  15. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... the status of Woodsy Owl as a national symbol for a public service campaign to promote wise use of the...

  16. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... the status of Woodsy Owl as a national symbol for a public service campaign to promote wise use of the...

  17. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  18. Commercial Human Space Flight Industry Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    Membership Executive Members include developers and operators of:  Spaceships  Spaceports  Orbital spaceflight facilities Associate members include...commercial passenger flights possible thereafter Orbital systems  Development of spaceships under way NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services

  19. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  20. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  1. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  2. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  3. Television Commercials in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirble, Rosanne

    1977-01-01

    This article suggests using both Spanish and English television commercials to stimulate classroom dialogue and language practice. Drills can be contextualized if based on these commercials and the films can stimulate socio-cultural conversations in the target language. (CHK)

  4. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the...

  5. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the...

  6. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  7. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... establishes new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the...

  8. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  9. An Evolutionary Approach to Space Launch Commercialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    target profits . We are ignoring the award fee in the discussion here. Utilization of Commercial Launch Services 33 ities are 98 percent in the last 10...reluctant to charge a commercial customer a lower price for fear of lowering the profit margin on government contracts, even if commercial launches... Commercialization Brian G. Chow Prepared fir the Under Secretary of Defensefor Acquisition National Defense Research Institute Approved for public release

  10. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  11. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  12. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  13. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  14. Commercial industry on the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    2000-01-01

    About 5,000 Tcf of stranded gas reserves exist worldwide--gas that is not economically feasible to recover and move to market through pipelines. For oil producers, this is problematic for a number of reasons. What do you do with associated gas when environmental regulations worldwide are banning flaring due to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions? Reinjection is costly and may not be the best solution in every reservoir. While many producers have enormous gas reserves, they are of no value if that gas is just sitting in the ground with no potential markets at hand. How can you monetize these reserves? A potential solution to the problem of stranded gas reserves is GTL processing. This process takes methane and converts it to synthesis gas, uses the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process to convert the synthesis gas to syncrude, and upgrades the syncrude to various hydrocarbon chains to produce a variety of refined products. Three recent developments favor commercial GTL development: environmental regulations are creating a premium for ultraclean fuels; new technology is lowering the capital costs and operating costs of GTL development; and world oil prices have risen above $20/bbl. Therefore, the oil and gas industry is taking a serious look at commercialization of GTL.

  15. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  16. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  17. Exercise among commercial truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.

  18. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  19. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  20. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  1. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  2. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  3. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  4. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  5. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Treesearch

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  6. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  7. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may...

  9. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report... relating to the Commercial Mobile Alert System rules contained in the Commission's Second Report and Order...

  10. The Commercial Transformation of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This essay reviews the history of school commercialization in the USA and the forms that it has taken over time, with particular attention paid to research measuring the scope and variety of commercialization trends in US public schools. The implications of commercialization activities such as those that promote the consumption of nutritionally…

  11. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  12. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  13. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used in...

  14. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  15. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  16. Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    STRATEGIES FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS by Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 Occasional...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 The Occasional papers series was

  17. The Commercial Transformation of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This essay reviews the history of school commercialization in the USA and the forms that it has taken over time, with particular attention paid to research measuring the scope and variety of commercialization trends in US public schools. The implications of commercialization activities such as those that promote the consumption of nutritionally…

  18. Children and Host-Selling Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale

    This study explores children's understanding of television commercials that feature the same primary characters as those in the adjacent program content, a commercial technique known as "host-selling." Responses of children 4 to 5 and 7 to 8 years of age to identical commercials presented in both a host-selling and normal viewing…

  19. Selling Out Kids. Commercialism in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Commercialism in schools takes many forms, ranging from the overt sale of advertising space to the presence of corporate logos. There are risks to in-school commercialism that parents must understand and deal with. Includes sidebars on PTA positions and a rating scale of in-school commercialism. (SM)

  20. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  1. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  2. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  3. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  4. Coal gasifiers: commercial and technical risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    At present, only two gasifier designs (Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi) are offered on the basis of the offerer having recent commercial experience with the design. Development and demonstration programs will soon add five new concepts to the list of offerings that lie within the realm of reasonable commercial risk. These include the Allis-Chalmers, British slagging Lurgi, Saarberg-Otto, Texaco, and Westinghouse gasifiers. The actual date these units will become commercial depends on when the developers actually get their demonstration unit on line and operating. Other developers may assume a greater portion of the commercial risk in order to accelerate the introduction of their process into a commercial setting.

  5. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    From left, Ken Bowersox, VP Astronaut Safety, SpaceX, David Thompson, CEO, Orbital Science Corporation, Mark Sirangelo, VP and Chair, SNC Space Systems Board, Sierra Nevada Corp., NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren, Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp., Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing, Robert Millman of Blue Origin, and, Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance, pose for a group photo during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G C; Bentley, R D; Horwood, N A; Hunter, R; Iles, R H; Jones, J B L; Powell, D; Thomas, D J

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%.

  7. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  8. Leasecraft - A commercial space platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrowbridge, D. R.

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) is the result of a NASA program concerned with the identification of new approaches to spacecraft design. A mandatory requirement regarding the MMS was flexibility to accommodatae a wide variety of payloads. MMS derived subsystems will provide a platform in low orbit for scientific, commercial, and government users on a leased or service contract basis. The payload may consist of scientific instruments, materials processing equipment, or remote sensors. Secondary payloads may be mounted in standard MMS module boxes. The platform forms a part of the 'Leasecraft' system, which was developed by an American aerospace company. Attention is given to the Leasecraft vehicle, details regarding the Leasecraft platform, and payload accommodations and Leasecraft missions.

  9. Health among commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J S; Butler, G C; Lackland, D T; Tessier, G S; Mohr, L C; Hoel, D G

    2001-09-01

    The airline pilot works within a complex exposure environment that may present physiological challenges to long-term health. This study investigated self-reported disease outcomes among a large group of active and retired commercial airline pilots in the United States and Canada. A survey methodology was used, including the collection of historical information. Of 10,678 surveys mailed, 6609 were returned (6533 men, 63 women). Given the limitations of survey methodology, increased disease rates among pilots were suggested for melanoma, motor neuron disease, and cataracts. However, rates for other diseases were in general lower than those for the U.S. population. Further study has been initiated to verify and follow reported cases, to expand the study to a larger group, and to collect more in-depth information on flight histories, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors.

  10. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  12. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  13. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  14. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  15. Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

  16. Characterisation of Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P mesa p-i-n photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Butera, S. Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.; Krysa, A. B.

    2016-07-14

    Results characterising the performance of thin (2 μm i-layer) Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P p{sup +}-i-n{sup +} mesa photodiodes for X-ray photon counting spectroscopy are reported at room temperature. Two 200 μm diameter and two 400 μm diameter Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P p{sup +}-i-n{sup +} mesa photodiodes were studied. Dark current results as a function of applied reverse bias are shown; dark current densities <3 nA/cm{sup 2} were observed at 30 V (150 kV/cm) for all the devices analysed. Capacitance measurements as a function of applied reverse bias are also reported. X-ray spectra were collected using 10 μs shaping time, with the device illuminated by an {sup 55}Fe radioisotope X-ray source. Experimental results showed that the best energy resolution (FWHM) achieved at 5.9 keV was 930 eV for the 200 μm Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diameter devices, when reverse biased at 15 V. System noise analysis was also carried out, and the different noise contributions were computed.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Comb and Centipede Multigraft Copolymers PnBA-g-PS with High Molecular Weight Using Miniemulsion Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Weiyu; Lu, Xinyi; Bobade, Sachin; Chen, Jihua; Kang, Nam-goo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Mays, Jimmy

    2014-10-23

    For this study, comb and centipede multigraft copolymers, poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-polystyrene (PnBA-g-PS) with PnBA backbones and PS side chains, were synthesized via high-vacuum anionic polymerization and miniemulsion polymerization. Single-tailed and double-tailed PS macromonomers were synthesized by anionic polymerization and Steglich esterification. Subsequently, the copolymerization of each macromonomer and nBA was carried out in miniemulsion, and multigraft copolymers were obtained. The latex particles of multigraft copolymers were characterized using dynamic light scattering. The molecular weights of macromonomers and multigraft copolymers were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. Moreover, the molecular weights and structures of macromonomers were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The weight contents of PS in comb and centipede multigraft copolymers were calculated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The thermal properties of multigraft copolymers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microphase separation of multigraft copolymers was observed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Rheological measurements showed that comb and centipede multigraft copolymers have elastic properties when the weight content of PS side chains is 26–32 wt %. Centipede multigraft copolymers possess better elastic properties than comb multigraft copolymers with the similar weight content of PS. In conclusion, these findings are similar to previous results on poly(isoprene-g-polystyrene) comb and centipede copolymers made by anionic polymerization.

  18. Effect of strain relaxation on forward bias dark currents in GaAs/InGaAs multiquantum well p-i-n diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, P. R.; Barnes, J.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Haarpaintner, G.; Mazzer, M.; Zanotti-Fregonara, C.; Grünbaum, E.; Olson, C.; Rohr, C.; David, J. P. R.; Roberts, J. S.; Grey, R.; Pate, M. A.

    1996-11-01

    The effect of the dislocation line density produced by the relaxation of strain in GaAs/InxGa1-xAs multiquantum wells where x=0.155-0.23 has been studied. There is a strong correlation between the dark line density, observed by cathodoluminescence, before processing of the wafers into photodiode devices, and the subsequent low forward bias (<1.5 V) dark current densities of the devices. A comparison is made of the correlation between the reverse bias current density and dark line density and it is found that, in this range of strain, the forward bias current density varies more. Two growth methods, molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, have been used to produce the wafers and no difference between the growth methods has been found in dark line or current density variations with strain.

  19. High-speed, large-area, p-i-n InGaAs photodiode linear array at 2-micron wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish

    2012-06-01

    We present 16-element and 32-element lattice-mismatched InGaAs photodiode arrays having a cut-off wavelength of ~2.2 um. Each 100 um × 200 um large pixel of the 32-element array has a capacitance of 2.5 pF at 5 V reverse bias, thereby allowing a RC-limited bandwidth of ~1.3 GHz. At room temperature, each pixel demonstrates a dark current of 25 uA at 5 V reverse bias. Corresponding results for the 16-element array having 200 um × 200 um pixels are also reported. Cooling the photodiode array to 150K is expected to reduce its dark current to < 50 nA per pixel at 5 V reverse bias. Additionally, measurement results of 2-micron single photodiodes having 16 GHz bandwidth and corresponding PIN-TIA photoreceiver having 6 GHz bandwidth are also reported.

  20. Interface modification effect between p-type a-SiC:H and ZnO:Al in p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seungsin; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Youn-Jung; Iftiquar, Sk Md; Kim, Youngkuk; Park, Jinjoo; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-18

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) [AZO] is a good candidate to be used as a transparent conducting oxide [TCO]. For solar cells having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide [a-SiC:H] or hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H] window layer, the use of the AZO as TCO results in a deterioration of fill factor [FF], so fluorine-doped tin oxide (Sn02:F) [FTO] is usually preferred as a TCO. In this study, interface engineering is carried out at the AZO and p-type a-SiC:H interface to obtain a better solar cell performance without loss in the FF. The abrupt potential barrier at the interface of AZO and p-type a-SiC:H is made gradual by inserting a buffer layer. A few-nanometer-thick nanocrystalline silicon buffer layer between the AZO and a-SiC:H enhances the FF from 67% to 73% and the efficiency from 7.30% to 8.18%. Further improvements in the solar cell performance are expected through optimization of cell structures and doping levels.

  1. Interface modification effect between p-type a-SiC:H and ZnO:Al in p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) [AZO] is a good candidate to be used as a transparent conducting oxide [TCO]. For solar cells having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide [a-SiC:H] or hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H] window layer, the use of the AZO as TCO results in a deterioration of fill factor [FF], so fluorine-doped tin oxide (Sn02:F) [FTO] is usually preferred as a TCO. In this study, interface engineering is carried out at the AZO and p-type a-SiC:H interface to obtain a better solar cell performance without loss in the FF. The abrupt potential barrier at the interface of AZO and p-type a-SiC:H is made gradual by inserting a buffer layer. A few-nanometer-thick nanocrystalline silicon buffer layer between the AZO and a-SiC:H enhances the FF from 67% to 73% and the efficiency from 7.30% to 8.18%. Further improvements in the solar cell performance are expected through optimization of cell structures and doping levels. PMID:22257671

  2. Recall of television commercials as a function of viewing context: the impact of program-commercial congruity on commercial messages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the congruity between the involvement types of advertising commercial and a television program on the effectiveness of the commercial was studied. Participants (N = 103) viewed either a cognitive or an affective commercial for a product, which was embedded in either a cognitive or an affective television program. The results showed that the effects of the congruence influence the impact on memory. Free recall and cued recall were significantly influenced by the program-commercial congruity. Free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving program context than in the affectively involving program context. Similarly, free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the affectively involving commercial in the affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.

  3. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  4. System approach to MEMS commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganov, Vladimir I.; Belov, Nickolai; in't Hout, Sebastiaan R.

    2003-04-01

    It is common to underestimate the challenges of integrating the at least four technologies in any MEMS product: the three technologies of any semiconductor device (electronics, packaging and testing) plus the MEMS microstructure. For some specific areas of application, for example for photonics, optics technology/components must also be integrated. While traditional semiconductor devices utilize standardized and inexpensive packaging and testing procedures and equipment, MEMS require custom solutions that introduce multiple physical domains, such as light in the case of photonics, directly to a potentially moving structure on the die. This heightened complexity coupled with nonstandard packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies has a dramatic impact on functionality, reliability and cost. Being developed and successfully proven for a period of about twenty-five years the System Approach to MEMS Commercialization is based on three major principles: A priori understanding of the interdependence of technologies integrated into MEMS products: micro-machining, IC technology, packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies. Parallel development or implementation of these technologies within the MEMS product. Redistribution of manufacturing complexity from individual to batch realm. Integrating packaging and testing and other (optics) components into the microstructure and including some of the testing and functional algorithms in the ASIC reduce cost by simplifying more expensive individual manufacturing steps. The overall results of redistribution complexity from individual manufacturing technologies into batch manufacturing technologies are dramatic cost reduction, performance and quality improvement and shorter time to market.

  5. The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

    1991-06-01

    The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

  6. Advanced technology commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Walker, T. H.; Johnson, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing's program for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) has focused on the manufacturing and performance issues associated with a wide body commercial transport fuselage. The primary goal of ATCAS is to demonstrate cost and weight savings over a 1995 aluminum benchmark. A 31 foot section of fuselage directly behind the wing to body intersection was selected for study purposes. This paper summarizes ATCAS contract plans and review progress to date. The six year ATCAS program will study technical issues for crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage. All structural details in these areas will be included in design studies that incorporate a design build team (DBT) approach. Manufacturing technologies will be developed for concepts deemed by the DBT to have the greatest potential for cost and weight savings. Assembly issues for large, stiff, quadrant panels will receive special attention. Supporting technologies and mechanical tests will concentrate on the major issues identified for fuselage. These include damage tolerance, pressure containment, splices, load redistribution, post-buckled structure, and durability/life. Progress to date includes DBT selection of baseline fuselage concepts; cost and weight comparisons for crown panel designs; initial panel fabrication for manufacturing and structural mechanics research; and toughened material studies related to keel panels. Initial ATCAS studies have shown that NASA's Advanced Composite Technology program goals for cost and weight savings are attainable for composite fuselage.

  7. Mycoflora in commercial pet foods.

    PubMed

    Bueno, D J; Silva, J O; Oliver, G

    2001-05-01

    This article reports on the identification of mycoflora of 21 dry pet foods (12 belonging to dogs and 9 to cats) that corresponded to 8 commercial brands made in Argentina and imported. The isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera are compared too. Ten genera and fungi classified as Mycelia sterilia were identified. The predominant genera were Aspergillus (62%), Rhizopus (48%), and Mucor (38%). The most prevalent among Aspergillus was Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. The predominant Mucor was Mucor racemosus followed by Mucor plumbeus and Mucor globosus. The moisture content of these foods ranged from 5.6 to 10.0% and from 7.2 to 9.9% for dog and cat foods, respectively. A greater moisture content in food for the senior category (9.5 +/- 0.2) was observed only in comparison to adult and kitten/puppy. If the moisture content can be maintained at these levels, mold growth would be prevented or at least it would remain at an insignificant level. Some genera and species isolated and identified from the foods analyzed are potentially producing toxins, which are known as mycotoxins. This involves a risk for animal health.

  8. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  9. Cerebral encephalomalacia in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Cummings, T S; Wages, D P

    1993-01-01

    A flock of 9 1/2-week-old commercial tom turkeys experienced high mortality after consuming a complete feed containing an unidentified toxic substance. Initially, turkeys were found dead. Clinically, the birds were calm and still but became hyperexcitable with noise. A small percentage of birds exhibited torticollis, opisthotonos, circling, ataxia, and blindness. Findings at necropsy and upon microscopic examination were bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres in the area of the neostriatum that were well demarcated from the surrounding normal neuropil. A feeding trial with the suspect feed in twelve 4-week-old turkey hens induced clinical disease and gross and microscopic brain changes similar to those observed in the field case. Analyses for the following substances in the suspect feed were either negative or within acceptable limits: salt, selenium, furazolidone, monensin, amprolium, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates. The toxic component of the feed remains unidentified.

  10. Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Andrea; Simonetti, Javier A

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of fauna in commercial plantations is often associated with structural complexity. Through a meta-analysis, we tested whether the structural complexity of plantations could enhance bird species assemblages and whether bird assemblages respond differently depending on taxonomic affiliation, body size, and diet. Our analyses included 167 case studies in 31 countries in which bird assemblages in forests and plantations were compared and 42 case studies in 14 countries in which bird assemblages in plantations of different structural complexity were compared. Species richness, but not abundance, was higher in forests than in plantations. Both species richness and abundance were significantly higher in complex than in structurally simple plantations. Taxonomic representation and body size did not differ between forest and plantations, except that there were fewer insectivorous birds in plantations than in forests. In the comparison of simple versus complex plantations, abundance of all taxonomic and dietary groups was higher in complex plantations. Body size did not affect bird species richness or abundance. Independent of the type of plantation, bird richness and abundance were greater in structurally complex plantations. Enhancing the structural complexity of plantations may mitigate their impact and offer habitat for some native species.

  11. Non-US approaches to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The approaches to the commercialization of space taken by the four foreign countries most active in the field - Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan are described. National space program elements with commercial potential are examined in the context of national industrial and science policies, with special attention to objectives, timetables, and budgetary priority relative to other sectors. The role of the European Space Agency in attaining national and regional commercialization objectives is also examined.

  12. Fifty years of commercial caesium clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    2005-06-01

    The first commercial caesium-beam clock was the Atomichron, developed by National Company. The first unit was delivered in 1956. This paper first presents a brief history of commercial caesium-beam clocks. It then covers many of the sources of frequency error and frequency instability. Some details of the technical design of the caesium-tube and electronics are presented. Finally, we present some possible directions for future commercial caesium clocks.

  13. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy...

  14. Advanced materials systems as commercial opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper shows that commercial opportunities in the materials area lie principally in materials systems, and much less in components made from differentiated individual materials. Examples are given.

  15. Space commercialization and power system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Faymon, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    The development and application of power and energy technologies important to the commercialization of space is discussed, stressing the significance of these technologies to space transportation systems, on-orbit services and on-orbit commercial production and processing ventures. Energy conversion systems examined include solar photovoltaic systems, solar thermal dynamic power systems, and nuclear power systems. Energy storage systems include electrochemical systems, inertial storage systems, and magnetic energy storage systems. In addition, power management and distribution systems used in space commercialization and NASA programs for the commercial development of space are discussed.

  16. Beginning the discussion of commercialism in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Marcia A; Roth, Kathleen; Ralls, Stephen A; Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing concern over commercialism in dentistry. Multiple factors contribute to this trend, which has the potential for fragmenting the profession, exacerbating the access issue, and eroding the public's confidence in dentistry. There are both positive and negative aspects of commercialism. Positive approaches for promoting oral health in the face of commercialism hold the greatest promise. The core theme in the recommendations from Ethics Summit on Commercialism is that competent, comprehensive, and continuous oral health care is appropriate and should be promoted to the American public.

  17. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  18. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  19. PiN photodiode performance comparison for dosimetry in radiology applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Charles N P; Khoury, Helen J; Santos, Edval J P

    2016-12-01

    Performance comparison of selected photodiodes for usage as radiation detectors for radio-protection is presented. In this study, based on the criteria of minimum sensitive area of 5mm(2), minimum half angle 60° and low cost, four commercial photodiodes are selected for evaluation: SFH205, SFH206, BPW34, and BPX90F. Photodiodes are low cost, small volume and lightweight detectors. As an electronic transducer, photodiode detector is an attractive approach for the development of low power portable electronic dosimeter for direct-reading real-time radiation dose measurement. The devices have been studied with respect to sensitivity (efficiency) in X-rays and gamma rays detection, repeatability and linearity in air kerma.

  20. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  1. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  2. Suborbital commercial spaceflight crewmember medical issues.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    As directed by the Council of the Aerospace Medical Association, the Commercial Spaceflight Working Group has developed the following position paper concerning medical issues for commercial suborbital spaceflight crewmembers. This position paper has been approved by the AsMA Council to become a policy of the AsMA.

  3. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  4. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce administrative...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's...

  5. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space... NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992 (15 U.S.C... Competitiveness Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806, allows NASA, subject to appropriations, to enter into multi-year...

  6. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  7. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  8. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  9. The Commercial Course: Defense et Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavillo, Anthony

    The development of commercial foreign language courses by colleges and universities would help to satisfy the need for language enrollments and the expressed need of the international business community for foreign language skills in American business employees. Three major problems inhibit commercial language course development: limited…

  10. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  11. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  12. Extrusion processing of main commercial legume pulses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. The rise in consumer demand f...

  13. Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

    This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

  14. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster shall be conducted with commercial hexane in accordance with § 798... recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster conducted with commercial hexane pursuant to paragraph (c... effective date of the final rule. (3) The sex-linked recessive-lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster within...

  15. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial photography. 1005.5....5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  16. Children's Television Commercials; A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Charles; And Others

    The purpose of the study described in this book was to determine the content parameter of television commercials addressed to children. A total of 236 commercials were collected from advertising agencies representing cereals, candy, drinks, foods for meals, restaurants, cookies, miscellaneous, cakes, ice cream, vitamins, and crunchy snacks. Each…

  17. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  18. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  19. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  20. 47 CFR 73.4075 - Commercials, loud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercials, loud. 73.4075 Section 73.4075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4075 Commercials, loud. See Memorandum Opinion and...

  1. Television Commercials and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Michael T.; Marsden, Madonna P.

    1978-01-01

    Because of their effectiveness, as well as their accessiblity as points of reference, TV commercials can provide excellent bridges in teaching concepts of good, effective writing. Specificity through metaphor is only one of the many basic writing course topics that can be effectively illustrated through TV commercials. (Author/EB)

  2. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS... June 15, 2011, provided that: (i) The fishing is conducted in accordance with a valid commercial... after June 15, 2011. (c) General requirements. Any commercial fishing within the Monument shall...

  3. Television Commercials and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Michael T.; Marsden, Madonna P.

    1978-01-01

    Because of their effectiveness, as well as their accessiblity as points of reference, TV commercials can provide excellent bridges in teaching concepts of good, effective writing. Specificity through metaphor is only one of the many basic writing course topics that can be effectively illustrated through TV commercials. (Author/EB)

  4. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  5. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005... transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge to another person, or...

  6. Biosensor commercialization strategy - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Tsai; Wang, Su-Man

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors are analytical devices, which use biological interactions to provide either qualitative or quantitative results. They are extensively employed in many fields such as clinical diagnosis and biomedicine, military applications, anti-terrorism, farm, garden and veterinary analysis, process control, fermentation control and analysis, pharmaceutical and drug analysis, food and drink production and analysis, pollution control and monitoring, microbiology, bacterial and viral analysis, mining, and industrial and toxic gases. The biosensor market has significantly increased and will be mushrooming in the next decade. The total biosensor market is estimated to be 10.8 billion dollars by 2007. The emerging biosensor market presents both opportunities and obstacles to start-up biosensor entrepreneurs. The major challenge and threat for these entrepreneurs is how to predict the biosensor market and how to convert promising biosensor technology into commercialized biosensors. By adopting a simple commercialization strategy framework, we identify two key elements of biosensor commercialization strategy: excludability and complementary asset. We further divide biosensor commercialization environments into four distinct sub-environments: the Attacker's Advantage, Reputation-Based Idea Trading, Greenfield Competition and Ideas Factories. This paper explains how the interaction between these two key elements shapes biosensor commercialization strategy and biosensor industry dynamics. This paper also discusses alternative commercialization strategies for each specific commercialization environment and how to choose from these alternatives. The analysis of this study further provides a good reference for start-up biosensor entrepreneurs to formulate effective biosensor commercialization strategy.

  7. Children's Television Commercials; A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Charles; And Others

    The purpose of the study described in this book was to determine the content parameter of television commercials addressed to children. A total of 236 commercials were collected from advertising agencies representing cereals, candy, drinks, foods for meals, restaurants, cookies, miscellaneous, cakes, ice cream, vitamins, and crunchy snacks. Each…

  8. A Commercial Architecture for Satellite Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    amount of risk as well as production time. A constellation of commercial satellites that are reconstituted on a monthly or quarterly cycle could also...potential limitations with geolocation accuracy and data rate downlink transmission capability. This thesis evaluates constellation design factors...a commercial system would be able to fulfill national imagery collection requirements. Eight different constellation types were created, ranging

  9. Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. D.; Catanzarite, D. M.; St. Clair, K. A.

    Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical devices is discussed.

  10. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section...

  11. Commercial Practices for Defense Acquisition Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    acquisitions through adoption of Navy. Shipbuilding and Logistics). The commercial practices. same is tnie of the " beso practices" 12 Chapter I...similarities between commercial Operated Civil Enit-ineer Supply Store supply and Government inventory management automotive and civil engineering paris

  12. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  13. Synthesis of the Commercial Antidepressant Moclobemide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Jesse D.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory is described in which students synthesize the commercial antidepressant drug moclobemide, marketed under the trade name Manerix. This one-step synthesis starts from commercially available material and produces moclobemide in high yield. The product is initially isolated as its…

  14. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  15. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  16. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4075 - Commercials, loud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercials, loud. 73.4075 Section 73.4075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4075 Commercials, loud. See Memorandum Opinion and...

  18. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  19. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  20. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief...