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Sample records for brachytherapy zvysovani efektivity

  1. [Brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Itami, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Brachytherapy do require a minimal expansion of CTV to obtain PTV and it is called as ultimate high precision radiation therapy. In high-dose rate brachytherapy, applicators will be placed around or into the tumor and CT or MRI will be performed with the applicators in situ. With such image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) 3-dimensional treatment planning becomes possible and DVH of the tumor and organs at risk can be obtained. It is now even possible to make forward planning satisfying dose constraints. Traditional subjective evaluation of brachytherapy can be improved to the objective one by IGBT. Brachytherapy of the prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer with IGBT technique was described.

  2. Brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for brachytherapy catheters. top of page What equipment is used? For permanent implants, radioactive material (which ... the tumor. top of page Who operates the equipment? The equipment is operated by a medical physicist, ...

  3. Brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who will be involved in this procedure? The delivery of brachytherapy requires a treatment team, including a ... are specially trained technologists who may assist in delivery of the treatments. The radiation therapy nurse provides ...

  4. Partial breast brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brachytherapy; Accelerated partial breast irradiation - brachytherapy; Partial breast radiation therapy - brachytherapy; Permanent breast seed implant; PBSI; Low-dose radiotherapy - breast; High-dose radiotherapy - breast; Electronic balloon ...

  5. [Prostate cancer brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Guérif, S; Peiffert, D; Créhange, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-09-01

    Prostate brachytherapy techniques are described, concerning both Iodine 125 high dose rate brachytherapy. The following parts are presented: brachytherapy indications, technical description, immediate postoperative management and post-treatment evaluation, and 4 to 6 weeks as well as long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, depending ...

  7. Advancements in brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Ménard, Cynthia; Polgar, Csaba; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Kirisits, Christian; Pötter, Richard

    2017-01-15

    Brachytherapy is a radiotherapy modality associated with a highly focal dose distribution. Brachytherapy treats the cancer tissue from the inside, and the radiation does not travel through healthy tissue to reach the target as with external beam radiotherapy techniques. The nature of brachytherapy makes it attractive for boosting limited size target volumes to very high doses while sparing normal tissues. Significant developments over the last decades have increased the use of 3D image guided procedures with the utilization of CT, MRI, US and PET. This has taken brachytherapy to a new level in terms of controlling dose and demonstrating excellent clinical outcome. Interests in focal, hypofractionated and adaptive treatments are increasing, and brachytherapy has significant potential to develop further in these directions with current and new treatment indications.

  8. Brachytherapy in lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Rovirosa-Casino, Angeles; Planas-Toledano, Isabel; Ferre-Jorge, Jorge; Oliva-Díez, José María; Conill-Llobet, Carlos; Arenas-Prat, Meritxell

    2006-05-01

    Lip cancer is one of the most prevalent skin tumours of the head and neck. The characteristics of the tumour relate to their exophyitic growth in an area of easy visual acces which allows their diagnosis in early stages. As a result, there is a better prognosis with the present treatments. In early stages the treatment can be performed by surgery or by brachytherapy, and the results are similar on local control; nevertheless brachytherapy offers the best functional and esthetic results. We are reporting on a review of the literature in relation to indications, techniques and results of brachytherapy for lip cancer.

  9. [Brachytherapy for sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Ducassou, A; Haie-Méder, C; Delannes, M

    2016-10-01

    The standard of care for local treatment for extremities soft tissue sarcomas relies on conservative surgery combined with external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy can be realized instead of external beam radiotherapy in selected cases, or more often used as a boost dose on a limited volume on the area at major risk of relapse, especially if a microscopic positive resection is expected. Close interaction and communication between radiation oncologists and surgeons are mandatory at the time of implantation to limit the risk of side effects. Long-term results are available for low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nowadays, pulsed dose rate or high-dose-rate brachytherapy are more often used. Brachytherapy for paediatric sarcomas is rare, and has to be managed in reference centres.

  10. Delivery systems for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2014-10-28

    Brachytherapy is described as the short distance treatment of cancer with a radioactive isotope placed on, in, or near the lesions or tumor to be treated. The main advantage of brachytherapy compared with external beam radiation (EBR) is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest, thus normal tissue irradiation is reduced. The precise and targeted nature of brachytherapy provides a number of key benefits for the effective treatment of cancer such as efficacy, minimized risk of side effects, short treatment times, and cost-effectiveness. Brachytherapy devices have yielded promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, brachytherapy can only be used in localized and relatively small tumors. Although the introduction of new delivery devices allows the treatment of more complex tumor sites, with wider range of dose rate for improving treatment efficacy and reduction of side effects, a better understanding about the safety, efficacy, and accuracy of these systems is required, and further development of new techniques is warranted. Therefore, this review focuses on the delivery devices for brachytherapy and their application in prostate, breast, brain, and other tumor sites.

  11. MRI-guided brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of MRI-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the last two decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome with regard to local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate HDR and LDR brachytherapy has improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk (OAR) delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education. PMID:24931089

  12. Dosimetric audit in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-01-01

    Dosimetric audit is required for the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy and to aid optimization of treatment. The reassurance that treatment is being delivered in line with accepted standards, that delivered doses are as prescribed and that quality improvement is enabled is as essential for brachytherapy as it is for the more commonly audited external beam radiotherapy. Dose measurement in brachytherapy is challenging owing to steep dose gradients and small scales, especially in the context of an audit. Several different approaches have been taken for audit measurement to date: thimble and well-type ionization chambers, thermoluminescent detectors, optically stimulated luminescence detectors, radiochromic film and alanine. In this work, we review all of the dosimetric brachytherapy audits that have been conducted in recent years, look at current audits in progress and propose required directions for brachytherapy dosimetric audit in the future. The concern over accurate source strength measurement may be essentially resolved with modern equipment and calibration methods, but brachytherapy is a rapidly developing field and dosimetric audit must keep pace. PMID:24807068

  13. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  14. [Safety in brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Marcié, S; Marinello, G; Peiffert, D; Lartigau, É

    2013-04-01

    No technique can now be used without previously considering the safety of patients, staff and public and risk management. This is the case for brachytherapy. The various aspects of brachytherapy are discussed for both the patient and the staff. For all, the risks must be minimized while achieving a treatment of quality. It is therefore necessary to establish a list as comprehensive as possible regardless of the type of brachytherapy (low, high, pulsed dose-rate). Then, their importance must be assessed with the help of their criticality. Radiation protection of personnel and public must take into account the many existing regulation texts. Four axes have been defined for the risk management for patients: organization, preparation, planning and implementation of treatment. For each axis, a review of risks is presented, as well as administrative, technical and medical dispositions for staff and the public.

  15. Robotic brachytherapy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kyle J

    2009-01-01

    Recent applications of robotics in the field of prostate brachytherapy are seeding the future and could potentially lead to a fully automated prostate brachytherapy surgery. Currently, a typical prostate brachytherapy surgery involves the implantation of upwards of 100 radioactive I-125 seeds by a surgeon. This review supplies background information on prostate biology, brachytherapy of the prostate, robotic brachytherapy, and transrectal ultrasound. Subsequently, it examines the physics involved in ultrasound, radiation from an I-125 source, dosimetry, and robotics. A current semi-automated robotic brachytherapy system is examined in detail and a discussion on future improvements is outlined. Finally, future work to improve prostate brachytherapy is postulated, most notably, phantom optimization using polyvinyl alcohol cryogel. The future of robotic brachytherapy lies in the advent of more sophisticated robotics. This review will give the reader a superior understanding of brachytherapy and its recent robotic advancements. Hopefully, this review will generate new ideas needed to advance prostate brachytherapy procedures leading to more accurate dosimetry, faster procedure time, less ionizing radiation received by surgery staff, more rapid patient recovery, and an overall safer procedure.

  16. Intraoral angiosarcoma: treatment with a brachytherapy prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan B; Ko, Eugene; Wolden, Suzanne; Huryn, Joseph M; Estilo, Cherry L

    2015-03-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare, malignant neoplasms of vascular origin that account for less than 1% of all soft tissue tumors. Angiosarcomas of the oral cavity are especially rare, and brachytherapy may be prescribed as a localized treatment to manage these malignancies. Intraoral brachytherapy requires collaboration between the radiation oncologist and a dental professional for the fabrication of the brachytherapy delivery prosthesis. This clinical report describes an intraoral angiosarcoma and the fabrication of an intraoral brachytherapy prosthesis to manage this malignancy.

  17. Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: summary of American Brachytherapy Society recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nag, S

    2000-05-01

    This article summarizes recent American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The ABS recommends treating patients with high probability of organ-confined disease with brachytherapy alone. Brachytherapy candidates with a significant risk of extraprostatic extension should be treated with supplemental external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The recommended prescription doses for monotherapy are 145 Gy for (125)I and 125 Gy for (103)Pd. The corresponding boost doses (after 40 to 50 Gy EBRT) are 110 Gy and 100 Gy, respectively. The ABS recommends that post-implant dosimetry should be performed on all patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy for optimal patient care. A dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the prostate should be performed and the D(90) (dose to 90% of the prostate gland) reported by all centers. Additionally, the D(80) D(100), the fractional V(80), V(90), V(100), V(150), V(200) (ie, the percentage of prostate volume receiving 80%, 90%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose, respectively), the rectal and urethral doses should be reported and ultimately correlated with clinical outcome in the research environment. On-line, real-time dosimetry, the effects of dose heterogeneity, and the effects of tissue heterogeneity need further investigation.

  18. Magnetic resonance image guided brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila N; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The application of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the past 2 decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and resulted in mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome regarding local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapies have improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high-quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education.

  19. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Piotr; Białas, Brygida

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy.

  20. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview

    PubMed Central

    Białas, Brygida

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy. PMID:23349655

  1. Brachytherapy volume visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persons, Timothy M.; Webber, Richard L.; Hemler, Paul F.; Bettermann, Wolfram; Bourland, J. Daniel

    2000-04-01

    Conventional localization schemes for brachytherapy seed implants using biplane or stereoscopic projection radio- graphs can suffer form scaling distortions and poor visibility of implanted seeds, resulting in compromised source tracking and dosimetric inaccuracies. This paper proposes an alternative method for improving the visualization and thus, localization, of radiotherapy implants by synthesizing, form as few as two radiographic projections, a 3D image free of divergence artifacts. The result produces more accurate seed localization leading to improved dosimetric accuracy. Two alternative approaches are compared. The first uses orthogonal merging. The second employs the technique of tuned-aperture computed tomography (TACT), whereby 3D reconstruction is performed by shifting and adding of well-sampled projections relative to a fiducial reference system. Phantom results using nonlinear visualization methods demonstrate the applicability of localizing individual seeds for both approaches. Geometric errors are eliminated by a calibration scheme derived from the fiducial pattern that is imaged concurrently with the subject. Both merging and TACT approaches enhance seed localization by improving visualization of the seed distribution over biplanar radiographs. Unlike current methods, both alternatives demonstrate continuos one-to-one source tracking in 3D, although elimination of scaling artifacts requires more than two projections when using the merging method.

  2. Brachytherapy dosimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutinho, L. M.; Castro, I. F. C.; Peralta, L.; Abreu, M. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2015-07-01

    In-vivo and in-situ measurement of the radiation dose administered during brachytherapy faces several technical challenges, requiring a very compact, tissue-equivalent, linear and highly sensitive dosimeter, particularly in low-dose rate brachytherapy procedures, which use radioactive seeds with low energy and low dose deposition rate. In this work we present a scintillating optical fiber dosimeter composed of a flexible sensitive probe and a dedicated electronic readout system based on silicon photomultiplier photodetection, capable of operating both in pulse and current modes. The performance of the scintillating fiber optic dosimeter was evaluated in low energy regimes, using an X-ray tube operating at voltages of 40-50 kV and currents below 1 mA, to assess minimum dose response of the scintillating fiber. The dosimeter shows a linear response with dose and is capable of detecting mGy dose variations like an ionization chamber. Besides fulfilling all the requirements for a dosimeter in brachytherapy, the high sensitivity of this device makes it a suitable candidate for application in low-dose rate brachytherapy. According to Peralta and Rego [1], the BCF-10 and BCF-60 scintillating optical fibers used in dosimetry exhibit high variations in their sensitivity for photon beams in the 25-100 kVp energy range. Energy linearity for energies below 50 keV needs to be further investigated, using monochromatic X-ray photons.

  3. Image-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, John A; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; definitive radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for patients with node positive or locally advanced tumors > 4 cm. Brachytherapy is an important part of definitive radiotherapy shown to improve overall survival. While results for two-dimensional X-ray based brachytherapy have been good in terms of local control especially for early stage disease, unexplained toxicities and treatment failures remain. Improvements in brachytherapy planning have more recently paved the way for three-dimensional image-based brachytherapy with volumetric optimization which increases tumor control, reduces toxicity, and helps predict outcomes. Advantages of image-based brachytherapy include: improved tumor coverage (especially for large volume disease), decreased dose to critical organs (especially for small cervix), confirmation of applicator placement, and accounting for sigmoid colon dose. A number of modalities for image-based brachytherapy have emerged including: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), CT-MRI hybrid, and ultrasound with respective benefits and outcomes data. For practical application of image-based brachytherapy the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Working Group and American Brachytherapy Society working group guideline serve as invaluable tools, additionally here-in we outline our institutional clinical integration of these guidelines. While the body of literature supporting image-based brachytherapy continues to evolve a number of uncertainties and challenges remain including: applicator reconstruction, increasing resource/cost demands, mobile four-dimensional targets and organs-at-risk, and accurate contouring of “grey zones” to avoid marginal miss. Ongoing studies, including the prospective EMBRACE (an international study of MRI-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced

  4. Image-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Vargo, John A; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-12-10

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; definitive radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for patients with node positive or locally advanced tumors > 4 cm. Brachytherapy is an important part of definitive radiotherapy shown to improve overall survival. While results for two-dimensional X-ray based brachytherapy have been good in terms of local control especially for early stage disease, unexplained toxicities and treatment failures remain. Improvements in brachytherapy planning have more recently paved the way for three-dimensional image-based brachytherapy with volumetric optimization which increases tumor control, reduces toxicity, and helps predict outcomes. Advantages of image-based brachytherapy include: improved tumor coverage (especially for large volume disease), decreased dose to critical organs (especially for small cervix), confirmation of applicator placement, and accounting for sigmoid colon dose. A number of modalities for image-based brachytherapy have emerged including: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), CT-MRI hybrid, and ultrasound with respective benefits and outcomes data. For practical application of image-based brachytherapy the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Working Group and American Brachytherapy Society working group guideline serve as invaluable tools, additionally here-in we outline our institutional clinical integration of these guidelines. While the body of literature supporting image-based brachytherapy continues to evolve a number of uncertainties and challenges remain including: applicator reconstruction, increasing resource/cost demands, mobile four-dimensional targets and organs-at-risk, and accurate contouring of "grey zones" to avoid marginal miss. Ongoing studies, including the prospective EMBRACE (an international study of MRI-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical

  5. The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for brachytherapy of uveal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subir; Quivey, Jeanne M; Earle, John D; Followill, David; Fontanesi, James; Finger, Paul T

    2003-06-01

    This article presents the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines for the use of brachytherapy for patients with choroidal melanomas. Members of the ABS with expertise in choroidal melanoma formulated brachytherapy guidelines based upon their clinical experience and a review of the literature. The Board of Directors of the ABS approved the final report. Episcleral plaque brachytherapy is a complex procedure and should only be undertaken in specialized medical centers with expertise in this sophisticated treatment program. Recommendations were made for patient selection, techniques, dose rates, and dosages. Most patients with very small uveal melanomas (<2.5 mm height and <10 mm in largest basal dimension) should be observed for tumor growth before treatment. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of medium-sized choroidal melanoma (between 2.5 and 10 mm in height and <16 mm basal diameter) are candidates for episcleral plaques if the patient is otherwise healthy and without metastatic disease. A histopathologic verification is not required. Small melanomas may be candidates if there is documented growth; some patients with large melanomas (>10 mm height or >16 mm basal diameter) may also be candidates. Patients with large tumors or with tumors at peripapillary and macular locations have a poorer visual outcome and lower local control that must be taken into account in the patient decision-making process. Patients with gross extrascleral extension, ring melanoma, and tumor involvement of more than half of the ciliary body are not suitable for plaque therapy. For plaque fabrication, the ophthalmologist must provide the tumor size (including basal diameters and tumor height) and a detailed fundus diagram. The ABS recommends a minimum tumor (125)I dose of 85 Gy at a dose rate of 0.60-1.05 Gy/h using AAPM TG-43 formalism for the calculation of dose. NRC or state licensing guidelines regarding procedures for handling of radioisotopes must be followed. Brachytherapy

  6. Afterloading: The Technique That Rescued Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aronowitz, Jesse N.

    2015-07-01

    Although brachytherapy had been established as a highly effective modality for the treatment of cancer, its application was threatened by mid-20th century due to appreciation of the radiation hazard to health care workers. This review examines how the introduction of afterloading eliminated exposure and ushered in a brachytherapy renaissance.

  7. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    PubMed Central

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  8. Intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy: An American Brachytherapy Society consensus report.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Alektiar, K M; Nag, S; Huang, Y J; Deufel, C L; Mourtada, F; Gaffney, D K

    This report presents recommendations from the American Brachytherapy Society for the use of intraoperative high-dose-rate (IOHDR) brachytherapy. Members of the American Brachytherapy Society with expertise in IOHDR formulated this document based on their clinical experience and a review of the literature. This report covers the use of IOHDR in colorectal cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, gynecologic cancers, head and neck cancers, and pediatric cancers. This report does not cover intraoperative brachytherapy for breast cancer. Details about treatment planning and delivery are emphasized so this document can serve as a guide to practices implementing this technique. IOHDR brachytherapy is generally most beneficial for patients with either close or positive margins and/or recurrent disease in a previous resection bed or previously irradiated area. IOHDR brachytherapy requires a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team. IOHDR brachytherapy is recommended in the treatment of both recurrent and primary locally advanced disease for colorectal and gynecologic malignancies, soft tissue sarcoma, and selected head and neck and pediatric malignancies. Other techniques such as perioperative fractionated brachytherapy are also acceptable in many cases with some advantages and disadvantages compared to IOHDR. IOHDR brachytherapy is a specialized technique in radiation therapy with unique properties and advantages in cancer control. Special considerations for treatment planning and delivery are outlined herein. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Yang, Wenjun; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D{sub 90} for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and {sup 192}Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D{sub 2cc} of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci{sup 192}Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D{sub 90} was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D{sub 90} of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D{sub 90} above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively

  10. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  11. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Yang, Wenjun; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process. Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D90 for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and 192Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D2cc of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β = 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively. Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci192Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D90 was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D90 of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D90 above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: For cervical cancer patients, D

  12. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T; Kim, Yusung; Yang, Wenjun; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process. A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D90 for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and (192)Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D2cc of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α∕β = 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively. For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes∕fraction (min∕fx) assuming a 10 Ci(192)Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D90 was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D90 of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min∕fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min∕fx more. If an additional 20 min∕fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D90 above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively. For cervical cancer patients, D-RSBT can boost HR-CTV D90

  13. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    YamazakI, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

  14. American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for reporting morbidity after prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subir; Ellis, Rodney J; Merrick, Gregory S; Bahnson, Robert; Wallner, Kent; Stock, Richard

    2002-10-01

    To standardize the reporting of brachytherapy-related prostate morbidity to guide ongoing clinical practice and future investigations. Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in prostate brachytherapy performed a literature review and, guided by their clinical experience, formulated specific recommendations for reporting on morbidity related to prostate brachytherapy. The ABS recommends using validated, patient-administered health-related quality-of-life instruments for the determination of baseline and follow-up data regarding bowel, urinary, and sexual function. Both actuarial and crude incidences should be reported, along with the temporal resolution of specific complications, and correlated with the doses to the normal tissues. The International Prostate Symptom Score is recommended to assess urinary morbidity, and any dysuria, gross hematuria, urinary retention, incontinence, or medication use should be quantified. Likewise, the "Sexual Health Inventory for Men," which includes the specific erectile questions of the International Index of Erectile Function, is the preferred instrument for reporting sexual function, and the loss of sexual desire, incidence of hematospermia, painful orgasm (orgasmalgia), altered orgasm intensity, decreased ejaculatory volume, use of erectile aids, and use of hormones for androgen deprivation should be quantified. The ABS recommends adoption of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer acute and late radiation morbidity scoring scheme for reporting rectal morbidity and noting the incidence of rectal steroid, laser, or antidiarrheal use. It is important to focus on health-related quality-of-life issues in the treatment of prostate cancer, because the control rates are very similar between appropriate treatment modalities. The ABS recommends using the International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, and Radiation Therapy

  15. HDR brachytherapy for anal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Gyoergy

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of treating anal cancer is to preserve the anal sphincter function while giving high doses to the tumor and sparing the organ at risk. For that reason there has been a shift from radical surgical treatment with colostomy to conservative treatment. Radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy has an important role in the treatment of anal cancer patients. New techniques as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have shown reduced acute toxicity and high rates of local control in combination with chemotherapy compared to conventional 3-D radiotherapy. Not only external beam radio-chemotherapy treatment (EBRT) is an established method for primary treatment of anal cancer, brachytherapy (BT) is also an approved method. BT is well known for boost irradiation in combination with EBRT (+/– chemotherapy). Because of technical developments like modern image based 3D treatment planning and the possibility of intensity modulation in brachytherapy (IMBT), BT today has even more therapeutic potential than it had in the era of linear sources. The combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and BT allows the clinician to deliver higher doses to the tumor and to reduce dose to the normal issue. Improvements in local control and reductions in toxicity therefore become possible. Various BT techniques and their results are discussed in this work. PMID:24982770

  16. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  17. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35... for all brachytherapy sources in storage or use. (b) As soon as possible after removing sources from...

  18. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35... for all brachytherapy sources in storage or use. (b) As soon as possible after removing sources from...

  19. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35... for all brachytherapy sources in storage or use. (b) As soon as possible after removing sources from...

  20. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35... for all brachytherapy sources in storage or use. (b) As soon as possible after removing sources from...

  1. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35... for all brachytherapy sources in storage or use. (b) As soon as possible after removing sources from...

  2. Dosimetric Characteristics for Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, Larry A.; Davis, Stephen D.

    2011-05-05

    Brachytherapy sources are characterized by the dosimetric parameters in a protocol such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43. The air-kerma strength is measured and traceable to a primary standard. Then the parameters such as dose-rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function are measured and related back to the primary standard. This is normally accomplished with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Since radial dose function and anisotropy function are relative parameters, some of the dosimetric corrections are negligible. For the dose-rate constant, parameters such as the energy dependence compared with a calibration beam such as {sup 60}Co need to be accounted for. A description of the primary standard measurements and TLD measurements will be discussed.

  3. Brachytherapy next generation: robotic systems

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Tiberiu; Kacsó, Alex Cristian; Pisla, Doina

    2015-01-01

    In a field dominated by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), both the therapeutic and technical possibilities of brachytherapy (BT) are underrated, shadowed by protons and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Decreasing expertise and indications, as well as increasing lack of specific BT training for radiation therapy (RT) residents led to the real need of shortening its learning curve and making it more popular. Developing robotic BT devices can be a way to mitigate the above issues. There are many teams working at custom-made robotic BT platforms to perfect and overcome the limitations of the existing systems. This paper provides a picture of the current state-of-the-art in robotic assisted BT, as it also conveys the author's solution to the problem, a parallel robot that uses CT-guidance. PMID:26816510

  4. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus E.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Cygler, Joanna E.

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and the large range of dose and dose rate. Due to these challenges, the sensitivity and specificity toward error detection has been limited, and IVD has mainly been restricted to detection of gross errors. Given these factors, routine use of IVD is currently limited in many departments. Although the impact of potential errors may be detrimental since treatments are typically administered in large fractions and with high-gradient-dose-distributions, BT is usually delivered without independent verification of the treatment delivery. This Vision 20/20 paper encourages improvements within BT safety by developments of IVD into an effective method of independent treatment verification.

  5. {sup 106}Ruthenium Brachytherapy for Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzeid, Hana; Moeckli, Raphael; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Pica, Alessia; Zografos, Leonidas; Balmer, Aubin; Pampallona, Sandro; Munier, Francis L.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of {sup 106}Ru plaque brachytherapy for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed a retrospective, noncomparative case series of 39 children with retinoblastoma treated with {sup 106}Ru plaques at the Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital between October 1992 and July 2006, with 12 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 63 tumors were treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy in 41 eyes. The median patient age was 27 months. {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was the first-line treatment for 3 tumors (4.8%), second-line treatment for 13 (20.6%), and salvage treatment for 47 tumors (74.6%) resistant to other treatment modalities. Overall tumor control was achieved in 73% at 1 year. Tumor recurrence at 12 months was observed in 2 (12.5%) of 16 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as the first- or second-line treatment and in 15 (31.9%) of 47 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as salvage treatment. Eye retention was achieved in 76% of cases (31 of 41 eyes). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant risk factors for tumor recurrence. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 7 (17.1%), proliferative retinopathy in 1 (2.4%), and subcapsular cataract in 4 (9.7%) of 41 eyes. Conclusion: {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy is an effective treatment for retinoblastoma, with few secondary complications. Local vitreous seeding can be successfully treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy.

  6. Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Guo Mengye; Mitra, Nandita; Metz, James M.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of brachytherapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas in a relatively large group of patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, a total of 193 patients with cholangiocarcinoma treated with brachytherapy were identified for the period 1988-2003. The primary analysis compared patients treated with brachytherapy (with or without external-beam radiation) with those who did not receive radiation. To try to account for confounding variables, propensity score and sensitivity analyses were used. Results: There was a significant difference between patients who received radiation (n = 193) and those who did not (n = 6859) with regard to surgery (p < 0.0001), race (p < 0.0001), stage (p < 0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p <0.0001). Median survival for patients treated with brachytherapy was 11 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 9-13 months), compared with 4 months for patients who received no radiation (p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis (hazard ratio [95% CI]) brachytherapy (0.79 [0.66-0.95]), surgery (0.50 [0.46-0.53]), year of diagnosis (1998-2003: 0.66 [0.60-0.73]; 1993-1997: (0.96 [0.89-1.03; NS], baseline 1988-1992), and extrahepatic disease (0.84 [0.79-0.89]) were associated with better overall survival. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest dataset reported for the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas with brachytherapy. The results of this retrospective analysis suggest that brachytherapy may improve overall survival. However, because of the limitations of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, these results should be interpreted cautiously, and future prospective studies are needed.

  7. Image guided Brachytherapy: The paradigm of Gynecologic and Partial Breast HDR Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulos, S.; Kantemiris, I.; Konidari, A.; Zaverdinos, P.

    2015-09-01

    High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy uses high strength radioactive sources and temporary interstitial implants to conform the dose to target and minimize the treatment time. The advances of imaging technology enable accurate reconstruction of the implant and exact delineation of high-risk CTV and the surrounding critical structures. Furthermore, with sophisticated treatment planning systems, applicator devices and stepping source afterloaders, brachytherapy evolved to a more precise, safe and individualized treatment. At the Radiation Oncology Department of Metropolitan Hospital Athens, MRI guided HDR gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with brachytherapy are performed routinely. Contouring and treatment planning are based on the recommendations of the GEC - ESTRO Working group. The task of this presentation is to reveal the advantages of 3D image guided brachytherapy over 2D brachytherapy. Thus, two patients treated at our department (one GYN and one APBI) will be presented. The advantage of having adequate dose coverage of the high risk CTV and simultaneous low doses to the OARs when using 3D image- based brachytherapy will be presented. The treatment techniques, equipment issues, as well as implantation, imaging and treatment planning procedures will be described. Quality assurance checks will be treated separately.

  8. Cervix cancer brachytherapy: high dose rate.

    PubMed

    Miglierini, P; Malhaire, J-P; Goasduff, G; Miranda, O; Pradier, O

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer, although less common in industrialized countries, is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death. In developing countries, these cancers are often discovered at a later stage in the form of locally advanced tumour with a poor prognosis. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment is mainly based on a chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy ending by a potential remaining tumour surgery or in principle for some teams. The role of irradiation is crucial to ensure a better local control. It has been shown that the more the delivered dose is important, the better the local results are. In order to preserve the maximum of organs at risk and to allow this dose escalation, brachytherapy (intracavitary and/or interstitial) has been progressively introduced. Its evolution and its progressive improvement have led to the development of high dose rate brachytherapy, the advantages of which are especially based on the possibility of outpatient treatment while maintaining the effectiveness of other brachytherapy forms (i.e., low dose rate or pulsed dose rate). Numerous innovations have also been completed in the field of imaging, leading to a progress in treatment planning systems by switching from two-dimensional form to a three-dimensional one. Image-guided brachytherapy allows more precise target volume delineation as well as an optimized dosimetry permitting a better coverage of target volumes.

  9. Interstitial hyperthermia in combination with brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Douple, E B; Strohbehn, J W; Eaton, W L; Trembly, B S; Wong, T Z

    1983-07-01

    Flexible coaxial cables were modified to serve as microwave antennas operating at a frequency of 915 MHz. These antennas were inserted into nylon afterloading tubes that had been implanted in tumors using conventional interstitial implantation techniques for iridium-192 seed brachytherapy. The tumor volume was heated to 42-45 degrees C within 15 minutes and heating was continued for a total of 1 hour per treatment. Immediately following a conventional brachytherapy dose and removal of the iridium seeds the tumors were heated again in a second treatment. This interstitial technique for delivering local hyperthermia should be compatible with most brachytherapy methods. The technique has proved so far to be practical and without complications. Temperature distributions obtained in tissue phantoms and a patient are described.

  10. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Petereit, D. G.; Tannehill, S. P.; Grosen, E. A.; Hartenbach, E. M.; Schink, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    Petereit DG, Tannehill SP, Grosen EA, Hartenbach EM, Schink JC. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and complications of postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal-cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Between August 1989 to September 1997, 191 patients were treated postoperatively after a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) with outpatient adjuvant HDR VCB for low-risk endometrial cancer (IB-84%, grade 1 or 2-96%). Patients were treated with 2 HDR fractions, delivered one week apart while under conscious sedation (16.2 Gy X 2 to the vaginal surface). All clinical endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. The median time in the brachytherapy suite was 60 min in which no acute complications were observed. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were both 0%. With a median follow-up of 38 months (12-82 months), the 4-year survival, relapse-free survival, and vaginal-control rates were 95%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. One patient developed a colo-vaginal fistula at 5 years. Adjuvant HDR VCB in 2 outpatient insertions produced 100% vaginal control rates with minimal morbidity. The advantages of high dose-rate compared to low dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy include patient convenience, markedly shorter treatment times (1 h per insertion), and reduction in the cost and potential morbidity of hospitalization. HDR brachytherapy approach is a cost-effective alternative to either low-dose-rate brachytherapy or whole pelvic radiotherapy in carefully selected patients.

  11. Overview: Five decades of brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, F.

    1986-01-01

    Brachytherapy started in 1930. Ra-226 was the radioisotope for cancer therapy at that time and much has been learned about its properties since then. One of the major findings at that time was output. When the author started, there was no T factor. People did not know how many R units were produced by 1.0 mg of radium filtered by 0.5 mm of platinum at 1.0 cm. So one was in a bit of chaos from that point of view. Eventually, that was settled in the 1930's. It was very exciting to find out that, although the national laboratories of the U.S., England, France and Germany had had values of this T factor varying from about five to seven (when they're only supposed to have less than 1% error); the value was really 8.3 and it was quite a landmark. This led to an improved knowledge of dose and effects. Developments over the next five decades are discussed in detail.

  12. The American Brachytherapy Society Treatment Recommendations for Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Cervix Part II: High Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Beriwal, Sushil; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Gaffney, David; Hansen, Jorgen; Jones, Ellen; Kirisits, Christian; Thomadsen, Bruce; Erickson, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This report presents the 2011 update to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy guidelines for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in cervical cancer brachytherapy formulated updated guidelines for HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring, ovoids, cylinder or interstitial applicators for locally advanced cervical cancer were revised based on medical evidence in the literature and input of clinical experts in gynecologic brachytherapy. Results The Cervical Cancer Committee for Guideline Development affirms the essential curative role of tandem-based brachytherapy in the management of locally advanced cervical cancer. Proper applicator selection, insertion, and imaging are fundamental aspects of the procedure. Three-dimensional imaging with magnetic resonance or computed tomography or radiographic imaging may be used for treatment planning. Dosimetry must be performed after each insertion prior to treatment delivery. Applicator placement, dose specification and dose fractionation must be documented, quality assurance measures must be performed, and follow-up information must be obtained. A variety of dose/fractionation schedules and methods for integrating brachytherapy with external-beam radiation exist. The recommended tumor dose in 2 Gray (Gy) per fraction radiobiologic equivalence (EQD2) is 80–90 Gy, depending on tumor size at the time of brachytherapy. Dose limits for normal tissues are discussed. Conclusion These guidelines update those of 2000 and provide a comprehensive description of HDR cervical cancer brachytherapy in 2011. PMID:22265437

  13. MO-D-BRD-00: Electronic Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  14. Automated intraoperative calibration for prostate cancer brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiran Chen, Thomas; Heffter, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Pinter, Csaba; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Burdette, E. Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Prostate cancer brachytherapy relies on an accurate spatial registration between the implant needles and the TRUS image, called ''calibration''. The authors propose a new device and a fast, automatic method to calibrate the brachytherapy system in the operating room, with instant error feedback. Methods: A device was CAD-designed and precision-engineered, which mechanically couples a calibration phantom with an exact replica of the standard brachytherapy template. From real-time TRUS images acquired from the calibration device and processed by the calibration system, the coordinate transformation between the brachytherapy template and the TRUS images was computed automatically. The system instantly generated a report of the target reconstruction accuracy based on the current calibration outcome. Results: Four types of validation tests were conducted. First, 50 independent, real-time calibration trials yielded an average of 0.57 {+-} 0.13 mm line reconstruction error (LRE) relative to ground truth. Second, the averaged LRE was 0.37 {+-} 0.25 mm relative to ground truth in tests with six different commercial TRUS scanners operating at similar imaging settings. Furthermore, testing with five different commercial stepper systems yielded an average of 0.29 {+-} 0.16 mm LRE relative to ground truth. Finally, the system achieved an average of 0.56 {+-} 0.27 mm target registration error (TRE) relative to ground truth in needle insertion tests through the template in a water tank. Conclusions: The proposed automatic, intraoperative calibration system for prostate cancer brachytherapy has achieved high accuracy, precision, and robustness.

  15. Prostate brachytherapy in Ghana: our initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Yarney, Joel; Vanderpuye, Verna; Akpakli, Evans; Tagoe, Samuel; Sasu, Evans

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study presents the experience of a brachytherapy team in Ghana with a focus on technology transfer and outcome. The team was initially proctored by experienced physicians from Europe and South Africa. Material and methods A total of 90 consecutive patients underwent either brachytherapy alone or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma between July 2008 and February 2014 at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Patients were classified as low-risk, intermediate, and high-risk according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria. All low-risk and some intermediate risk group patients were treated with seed implantation alone. Some intermediate and all high-risk group patients received brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy. Results The median patient age was 64.0 years (range 46-78 years). The median follow-up was 58 months (range 18-74 months). Twelve patients experienced biochemical failure including one patient who had evidence of metastatic disease and died of prostate cancer. Freedom from biochemical failure rates for low, intermediate, and high-risk cases were 95.4%, 90.9%, and 70.8%, respectively. Clinical parameters predictive of biochemical outcome included: clinical stage, Gleason score, and risk group. Pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) was not a statistically significant predictor of biochemical failure. Sixty-nine patients (76.6%) experienced grade 1 urinary symptoms in the form of frequency, urgency, and poor stream. These symptoms were mostly self-limiting. Four patients needed catheterization for urinary retention (grade 2). One patient developed a recto urethral fistula (grade 3) following banding for hemorrhoids. Conclusions Our results compare favorably with those reported by other institutions with more extensive experience. We believe therefore that, interstitial permanent brachytherapy can be safely and effectively performed in a

  16. State-of-the-art: prostate LDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, S; Nobes, J P; Laing, R W; Langley, S E M

    2008-01-01

    This article on low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy reviews long-term results, patient selection and quality of life issues. Mature results from the United States and United Kingdom are reported and issues regarding definitions of biochemical failure are discussed. Latest data comparing brachytherapy with radical prostatectomy or no definitive treatment and also the risk of secondary malignancies after prostate brachytherapy are presented. Urological parameters of patient selection and quality of life issues concerning urinary, sexual and bowel function are reviewed. The position of prostate brachytherapy next to surgery as a first-line treatment modality is demonstrated.

  17. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.400 Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. A licensee shall use only brachytherapy sources...

  18. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.400 Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. A licensee shall use only brachytherapy sources...

  19. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.400 Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. A licensee shall use only brachytherapy sources...

  20. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.400 Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. A licensee shall use only brachytherapy sources...

  1. Modern head and neck brachytherapy: from radium towards intensity modulated interventional brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT) is a modern development of classical interventional radiation therapy (brachytherapy), which allows the application of a high radiation dose sparing severe adverse events, thereby further improving the treatment outcome. Classical indications in head and neck (H&N) cancers are the face, the oral cavity, the naso- and oropharynx, the paranasal sinuses including base of skull, incomplete resections on important structures, and palliation. The application type can be curative, adjuvant or perioperative, as a boost to external beam radiation as well as without external beam radiation and with palliative intention. Due to the frequently used perioperative application method (intraoperative implantation of inactive applicators and postoperative performance of radiation), close interdisciplinary cooperation between surgical specialists (ENT-, dento-maxillary-facial-, neuro- and orbital surgeons), as well interventional radiotherapy (brachytherapy) experts are obligatory. Published results encourage the integration of IMBT into H&N therapy, thereby improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients. PMID:25834586

  2. Physics and basic parameters of brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Weinhous, M S

    1997-06-01

    Brachytherapy (short-distance therapy) is the therapeutic process whereby radioactive sources are placed into very close proximity to target tissue. Radioactive materials were so used beginning shortly after the discovery of radium by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898. For the purposes of brachytherapy, radioactive materials are those that emit "rays" that can cause ionization (and hence DNA damage and the destruction of target cells). The potentially useful rays include beta, gamma, and other possibilities such as neutrons. Beta rays, properly beta particles, are simply high energy electrons. Gamma rays are high energy photons (part of the electromagnetic spectrum like visible light, but with much higher energy). These particles are produced during the radioactive decay of certain isotopes. The physics of those events and the parameters that apply to the therapeutic use of the isotopes are the primary topics of this report.

  3. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Beyer, D; Friedland, J; Grimm, P; Nath, R

    1999-07-01

    To develop and disseminate the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for the clinical quality assurance and guidelines of permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy with 125I or 103Pd. The ABS formed a committee of experts in prostate brachytherapy to develop consensus guidelines through a critical analysis of published data supplemented by their clinical experience. The recommendations of the panels were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the ABS. Patients with high probability of organ-confined disease are appropriately treated with brachytherapy alone. Brachytherapy candidates with a significant risk of extraprostatic extension should be treated with supplemental external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Patient selection guidelines were developed. Dosimetric planning of the implant should be carried out for all patients before seed insertion. A modified peripheral loading is preferred. The AAPM TG-43 recommendations requiring a change in prescription dose for 125I sources should be universally implemented. The recommended prescription doses for monotherapy are 145 Gy for 125I and 115-120 Gy for 103Pd. The corresponding boost doses (after 40-50 Gy EBRT) are 100-110 Gy and 80-90 Gy, respectively. Clinical evidence to guide selection of radionuclide (103Pd or 125I) is lacking. Post implant dosimetry and evaluation must be performed on all patients. It is suggested that the dose that covers 90% (D90) and 100% (D100) of the prostate volume and the percentage of the prostate volume receiving the prescribed dose (V100) be obtained from a dose-volume histogram (DVH) and reported. Guidelines for appropriate patient selection, dose reporting, and improved quality of permanent prostate brachytherapy are presented. These broad recommendations are intended to be technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for the medical decisions rests with the treating physician. This is a constantly evolving field, and the

  4. Design and optimization of a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, Michael A.

    Trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy has become a popular procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer, the most common type of non-skin cancer among men. The current TRUS technique of LDR implantation may result in less than ideal coverage of the tumor with increased risk of negative response such as rectal toxicity and urinary retention. This technique is limited by the skill of the physician performing the implant, the accuracy of needle localization, and the inherent weaknesses of the procedure itself. The treatment may require 100 or more sources and 25 needles, compounding the inaccuracy of the needle localization procedure. A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy may increase the accuracy of needle placement while minimizing the effect of physician technique in the TRUS procedure. Furthermore, a robot may improve associated toxicities by utilizing angled insertions and freeing implantations from constraints applied by the 0.5 cm-spaced template used in the TRUS method. Within our group, Lin et al. have designed a new type of LDR source. The "directional" source is a seed designed to be partially shielded. Thus, a directional, or anisotropic, source does not emit radiation in all directions. The source can be oriented to irradiate cancerous tissues while sparing normal ones. This type of source necessitates a new, highly accurate method for localization in 6 degrees of freedom. A robot is the best way to accomplish this task accurately. The following presentation of work describes the invention and optimization of a new prostate brachytherapy robot that fulfills these goals. Furthermore, some research has been dedicated to the use of the robot to perform needle insertion tasks (brachytherapy, biopsy, RF ablation, etc.) in nearly any other soft tissue in the body. This can be accomplished with the robot combined with automatic, magnetic tracking.

  5. Erectile Function Durability Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Kurko, Brian S.; Anderson, Richard; Lief, Jonathan H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term changes in erectile function following prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included 226 patients with prostate cancer and preimplant erectile function assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function-6 (IIEF-6) who underwent brachytherapy in two prospective randomized trials between February 2001 and January 2003. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Pre- and postbrachytherapy potency was defined as IIEF-6 >= 13 without pharmacologic or mechanical support. The relationship among clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters and erectile function was examined. Results: The 7-year actuarial rate of potency preservation was 55.6% with median postimplant IIEF of 22 in potent patients. Potent patients were statistically younger (p = 0.014), had a higher preimplant IIEF (p < 0.001), were less likely to be diabetic (p = 0.002), and were more likely to report nocturnal erections (p = 0.008). Potency preservation in men with baseline IIEF scores of 29-30, 24-28, 18-23, and 13-17 were 75.5% vs. 73.6%, 51.7% vs. 44.8%, 48.0% vs. 40.0%, and 23.5% vs. 23.5% in 2004 vs. 2008. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, preimplant IIEF, hypertension, diabetes, prostate size, and brachytherapy dose to proximal penis strongly predicted for potency preservation. Impact of proximal penile dose was most pronounced for men with IIEF of 18-23 and aged 60-69. A significant minority of men who developed postimplant impotence ultimately regained erectile function. Conclusion: Potency preservation and median IIEF scores following brachytherapy are durable. Thoughtful dose sparing of proximal penile structures and early penile rehabilitation may further improve these results.

  6. Development of a brachytherapy audit checklist tool.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, Joann; Hadley, Scott; Jolly, Shruti; Lee, Choonik; Roberson, Peter; Roberts, Donald; Ritter, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    To develop a brachytherapy audit checklist that could be used to prepare for Nuclear Regulatory Commission or agreement state inspections, to aid in readiness for a practice accreditation visit, or to be used as an annual internal audit tool. Six board-certified medical physicists and one radiation oncologist conducted a thorough review of brachytherapy-related literature and practice guidelines published by professional organizations and federal regulations. The team members worked at two facilities that are part of a large, academic health care center. Checklist items were given a score based on their judged importance. Four clinical sites performed an audit of their program using the checklist. The sites were asked to score each item based on a defined severity scale for their noncompliance, and final audit scores were tallied by summing the products of importance score and severity score for each item. The final audit checklist, which is available online, contains 83 items. The audit scores from the beta sites ranged from 17 to 71 (out of 690) and identified a total of 7-16 noncompliance items. The total time to conduct the audit ranged from 1.5 to 5 hours. A comprehensive audit checklist was developed which can be implemented by any facility that wishes to perform a program audit in support of their own brachytherapy program. The checklist is designed to allow users to identify areas of noncompliance and to prioritize how these items are addressed to minimize deviations from nationally-recognized standards. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjun; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Song, Qi; Liu, Yunlong; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Sun, Wenqing; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2013-06-01

    In this treatment planning study, the potential benefits of a rotating shield brachytherapy (RSBT) technique based on a partially-shielded electronic brachytherapy source were assessed for treating cervical cancer. Conventional intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT), intracavitary plus supplementary interstitial (IS+ICBT), and RSBT treatment plans for azimuthal emission angles of 180° (RSBT-180) and 45° (RSBT-45) were generated for five patients. For each patient, high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) (α/β = 10 Gy) was escalated until bladder, rectum, or sigmoid colon tolerance EQD2 values were reached. External beam radiotherapy dose (1.8 Gy × 25) was accounted for, and brachytherapy was assumed to have been delivered in 5 fractions. IS+ICBT provided a greater HR-CTV D90 (minimum EQD2 to the hottest 90%) than ICBT. D90 was greater for RSBT-45 than IS+ICBT for all five patients, and greater for RSBT-180 than IS+ICBT for two patients. When the RSBT-45/180 plan with the lowest HR-CTV D90 that was greater than the D90 the ICBT or IS+ICBT plan was selected, the average (range) of D90 increases for RSBT over ICBT and IS+ICBT were 16.2 (6.3-27.2)and 8.5 (0.03-20.16) Gy, respectively. The average (range) treatment time increase per fraction of RSBT was 34.56 (3.68-70.41) min over ICBT and 34.59 (3.57-70.13) min over IS+ICBT. RSBT can increase D90 over ICBT and IS+ICBT without compromising organ-at-risk sparing. The D90 and treatment time improvements from RSBT depend on the patient and shield emission angle.

  8. Paraspinal tumors: Techniques and results of brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.G.; Fass, D.E.; Bains, M.; Mychalczak, B.; Nori, D.; Arbit, E.; Martini, N.; Harrison, L.B. )

    1991-04-01

    Because of their proximity to nerve roots and the spinal cord, it is frequently difficult to achieve complete resection of paraspinal tumors. We have used brachytherapy in an attempt to prevent local recurrence and its associated neurological sequelae. This report analyzes our experience with 35 patients to determine the feasibility, optimal techniques, and efficacy of this approach. The tumor types were non small-cell lung cancer (18), sarcomas (9), and other tumor types (8). Temporary, single plane implants using Ir-192 (median minimum peripheral dose 3000 cGy) were used in 21 patients, and permanent I-125 implants were used in 14 cases (median matched peripheral dose 12,500 cGy). Local control was achieved in 51% (18/35). However, local control was poor when lung cancers were implanted and in cases where the dura was exposed. Radiation myelitis did not occur despite the combined effects of previous external beam radiotherapy (N = 21) and brachytherapy. Our experience demonstrates that combined surgery and paraspinal brachytherapy can be performed with acceptable toxicity and is reasonably effective in preventing local relapse and its neurologic sequelae, particularly for tumors other than lung cancers.

  9. Myths and fallacies in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S

    2003-09-30

    Because there are competing modalities to treat early-stage prostate cancer, the constraints or deficiencies of one modality may be erroneously applied to others. Some valid concerns arising from surgery and external beam therapy, which have been falsely transferred to brachytherapy, are constraints based on patient age, clinical and pathological parameters, patient weight, and size of prostate. Although the constraints have a valid basis in one modality, knowledge of the origin and mechanism of the constraint has provided a means to circumvent or overcome it in brachytherapy. Failures as measured by biochemical no-evidence of disease (bNED) survival may be attributed to extracapsular disease extension. Such extension often expresses itself in surrogate parameters such as a high percentage of positive biopsies, perineural invasion, or the dominant pattern in Gleason score histology. Failures due to such factors may be prevented by implanting with consistent extracapsular dosimetric margins. Some presumed limitations on prostate brachytherapy originated from data on patients implanted in the first few years the procedure was being developed. Most of the urinary morbidity and a significant part of the decrease in sexual function observed may be avoided by controlling the dosimetry along the prostatic and membranous urethra and at the penile bulb.

  10. An Active Mammosite For Breast Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudjoe, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment that uses radioactive sources inside or in close proximity to cancerous tumors, thus minimizing exposure to neighboring healthy cells. This radiation oncology treatment unlike many others is localized and precise. The latest involvement of the Brachytherapy research group of the medical physics program at Hampton University is in the development of a scintillator fiber based detector for the breast cancer specific Mammosite (balloon device) from Cytyc Inc. Radioactive sources are inserted into a small plastic catheter (shaft) and pushed at the end of the tube. At that location, a water filled balloon surrounds the source and allow uniform gamma emission into cancer tumors. There is presently no capability for this device to provide measurements of the location of the source, as well as the radiation emitted from the source. Recent data were acquired to evaluate the possibility of measuring the dose distribution during breast Brachytherapy cancer treatments with this device. A high activity ^192Ir radioactive source and a 0.5 and 1 mm^2 scintillating fibers were used. Results will be presented and discussed.

  11. Brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N; Skouteris, Vassilios M; Park, Janelle L; Stock, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    Low-dose rate brachytherapy has become a mainstream treatment option for men diagnosed with prostate cancer because of excellent long-term treatment outcomes in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. Largely due to patient lead advocacy for minimally invasive treatment options, high-quality prostate implants have become widely available in the US, Europe, and Japan. The reason that brachytherapy results are reproducible in several different practice settings is because numerous implant quality factors have been defined over the last 20 years, which can be applied objectively to judge the success of the intervention both during and after the procedure. In addition, recent long-term follow-up studies have clarified that the secondary cancer incidence of brachytherapy is not clinically meaningful. In terms of future directions, the study of radiation repair genetics may allow for the counseling physician to better estimate any given patients risk for side effects, thereby substantially reducing the therapeutic uncertainties faced by patients choosing a prostate cancer intervention.

  12. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Association of Physicists in Medicine that are made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (c)...

  13. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Association of Physicists in Medicine that are made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (c)...

  14. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Association of Physicists in Medicine that are made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (c)...

  15. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Association of Physicists in Medicine that are made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (c)...

  16. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Association of Physicists in Medicine that are made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (c)...

  17. Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2009-02-01

    Before the era of breast-conserving therapy, brachytherapy implants were used to treat large inoperable breast tumors. In later years, interstitial brachytherapy with rigid needles or multiple flexible catheters has been used to deliver an additional (boost) dose to the tumor bed after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation. Reexcision followed by reirradiation using interstitial breast implants has also been implemented as an alternative to mastectomy to treat ipsilateral breast local recurrence after previous breast-conserving therapy. In the past two decades, the new concept of accelerated partial breast irradiation opened a new perspective for breast brachytherapy. The first technique utilized in early accelerated partial breast irradiation studies was multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy. Beyond classical interstitial brachytherapy, recently, new intracavitary applicators have been developed in the United States to decrease the existing barriers against the widespread use of multicatheter brachytherapy. Furthermore, interstitial low-dose-rate seed implants have also been implemented as an alternative for stepping-source multicatheter brachytherapy. In this article, we give an overview of the past achievements, current status, and future perspectives of breast brachytherapy.

  18. [How to prepare the brachytherapy of the future].

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2013-10-01

    For more than a century, brachytherapy has been a treatment of choice for delivering a high dose in a small volume. However, over the past 15 years, this irradiation technique has stalled. Even so, brachytherapy allows the delivery of the right dose at the right place by dispensing with target volume motion and repositioning. The evolution of brachytherapy can be based on a road-map including at least the following three points: the acquisition of clinical evidence, teaching and valuation of the procedures. The evolution of brachytherapy will be also impacted by technological considerations (end of the production of low dose rate 192 iridium wires). Regarding the evolution toward a personalized treatment, brachytherapy of the future should take its place as a partner of other modern external beam radiation techniques, be performed by experimented actors (physicians, physicists, technicians, etc.) who received adequate training, and be valued in proportion to the delivered medical service.

  19. Improving the efficiency of image guided brachytherapy in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Adrian; Ajaz, Mazhar; Stewart, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy is an essential component of the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancers. It enables the dose to the tumor to be boosted whilst allowing relative sparing of the normal tissues. Traditionally, cervical brachytherapy was prescribed to point A but since the GEC-ESTRO guidelines were published in 2005, there has been a move towards prescribing the dose to a 3D volume. Image guided brachytherapy has been shown to reduce local recurrence, and improve survival and is optimally predicated on magnetic resonance imaging. Radiological studies, patient workflow, operative parameters, and intensive therapy planning can represent a challenge to clinical resources. This article explores the ways, in which 3D conformal brachytherapy can be implemented and draws findings from recent literature and a well-developed hospital practice in order to suggest ways to improve the efficiency and efficacy of a brachytherapy service. Finally, we discuss relatively underexploited translational research opportunities. PMID:28115963

  20. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  1. Penile brachytherapy: Results for 49 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Juanita M. . E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Jezioranski, John; Grimard, Laval; Esche, Bernd; Pond, G.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To report results for 49 men with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis treated with primary penile interstitial brachytherapy at one of two institutions: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa, and the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: From September 1989 to September 2003, 49 men (mean age, 58 years; range, 22-93 years) had brachytherapy for penile SCC. Fifty-one percent of tumors were T1, 33% T2, and 8% T3; 4% were in situ and 4% Tx. Grade was well differentiated in 31%, moderate in 45%, and poor in 2%; grade was unspecified for 20%. One tumor was verrucous. All tumors in Toronto had pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (n = 23), whereas those in Ottawa had either Iridium wire (n 22) or seeds (n = 4). Four patients had a single plane implant with a plastic tube technique, and all others had a volume implant with predrilled acrylic templates and two or three parallel planes of needles (median, six needles). Mean needle spacing was 13.5 mm (range, 10-18 mm), mean dose rate was 65 cGy/h (range, 33-160 cGy/h), and mean duration was 98.8 h (range, 36-188 h). Dose rates for PDR brachytherapy were 50-61.2 cGy/h, with no correction in total dose, which was 60 Gy in all cases. Results: Median follow-up was 33.4 months (range, 4-140 months). At 5 years, actuarial overall survival was 78.3% and cause-specific survival 90.0%. Four men died of penile cancer, and 6 died of other causes with no evidence of recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate for never having experienced any type of failure at 5 years was 64.4% and for local failure was 85.3%. All 5 patients with local failure were successfully salvaged by surgery; 2 other men required penectomy for necrosis. The soft tissue necrosis rate was 16% and the urethral stenosis rate 12%. Of 8 men with regional failure, 5 were salvaged by lymph node dissection with or without external radiation. All 4 men with distant failure died of disease. Of 49 men, 42 had an intact

  2. Technical note: cone beam CT imaging for 3D image guided brachytherapy for gynecological HDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-05-01

    This paper focuses on a novel image guidance technique for gynecological brachytherapy treatment. The present standard technique is orthogonal x-ray imaging to reconstruct the 3D position of the applicator when the availability of CT or MR is limited. Our purpose is to introduce 3D planning in the brachytherapy suite using a cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner dedicated to brachytherapy. This would avoid moving the patient between imaging and treatment procedures which may cause applicator motion. This could be used to replace the x-ray images or to verify the treatment position immediately prior to dose delivery. The sources of CBCT imaging artifacts in the case of brachytherapy were identified and removed where possible. The image quality was further improved by modifying the x-ray tube voltage, modifying the compensator bowtie filter and optimizing technical parameters such as the detector gain or tube current. The image quality was adequate to reconstruct the applicators in the treatment planning system. The position of points A and the localization of the organs at risk (OAR) ICRU points is easily achieved. This allows identification of cases where the rectum had moved with respect to the ICRU point which would require asymmetrical source loading. A better visualization is a first step toward a better sparing of the OAR. Treatment planning for gynecological brachytherapy is aided by CBCT images. CBCT presents advantages over CT: acquisition in the treatment room and in the treatment position due to the larger clearance of the CBCT, thereby reducing problems associated to moving patients between rooms.

  3. Three-Dimensional Imaging in Gynecologic Brachytherapy: A Survey of the American Brachytherapy Society

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Erickson, Beth A.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to three-dimensional (3D) imaging for gynecologic brachytherapy among American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) members. Methods and Materials: Registered physician members of the ABS received a 19-item survey by e-mail in August 2007. This report excludes physicians not performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Results: Of the 256 surveys sent, we report results for 133 respondents who perform one or more implantations per year for locally advanced cervical cancer. Ultrasound aids 56% of physicians with applicator insertion. After insertion, 70% of physicians routinely obtain a computed tomography (CT) scan. The majority (55%) use CT rather than X-ray films (43%) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 2%) for dose specification to the cervix. However, 76% prescribe to Point A alone instead of using a 3D-derived tumor volume (14%), both Point A and tumor volume (7%), or mg/h (3%). Those using 3D imaging routinely contour the bladder and rectum (94%), sigmoid (45%), small bowel (38%), and/or urethra (8%) and calculate normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis parameters including the D2cc (49%), D1cc (36%), D0.1cc (19%), and/or D5cc (19%). Respondents most commonly modify the treatment plan based on International Commission on Radiation Units bladder and/or rectal point dose values (53%) compared with DVH values (45%) or both (2%). Conclusions: More ABS physician members use CT postimplantation imaging than plain films for visualizing the gynecologic brachytherapy apparatus. However, the majority prescribe to Point A rather than using 3D image based dosimetry. Use of 3D image-based treatment planning for gynecologic brachytherapy has the potential for significant growth in the United States.

  4. The dosimetry of brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M

    2003-12-31

    There is emerging evidence that brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is technique-related and may be minimized by careful attention to source placement. Herein, we review the relationship between radiation doses to the prostate gland/surrounding structures and the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. The permanent prostate brachytherapy literature was reviewed using MEDLINE searches to ensure completeness. Although the site-specific structure associated with brachytherapy-induced ED remains unknown, there is an increasing body of data implicating the proximal penis. With day 0 CT-based dosimetry, the dose to 50% (D{sub 50}) and 25% (D{sub 25}) of the bulb of the penis should be maintained below 40% and 60% mPD, respectively, while the crura D{sub 50} should be maintained below 28% mPD to maximize post-brachytherapy potency. To date, there is no data to suggest that either radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles or choice of isotope is associated with brachytherapy-induced ED, while conflicting data has been reported regarding radiation dose to the prostate and the use of supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Although the etiology of brachytherapy-induced ED is likely multifactorial, the available data supports the proximal penis as an important site-specific structure. Refinements in implant technique, including preplanning and intraoperative seed placement, will result in lower radiation doses to the proximal penis with potential improvement in potency preservation.

  5. Recent developments and best practice in brachytherapy treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy has evolved over many decades, but more recently, there have been significant changes in the way that brachytherapy is used for different treatment sites. This has been due to the development of new, technologically advanced computer planning systems and treatment delivery techniques. Modern, three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities have been incorporated into treatment planning methods, allowing full 3D dose distributions to be computed. Treatment techniques involving online planning have emerged, allowing dose distributions to be calculated and updated in real time based on the actual clinical situation. In the case of early stage breast cancer treatment, for example, electronic brachytherapy treatment techniques are being used in which the radiation dose is delivered during the same procedure as the surgery. There have also been significant advances in treatment applicator design, which allow the use of modern 3D imaging techniques for planning, and manufacturers have begun to implement new dose calculation algorithms that will correct for applicator shielding and tissue inhomogeneities. This article aims to review the recent developments and best practice in brachytherapy techniques and treatments. It will look at how imaging developments have been incorporated into current brachytherapy treatment and how these developments have played an integral role in the modern brachytherapy era. The planning requirements for different treatments sites are reviewed as well as the future developments of brachytherapy in radiobiology and treatment planning dose calculation. PMID:24734939

  6. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, Hossein; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D90 of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  7. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dadkhah, Hossein; Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T.; Wu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  8. [Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Bardet, E; Peuvrel, P; Martinet, L; Perrot, P; Baraer, F; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J-Y; Malard, O; Ferron, C; Dreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (LDR) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medicosurgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6h). The median dose was 20Gy (range, 15-40Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early - within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6cm (p=0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Early perioperative LDR brachytherapy delivering 20Gy at 5mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. 2009 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A Novel MRI Marker for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Stafford, R. Jason; Bankson, James A.; Li Chun; Swanson, David A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality for the prostate and surrounding critical organ structures. However, on MRI, the titanium radioactive seeds used for brachytherapy appear as black holes (negative contrast) and cannot be accurately localized. We sought to develop an encapsulated contrast agent marker (ECAM) with high-signal intensity on MRI to permit accurate localization of radioactive seeds with MRI during and after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We investigated several agents with paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties. The agents were injected into titanium, acrylic, and glass seeds, which were linked together in various combinations and imaged with MRI. The agent with the greatest T1-weighted signal was tested further in a canine prostate and agarose phantom. Studies were performed on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner. Results: The cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) agent with stoichiometry (CoCl{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 0.2} had the greatest T1-weighted signal (positive contrast) with a relaxivity ratio >1 (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.29). Acrylic-titanium and glass-titanium seed strands were clearly visualized with the encapsulated contrast agent marker. Conclusion: We have developed a novel ECAM that permits positive identification of the radioactive seeds used for prostate brachytherapy on MRI. Preclinical in vitro phantom studies and in vivo canine studies are needed to further optimize MRI sequencing techniques to facilitate MRI-based dosimetry.

  10. Needle deflection estimation: prostate brachytherapy phantom experiments.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-11-01

    The performance of a fusion-based needle deflection estimation method was experimentally evaluated using prostate brachytherapy phantoms. The accuracy of the needle deflection estimation was determined. The robustness of the approach with variations in needle insertion speed and soft tissue biomechanical properties was investigated. A needle deflection estimation method was developed to determine the amount of needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue by combining a kinematic deflection model with measurements taken from two electromagnetic trackers placed at the tip and the base of the needle. Experimental verification of this method for use in prostate brachytherapy needle insertion procedures was performed. A total of 21 beveled tip, 18 ga, 200 mm needles were manually inserted at various speeds through a template and toward different targets distributed within 3 soft tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride prostate phantoms of varying stiffness. The tracked positions of both the needle tip and base were recorded, and Kalman filters were applied to fuse the sensory information. The estimation results were validated using ground truth obtained from fluoroscopy images. The manual insertion speed ranged from 8 to 34 mm/s, needle deflection ranged from 5 to 8 mm at an insertion depth of 76 mm, and the elastic modulus of the soft tissue ranged from 50 to 150 kPa. The accuracy and robustness of the estimation method were verified within these ranges. When compared to purely model-based estimation, we observed a reduction in needle tip position estimation error by [Formula: see text] % (mean [Formula: see text] SD) and the cumulative deflection error by [Formula: see text] %. Fusion of electromagnetic sensors demonstrated significant improvement in estimating needle deflection compared to model-based methods. The method has potential clinical applicability in the guidance of needle placement medical interventions, particularly prostate brachytherapy.

  11. [Pulsed-dose rate brachytherapy in cervical cancers: why, how?].

    PubMed

    Mazeron, R; Dumas, I; Martin, V; Martinetti, F; Benhabib-Boukhelif, W; Gensse, M-C; Chargari, C; Guemnie-Tafo, A; Haie-Méder, C

    2014-10-01

    The end of the production of 192 iridium wires terminates low dose rate brachytherapy and requires to move towards pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy. In the case of gynecological cancers, technical alternatives exist, and many teams have already taken the step of pulsed-dose rate for scientific reasons. Using a projector source is indeed a prerequisite for 3D brachytherapy, which gradually installs as a standard treatment in the treatment of cervical cancers. For other centers, this change implies beyond investments in equipment and training, organizational consequences to ensure quality.

  12. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Robyn; Kamrava, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer. PMID:24920937

  13. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in inoperable endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Petsuksiri, J; Chansilpa, Y; Hoskin, P J

    2014-01-01

    Inoperable endometrial cancer may be treated with curative aim using radical radiotherapy alone. The radiation techniques are external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone, EBRT plus brachytherapy and brachytherapy alone. Recently, high-dose-rate brachytherapy has been used instead of low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Image-guided brachytherapy enables sufficient coverage of tumour and reduction of dose to the organs at risk, thus increasing the therapeutic ratio of treatment. Local control rates with three-dimensional brachytherapy appear better than with conventional techniques (about 90–100% and 70–90%, respectively). PMID:24807067

  14. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Long-term control and toxicity with brachytherapy for localized breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Amendola, Beatriz; Khan, Atif; Beriwal, Sushil; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Kim, Leonard H; Cuttino, Laurie

    There has been significant controversy regarding the equivalency of accelerated partial breast irradiation to whole-breast irradiation. With the recent publication of a large, randomized trial comparing these two treatment modalities, an update on the current state of knowledge of brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation, with respect to local control and toxicities, would be useful to practitioners and patients. A systematic literature review was conducted examining articles published between January 2000 and April 2016 on the topics "brachytherapy" and "breast." A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria, providing outcomes on local tumor control and/or toxicity for breast brachytherapy. Reported 5-year local failure rates were 1.4-6.1% for multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) and 0-5.7% for single-entry brachytherapy catheters when delivered to patients with standard selection criteria. Toxicity profiles are acceptable, with cosmetic outcomes comparable to whole-breast irradiation. The reported rates of infection were 0-12%. Symptomatic fat necrosis was found in 0-12% and 0-3.2% of patients treated with MIB and single-entry brachytherapy catheters, respectively. Late Grade ≥3 telangiectasias and fibrosis were reported in 0-8% and 0-9.1% of patients treated with MIB, respectively. These side effects were less common with single-entry brachytherapy catheters (0-2.0% and 0%, respectively). Breast brachytherapy is a treatment technique that provides acceptable rates of local control in select patients, as demonstrated by Level I evidence. The side effect profile of this treatment is well documented and should be shared with patients when considering this treatment modality. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Regina K.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and 192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose

  16. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally

  17. Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Leo; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu; Tang, Shuo

    2013-03-01

    Prostate brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy for treating prostate cancer where the radiation sources are seeds inserted into the prostate. Accurate localization of seeds during prostate brachytherapy is essential to the success of intraoperative treatment planning. The current standard modality used in intraoperative seeds localization is transrectal ultrasound. Transrectal ultrasound, however, suffers in image quality due to several factors such speckle, shadowing, and off-axis seed orientation. Photoacoustic imaging, based on the photoacoustic phenomenon, is an emerging imaging modality. The contrast generating mechanism in photoacoustic imaging is optical absorption that is fundamentally different from conventional B-mode ultrasound which depicts changes in acoustic impedance. A photoacoustic imaging system is developed using a commercial ultrasound system. To improve imaging contrast and depth penetration, absorption enhancing coating is applied to the seeds. In comparison to bare seeds, approximately 18.5 dB increase in signal-to-noise ratio as well as a doubling of imaging depth are achieved. Our results demonstrate that the coating of the seeds can further improve the discernibility of the seeds.

  18. Adjuvant brachytherapy in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Crownover, R L; Marks, K E

    1999-06-01

    For many patients with STS, administering adjuvant radiation treatments in the form of interstitial brachytherapy provides an excellent alternative to a protracted course of EBRT. Ideal patients are those with intermediate- or high-grade tumors amenable to en bloc resection. Attractive features of this approach include an untainted pathologic specimen, expeditious completion of treatment, reduction in wound complications, and improved functional outcome. Brachytherapy can permit definitive reirradiation by tightly localizing the high dose radiation exposure. It is also useful in patients who are known to have or be at high risk of metastatic disease, for whom the rapid completion of local treatment allows systemic therapy to begin quickly. Introduction of HDR techniques has shifted the delivery of brachytherapy from inpatient solitary confinement to an outpatient setting. Early reports using HDR brachytherapy for treatment of adult and pediatric STS are quite encouraging. The clinical equivalence between hyperfractionated HDR schedules and traditional LDR techniques is gaining acceptance.

  19. Brachytherapy in India – a long road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy can play a very important role in the definitive cure by radiation therapy in India. However, except for in a handful of centres, the majority of hospitals use it only for intracavitary treatment. The most probable reasons for such are the lack of logistical resources in terms of trained personal and supporting staff, rather than lack of radiotherapy machines and equipment. In this article, the authors look into the various aspects of brachytherapy in India: from its beginning to present days. The authors point out the resources available, shortcomings, and some possible solutions to make use of brachytherapy more popular and effective. Apart from presenting a picture of the present scenario, the article pays attention to the positive signs of brachytherapy becoming more popular in the near future. PMID:25337139

  20. [Valorisation of brachytherapy and medico-economic considerations].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Morelle, M; Millet-Lagarde, F; Peiffert, D; Gomez, F; Perrier, L

    2013-04-01

    Economic data in the literature for brachytherapy are still sparse and heterogeneous, with few controlled prospective studies and a perspective most often limited to those of the provider (health insurances). Moreover, these observation and conclusions are difficult to generalize in France. The prospective health economic studies performed in France in the framework of a national program to sustain innovative and costly therapies (STIC program) launched by the French cancer national institute are therefore of most importance. With the exception of prostate brachytherapy with permanent seeds, the valorisation of the brachytherapy activity by the French national health insurance does not take into account the degree of complexity and the real costs supported by health institutions (i.e. no specific valorisation for 3D image-based treatment planning and dose optimization and for the use of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy).

  1. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes.

  2. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harkenrider, Matthew M. Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  3. Electromagnetic tracking for treatment verification in interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kellermeier, Markus; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking (EMT) is used in several medical fields to determine the position and orientation of dedicated sensors, e.g., attached to surgical tools. Recently, EMT has been introduced to brachytherapy for implant reconstruction and error detection. The manuscript briefly summarizes the main issues of EMT and error detection in brachytherapy. The potential and complementarity of EMT as treatment verification technology will be discussed in relation to in vivo dosimetry and imaging. PMID:27895688

  4. [Edge effect and late thrombosis -- inevitable complications of vascular brachytherapy?].

    PubMed

    Schiele, T M; Staber, L; Kantlehner, R; Pöllinger, B; Dühmke, E; Theisen, K; Klauss, V

    2002-11-01

    Restenosis is the limiting entity after percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Vascular brachytherapy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis has been shown to reduce the repeat restenosis rate and the incidence of major adverse events in several randomized trials. Besides the beneficial effects, brachytherapy yielded some unwanted side effects. The development of new stenoses at the edges of the target lesion treated with radiation is termed edge effect. It occurs after afterloading brachytherapy as well as after implantation of radioactive stents. It is characterized by extensive intimal hyperplasia and negative remodeling. As contributing factors the axial dose fall-off, inherent to all radioactive sources, and the application of vessel wall trauma by angioplasty have been identified. The combination of both factors, by insufficient overlap of the radiation length over the injured vessel segment, has been referred to as geographic miss. It has been shown to be associated with a very high incidence of the edge effect. Avoidance of geographic miss is strongly recommended in vascular brachytherapy procedures. Late thrombosis after vascular brachytherapy is of multifactorial origin. It comprises platelet recruitment, fibrin deposition, disturbed vasomotion, non-healing dissection and stent malapposition predisposing to turbulent blood flow. The strongest predictors for late thrombosis are premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy and implantation of new stents during the brachytherapy procedure. With a consequent and prolonged antiplatelet therapy, the incidence of late thrombosis has been reduced to placebo levels. Edge effect and late thrombosis represent unwanted side effects of vascular brachytherapy. By means of a thorough treatment planning and prolonged antiplatelet therapy their incidences can be largely reduced. With regard to the very favorable net effect, they do not constitute relevant limitations of vascular brachytherapy.

  5. Dosimetric characteristics of a new unit for electronic skin brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Chan, Jan-Pieter; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo

    2014-03-01

    Brachytherapy with radioactive high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source is applied to small skin cancer lesions, using surface applicators, i.e. Leipzig or Valencia type. New developments in the field of radiotherapy for skin cancer include electronic brachytherapy. This technique involves the placement of an HDR X-ray source close to the skin, therefore combining the benefits of brachytherapy with the reduced shielding requirements and targeted energy of low energy X-rays. Recently, the Esteya(®) Electronic Brachytherapy System (Esteya EBS, Elekta AB-Nucletron, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed specifically for HDR brachytherapy treatment of surface lesions. The system provides radionuclide free HDR brachytherapy by means of a small 69.5 kV X-ray source. The purpose of this study is to obtain the dosimetric characterization required for clinical implementation, providing the detailed methodology to perform the commissioning. Flatness, symmetry and penumbra, percentage of depth dose (PDD), kV stability, HVL, output, spectrum, linearity, and leakage have been evaluated for a set of applicators (from 10 mm to 30 mm in diameter). Flatness and symmetry resulted better than 5% with around 1 mm of penumbra. The depth dose gradient is about 7%/mm. A kV value of 68.4 ± 1.0 kV (k = 1) was obtained, in good agreement with manufacturer data (69.5 kV). HVL was 1.85 mm Al. Dose rate for a typical 6 Gy to 7 Gy prescription resulted about 3.3 Gy/min and the leakage value was < 100 µGy/min. The new Esteya(®) Electronic Brachytherapy System presents excellent flatness and penumbra as with the Valencia applicator case, combined with an improved PDD, allowing treatment of lesions of up to a depth of 5 mm in combination with reduced treatment duration. The Esteya unit allows HDR brachytherapy superficial treatment within a minimally shielded environment due its low energy.

  6. The evolution of computerized treatment planning for brachytherapy: American contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To outline the evolution of computerized brachytherapy treatment planning in the United States through a review of technological developments and clinical practice refinements. Material and methods A literature review was performed and interviews were conducted with six participants in the development of computerized treatment planning for brachytherapy. Results Computerized brachytherapy treatment planning software was initially developed in the Physics Departments of New York's Memorial Hospital (by Nelson, Meurk and Balter), and Houston's M. D. Anderson Hospital (by Stovall and Shalek). These public-domain programs could be used by institutions with adequate computational resources; other clinics had access to them via Memorial's and Anderson's teletype-based computational services. Commercial brachytherapy treatment planning programs designed to run on smaller computers (Prowess, ROCS, MMS), were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These systems brought interactive dosimetry into the clinic and surgical theatre. Conclusions Brachytherapy treatment planning has evolved from systems of rigid implant rules to individualized pre- and intra-operative treatment plans, and post-operative dosimetric assessments. Brachytherapy dose distributions were initially calculated on public domain programs on large regionally located computers. With the progression of computer miniaturization and increase in processor speeds, proprietary software was commercially developed for microcomputers that offered increased functionality and integration with clinical practice. PMID:25097560

  7. A review of the clinical experience in pulsed dose rate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Balgobind, Brian V; Koedooder, Kees; Ordoñez Zúñiga, Diego; Dávila Fajardo, Raquel; Rasch, Coen R N

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy is a treatment modality that combines physical advantages of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate brachytherapy. The aim of this review was to describe the effective clinical use of PDR brachytherapy worldwide in different tumour locations. We found 66 articles reporting on clinical PDR brachytherapy including the treatment procedure and outcome. Moreover, PDR brachytherapy has been applied in almost all tumour sites for which brachytherapy is indicated and with good local control and low toxicity. The main advantage of PDR is, because of the small pulse sizes used, the ability to spare normal tissue. In certain cases, HDR resembles PDR brachytherapy by the use of multifractionated low-fraction dose. PMID:26290399

  8. A review of the clinical experience in pulsed dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Balgobind, Brian V; Koedooder, Kees; Ordoñez Zúñiga, Diego; Dávila Fajardo, Raquel; Rasch, Coen R N; Pieters, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy is a treatment modality that combines physical advantages of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate brachytherapy. The aim of this review was to describe the effective clinical use of PDR brachytherapy worldwide in different tumour locations. We found 66 articles reporting on clinical PDR brachytherapy including the treatment procedure and outcome. Moreover, PDR brachytherapy has been applied in almost all tumour sites for which brachytherapy is indicated and with good local control and low toxicity. The main advantage of PDR is, because of the small pulse sizes used, the ability to spare normal tissue. In certain cases, HDR resembles PDR brachytherapy by the use of multifractionated low-fraction dose.

  9. Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Kevin; Burri, Ryan; Stone, Nelson; Stock, Richard G.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2-15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic

  10. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  11. Paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yunlong; Xu, Weiyu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M.; Dadkhah, Hossein; Wu, Xiaodong

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The authors present a novel paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy (P-RSBT) method, whose radiation-attenuating shields are formed with a multileaf collimator (MLC), consisting of retractable paddles, to achieve intensity modulation in high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Methods: Five cervical cancer patients using an intrauterine tandem applicator were considered to assess the potential benefit of the P-RSBT method. The P-RSBT source used was a 50 kV electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™). The paddles can be retracted independently to form multiple emission windows around the source for radiation delivery. The MLC was assumed to be rotatable. P-RSBT treatment plans were generated using the asymmetric dose–volume optimization with smoothness control method [Liu et al., Med. Phys. 41(11), 111709 (11pp.) (2014)] with a delivery time constraint, different paddle sizes, and different rotation strides. The number of treatment fractions (fx) was assumed to be five. As brachytherapy is delivered as a boost for cervical cancer, the dose distribution for each case includes the dose from external beam radiotherapy as well, which is 45 Gy in 25 fx. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated until the minimum dose to the hottest 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cm{sup 3}}) of either the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached their tolerance doses of 75, 75, and 90 Gy{sub 3}, respectively, expressed as equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β = 3 Gy). Results: P-RSBT outperformed the two other RSBT delivery techniques, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT) and dynamic-shield RSBT (D-RSBT), with a properly selected paddle size. If the paddle size was angled at 60°, the average D{sub 90} increases for the delivery plans by P-RSBT on the five cases, compared to S-RSBT, were 2.2, 8.3, 12.6, 11.9, and 9.1 Gy{sub 10}, respectively, with delivery times of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min/fx. The increases in HR-CTV D{sub 90}, compared to D-RSBT, were 16

  12. Paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Dadkhah, Hossein; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M.; Xu, Weiyu; Wu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present a novel paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy (P-RSBT) method, whose radiation-attenuating shields are formed with a multileaf collimator (MLC), consisting of retractable paddles, to achieve intensity modulation in high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Methods: Five cervical cancer patients using an intrauterine tandem applicator were considered to assess the potential benefit of the P-RSBT method. The P-RSBT source used was a 50 kV electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™). The paddles can be retracted independently to form multiple emission windows around the source for radiation delivery. The MLC was assumed to be rotatable. P-RSBT treatment plans were generated using the asymmetric dose–volume optimization with smoothness control method [Liu et al., Med. Phys. 41(11), 111709 (11pp.) (2014)] with a delivery time constraint, different paddle sizes, and different rotation strides. The number of treatment fractions (fx) was assumed to be five. As brachytherapy is delivered as a boost for cervical cancer, the dose distribution for each case includes the dose from external beam radiotherapy as well, which is 45 Gy in 25 fx. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated until the minimum dose to the hottest 2 cm3 (D2cm3) of either the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached their tolerance doses of 75, 75, and 90 Gy3, respectively, expressed as equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β = 3 Gy). Results: P-RSBT outperformed the two other RSBT delivery techniques, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT) and dynamic-shield RSBT (D-RSBT), with a properly selected paddle size. If the paddle size was angled at 60°, the average D90 increases for the delivery plans by P-RSBT on the five cases, compared to S-RSBT, were 2.2, 8.3, 12.6, 11.9, and 9.1 Gy10, respectively, with delivery times of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min/fx. The increases in HR-CTV D90, compared to D-RSBT, were 16.6, 12.9, 7.2, 3.7, and 1.7 Gy10

  13. Harmony search optimization for HDR prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Aditya

    In high dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, multiple catheters are inserted interstitially into the target volume. The process of treating the prostate involves calculating and determining the best dose distribution to the target and organs-at-risk by means of optimizing the time that the radioactive source dwells at specified positions within the catheters. It is the goal of this work to investigate the use of a new optimization algorithm, known as Harmony Search, in order to optimize dwell times for HDR prostate brachytherapy. The new algorithm was tested on 9 different patients and also compared with the genetic algorithm. Simulations were performed to determine the optimal value of the Harmony Search parameters. Finally, multithreading of the simulation was examined to determine potential benefits. First, a simulation environment was created using the Python programming language and the wxPython graphical interface toolkit, which was necessary to run repeated optimizations. DICOM RT data from Varian BrachyVision was parsed and used to obtain patient anatomy and HDR catheter information. Once the structures were indexed, the volume of each structure was determined and compared to the original volume calculated in BrachyVision for validation. Dose was calculated using the AAPM TG-43 point source model of the GammaMed 192Ir HDR source and was validated against Varian BrachyVision. A DVH-based objective function was created and used for the optimization simulation. Harmony Search and the genetic algorithm were implemented as optimization algorithms for the simulation and were compared against each other. The optimal values for Harmony Search parameters (Harmony Memory Size [HMS], Harmony Memory Considering Rate [HMCR], and Pitch Adjusting Rate [PAR]) were also determined. Lastly, the simulation was modified to use multiple threads of execution in order to achieve faster computational times. Experimental results show that the volume calculation that was

  14. Calibration of Photon Sources for Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnders, Alex

    Source calibration has to be considered an essential part of the quality assurance program in a brachytherapy department. Not only it will ensure that the source strength value used for dose calculation agrees within some predetermined limits to the value stated on the source certificate, but also it will ensure traceability to international standards. At present calibration is most often still given in terms of reference air kerma rate, although calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water would be closer to the users interest. It can be expected that in a near future several standard laboratories will be able to offer this latter service, and dosimetry protocols will have to be adapted in this way. In-air measurement using ionization chambers (e.g. a Baldwin—Farmer ionization chamber for 192Ir high dose rate HDR or pulsed dose rate PDR sources) is still considered the method of choice for high energy source calibration, but because of their ease of use and reliability well type chambers are becoming more popular and are nowadays often recommended as the standard equipment. For low energy sources well type chambers are in practice the only equipment available for calibration. Care should be taken that the chamber is calibrated at the standard laboratory for the same source type and model as used in the clinic, and using the same measurement conditions and setup. Several standard laboratories have difficulties to provide these calibration facilities, especially for the low energy seed sources (125I and 103Pd). Should a user not be able to obtain properly calibrated equipment to verify the brachytherapy sources used in his department, then at least for sources that are replaced on a regular basis, a consistency check program should be set up to ensure a minimal level of quality control before these sources are used for patient treatment.

  15. Optimisation techniques in vaginal cuff brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, N; Garipagaoglu, M; Kizildag, A U; Andic, F; Toy, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether an in-house dosimetry protocol and optimisation method are able to produce a homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume, and how often optimisation is required in vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Treatment planning was carried out for 109 fractions in 33 patients who underwent high dose rate iridium-192 (Ir(192)) brachytherapy using Fletcher ovoids. Dose prescription and normalisation were performed to catheter-oriented lateral dose points (dps) within a range of 90-110% of the prescribed dose. The in-house vaginal apex point (Vk), alternative vaginal apex point (Vk'), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) rectal point (Rg) and bladder point (Bl) doses were calculated. Time-position optimisations were made considering dps, Vk and Rg doses. Keeping the Vk dose higher than 95% and the Rg dose less than 85% of the prescribed dose was intended. Target dose homogeneity, optimisation frequency and the relationship between prescribed dose, Vk, Vk', Rg and ovoid diameter were investigated. The mean target dose was 99+/-7.4% of the prescription dose. Optimisation was required in 92 out of 109 (83%) fractions. Ovoid diameter had a significant effect on Rg (p = 0.002), Vk (p = 0.018), Vk' (p = 0.034), minimum dps (p = 0.021) and maximum dps (p<0.001). Rg, Vk and Vk' doses with 2.5 cm diameter ovoids were significantly higher than with 2 cm and 1.5 cm ovoids. Catheter-oriented dose point normalisation provided a homogeneous dose distribution with a 99+/-7.4% mean dose within the target volume, requiring time-position optimisation.

  16. Brachytherapy attains abscopal effects when combined with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, María E; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Barbes, Benigno; Mayorga, Lina; Sanchez-Paulete, Alfonso Rodriguez; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Pérez-Gracia, José Luis; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-08-21

    Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the proimmune effects of radiotherapy can be synergistically augmented with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to act both on irradiated tumor lesions and on tumors at distant, nonirradiated sites. We have recently reported that external beam radiotherapy achieves abscopal effects when combined with antagonist anti-PD1 mAbs and agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs. The goal of this work is to study the abscopal effects of radiotherapy instigated by brachytherapy techniques. Mice bearing a subcutaneous colorectal carcinoma, MC38 (colorectal cancer), in both flanks were randomly assigned to receive brachytherapy or not (8 Gy × three fractions) to only one of the two grafted tumors, in combination with intraperitoneal immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD1, anti-CD137, and/or their respective isotype controls). To study the abscopal effects of brachytherapy, we established an experimental set up that permits irradiation of mouse tumors sparing a distant site resembling metastasis. Such second nonirradiated tumor was used as indicator of abscopal effect. Tumor size was monitored every 2 days. Abscopal effects on distant nonirradiated subcutaneous tumor lesions of transplanted MC38-derived tumors only took place when brachytherapy was combined with immunostimulatory anti-PD1 and/or anti-CD137 mAbs. Our results demonstrate that immunotherapy-potentiated abscopal effects can be attained by brachytherapy. Accordingly, immunotherapy plus brachytherapy combinations are suitable for clinical translation. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A modified dose calculation formalism for electronic brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    DeWerd, Larry A; Culberson, Wesley S; Micka, John A; Simiele, Samantha J

    2015-01-01

    To propose a modification of the current dose calculation formalism introduced in the Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. Electronic brachytherapy sources are miniature x-ray tubes emitting low energies with high-dose-rates. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has introduced a new primary air-kerma rate standard for one of these sources, in contrast to air-kerma strength. A modification of the TG-43 protocol for calculation of dose-rate distributions around electronic brachytherapy sources including sources in an applicator is presented. It cannot be assumed that the perturbations from sources in an applicator are negligible, and thus, the applicator is incorporated in the formalism. The modified protocol mimics the fundamental methodology of the original TG-43 formalism, but now incorporates the new NIST-traceable source strength metric of air-kerma rate at 50 cm and introduces a new subscript, i, to denote the presence of an applicator used in treatment delivery. Applications of electronic brachytherapy sources for surface brachytherapy are not addressed in this Technical Note since they are well documented in other publications. A modification of the AAPM TG-43 protocol has been developed to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. The modified TG-43 formalism allows dose calculations to be performed using a new NIST-traceable source strength metric and introduces the concept of applicator-specific formalism parameters denoted with subscript, i. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods for prostate stabilization during transperineal LDR brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, Tarun; Sherman, Jason; Rubens, Deborah; Messing, Edward; Strang, John; Ng, Wan-Sing; Yu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    In traditional prostate brachytherapy procedures for a low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation seed implant, stabilizing needles are first inserted to provide some rigidity and support to the prostate. Ideally this will provide better seed placement and an overall improved treatment. However, there is much speculation regarding the effectiveness of using regular brachytherapy needles as stabilizers. In this study, we explored the efficacy of two types of needle geometries (regular brachytherapy needle and hooked needle) and several clinically feasible configurations of the stabilization needles. To understand and assess the prostate movement during seed implantation, we collected in vivo data from patients during actual brachytherapy procedures. In vitro experimentation with tissue-equivalent phantoms allowed us to further understand the mechanics behind prostate stabilization. We observed superior stabilization with the hooked needles compared to the regular brachytherapy needles (more than 40% in bilateral parallel needle configuration). Prostate movement was also reduced significantly when regular brachytherapy needles were in an angulated configuration as compared to the parallel configuration (more than 60%). When the hooked needles were angulated for stabilization, further reduction in prostate displacement was observed. In general, for convenience of dosimetric planning and to avoid needle collision, all needles are desired to be in a parallel configuration. In this configuration, hooked needles provide improved stabilization of the prostate. On the other hand, both regular and hooked needles appear to be equally effective in reducing prostate movement when they are in angulated configurations, which will be useful in seed implantation using a robotic system. We have developed nonlinear spring-damper model for the prostate movement which can be used for adapting dosimetric planning during brachytherapy as well as for developing more realistic haptic devices and

  19. Brachytherapy for malignancies of the vagina in the 3D era

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is an uncommon malignancy and can be either recurrent or primary. In both cases, brachytherapy places a central role in the overall treatment course. Recent technological advances have led to more advanced brachytherapy techniques, which in turn have translated to improved outcomes for patients with malignancies of the vagina. The aim of this manuscript is to outline the incorporation of modern brachytherapy into the treatment of patients with vaginal cancer including patient selection along with the role of brachytherapy in conjunction with other treatment modalities, various brachytherapy techniques, treatment planning, dose fractionation schedules, and normal tissue tolerance. PMID:26622234

  20. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Grace L; Huo, Jinhai; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A; Smith, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast brachytherapy after lumpectomy is controversial in younger patients, as effectiveness is unclear and selection criteria are debated. Methods Using MarketScan® healthcare claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (ages 18–64), treated from 2003–2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3,134) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups, based on age (Age<50 vs. Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs. Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy vs. WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: In patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 vs. 32% of WBI patients (P<0.001); while 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine- vs. 44% of WBI patients (P=0.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs. 9.0% after WBI (Hazard ratio[HR]=2.18, 1.37–3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs. 4.9%; HR=1.76, 1.26–2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs. 4.5%; HR=1.18, 0.61–2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs. 2.4%; HR=1.71, 1.16–2.51). Conclusion In this younger cohort, endocrine status was a valuable discriminatory factor predicting subsequent mastectomy risk after brachytherapy vs. WBI and therefore may be useful for selecting appropriate

  1. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Grace L.; Huo, Jinhai; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  2. Vaginal brachytherapy for postoperative endometrial cancer: 2014 Survey of the American Brachytherapy Society.

    PubMed

    Harkenrider, Matthew M; Grover, Surbhi; Erickson, Beth A; Viswanathan, Akila N; Small, Christina; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Small, William

    2016-01-01

    Report current practice patterns for postoperative endometrial cancer emphasizing vaginal brachytherapy (VBT). A 38-item survey was e-mailed to 1,598 American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) members and 4,329 US radiation oncologists in 2014 totaling 5,710 recipients. Responses of practitioners who had delivered VBT in the previous 12 months were included in the analysis. Responses were tabulated to determine relative frequency distributions. χ(2) analysis was used to compare current results with those from the 2003 ABS survey. A total of 331 respondents initiated the VBT survey, of whom 289 (87.3%) administered VBT in the prior 12 months. Lymph node dissection and number of nodes removed influenced treatment decisions for 90.5% and 69.8%, respectively. High-dose-rate was used by 96.2%. The most common vaginal length treated was 4 cm (31.0%). Three-dimensional planning was used by 83.2% with 73.4% of those for the first fraction only. Doses to normal tissues were reported by 79.8%. About half optimized to the location of dose specification and/or normal tissues. As monotherapy, the most common prescriptions were 7 Gy for three fractions to 0.5-cm depth and 6 Gy for five fractions to the surface. As a boost, the most common prescriptions were 5 Gy for three fractions to 0.5-cm depth and 6 Gy for three fractions to the vaginal surface. Optimization points were placed at the apex and lateral vagina by 73.1%. Secondary quality assurance checks were performed by 98.9%. VBT is a common adjuvant therapy for endometrial cancer patients, most commonly with HDR. Fractionation and planning processes are variable but generally align with ABS recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis. PMID:22843376

  4. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wallner, K; Smathers, S; Sutlief, S; Corman, J; Ellis, W

    2000-06-20

    Our aim was to document the technical and clinical course of prostate brachytherapy patients with radiographic evidence of median lobe hyperplasia (MLH). Eight patients with MLH were identified during our routine brachytherapy practice, representing 9% of the 87 brachytherapy patients treated during a 6-month period. No effort was made to avoid brachytherapy in patients noted to have MLH on diagnostic work-up. Cystoscopic evaluation was not routinely performed. Postimplant axial computed tomographic (CT) images of the prostate were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals. Preimplant urinary obstructive symptoms were quantified by the criteria of the American Urologic Association (AUA). Each patient was contacted during the writing of this report to update postimplant morbidity information. There was no apparent association between the degree of MLH and preimplant prostate volume or AUA score. Intraoperatively, we were able to visualize MLH by transrectal ultrasound and did not notice any particular difficulty placing sources in the MLH tissue or migration of sources out of the tissue. The prescription isodose covered from 81% to 99% of the postimplant CT-defined target volume, achieving adequate dose to the median lobe tissue in all patients. Two of the eight patients developed acute, postimplant urinary retention. The first patient required intermittent self-catheterization for 3 months and then resumed spontaneous urination. MLH does not appear to be a strong contraindication to prostate brachytherapy, and prophylactic resection of hypertrophic tissue in such patients is probably not warranted. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 152-156 (2000).

  5. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-09-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis.

  6. Brachytherapy in the treatment of recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Almefty, Kaith K; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Arvold, Nils D; Devlin, Phillip M; Reardon, David A; Loeffler, Jay S; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas are uncommon tumors that recur despite receiving extensive surgery and radiation therapy (RT). We have utilized brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in two such patients with a unique implantation technique. Both patients had recurrence of WHO Grade II falcine meningiomas despite multiple prior surgical and RT treatments. Radioactive I-125 seeds were made into strands and sutured into a mesh implant, with 1 cm spacing, in a size appropriate to cover the cavity and region of susceptible falcine dura. Following resection the vicryl mesh was implanted and fixed to the margins of the falx. Implantation in this interhemispheric space provides good dose conformality with targeting of at-risk tissue and minimal radiation exposure to normal neural tissues. The patients are recurrence free 31 and 10 months after brachytherapy treatment. Brachytherapy was an effective salvage treatment for the recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas in our two patients.

  7. The needs for brachytherapy source calibrations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coursey, B. M.; Goodman, L. J.; Hoppes, D. D.; Loevinger, R.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Soares, C. G.; Weaver, J. T.

    1992-02-01

    Brachytherapy sources of beta and gamma radiation ("brachy" is from the Greek, meaning "near") have a long history of use in interstitial, intracavitary, intraluminal, and ocular radiation therapy. In the past the US national standards for these sources were often specified in activity or milligram radium equivalent. With the introduction of new radionuclide sources to replace radium, source strength calibrations are now expressed as air kerma rate at a meter. In this paper, we review the NIST standards for brachytherapy sources, list some of the common radionuclides and source encapsulations in use in the US radiology community, and describe the latest NIST work, in collaboration with several US medical institutions, on a method of two- and three-dimensional dose mapping of brachytherapy sources using radiochromic films.

  8. Brachytherapy in the treatment of skin cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of skin cancer worldwide is constantly growing and it is the most frequently diagnosed tumor. Brachytherapy (BT) in particular localizations is a valuable tool of the exact radiation depot inside the tumor mass. In localizations such as the face, skull skin and inoperable tumors, relapses after surgery, radiotherapy are usually not suitable for primary or secondary invasive treatment. Brachytherapy is a safe procedure for organs at risk according to rapid fall of a dose outside the axis of the applicator with satisfactory dose localization inside the target. The complications rate is acceptable and treatment costs are low. In some tumors (great skin lesions in the scalp, near eyes or on the nose) BT allows for a great dose reduction in surrounding healthy tissues. Brachytherapy provides minimal dose delivery to surrounding healthy tissue, thus enabling good functional and cosmetic results. Treatment is possible almost in all cases on an outpatient basis.

  9. p-type silicon detector for brachytherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, A; Azario, L; Monaco, G; Soriani, A; Arcovito, G

    1995-06-01

    The sensitivity of a cylindrical p-type silicon detector was studied by means of air and water measurements using different photon beams. A lead filter cap around the diode was used to minimize the dependence of the detector response as a function of the brachytherapy photon energy. The radial dose distribution of a high-activity 192Ir source in a brachytherapy phantom was measured by means of the shielded diode and the agreement of these data with theoretical evaluations confirms the method used to compensate diode response in the intermediate energy range. The diode sensitivity was constant over a wide range of dose rates of clinical interest; this allowed one to have a small detector calibrated in terms of absorbed dose in a medium. Theoretical evaluations showed that a single shielding filter around the p-type diode is sufficient to obtain accurate dosimetry for 192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co brachytherapy sources.

  10. Brachytherapy in the treatment of skin cancer: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer worldwide is constantly growing and it is the most frequently diagnosed tumor. Brachytherapy (BT) in particular localizations is a valuable tool of the exact radiation depot inside the tumor mass. In localizations such as the face, skull skin and inoperable tumors, relapses after surgery, radiotherapy are usually not suitable for primary or secondary invasive treatment. Brachytherapy is a safe procedure for organs at risk according to rapid fall of a dose outside the axis of the applicator with satisfactory dose localization inside the target. The complications rate is acceptable and treatment costs are low. In some tumors (great skin lesions in the scalp, near eyes or on the nose) BT allows for a great dose reduction in surrounding healthy tissues. Brachytherapy provides minimal dose delivery to surrounding healthy tissue, thus enabling good functional and cosmetic results. Treatment is possible almost in all cases on an outpatient basis. PMID:26759545

  11. Urethral toxicity after LDR brachytherapy: experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-01-01

    Urinary toxicity is common after low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy, and the resolution of urinary toxicity is a concern. In particular, urinary frequency is the most common adverse event among the urinary toxicities. We have previously reported that approximately 70% of patients experience urinary frequency during the first 6 months after seed implantation. Most urinary adverse events were classified as Grade 1, and Grade 2 or higher adverse events were rare. The incidence of urinary retention was approximately 2-4%. A high International Prostate Symptom Score before seed implantation was an independent predictor of acute urinary toxicity of Grade 2 or higher. Several previous reports from the United States also supported this trend. In Japan, LDR brachytherapy was legally approved in 2003. A nationwide prospective cohort study entitled Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implantation was initiated in July 2005. It is an important issue to limit urinary toxicities in patients who undergo LDR brachytherapy.

  12. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29

  13. Radioactive seed migration following parotid gland interstitial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of pulmonary seed migration after parotid brachytherapy using a novel migrated seed detection technique. Patients diagnosed with parotid cancer who underwent permanent parotid brachytherapy from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Head and neck CT scans and chest X-rays were evaluated during routine follow-up. Mimics software and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and migrated seed detection from the original implanted region, respectively. Postimplant dosimetry analysis was performed after seeds migration if the seeds were still in their emitting count. Adverse clinical sequelae from seed embolization to the lung were documented. The radioactive seed implants were identified on chest X-rays in 6 patients. The incidence rate of seed migration in 321 parotid brachytherapy patients was 1.87% (6/321) and that of individual seed migration was 0.04% (6/15218 seeds). All migrated seeds were originally from the retromandibular region. No adverse dosimetric consequences were found in the target region. Pulmonary symptoms were not reported by any patient in this study. In our patient set, migration of radioactive seeds with an initial radioactivity of 0.6-0.7 mCi to the chest following parotid brachytherapy was rare. Late migration of a single seed from the central target region did not affect the dosimetry significantly, and patients did not have severe short-term complications. This study proposed a novel technique to localize the anatomical origin of the migrated seeds during brachytherapy. Our evidence suggested that placement of seeds adjacent to blood vessels was associated with an increased likelihood of seed migration to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspects of dosimetry and clinical practice of skin brachytherapy: The American Brachytherapy Society working group report.

    PubMed

    Ouhib, Zoubir; Kasper, Michael; Perez Calatayud, Jose; Rodriguez, Silvia; Bhatnagar, Ajay; Pai, Sujatha; Strasswimmer, John

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common type of human malignancy. Although surgical techniques are the standard treatment, radiation therapy using photons, electrons, and brachytherapy (BT) (radionuclide-based and electronic) has been an important mode of treatment in specific clinical situations. The purpose of this work is to provide a clinical and dosimetric summary of the use of BT for the treatment of NMSC and to describe the different BT approaches used in treating cutaneous malignancies. A group of experts from the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, and dermatology, who specialize in managing cutaneous malignancies reviewed the literature and compiled their clinical experience regarding the clinical and dosimetric aspects of skin BT. A dosimetric and clinical review of both high dose rate ((192)Ir) and electronic BT treatment including surface, interstitial, and custom mold applicators is given. Patient evaluation tools such as staging, imaging, and patient selection criteria are discussed. Guidelines for clinical and dosimetric planning, appropriate margin delineation, and applicator selection are suggested. Dose prescription and dose fractionation schedules, as well as prescription depth are discussed. Commissioning and quality assurance requirements are also outlined. Given the limited published data for skin BT, this article is a summary of the limited literature and best practices currently in use for the treatment of NMSC. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian J; Horwitz, Eric M; Lee, W Robert; Crook, Juanita M; Stock, Richard G; Merrick, Gregory S; Butler, Wayne M; Grimm, Peter D; Stone, Nelson N; Potters, Louis; Zietman, Anthony L; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To provide updated American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines for transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). The ABS formed a committee of brachytherapists and researchers experienced in the clinical practice of PPB to formulate updated guidelines for this technique. Sources of input for these guidelines included prior published guidelines, clinical trials, published literature, and experience of the committee. The recommendations of the committee were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the ABS. Patients with high probability of organ-confined disease or limited extraprostatic extension are considered appropriate candidates for PPB monotherapy. Low-risk patients may be treated with PPB alone without the need for supplemental external beam radiotherapy. High-risk patients should receive supplemental external beam radiotherapy if PPB is used. Intermediate-risk patients should be considered on an individual case basis. Intermediate-risk patients with favorable features may appropriately be treated with PPB monotherapy but results from confirmatory clinical trials are pending. Computed tomography-based postimplant dosimetry performed within 60 days of the implant is considered essential for maintenance of a satisfactory quality assurance program. Postimplant computed tomography-magnetic resonance image fusion is viewed as useful, but not mandatory. Updated guidelines for patient selection, workup, treatment, postimplant dosimetry, and followup are provided. These recommendations are intended to be advisory in nature with the ultimate responsibility for the care of the patients resting with the treating physicians. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-01-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for 192Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice. PMID:25027247

  17. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  18. Validation of GPUMCD for low-energy brachytherapy seed dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe; Carrier, Jean-Francois

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To validate GPUMCD, a new package for fast Monte Carlo dose calculations based on the GPU (graphics processing unit), as a tool for low-energy single seed brachytherapy dosimetry for specific seed models. As the currently accepted method of dose calculation in low-energy brachytherapy computations relies on severe approximations, a Monte Carlo based approach would result in more accurate dose calculations, taking in to consideration the patient anatomy as well as interseed attenuation. The first step is to evaluate the capability of GPUMCD to reproduce low-energy, single source, brachytherapy calculations which could ultimately result in fast and accurate, Monte Carlo based, brachytherapy dose calculations for routine planning. Methods: A mixed geometry engine was integrated to GPUMCD capable of handling parametric as well as voxelized geometries. In order to evaluate GPUMCD for brachytherapy calculations, several dosimetry parameters were computed and compared to values found in the literature. These parameters, defined by the AAPM Task-Group No. 43, are the radial dose function, the 2D anisotropy function, and the dose rate constant. These three parameters were computed for two different brachytherapy sources: the Amersham OncoSeed 6711 and the Imagyn IsoStar IS-12501. Results: GPUMCD was shown to yield dosimetric parameters similar to those found in the literature. It reproduces radial dose functions to within 1.25% for both sources in the 0.5< r <10 cm range. The 2D anisotropy function was found to be within 3% at r = 5 cm and within 4% at r = 1 cm. The dose rate constants obtained were within the range of other values reported in the literature.Conclusion: GPUMCD was shown to be able to reproduce various TG-43 parameters for two different low-energy brachytherapy sources found in the literature. The next step is to test GPUMCD as a fast clinical Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations with multiple seeds and patient geometry, potentially providing

  19. [Guidelines for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy: 2nd edition].

    PubMed

    Mahé, M-A; Barillot, I; Chauvet, B

    2016-09-01

    In 2007, a first edition was published with the objective to produce guidelines for optimization, harmonization and homogenization of practices in external radiation therapy in France. The second edition, including brachytherapy, has the same objective and takes into account recent technologic improvements (intensity modulation radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and 3-dimension brachytherapy) and results of literature. The first part is about daily use of general principles (quality, security, image-guided radiation therapy) and the second is to describe each treatment step in main cancers.

  20. Dosimetric characteristics of a new unit for electronic skin brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Chan, Jan-Pieter; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy with radioactive high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source is applied to small skin cancer lesions, using surface applicators, i.e. Leipzig or Valencia type. New developments in the field of radiotherapy for skin cancer include electronic brachytherapy. This technique involves the placement of an HDR X-ray source close to the skin, therefore combining the benefits of brachytherapy with the reduced shielding requirements and targeted energy of low energy X-rays. Recently, the Esteya® Electronic Brachytherapy System (Esteya EBS, Elekta AB-Nucletron, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed specifically for HDR brachytherapy treatment of surface lesions. The system provides radionuclide free HDR brachytherapy by means of a small 69.5 kV X-ray source. The purpose of this study is to obtain the dosimetric characterization required for clinical implementation, providing the detailed methodology to perform the commissioning. Material and methods Flatness, symmetry and penumbra, percentage of depth dose (PDD), kV stability, HVL, output, spectrum, linearity, and leakage have been evaluated for a set of applicators (from 10 mm to 30 mm in diameter). Results Flatness and symmetry resulted better than 5% with around 1 mm of penumbra. The depth dose gradient is about 7%/mm. A kV value of 68.4 ± 1.0 kV (k = 1) was obtained, in good agreement with manufacturer data (69.5 kV). HVL was 1.85 mm Al. Dose rate for a typical 6 Gy to 7 Gy prescription resulted about 3.3 Gy/min and the leakage value was < 100 µGy/min. Conclusions The new Esteya® Electronic Brachytherapy System presents excellent flatness and penumbra as with the Valencia applicator case, combined with an improved PDD, allowing treatment of lesions of up to a depth of 5 mm in combination with reduced treatment duration. The Esteya unit allows HDR brachytherapy superficial treatment within a minimally shielded environment due its low energy. PMID:24790622

  1. Epimacular brachytherapy for wet AMD: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Giralt, Joan; Farah, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the over-60 age group in developed countries. There are basically two forms of presentation: geographic (dry or atrophic) and wet (neovascular or exudative). Geographic atrophy accounts for approximately 85%–90% of ophthalmic frames and leads to a progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Wet AMD causes the highest percentage of central vision loss secondary to disease. This neovascular form involves an angiogenic process in which newly formed choroidal vessels invade the macular area. Today, intravitreal anti-angiogenic drugs attempt to block the angiogenic events and represent a major advance in the treatment of wet AMD. Currently, combination therapy for wet AMD includes different forms of radiation delivery. Epimacular brachytherapy (EMBT) seems to be a useful approach to be associated with current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, presenting an acceptable efficacy and safety profile. However, at the present stage of research, the results of the clinical trials carried out to date are insufficient to justify extending routine use of EMBT for the treatment of wet AMD. PMID:25210436

  2. Epimacular brachytherapy for wet AMD: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Giralt, Joan; Farah, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the over-60 age group in developed countries. There are basically two forms of presentation: geographic (dry or atrophic) and wet (neovascular or exudative). Geographic atrophy accounts for approximately 85%-90% of ophthalmic frames and leads to a progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Wet AMD causes the highest percentage of central vision loss secondary to disease. This neovascular form involves an angiogenic process in which newly formed choroidal vessels invade the macular area. Today, intravitreal anti-angiogenic drugs attempt to block the angiogenic events and represent a major advance in the treatment of wet AMD. Currently, combination therapy for wet AMD includes different forms of radiation delivery. Epimacular brachytherapy (EMBT) seems to be a useful approach to be associated with current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, presenting an acceptable efficacy and safety profile. However, at the present stage of research, the results of the clinical trials carried out to date are insufficient to justify extending routine use of EMBT for the treatment of wet AMD.

  3. Radiotherapy and brachytherapy for recurrent colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, S. )

    1991-05-01

    Radical surgical excision of locoregional recurrence of colorectal carcinoma usually produces the best survival and should be attempted whenever possible. However, recurrences are often unresectable; hence palliative local therapy may be indicated. There are several options for the radiation therapy of local, unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic colorectal cancer. Whole pelvis irradiation of 4,000-5,000 cGy followed by a coned-down boost of 1,000-1,500 cGy generally provides good symptomatic palliation in 80-90% of patients, but long-term control or cure is rarely achieved. External beam irradiation of 2,000-3,000 cGy to the whole liver with or without concurrent chemotherapy may be used for palliation of metastatic disease to the liver. A combination of intraoperative radiation therapy applied directly to the tumor bed and external beam irradiation may improve local control and survival rates. Multiple options are available for the intraoperative use of brachytherapy which can deliver high radiation doses to the residual tumor, or tumor bed, sparing normal tissue.

  4. Dosimetry of two new interstitial brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Pooneh; Sadeghi, Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    With increased demand for low 103Pd (palladium) seed sources, to treat prostate and eye cancers, new sources have been designed and introduced. This article presents the two new palladium brachytherapy sources, IR03-103Pd and IR04-103Pd that have been developed at Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute. The dosimetry parameters such as the dose rate constant Λ, the radial dose function g(r), and the anisotropy function F(r,θ), around the sources have been characterized using Version 5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code in accordance with the update AAPM Task Group No. 43 report (TG-43U1). The results indicated the dose rate constant of 0.689±0.02 and 0.667±0.02 cGy h-1 U-1 for the IR03-103Pd and IR04-103Pd sources respectively, which are in acceptable agreement with other commercial seeds. The calculated results were compared with published results for those of other source manufacturers. However, they show an acceptable dose distribution, using for clinical applications is pending experimental dosimetry.

  5. Postoperative interstitial brachytherapy in eyelid cancer: long term results and assessment of Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy scale

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Trinanjan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Chaukar, Devendra; Nadkarni, Mandar; GN, Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyse feasibility and safety of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy (IBRT) in patients of eyelid cancer treated primarily by surgical excision. Material and methods In this series, 8 patients with eyelid cancer were treated using postoperative interstitial brachytherapy. Patients were followed up for local control, cosmetic outcome, and acute and late toxicities. Cosmetic outcome was measured using a 6 point indigenous Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy (CAIB) scale. Results The patients were between 23-82 years (median: 71 years). There were 3 females and 5 males, and 3 patients had lesions in upper eyelid. Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy was used in all with 2 catheters implanted in most of them (6 out of 8). Local control was calculated from end of treatment to last follow-up. At last follow-up, all patients remained locally controlled. Two patients had nodal recurrence 6 months after interstitial brachytherapy and were salvaged effectively by external beam radiotherapy. At last follow-up, 7 patients were loco-regionally controlled and one was lost to follow up. All patients had Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 acute toxicity and 2 had grade 1 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version.3 late toxicities. The cosmesis score for the whole group ranged between 0-1 indicating excellent to very good cosmesis. Conclusions Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in excellent disease control and cosmesis without significant acute or late toxicities. It is an effective modality for treatment of eyelid cancers in selected patients. Future prospective studies with the validation of CAIB scale would give us more insight to this effective yet often ignored modality of IBRT. PMID:25834578

  6. Current status of brachytherapy in Korea: a national survey of radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Juree; Park, Won; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to acquire information on brachytherapy resources in Korea through a national survey of radiation oncologists. Between October 2014 and January 2015, a questionnaire on the current status of brachytherapy was distributed to all 86 radiation oncology departments in Korea. The questionnaire was divided into sections querying general information on human resources, brachytherapy equipment, and suggestions for future directions of brachytherapy policy in Korea. The response rate of the survey was 88.3%. The average number of radiation oncologists per center was 2.3. At the time of survey, 28 centers (36.8%) provided brachytherapy to patients. Among the 28 brachytherapy centers, 15 (53.5%) were located in in the capital Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan areas. All brachytherapy centers had a high-dose rate system using (192)Ir (26 centers) or (60)Co (two centers). Among the 26 centers using (192)Ir sources, 11 treated fewer than 40 patients per year. In the two centers using (60)Co sources, the number of patients per year was 16 and 120, respectively. The most frequently cited difficulties in performing brachytherapy were cost related. A total of 21 centers had a plan to sustain the current brachytherapy system, and four centers noted plans to upgrade their brachytherapy system. Two centers stated that they were considering discontinuation of brachytherapy due to cost burdens of radioisotope source replacement. The present study illustrated the current status of brachytherapy in Korea. Financial difficulties were the major barriers to the practice of brachytherapy.

  7. Brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: optimal patient selection.

    PubMed

    Kollmeier, Marisa A; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of each modality and delineate how to best select patients who are optimal candidates for these treatment approaches. Prostate brachytherapy as a curative modality for clinically localized prostate cancer has become increasingly utilized over the past decade; 25% of all early cancers are now treated this way in the United States (1). The popularity of this treatment strategy lies in the highly conformal nature of radiation dose, low morbidity, patient convenience, and high efficacy rates. Prostate brachytherapy can be delivered by either a permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation (low dose rate [LDR]) or a temporary interstitial insertion of iridium-192 (Ir192) afterloading catheters. The objective of both of these techniques is to deliver a high dose of radiation to the prostate gland while exposing normal surrounding tissues to minimal radiation dose. Brachytherapy techniques are ideal to achieve this goal given the close proximity of the radiation source to tumor and sharp fall off of the radiation dose cloud proximate to the source. Brachytherapy provides a powerful means of delivering dose escalation above and beyond that achievable with intensity-modulated external beam radiotherapy alone. Careful selection of appropriate patients for these therapies, however, is critical for optimizing both disease-related outcomes and treatment-related toxicity.

  8. 10 CFR 35.2406 - Records of brachytherapy source accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of brachytherapy source accountability. 35.2406 Section 35.2406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2406... from storage, the name of the individual who removed them from storage, and the location of use; and...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  11. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  13. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  14. Introduction of Transperineal Image-Guided Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aronowitz, Jesse N.

    2014-07-15

    The modern prostate brachytherapy procedure is characterized by ultrasound guidance, template assistance, and a return to a “closed” transperineal approach. This review traces the introduction and evolution of these elements and charts the development of the procedure from the ashes of previous, failed efforts.

  15. Rectal contrast increases rectal dose during vaginal cuff brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Rovirosa, Angeles; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Arenas, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of rectal dose on rectal contrast use during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). A retrospective review of gynecology patients who received some brachytherapy fractions with and without rectal contrast was carried out. Rectal contrast was instilled at the clinician's discretion to increase rectal visibility. Thirty-six pairs of CT scans in preparation for brachytherapy were analyzed. Pairs of CTs were segmented and planned using the same parameters. The rectum was always defined from 1 cm above the cylinder tip up to 1.5 cm below the last activated dwell source position. An individual plan was computed at every VCB fraction. A set of values (Dmax, D(0.1cc), D(1cc), and D(2cc)) derived from dose-volume histograms were extracted and compared according to the rectal status. Rectal volume was 26.7% larger in the fractions with rectal contrast. Such an increase in volume represented a significant increase from 7.7% to 10.4% in all parameters analyzed except Dmax dose-volume histogram. Avoiding rectal contrast is a simple way of decreasing the rectal dose parameters of VCB, which would mean a better therapeutic ratio. Results also suggest that action directed at maintaining the rectum empty might have the same effect. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds with transurethral light delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel approach to photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds utilizing an existing urinary catheter for transurethral light delivery. Two canine prostates were surgically implanted with brachyther- apy seeds under transrectal ultrasound guidance. One prostate was excised shortly after euthanasia and fixed in gelatin. The second prostate was imaged in the native tissue environment shortly after euthanasia. A urinary catheter was inserted in the urethra of each prostate. A 1-mm core diameter optical fiber coupled to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser was inserted into the urinary catheter. Light from the fiber was either directed mostly parallel to the fiber axis (i.e. end-fire fire) or mostly 90° to the fiber axis (i.e. side-fire fiber). An Ultrasonix SonixTouch scanner, transrectal ultrasound probe with curvilinear (BPC8-4) and linear (BPL9-5) arrays, and DAQ unit were utilized for synchronized laser light emission and photoacoustic signal acquisition. The implanted brachytherapy seeds were visualized at radial distances of 6-16 mm from the catheter. Multiple brachytherapy seeds were si- multaneously visualized with each array of the transrectal probe using both delay-and-sum (DAS) and short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamforming. This work is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a transurethral light delivery method.

  17. Assessment of effective dose to staff in brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; James, H V; Chapple, C L; Rawlings, D J

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the problem of monitoring effective dose to hospital staff who are involved in the treatment of tumors using sealed sources placed inside the body (brachytherapy). In addition, the use of an unsealed source to treat the thyroid was also considered. Radiation distributions produced by both sealed sources commonly used in brachytherapy (192I, 137Cs, 226Ra) and an unsealed source used in the treatment of the thyroid (131I) were used to irradiate a Rando phantom. The brachytherapy treatments of esophageal and gynecological carcinoma were simulated. The Rando phantom was loaded with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters at positions corresponding to a number of radiosensitive organs. Film badges and electronic personal dosimeters were attached to the Rando phantom at various anatomical sites. The Rando phantom was positioned adjacent to the patient at an angle of 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the patient. Irradiations were performed with and without a portable lead screen used on the radiotherapy wards. Effective dose was estimated for each simulated radiotherapy treatment and compared with the personal monitor readings. The data were used as a basis for the provision of advice on the wearing of the film badge dosimeters and the design of portable lead screens. The data also permitted a comparison between the two types of dosimeter when used for personal monitoring in brachytherapy.

  18. Brachytherapy treatment planning algorithm applied to prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Rodríguez, M. R.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.

    2000-10-01

    An application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for treatment planning optimization in prostate brachytherapy is presented. The importance of multi-objective selection criteria based on the contour of the volume of interest and radiosensitive structures such as the rectum and urethra is discussed. First results are obtained for a simple test case which presents radial symmetry.

  19. Verification of Oncentra brachytherapy planning using independent calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safian, N. A. M.; Abdullah, N. H.; Abdullah, R.; Chiang, C. S.

    2016-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the verification technique of treatment plan quality assurance for brachytherapy. It is aimed to verify the point doses in 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy between Oncentra Masterplan brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent calculation software at a region of rectum, bladder and prescription points for both pair ovoids and full catheter set ups. The Oncentra TPS output text files were automatically loaded into the verification programme that has been developed based on spreadsheets. The output consists of source coordinates, desired calculation point coordinates and the dwell time of a patient plan. The source strength and reference dates were entered into the programme and then dose point calculations were independently performed. The programme shows its results in a comparison of its calculated point doses with the corresponding Oncentra TPS outcome. From the total of 40 clinical cases that consisted of two fractions for 20 patients, the results that were given in term of percentage difference, it shows an agreement between TPS and independent calculation are in the range of 2%. This programme only takes a few minutes to be used is preferably recommended to be implemented as the verification technique in clinical brachytherapy dosimetry.

  20. The American College of Radiology and the American Brachytherapy Society practice parameter for the performance of low-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Akila N; Erickson, Beth A; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Small, William; Eifel, Patricia J

    Brachytherapy is the use of radionuclides to treat malignancies or benign conditions by means of a radiation source placed close to or into the tumor or treatment site. This practice parameter refers only to the use of radionuclide brachytherapy. Brachytherapy alone or combined with external beam therapy plays an important role in the management and treatment of patients with cancer. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has traditionally been used for treating prostate, head and neck, breast, cervical, and endometrial cancers as well as obstructive bile duct, esophageal, or bronchial lesions. It has been practiced for over a century with a variety of sources including radium-226, cesium-137, and, more recently, iridium- 192, iodine-125, and palladium-103. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy can be given as interstitial, intracavitary, intraluminal, and/or plesiotherapy to a wide variety of treatment sites. This practice parameter addresses sealed sources as they are used for LDR brachytherapy. It is recognized that unsealed sources (e.g., yttrium-90) are also a form of LDR brachytherapy. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society and American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient effective dose from endovascular brachytherapy with 192Ir sources.

    PubMed

    Perma, L; Bianchi, C; Nicolini, G; Novario, R; Tanzi, F; Conte, L

    2002-01-01

    The growing use of endovascular brachytherapy has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies in several fields, but few studies on patient dose have been found in the literature. Moreover, these studies were carried out on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effective dose to the patient undergoing endovascular brachytherapy treatment with 112Ir sources, by means of experimental measurements. Two standard treatments were taken into account: an endovascular brachytherapy of the coronary artery corresponding to the activity x time product of 184 GBq.min and an endovascular brachytherapy of the renal artery (898 GBq.min). Experimental assessment was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosemeters positioned in more than 300 measurement points in a properly adapted Rqndo phantom. A method has been developed to estimate the mean organ doses for all tissues and organs concerned in order to calculate the effective dose associated with intravascular brachytherapy. The normalised organ doses resulting from cronary treatment were 2.4 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for lung, 0.9 x 10(-2) mSv.GBSq(-1).min(-1) for oesophagus and 0.48 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for bone marrow. During brachytherapy of the renal artery, the corresponding normalised doses were 4.2 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for colon, 7.8 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for stomach and 1.7 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for liver. Coronary treatment iJnvlled an efl'fective dose of (0.046 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1), whereas the treatment of the renal artery resulted in an effective dose of 0.15 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1); there were many similarities with data from former studies. Based on these results it can be concluded that the dose level of patients exposed during brachytherapy treatment is low.

  2. Survival outcomes of combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy vs. brachytherapy alone for intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients using the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Amini, Arya; Jones, Bernard L; Jackson, Matthew W; Rusthoven, Chad G; Maroni, Paul; Kavanagh, Brian D; Raben, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate survival outcomes between external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus brachytherapy and brachytherapy alone for intermediate-risk prostate cancer, using the National Cancer Data Base. The National Cancer Data Base was queried for cN0M0 intermediate-risk patients treated from 2004 to 2006, with available data for Gleason score (GS), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tumor stage, and receipt of radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy. RT comparison groups were the following: EBRT (40-50.4 Gy) plus brachytherapy and brachytherapy alone. A total of 10,571 patients were included: 3,148 received EBRT plus brachytherapy and 7,423 received brachytherapy alone. Median followup was 84 months (2-122 months); median age was 68 years (40-90 years). Unadjusted 5- and 7-year overall survival (OS) rates between EBRT plus brachytherapy vs. brachytherapy alone were 91.4% vs. 90.2% and 85.7% vs. 82.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). EBRT plus brachytherapy was associated with longer OS compared with brachytherapy alone under multivariate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.93; p = 0.001) and propensity score-matched analyses (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.97; p = 0.006). Further subset analysis performed based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0232 inclusion criteria (GS 7 if PSA < 10 or GS < 7 if PSA 10-20) also demonstrated longer OS with EBRT plus brachytherapy (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98; p = 0.026). EBRT plus brachytherapy is associated with a modest OS improvement compared with brachytherapy alone in this population-based analysis. Although this benefit appears statistically significant, the relatively small difference in OS raises the question of overall clinical benefit with combined modality RT for intermediate-risk prostate cancer, given the potential increased risk for toxicities. Future results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0232 should provide further insight on this topic. Copyright © 2016 American

  3. Gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB), a new treatment method for intravascular brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, Shirin A.; Rezaei, Arash; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-15

    Restenosis is a major problem after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. The aim of this study is to introduce gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB) as a suitable modality for treatment of stenosis. The utility of GdNCB in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) of stent stenosis is investigated by using the GEANT4 and MCNP4B Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. To study capture rate, Kerma, absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate around a Gd-containing stent activated with neutrons, a 30 mm long, 5 mm diameter gadolinium foil is chosen. The input data is a neutron spectrum used for clinical neutron capture therapy in Studsvik, Sweden. Thermal neutron capture in gadolinium yields a spectrum of high-energy gamma photons, which due to the build-up effect gives an almost flat dose delivery pattern to the first 4 mm around the stent. The absorbed dose rate is 1.33 Gy/min, 0.25 mm from the stent surface while the dose to normal tissue is in order of 0.22 Gy/min, i.e., a factor of 6 lower. To spare normal tissue further fractionation of the dose is also possible. The capture rate is relatively high at both ends of the foil. The dose distribution from gamma and charge particle radiation at the edges and inside the stent contributes to a nonuniform dose distribution. This will lead to higher doses to the surrounding tissue and may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. The position of the stent can be verified and corrected by the treatment plan prior to activation. Activation of the stent by an external neutron field can be performed days after catherization when the target cells start to proliferate and can be expected to be more radiation sensitive. Another advantage of the nonradioactive gadolinium stent is the possibility to avoid radiation hazard to personnel.

  4. Radiation pneumonitis caused by a migrated brachytherapy seed lodged in the lung.

    PubMed

    Miura, Noriyoshi; Kusuhara, Yoshito; Numata, Kousaku; Shirato, Akitomi; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru; Kataoka, Masaaki; Takechi, Shinsuke

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of radiation pneumonitis caused by a migrated seed lodged in the lung after prostate brachytherapy. A 71-year-old man underwent transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. On the day after brachytherapy, a routine postimplant chest X-ray revealed migration of one seed to the lower lobe of the left lung. After 1 month, pulmonary opacities were observed in the left lower lobe but not near the seed. He was diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was commenced. Two months after brachytherapy, the patient's symptoms, laboratory data and pulmonary opacities improved; however, an abnormal shadow (consolidation) developed around the migrated seed. Lung consolidation disappeared almost completely 12 months after brachytherapy without any medical treatment. The abnormal shadow probably represented radiation pneumonitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of radiation pneumonitis caused by a migrated brachytherapy seed in the lung.

  5. Three-dimensional ultrasound system for guided breast brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    De Jean, Paul; Beaulieu, Luc; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-11-01

    Breast-conserving surgery combined with subsequent radiation therapy is a standard procedure in breast cancer treatment. The disadvantage of whole-breast beam irradiation is that it requires 20-25 treatment days, which is inconvenient for patients with limited mobility or who reside far from the treatment center. However, interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an irradiation method requiring only 5 treatment days and that delivers a lower radiation dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. It involves delivering radiation through 192Ir seeds placed inside the catheters, which are inserted into the breast. The catheters are attached to a HDR afterloader, which controls the seed placement within the catheters and irradiation times to deliver the proper radiation dose. One disadvantage of using HDR brachytherapy is that it requires performing at least one CT scan during treatment planning. The procedure at our institution involves the use of two CT scans. Performing CT scans requires moving the patient from the brachytherapy suite with catheters inserted in their breasts. One alternative is using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) to image the patient. In this study, the authors developed a 3DUS translation scanning system for use in breast brachytherapy. The new system was validated using CT, the current clinical standard, to image catheters in a breast phantom. Once the CT and 3DUS images were registered, the catheter trajectories were then compared. The results showed that the average angular separation between catheter trajectories was 2.4 degrees, the average maximum trajectory separation was 1.0 mm, and the average mean trajectory separation was found to be 0.7 mm. In this article, the authors present the 3DUS translation scanning system's capabilities as well as its potential to be used as the primary treatment planning imaging modality in breast brachytherapy.

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound system for guided breast brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Jean, Paul; Beaulieu, Luc; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-11-15

    Breast-conserving surgery combined with subsequent radiation therapy is a standard procedure in breast cancer treatment. The disadvantage of whole-breast beam irradiation is that it requires 20-25 treatment days, which is inconvenient for patients with limited mobility or who reside far from the treatment center. However, interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an irradiation method requiring only 5 treatment days and that delivers a lower radiation dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. It involves delivering radiation through {sup 192}Ir seeds placed inside the catheters, which are inserted into the breast. The catheters are attached to a HDR afterloader, which controls the seed placement within the catheters and irradiation times to deliver the proper radiation dose. One disadvantage of using HDR brachytherapy is that it requires performing at least one CT scan during treatment planning. The procedure at our institution involves the use of two CT scans. Performing CT scans requires moving the patient from the brachytherapy suite with catheters inserted in their breasts. One alternative is using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) to image the patient. In this study, the authors developed a 3DUS translation scanning system for use in breast brachytherapy. The new system was validated using CT, the current clinical standard, to image catheters in a breast phantom. Once the CT and 3DUS images were registered, the catheter trajectories were then compared. The results showed that the average angular separation between catheter trajectories was 2.4 deg., the average maximum trajectory separation was 1.0 mm, and the average mean trajectory separation was found to be 0.7 mm. In this article, the authors present the 3DUS translation scanning system's capabilities as well as its potential to be used as the primary treatment planning imaging modality in breast brachytherapy.

  7. American brachytherapy society recommendations for clinical implementation of NIST-1999 standards for (103)palladium brachytherapy. The clinical research committee of the American Brachytherapy Society.

    PubMed

    Beyer, D; Nath, R; Butler, W; Merrick, G; Blasko, J; Nag, S; Orton, C

    2000-05-01

    Recent important developments in palladium-103 ((103)Pd) dosimetry mandate a reevaluation of (103)Pd brachytherapy prescribing practices. The clinical research committee of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) convened a consensus session of brachytherapists and physicists to develop recommendations regarding future dose prescribing guidelines for National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-1999) calibrated (103)Pd sources. The ABS recommends that clinicians attempt to reproduce the implant doses delivered and reported in the literature through the past decade. The following should be immediately implemented for (103)Pd dosimetry: 1) All practicing physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, and suppliers implement NIST-1999 air-kerma strength standard for (103)Pd brachytherapy. 2) All treatment planning systems and dose calculation algorithms must be updated to reflect new dose rate constants. The AAPM-recommended validated value for Theraseed model 200 is 0.665 cGy h(-1) U(-1). The dose rate constant for the Mentor MED3633 seed is currently reported as 0.68 cGy h(-1) U(-1). This latter value and the values for seeds from other manufacturers are awaiting independent confirmation. 3) Physicians who previously prescribed 115 Gy for (103)Pd monotherapy prostate implants should now prescribe 125 Gy. When using (103)Pd as a boost following 45 Gy of external beam irradiation, 100 Gy should be prescribed instead of the previous 90 Gy. It is critical that all three changes be implemented concurrently, because they are interdependent.

  8. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X-Ray Source: an electronic brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J; Davis, Stephen D; DeWerd, Larry A; Rusch, Thomas W; Axelrod, Steve

    2006-11-01

    A new x-ray source, the model S700 Axxent X-Ray Source (Source), has been developed by Xoft Inc. for electronic brachytherapy. Unlike brachytherapy sources containing radionuclides, this Source may be turned on and off at will and may be operated at variable currents and voltages to change the dose rate and penetration properties. The in-water dosimetry parameters for this electronic brachytherapy source have been determined from measurements and calculations at 40, 45, and 50 kV settings. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport utilized the MCNP5 code and the EPDL97-based mcplib04 cross-section library. Inter-tube consistency was assessed for 20 different Sources, measured with a PTW 34013 ionization chamber. As the Source is intended to be used for a maximum of ten treatment fractions, tube stability was also assessed. Photon spectra were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and calculated using MCNP. Parameters used in the two-dimensional (2D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism were determined. While the Source was characterized as a point due to the small anode size, < 1 mm, use of the one-dimensional (1D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism is not recommended due to polar anisotropy. Consequently, 1D brachytherapy dosimetry parameters were not sought. Calculated point-source model radial dose functions at gP(5) were 0.20, 0.24, and 0.29 for the 40, 45, and 50 kV voltage settings, respectively. For 1

  9. Anniversary paper: past and current issues, and trends in brachytherapy physics.

    PubMed

    Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Rivard, Mark J; Meigooni, Ali S

    2008-10-01

    Brachytherapy began at the turn of the 20th century, contemporary with external-beam radiotherapy. Physicists and physicians together developed the field. There has not been a period since the beginning that has not witnessed innovations and progress in brachytherapy. At the time of this article, the pace of change in the field has never been more rapid, particularly in image-guided brachytherapy and the development of unconventional sources and treatment techniques.

  10. Brachytherapy patient safety events in an academic radiation medicine program.

    PubMed

    Felder, Shira; Morley, Lyndon; Ng, Elizabeth; Chan, Kitty; Ballantyne, Heather; Di Tomasso, Anne; Borg, Jette; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Breen, Stephen; Waldron, John; Rink, Alexandra; Milosevic, Michael

    2017-07-27

    To describe the incidence and type of brachytherapy patient safety events over 10 years in an academic brachytherapy program. Brachytherapy patient safety events reported between January 2007 and August 2016 were retrieved from the incident reporting system and reclassified using the recently developed National System for Incident Reporting in Radiation Treatment taxonomy. A multi-incident analysis was conducted to identify common themes and key learning points. During the study period, 3095 patients received 4967 brachytherapy fractions. An additional 179 patients had MR-guided prostate biopsies without treatment as part of an interventional research program. A total of 94 brachytherapy- or biopsy-related safety events (incidents, near misses, or programmatic hazards) were identified, corresponding to a rate of 2.8% of brachytherapy patients, 1.7% of brachytherapy fractions, and 3.4% of patients undergoing MR-guided prostate biopsy. Fifty-one (54%) events were classified as actual incidents, 29 (31%) as near misses, and 14 (15%) as programmatic hazards. Two events were associated with moderate acute medical harm or dosimetric severity, and two were associated with high dosimetric severity. Multi-incident analysis identified five high-risk activities or clinical scenarios as follows: (1) uncommon, low-volume or newly implemented brachytherapy procedures, (2) real-time MR-guided brachytherapy or biopsy procedures, (3) use of in-house devices or software, (4) manual data entry, and (5) patient scheduling and handoffs. Brachytherapy is a safe treatment and associated with a low rate of patient safety events. Effective incident management is a key element of continuous quality improvement and patient safety in brachytherapy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-André; Pötter, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on "Radiotherapy and Oncology". These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved dosimetry techniques for intravascular brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Varun

    Coronary artery disease leads to the accumulation of atheromatous plaque leading to coronary stenosis. Coronary intervention techniques such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy are used to address coronary stenosis and establish a stable lumen thus enhancing blood flow to the myocardium. Restenosis or re-blockage of the arteries is a major limitation of the above mentioned interventional techniques. Neointimal hyperplasia or proliferation of cells in response to the vascular injury as a result of coronary intervention is considered to be one of the major causes of restenosis. Recent studies indicated that irradiation of the coronary lesion site, with radiation doses ranging from 15 to 30 Gy, leads to diminishing neointimal hyperplasia with subsequent reduction in restenosis. The radiation dose is given by catheter-based radiation delivery systems using beta-emitters 90Sr/90Y, 32P and gamma-emitting 192Ir among others. However the dose schema used for dose prescription for these sources are relatively simplistic, and are based on calculations using uniform homogenous water or tissue media and simple cylinder geometry. Stenotic coronary vessels are invariably lined with atheromatous plaque of heterogeneous composition, the radiation dose distribution obtained from such dosimetry data can cause significant variations in the actual dose received by a given patient. Such discrepancies in dose calculation can introduce relatively large uncertainties in the limits of dose window for effective and safe application of intravascular brachytherapy, and consequently in the clinical evaluation of the efficacy of this modality. In this research study we investigated the effect of different geometrical and material heterogeneities, including residual plaque, catheter non-centering, lesion eccentricity and cardiac motion on the radiation dose delivered at the lesion site. Correction factors including dose perturbation factors and dose variation factors have been calculated

  13. Perioperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Waniczek, Dariusz; Piecuch, Jerzy; Mikusek, Wojciech; Arendt, Jerzy; Białas, Brygida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to present an original technique of catheter implantation for perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy in patients after palliative operations of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic tumors and to estimate the influence of perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy on pain relief in terminal pancreatic cancer patients. Material and methods Eight patients with pancreatic tumors located in the head of pancreas underwent palliative operations with the use of HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy. All patients qualified for surgery reported pain of high intensity and had received narcotic painkillers prior to operation. During the last phase of the surgery, the Nucletron® catheters were implanted in patients to prepare them for later perioperative brachytherapy. Since the 6th day after surgery HDR brachytherapy was performed. Before each brachytherapy fraction the location of implants were checked using fluoroscopy. A fractional dose was 5 Gy and a total dose was 20 Gy in the area of radiation. A comparative study of two groups of patients (with and without brachytherapy) with stage III pancreatic cancer according to the TNM scale was taken in consideration. Results and Conclusions The authors claim that the modification of catheter implantation using specially designed cannula, facilitates the process of inserting the catheter into the tumor, shortens the time needed for the procedure, and reduces the risk of complications. Mean survival time was 5.7 months. In the group of performed brachytherapy, the mean survival time was 6.7 months, while in the group of no brachytherapy performed – 4.4 months. In the group of brachytherapy, only one patient increased the dose of painkillers in the last month of his life. Remaining patients took constant doses of medicines. Perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy could be considered as a practical application of adjuvant therapy for pain relief in patients with an advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:27895674

  14. Trends in the Utilization of Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kathy; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony; Pintilie, Melania; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the trends in brachytherapy use in cervical cancer in the United States and to identify factors and survival benefits associated with brachytherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 7359 patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) between 1988 and 2009. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences between patients who received brachytherapy and those who did not from 2000 onward (after the National Cancer Institute alert recommending concurrent chemotherapy). Results: Sixty-three percent of the 7359 women received brachytherapy in combination with EBRT, and 37% received EBRT alone. The brachytherapy utilization rate has decreased from 83% in 1988 to 58% in 2009 (P<.001), with a sharp decline of 23% in 2003 to 43%. Factors associated with higher odds of brachytherapy use include younger age, married (vs single) patients, earlier years of diagnosis, earlier stage and certain SEER regions. In the propensity score-matched cohort, brachytherapy treatment was associated with higher 4-year cause-specific survival (CSS; 64.3% vs 51.5%, P<.001) and overall survival (OS; 58.2% vs 46.2%, P<.001). Brachytherapy treatment was independently associated with better CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.71), and OS (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.74). Conclusions: This population-based analysis reveals a concerning decline in brachytherapy utilization and significant geographic disparities in the delivery of brachytherapy in the United States. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS and should be implemented in all feasible cases.

  15. Perioperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Waniczek, Dariusz; Piecuch, Jerzy; Rudzki, Marek; Mikusek, Wojciech; Arendt, Jerzy; Białas, Brygida

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to present an original technique of catheter implantation for perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy in patients after palliative operations of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic tumors and to estimate the influence of perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy on pain relief in terminal pancreatic cancer patients. Eight patients with pancreatic tumors located in the head of pancreas underwent palliative operations with the use of HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy. All patients qualified for surgery reported pain of high intensity and had received narcotic painkillers prior to operation. During the last phase of the surgery, the Nucletron(®) catheters were implanted in patients to prepare them for later perioperative brachytherapy. Since the 6(th) day after surgery HDR brachytherapy was performed. Before each brachytherapy fraction the location of implants were checked using fluoroscopy. A fractional dose was 5 Gy and a total dose was 20 Gy in the area of radiation. A comparative study of two groups of patients (with and without brachytherapy) with stage III pancreatic cancer according to the TNM scale was taken in consideration. The authors claim that the modification of catheter implantation using specially designed cannula, facilitates the process of inserting the catheter into the tumor, shortens the time needed for the procedure, and reduces the risk of complications. Mean survival time was 5.7 months. In the group of performed brachytherapy, the mean survival time was 6.7 months, while in the group of no brachytherapy performed - 4.4 months. In the group of brachytherapy, only one patient increased the dose of painkillers in the last month of his life. Remaining patients took constant doses of medicines. Perioperative HDR-Ir192 brachytherapy could be considered as a practical application of adjuvant therapy for pain relief in patients with an advanced pancreatic cancer.

  16. Dosimetric analysis and comparison of IMRT and HDR brachytherapy in treatment of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Kurup, P G G; Mahadev, P; Mahalakshmi, S

    2010-04-01

    Radical radiotherapy is one of the options for the management of prostate cancer. In external beam therapy, 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are the options for delivery of increased radiation dose, as vital organs are very close to the prostate and a higher dose to these structures leads to an increased toxicity. In brachytherapy, low dose rate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive seeds and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) with remote after loaders are available. A dosimetric analysis has been made on IMRT and HDR brachytherapy plans. Ten cases from each IMRT and HDR brachytherapy have been taken for the study. The analysis includes comparison of conformity and homogeneity indices, D100, D95, D90, D80, D50, D10 and D5 of the target. For the organs at risk (OAR), namely rectum and bladder, V100, V90 and V50 are compared. In HDR brachytherapy, the doses to 1 cc and 0.1 cc of urethra have also been studied. Since a very high dose surrounds the source, the 300% dose volumes in the target and within the catheters are also studied in two plans, to estimate the actual volume of target receiving dose over 300%. This study shows that the prescribed dose covers 93 and 92% of the target volume in IMRT and HDR brachytherapy respectively. HDR brachytherapy delivers a much lesser dose to OAR, compared to the IMRT. For rectum, the V50 in IMRT is 34.0cc whilst it is 7.5cc in HDR brachytherapy. With the graphic optimization tool in HDR brachytherapy planning, the dose to urethra could be kept within 120% of the target dose. Hence it is concluded that HDR brachytherapy may be the choice of treatment for cancer of prostate in the early stage.

  17. Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sungjae; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroko; Mabuchi, Seiji; Yoshida, Ken; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Tanaka, Eiichi; Sumida, Iori; Tamari, Keisuke; Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    We have retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. From 1997 to 2012, salvage HDR brachytherapy was performed in 43 patients. The median age was 64 years (range, 41-88 years). HDR brachytherapy was performed by interstitial brachytherapy in 34 patients (79%) and by intracavity brachytherapy in nine patients (21%). Seventeen (40%) of the 43 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy. The median followup period was 58 months (range, 6-179 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates (LC) were 84%, 52%, and 78%, respectively. Patients who received brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy experienced no nodal recurrence (0 of 17 patients), whereas 23% of the patients (6 of 26 patients) who received brachytherapy alone experienced nodal recurrence (p = 0.047). The pathologic grade at the time of initial surgery (G1-2 vs. G3) was found to be a significant prognostic factor for both OS and PFS. The respective 5-year OS was 96% vs. 40% (p < 0.01), and the 5-year PFS was 58% vs. 0% (p < 0.01). Age (≥60 vs. <60) and modality (interstitial brachytherapy vs. intracavity brachytherapy) were significant prognostic factors for LC. The respective 5-year LC was 74% vs. 100% (p = 0.020) and 85% vs. 56% (p = 0.035). HDR brachytherapy is effective and feasible in patients with isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Pathologic grade, age, and modality were significant prognostic factors. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MO-E-BRD-03: Intra-Operative Breast Brachytherapy: Is One Stop Shopping Best? [Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, B.

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  19. Cataract extraction after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, G.E.; Jost, B.F.; Snyder, W.I.; Fuller, D.G.; Birch, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Thirteen eyes of 55 consecutive patients treated with brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid developed postirradiation cataracts. Cataract development was more common in older patients and in patients with larger and more anterior tumors. Eleven eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Initial visual improvement occurred in 91% of eyes, with an average improvement of 5.5 lines. Visual acuity was maintained at 20/60 or better in 55% of the eyes over an average period of follow-up of 24 months (range, 6 to 40 months). These data suggest that, visually, cataract extraction can be helpful in selected patients who develop a cataract after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid.

  20. Compound dual radiation action theory for 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Zhang, X

    2004-01-01

    The existing dosimetry protocol that uses the concept of RBE for 252Cf brachytherapy contains large uncertainties. A new formula has been developed to correlate the biological effect (i.e. cell survival fraction) resulting from a mixed n + gamma radiation field with two physical quantities and two biological quantities. The formula is based on a pathway model evolved from that of the compound-dual-radiation-action (CDRA) theory, previously proposed by Rossi and Zaider. The new model employs the recently published data on radiation-induced DNA lesions. The new formula is capable of predicting quantitatively the synergistic effect caused by the interactions between neutron events and gamma ray events, and it is intended to be included into a new dosimetry protocol for future 252Cf brachytherapy.

  1. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Zamdborg, Leonid; Sebastian, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy procedures using magnetic resonance images and electromagnetic tracking. The accuracy of catheter reconstruction, imaging artifacts, and other notable properties of plastic and titanium applicators in gynecologic treatments are reviewed. The accuracy, noise performance, and limitations of electromagnetic tracking for catheter reconstruction are discussed. Several newly developed applicators for accelerated partial breast irradiation and gynecologic treatments are also reviewed. New hypofractionated high dose rate treatment schemes in prostate cancer and accelerated partial breast irradiation are presented. PMID:26203277

  2. Dosimetric characteristic of a new 125I brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Khanmohammadi, Zahra

    2011-11-01

    A new brachytherapy (125)I source has been investigated at Iranian Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School. Dosimetric characteristics [dose-rate constant Λ, radial dose function g(l)(r) and anisotropy function F(r,)] of IRA-(125)I were theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Versions 5 and 4C of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code were used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose-rate constant of the (125)I source in water was found to be 92×10(-4) Gy h(-1) U(-1) with an approximate uncertainty of ±3 %. Brachytherapy seed model, 6711-(125)I, carrying (125)I radionuclides, was modelled and benchmarked against previously published values. Finally, the calculated results were compared with the published results of those of other source manufacturers.

  3. Image-Guided Radiotherapy and -Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer. PMID:25853092

  4. Image-guided radiotherapy and -brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  5. Iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumours - a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Iodine-125 brachytherapy has been applied to brain tumours since 1979. Even though the physical and biological characteristics make these implants particularly attractive for minimal invasive treatment, the place for stereotactic brachytherapy is still poorly defined. An extensive review of the literature has been performed, especially concerning indications, results and complications. Iodine-125 seeds have been implanted in astrocytomas I-III, glioblastomas, metastases and several other tumour entities. Outcome data given in the literature are summarized. Complications are rare in carefully selected patients. All in all, for highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent primary or metastatic tumours, this method provides encouraging survival rates with relatively low complication rates and a good quality of life. PMID:22394548

  6. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zamdborg, Leonid; Sebastian, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy procedures using magnetic resonance images and electromagnetic tracking. The accuracy of catheter reconstruction, imaging artifacts, and other notable properties of plastic and titanium applicators in gynecologic treatments are reviewed. The accuracy, noise performance, and limitations of electromagnetic tracking for catheter reconstruction are discussed. Several newly developed applicators for accelerated partial breast irradiation and gynecologic treatments are also reviewed. New hypofractionated high dose rate treatment schemes in prostate cancer and accelerated partial breast irradiation are presented.

  7. Metal artefacts in MRI-guided brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owrangi, Amir; Ravi, Ananth; Song, William Y.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of assessing the metal-induced artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy is growing along with the increasing interest of integrating MRI into the treatment procedure of cervical cancer. Examples of metal objects in use include intracavitary cervical applicators and interstitial needles. The induced artefacts increase the uncertainties in the clinical workflow and can be a potential obstacle for the accurate delivery of the treatment. Overcoming this problem necessitates a good understanding of its originating sources. Several efforts are recorded in the literature to quantify the extent of such artefacts, in phantoms and in clinical practice. Here, we elaborate on the origin of metal-induced artefacts in the light of brachytherapy applications, while summarizing recent efforts that have been made to assess and overcome the induced distortions. PMID:27648092

  8. [Basic principles and results of brachytherapy in gynecological oncology].

    PubMed

    Kanaev, S V; Turkevich, V G; Baranov, S B; Savel'eva, V V

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental basics of contact radiation therapy (brachytherapy) for gynecological cancer are presented. During brachytherapy the principles of conformal radiotherapy should be implemented, the aim of which is to sum the maximum possible dose of radiation to the tumor and decrease the dose load in adjacent organs and tissues, which allows reducing the frequency of radiation damage at treatment of primary tumors. It is really feasible only on modern technological level, thanks to precision topometry preparation, optimal computer dosimetrical and radiobiological planning of each session and radiotherapy in general. Successful local and long-term results of the contact radiation therapy for cancer of cervix and endometrium are due to optimal anatomical and topometrical ratio of the tumor localization, radioactive sources, and also physical and radiobiological laws of distribution and effects of ionizing radiation, the dose load accounting rules.

  9. Distortions induced by radioactive seeds into interstitial brachytherapy dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi; Modrick, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    In a previous article, we presented development and verification of an integral transport equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. Recently, we have included fluorescence radiation physics and parallel computation to the standing algorithms so that we can compute dose distributions for a large set of seeds without resorting to the superposition methods. The introduction of parallel computing capability provided a means to compute the dose distribution for multiple seeds in a simultaneous manner. This provided a way to study strong heterogeneity and shadow effects induced by the presence of multiple seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant. This article presents the algorithm for computing fluorescence radiation, algorithm for parallel computing, and display results for an 81-seed implant that has a perfect and imperfect lattice. The dosimetry data for a single model 6711 seeds is presented for verification and heterogeneity factor computations using simultaneous and superposition techniques are presented.

  10. Brachytherapy in Lip Carcinoma: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Guibert, Mireille; David, Isabelle; Vergez, Sebastien; Rives, Michel; Filleron, Thomas; Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip. Patients and methods: All patients had been treated at Claudius Regaud Cancer Centre from 1990 to 2008 for squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed with iridium 192 wires according to the Paris system rules. On average, the dose delivered was 65 Gy. Results: 172 consecutive patients were included in our study; 69 had skin carcinoma (squamous cell or basal cell), and 92 had squamous cell mucosal carcinoma. The average follow-up time was 5.4 years. In the skin cancer group, there were five local recurrences and one lymph node recurrence. In the mucosal cancer group, there were ten local recurrences and five lymph node recurrences. The 8-year relapse-free survival for the entire population was 80%. The 8-year relapse-free survival was 85% for skin carcinoma 75% for mucosal carcinoma, with no significant difference between groups. The functional results were satisfactory for 99% of patients, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory for 92%. Maximal toxicity observed was Grade 2. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy can be used to treat lip carcinomas at Stages T1 and T2 as the only treatment with excellent results for local control and relapse-free survival. The benefits of brachytherapy are also cosmetic and functional, with 91% of patients having no side effects.

  11. Cable attachment for a radioactive brachytherapy source capsule

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-07-18

    In cancer brachytherapy treatment, a small californium-252 neutron source capsule is attached to a guide cable using a modified crimping technique. The guide cable has a solid cylindrical end, and the attachment employs circumferential grooves micromachined in the solid cable end. The attachment was designed and tested, and hardware fabricated for use inside a radioactive hot cell. A welding step typically required in other cable attachments is avoided.

  12. Study of two different radioactive sources for prostate brachytherapy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira Neves, Lucio; Perini, Ana Paula; Souza Santos, William de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we evaluated two radioactive sources for brachytherapy treatments. Our main goal was to quantify the absorbed doses on organs and tissues of an adult male patient, submitted to a brachytherapy treatment with two radioactive sources. We evaluated a {sup 192}Ir and a {sup 125}I radioactive sources. The {sup 192}Ir radioactive source is a cylinder with 0.09 cm in diameter and 0.415 cm long. The {sup 125}I radioactive source is also a cylinder, with 0.08 cm in diameter and 0.45 cm long. To evaluate the absorbed dose distribution on the prostate, and other organs and tissues of an adult man, a male virtual anthropomorphic phantom MASH, coupled in the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0, was employed.We simulated 75, 90 and 102 radioactive sources of {sup 125}I and one of {sup 192}Ir, inside the prostate, as normally used in these treatments, and each treatment was simulated separately. As this phantom was developed in a supine position, the displacement of the internal organs of the chest, compression of the lungs and reduction of the sagittal diameter were all taken into account. For the {sup 192}Ir, the higher doses values were obtained for the prostate and surrounding organs, as the colon, gonads and bladder. Considering the {sup 125}I sources, with photons with lower energies, the doses to organs that are far from the prostate were lower. All values for the dose rates are in agreement with those recommended for brachytherapy treatments. Besides that, the new seeds evaluated in this work present usefulness as a new tool in prostate brachytherapy treatments, and the methodology employed in this work may be applied for other radiation sources, or treatments. (authors)

  13. Scintillating fiber optic dosimeters for breast and prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutinho, L. M.; Castro, I. F.; Freitas, H.; Melo, J.; Silva, P.; Gonçalves, A.; Peralta, L.; Rachinhas, P. J.; Simões, P. C. P. S.; Pinto, S.; Pereira, A.; Santos, J. A. M.; Costa, M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2017-02-01

    Brachytherapy is a radiotherapy modality where the radioactive material is placed close to the tumor, being a common treatment for skin, breast, gynecological and prostate cancers. These treatments can be of low-dose-rate, using isotopes with mean energy of 30 keV, or high-dose-rate, using isotopes such as 192Ir with a mean energy of 380 keV. Currently these treatments are performed in most cases without in-vivo dosimetry for quality control and quality assurance. We developed a dosimeter using small diameter probes that can be inserted into the patient's body using standard brachytherapy needles. By performing real-time dosimetry in breast and prostate brachytherapy it will be possible to perform real-time dose correction when deviations from the treatment plan are observed. The dosimeter presented in this work was evaluated in-vitro. The studies consisted in the characterization of the dosimeter with 500 μm diameter sensitive probes (with a BCF-12 scintillating optical fiber) using an inhouse made gelatin breast phantom with a volume of 566 cm3. A breast brachytherapy treatment was simulated considering a tumor volume of 27 cm3 and a prescribed absolute dose of 5 Gy. The dose distribution was determined by the Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) optimization algorithm (ELEKTA). The dwell times estimated from the experimental measurements are in agreement with the prescribed dwell times, with relative error below 3%. The measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) including the stem-effect contribution is below 3%.

  14. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  15. Primary calibration of coiled {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Adam B.; Culberson, Wesley S.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Micka, John A.

    2008-01-15

    Coiled {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy sources have been developed by RadioMed Corporation for use as low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial implants. The coiled sources are provided in integer lengths from 1 to 6 cm and address many common issues seen with traditional LDR brachytherapy sources. The current standard for determining the air-kerma strength (S{sub K}) of low-energy LDR brachytherapy sources is the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Wide-Angle Free-Air Chamber (NIST WAFAC). Due to geometric limitations, however, the NIST WAFAC is unable to determine the S{sub K} of sources longer than 1 cm. This project utilized the University of Wisconsin's Variable-Aperture Free-Air Chamber (UW VAFAC) to determine the S{sub K} of the longer coiled sources. The UW VAFAC has shown agreement in S{sub K} values of 1 cm length coils to within 1% of those determined with the NIST WAFAC, but the UW VAFAC does not share the same geometric limitations as the NIST WAFAC. A new source holder was constructed to hold the coiled sources in place during measurements with the UW VAFAC. Correction factors for the increased length of the sources have been determined and applied to the measurements. Using the new source holder and corrections, the S{sub K} of 3 and 6 cm coiled sources has been determined. Corrected UW VAFAC data and ionization current measurements from well chambers have been used to determine calibration coefficients for use in the measurement of 3 and 6 cm coiled sources in well chambers. Thus, the UW VAFAC has provided the first transferable, primary measurement of low-energy LDR brachytherapy sources with lengths greater than 1 cm.

  16. Surgical management of strabismus following choroidal melanoma plaque brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Alfreihi, Shatha H; Pineles, Stacy L; McCannel, Tara A; Prada, Angelica M; Velez, Federico G

    2017-08-01

    To characterize intraoperative findings, surgical approach, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing strabismus surgery following plaque brachytherapy for ocular melanoma. The records of all patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma between May 2007 and June 2016 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who subsequently required strabismus surgery. Of the 461 patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy during the study period, 13 (2.8%) met inclusion criteria. Visual acuity of the affected eye was 20/40 or better in 9 patients (69%). Preoperative horizontal deviation ranged from 0(Δ) to 52(Δ); vertical deviation, from 2(Δ) to 25(Δ). At final follow-up mean horizontal deviation ranged from 0 to 4(Δ); vertical deviation, from 0(Δ) to 12(Δ). Intraoperatively, all muscles directly adjacent to the treated area appeared macroscopically thicker than normal despite being functionally underacting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlarged muscles adjacent to the plaque radiotherapy. Microscopic examination of muscles in 2 patients showed reactive enlargement of the muscle fibers, granulation tissue, and inflammation. Persistent strabismus after plaque brachytherapy is rare. Typical findings include enlarged, underacting rectus muscles adjacent to the area of the plaque, restrictive connective tissue, and incomitant strabismus. Previously disinserted muscles may be found in abnormal locations. In this patient cohort scar tissue removal in conjunction with tightening procedures on the muscle adjacent to the plaque combined with recession of the antagonist muscle frequently resulted in good anatomical outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy

    2015-09-01

    PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm3. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm3. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation utilizing brachytherapy: patient selection and workflow

    PubMed Central

    Wobb, Jessica; Manyam, Bindu; Khan, Atif; Vicini, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) represents an evolving technique that is a standard of care option in appropriately selected woman following breast conserving surgery. While multiple techniques now exist to deliver APBI, interstitial brachytherapy represents the technique used in several randomized trials (National Institute of Oncology, GEC-ESTRO). More recently, many centers have adopted applicator-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI due to the technical complexities of interstitial brachytherapy. The purpose of this article is to review methods to evaluate and select patients for APBI, as well as to define potential workflow mechanisms that allow for the safe and effective delivery of APBI. Multiple consensus statements have been developed to guide clinicians on determining appropriate candidates for APBI. However, recent studies have demonstrated that these guidelines fail to stratify patients according to the risk of local recurrence, and updated guidelines are expected in the years to come. Critical elements of workflow to ensure safe and effective delivery of APBI include a multidisciplinary approach and evaluation, optimization of target coverage and adherence to normal tissue guideline constraints, and proper quality assurance methods. PMID:26985202

  19. [The role of transrectal ultrasound on prostatic cryotherapy and brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Arias Fúnez, Fernando; Escudero Barrilero, Angel; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, Rafael; Vallejo Ocaña, Carmen

    2006-05-01

    Transrectal ultrasound is the method that gives a direct image of the prostate, its limits, structural and morphologic anomalies, and anatomical relations. Therefore, prostate volume is easily determined, being the first step for the application of certain therapeutic procedures. Prostatic cryotherapy and brachytherapy have been developed over the last years as minimally invasive options for the treatment of prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate has allowed the application of these technologies in the daily practice, guaranteeing high efficacy and safety indexes. Cryosurgery is the controlled freezing of tissues. Prostatic transrectal ultrasound is the only method able to show the real-time evolution of prostatic cryoablation, allowing the urologist to control the evolution of the ice ball and to reach the targeted anatomical structures guaranteeing the oncological objectives, and diminishing complications and sequels. Brachytherapy, as a local intraprostatic radiotherapy, needs exact volume and dose calculations before the implant of the radioactive source within the gland. With transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, ultrasound-tomographic cuts are made for prostatic volume calculation and planimetry Once dosimetry is completed, real-time transrectal ultrasound control is necessary to perform the implant of the needles loaded with the seeds. Today, prostate cryotherapy and brachytherapy would be inconceivable without transrectal ultrasound.

  20. MAGIC with formaldehyde applied to dosimetry of HDR brachytherapy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques; T; Fernandes; J; Barbi; G; Nicolucci; P; Baffa; O

    2009-05-01

    The use of polymer gel dosimeters in brachytherapy can allow the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions in large volumes and with high spatial resolution if an adequate calibration process is performed. One of the major issues in these experiments is the polymer gel response dependence on dose rate when high dose rate sources are used and the doses in the vicinity of the sources are to be determinated. In this study, the response of a modified MAGIC polymer gel with formaldehyde around an Iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy source is presented. Experimental results obtained with this polymer gel were compared with ionization chamber measurements and with Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE. A maximum difference of 3.10% was found between gel dose measurements and Monte Carlo simulation at a radial distance of 18 mm from the source. The results obtained show that the gel's response is strongly influenced by dose rate and that a different calibration should be used for the vicinity of the source and for regions of lower dose rates. The results obtained in this study show that, provided the proper calibration is performed, MAGIC with formaldehyde can be successfully used to accurate determinate dose distributions form high dose rate brachytherapy sources.

  1. 3T MR-Guided Brachytherapy for Gynecologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Tina; Egger, Jan; Damato, Antonio; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2012-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancies are a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Standard treatment for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancer cases includes a combination of external beam radiation, followed by brachytherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is benefitial in diagnostic evaluation, in mapping the tumor location to tailor radiation dose, and in monitoring the tumor response to treatment. Initial studies of MR-guidance in gynecologic brachtherapy demonstrate the ability to optimize tumor coverage and reduce radiation dose to normal tissues, resulting in improved outcomes for patients. In this article we describe a methodology to aid applicator placement and treatment planning for 3 Tesla (3T) MR-guided brachytherapy that was developed specifically for gynecologic cancers. This has been used in 18 cases to date in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating suite at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. It is comprised of state of the art methods for MR imaging, image analysis, and treatment planning. An MR sequence using 3D-balanced steady state free precession in a 3T MR scan was identified as the best sequence for catheter identification with ballooning artifact at the tip. 3D treatment planning was performed using MR images. Item in development include a software module designed to support virtual needle trajectory planning that includes probabilistic bias correction, graph based segmentation, and image registration algorithms. The results demonstrate that 3T MR has a role in gynecologic brachytherapy. These novel developments improve targeted treatment to the tumor while sparing the normal tissues. PMID:22898699

  2. Stereolithographic modelling as an aid to orbital brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, M; Lindsay, C; Sullivan, T; D'Urso, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the technique of stereolithographic biomodelling and its application to a patient who was treated using orbital brachytherapy. The process uses a moving laser beam, directed by a computer, to draw cross-sections of the model onto the surface of photo-curable liquid plastic. Using a stereolithographic apparatus (SLA), solid or surface data is sliced by software into very thin cross-sections. A helium cadmium (HeCd) laser then generates a small intense spot of ultraviolet (UV) light that is moved across the top of a vat of liquid photo monomer by a computerised optical scanning system. The laser polymerises the liquid into a solid where it touches, precisely printing each cross-section. A vertical elevator lowers the newly formed layer, and a recoating and levelling system establishes the next layer's thickness. Successive cross-sections (0.25 mm thick), each one adhering to the one below, are built one on top of the other, to form the part from the bottom up. The biomodel allowed the implant to be planned in detail prior to the surgery. The accurate placement of brachytherapy catheters was assured, and the dosimetry could be determined and optimised prior to the definitive procedure. Stereolithography is a useful technique in the area of orbital brachytherapy. It allows the implant to to be carried out with greater accuracy and confidence. For the patient, it minimises the risk to the eye and provides them with a greater understanding of the procedure.

  3. Fabrication of cesium-137 brachytherapy sources using vitrification technology.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Varma, R N; Ram, Ramu; Saxena, S K; Mathakar, A R; Avhad, B G; Sastry, K V S; Sangurdekar, P R; Venkatesh, Meera

    2009-08-01

    137Cs source in solid matrix encapsulated in stainless-steel at MBq (mCi) levels are widely used as brachytherapy sources for the treatment of carcinoma of cervix uteri. This article describes the large-scale preparation of such sources. The process of fabrication includes vitrification of 137Cs-sodium borosilicate glass, its transformation into spheres of 5-6 mm diameter, casting of glass spheres into a cylinder of 1.5 mm (varphi) x 80 mm (l) in a platinum mould, cutting of the moulds into 5-mm-long pieces, silver coating on the sources, and finally, encapsulation in stainless steel capsules. Development of safety precautions used to trap 137Cs escaping during borosilicate glass preparation is also described. The leach rates of the radioactive sources prepared by the above technology were within permissible limits, and the sources could be used for encapsulation in stainless steel capsules and supplied for brachytherapy applications. This development was aimed at promoting the potential utility of 137Cs-brachytherapy sources in the country and reducing the user's reliance on imported sources. Since its development, more than 1000 such sources have been made by using 4.66 TBq(126 Ci) of 137Cs.

  4. Ultrasound-only dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy: preliminary phantom results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xu; Salcudean, S. E.; Lawrence, P. D.; Morris, J.

    2007-03-01

    Accurate and fast seed localization plays a key role in computing dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy. Because transrectal ultrasound is the primary imaging modality providing the guidance for prostate brachytherapy, an ultrasound-only approach for dosimetry would offer many benefits. In this paper, we propose an ultrasound only dosimetry solution, in which the brachytherapy seeds are located in reflected power images computed from ultrasonic radio frequency signals and the boundary of the prostate is delineated from B-mode TRUS and vibroelastography images as the prostate is stiffer than the surrounding tissue. The location of the implanted seeds relative to the prostate boundary is thus obtained. As only one imaging modality, ultrasound, is used, image registration is easy to implement. A prostate phantom with seeds embedded within it was built to evaluate the proposed approach. To measure the seed localization accuracy in the reflected power images, the phantom was scanned by CT as well. Experimental results show that the implanted seeds can be successfully located in the reflected power images with high contrast and accuracy, and that the contour of the "prostate" can be detected in the ultrasound vibro-elastography images outside the shadow of the seeds.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Alternative Brachytherapy Techniques for Early Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    erectile dysfunction . Retrospective evidence suggests that reducing the radiation dose to the urethra may prevent later urinary incontinence. A recent...produce erectile dysfunction (ED) in most men, and long-term urinary incontinence (after RP and brachytherapy) and bowel dysfunction (after EBRT) are...brachytherapy for some symptoms, especially urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction (ED), and the usually greater complication rates obtained

  6. Perspectives of brachytherapy: patterns of care, new technologies, and "new biology".

    PubMed

    Guedea, F

    2014-10-01

    Brachytherapy has come a long way from its beginnings nearly a century ago. In recent years, brachytherapy has become ever more sophisticated thanks to a multitude of technological developments, including high-dose rate afterloading machines, image-guidance, and advanced planning systems. One of the advantages of brachytherapy, apart from the well-known capability of delivering highly conformal doses directly to the target, is that it is highly adaptable and can be used as a primary, adjunct, or salvage treatment. However, despite the existence of international treatment guidelines, the clinical practice of brachytherapy varies greatly by region, country, and even institution. In the present article, we provide an overview of recent findings from the Patterns of Care for Brachytherapy in Europe (PCBE) Study and we discuss new technologies used in brachytherapy and the emerging concept of "new biology" that supports the use of high-dose brachytherapy. Compared to the 1990s, the use of brachytherapy has increased substantially and it is expected to continue growing in the future as it becomes ever more precise and efficient.

  7. [Brachytherapy in France: current situation and economic outlook due to the unavailability of iridium wires].

    PubMed

    Le Vu, B; Boucher, S

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, about 6000 patients were treated with brachytherapy, the number diminishing by 2.6% per year since 2008. Prostate, breast and gynecological cancers are the most common types of cancers. Since 2008, the number of brachytherapy facilities has decreased by 18%. In medicoeconomic terms, brachytherapy faces many problems: the coding system is outdated; brachytherapy treatments cost as much as internal radiation; fees do not cover costs; since iridium wire has disappeared from the market, the technique will be transferred to more expensive high-speed or pulse dose rates. The French financing grid based on the national study of costs lags behind changes in such treatments and in the best of cases, hospitals resorting to alternatives such as in-hospital brachytherapy are funded at 46% of their additional costs. Brachytherapy is a reference technique. With intense pressure on hospital pricing, financing brachytherapy facilities will become even more problematic as a consequence of the disappearance of iridium 192 wires. The case of brachytherapy illustrates the limits of the French financing system and raises serious doubts as to its responsiveness.

  8. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for small-sized peripherally located lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Fumio; Ueno, Kiyonobu; Kusunoki, Yoko; Uchida, Junji; Yoshimura, Mana; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Hideya; Nishiyama, Kinji

    2006-12-01

    The demand for minimally invasive therapies is increasing in the treatment of small peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twelve patients with T1-2 N0 M0 peripheral NSCLC were treated by high-dose-rate brachytherapy with (192)Ir radioactive source. A (192)Ir source was introduced into the tumors percutaneously in five patients (percutaneous brachytherapy) or transbronchially in seven patients (transbronchial brachytherapy). Whereas irradiation was performed with a single fraction of 20 Gy in percutaneous brachytherapy, it was hypofractionated from 5 x 5 Gy to 2 x 12.5 Gy in transbronchial brachytherapy. Complications were generally mild in all patients, although focal radiation pneumonitis was observed in most patients. Primary recurrence occurred in three patients, including one with a T2 tumor and one treated by brachytherapy as a salvage treatment for recurrence after conformal radiotherapy. When brachytherapy is evaluated as a primary treatment for T1 N0 M0 NSCLC, local control rate is 88.9% and estimated 5-year survival rate is between 60% and 70%. Brachytherapy has a potential to be a method to treat peripheral T1 N0 M0 NSCLC.

  9. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... therapeutic medical uses: (a) As approved in the Sealed Source and Device Registry; or (b) In research in... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy §...

  10. A compilation of current regulations, standards and guidelines in remote afterloading brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, J.P.; Simion, G.P.; Kozlowski, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    Over a dozen government and professional organizations in the United States and Europe have issued regulations and guidance concerning quality management in the practice of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Information from the publications of these organizations was collected and collated for this report. This report provides the brachytherapy licensee access to a broad field of quality management information in a single, topically organized document.

  11. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Combination of brachytherapy and external beam radiation for high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel E; Soni, Payal D; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Merrick, Gregory S; Stock, Richard G; Blasko, John C; Zelefsky, Michael J

    To review outcomes for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy (CMRT) utilizing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with a brachytherapy boost. The available literature for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy was reviewed and summarized. At this time, the literature suggests that the majority of high-risk cancers are curable with multimodal treatment. Several large retrospective studies and three prospective randomized trials comparing CMRT to dose-escalated EBRT have demonstrated superior biochemical control with CMRT. Longer followup of the randomized trials will be required to determine if this will translate to a benefit in metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Although greater toxicity has been associated with CMRT compared to EBRT, recent studies suggest that technological advances that allow better definition and sparing of critical adjacent structures as well as increasing experience with brachytherapy have improved implant quality and the toxicity profile of brachytherapy. The role of androgen deprivation therapy is well established in the external beam literature for high-risk disease, but there is controversy regarding the applicability of these data in the setting of dose escalation. At this time, there is not sufficient evidence for the omission of androgen deprivation therapy with dose escalation in this population. Comparisons with surgery remain limited by differences in patient selection, but the evidence would suggest better disease control with CMRT compared to surgery alone. Due to a series of technological advances, modern combination series have demonstrated unparalleled rates of disease control in the high-risk population. Given the evidence from recent randomized trials, combination therapy may become the standard of care for high-risk cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Air kerma and absorbed dose standards for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in primary standards for the calibration of brachytherapy sources, with an emphasis on the currently most common photon-emitting radionuclides. The introduction discusses the need for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy in general. The following section focuses on the three main quantities, i.e. reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength and absorbed dose rate to water, which are currently used for the specification of brachytherapy photon sources and which can be realized with primary standards from first principles. An overview of different air kerma and absorbed dose standards, which have been independently developed by various national metrology institutes over the past two decades, is given in the next two sections. Other dosimetry techniques for brachytherapy will also be discussed. The review closes with an outlook on a possible transition from air kerma to absorbed dose to water-based calibrations for brachytherapy sources in the future. PMID:24814696

  13. ALGEBRA: ALgorithm for the heterogeneous dosimetry based on GEANT4 for BRAchytherapy.

    PubMed

    Afsharpour, H; Landry, G; D'Amours, M; Enger, S; Reniers, B; Poon, E; Carrier, J-F; Verhaegen, F; Beaulieu, L

    2012-06-07

    Task group 43 (TG43)-based dosimetry algorithms are efficient for brachytherapy dose calculation in water. However, human tissues have chemical compositions and densities different than water. Moreover, the mutual shielding effect of seeds on each other (interseed attenuation) is neglected in the TG43-based dosimetry platforms. The scientific community has expressed the need for an accurate dosimetry platform in brachytherapy. The purpose of this paper is to present ALGEBRA, a Monte Carlo platform for dosimetry in brachytherapy which is sufficiently fast and accurate for clinical and research purposes. ALGEBRA is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code and is capable of handling the DICOM RT standard to recreate a virtual model of the treated site. Here, the performance of ALGEBRA is presented for the special case of LDR brachytherapy in permanent prostate and breast seed implants. However, the algorithm is also capable of handling other treatments such as HDR brachytherapy.

  14. Brachytherapy for genital-tract rhabdomyosarcomas in girls: technical aspects, reports, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magné, Nicolas; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a mesenchymal disease that represents 15-20% of childhood cancers and is the most common soft-tissue tumour in children. Most reviews on paediatric brachytherapy have described the experience of expert institutions with different brachytherapy techniques in a heterogeneous set of childhood malignant diseases. Brachytherapy reports focusing on specific types or locations (or both) are scarce. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the genital tract is recognised as one of the most curable forms of rhabdomyosarcoma. A multidisciplinary approach with more efficacious multidrug chemotherapy, conservative surgery, and limited radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, has been used to help improve success rates. This review aims to offer perspectives and analysis on the effectiveness and complications of brachytherapy in gynaecological rhabdomyosarcoma management.

  15. Novel treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancer: focus on electronic brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Michael E; Chaudhary, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an increasing health care issue in the United States, significantly affecting quality of life and impacting health care costs. Radiotherapy has a long history in the treatment of NMSC. Shortly after the discovery of X-rays and 226Radium, physicians cured patients with NMSC using these new treatments. Both X-ray therapy and brachytherapy have evolved over the years, ultimately delivering higher cure rates and lower toxicity. Electronic brachytherapy for NMSC is based on the technical and clinical data obtained from radionuclide skin surface brachytherapy and the small skin surface applicators developed over the past 25 years. The purpose of this review is to introduce electronic brachytherapy in the context of the history, data, and utilization of traditional radiotherapy and brachytherapy. PMID:26648763

  16. ALGEBRA: ALgorithm for the heterogeneous dosimetry based on GEANT4 for BRAchytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharpour, H.; Landry, G.; D'Amours, M.; Enger, S.; Reniers, B.; Poon, E.; Carrier, J.-F.; Verhaegen, F.; Beaulieu, L.

    2012-06-01

    Task group 43 (TG43)-based dosimetry algorithms are efficient for brachytherapy dose calculation in water. However, human tissues have chemical compositions and densities different than water. Moreover, the mutual shielding effect of seeds on each other (interseed attenuation) is neglected in the TG43-based dosimetry platforms. The scientific community has expressed the need for an accurate dosimetry platform in brachytherapy. The purpose of this paper is to present ALGEBRA, a Monte Carlo platform for dosimetry in brachytherapy which is sufficiently fast and accurate for clinical and research purposes. ALGEBRA is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code and is capable of handling the DICOM RT standard to recreate a virtual model of the treated site. Here, the performance of ALGEBRA is presented for the special case of LDR brachytherapy in permanent prostate and breast seed implants. However, the algorithm is also capable of handling other treatments such as HDR brachytherapy.

  17. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Mason, Josh; Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann; Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Langley, Stephen

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  18. Skin dose in breast brachytherapy: Defining a robust metric.

    PubMed

    Hilts, Michelle; Halperin, Heather; Morton, Dan; Batchelar, Deidre; Bachand, Francois; Chowdhury, Rezwan; Crook, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    To define a simple, robust, and relevant metric for measuring skin dose in breast brachytherapy. Postoperative treatment plans (Day 0) for 15 permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) and 10 multicatheter high-dose-rate (MC-HDR) brachytherapy patients were included. Retrospectively, three skin structures were contoured: 2 mm external from the body; and subsurface layers 2 mm and 4 mm thick. Maximum point dose (Dmax), doses to small volumes (e.g., D0.2cc), and the volumes receiving a percentage of the prescription dose (V%, e.g., V66) were calculated. D0.2cc was investigated as a surrogate to the dose given to 1 cm(2) of skin (D1cm(2)). Pearson product-moment correlation (R(2)) was computed between metrics. Observed trends were consistent across brachytherapy technique. V% did not correlate well with any other metrics: median (range) R(2), 0.63 (0.43, 0.77) and 0.69 (0.3, 0.89) for PBSI and MC-HDR, respectively. Dmax was inconsistently correlated across contours and not well correlated with doses to small volumes: median (range) R(2), 0.85 (0.76, 0.93) and 0.88 (0.83, 0.93) for PBSI and MC-HDR, respectively. In contrast, doses to small volumes were consistently well correlated, even across skin layers: D0.1cc vs. D0.2cc median (range) R(2), 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) and 0.97 (0.94, 0.99) for PBSI and MC-HDR, respectively. Doses to small volumes are robust measures of breast skin dose and given skin's strong area effect, D0.2cc for a 2 mm thick skin layer, a simple surrogate of D1cm(2), is recommended for recording skin dose in any breast brachytherapy. Dmax is not robust and should be avoided. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocular Response of Choroidal Melanoma With Monosomy 3 Versus Disomy 3 After Iodine-125 Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, Omkar S.; Wu, Jeffrey; Lee, Steve P.; Yu Fei; Burgess, Barry L.; Leu Min; Straatsma, Bradley R.; McCannel, Tara A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the ocular response of choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 after {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with ciliochoroidal melanoma managed with fine needle aspiration biopsy immediately before plaque application for {sup 125}I brachytherapy between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008. Patients with (1) cytopathologic diagnosis of melanoma, (2) melanoma chromosome 3 status identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and (3) 6 or more months of follow-up after brachytherapy were sorted by monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 and compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Among 40 ciliochoroidal melanomas (40 patients), 15 had monosomy 3 and 25 had disomy 3. Monosomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 12.00 mm and a median tumor thickness of 6.69 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy, median thickness was 3.10 mm. Median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 48.3%. Disomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 10.00 mm and median tumor thickness of 3.19 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 2.00 years after brachytherapy, median tumor thickness was 2.37 mm. The median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 22.7%. Monosomy 3 melanomas were statistically greater in size than disomy 3 melanomas (p < 0.001) and showed a greater decrease in tumor thickness after brachytherapy (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In this study, ciliochoroidal melanomas with monosomy 3 were significantly greater in size than disomy 3 melanoma and showed a significantly greater decrease in thickness at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy. The greater decrease in monosomy 3 melanoma thickness after brachytherapy is consistent with other malignancies in which more aggressive pathology has been shown to be associated with a greater initial response to radiotherapy.

  20. Variation in uterus position prior to brachytherapy of the cervix: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, MT; Anghel, R

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: brachytherapy is administered in the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer following chemoradiotherapy. Lack of local anatomy evaluation prior to this procedure might lead to the selection of an inappropriate brachytherapy applicator, increasing the risk of side effects (e.g. uterus perforation, painful procedure ...). Objective: To assess the movement of the uterus and cervix prior to brachytherapy in patients with gynecological cancer, in order to select the proper type of brachytherapy applicator. Also we wanted to promote the replacement of the plain X-ray brachytherapy with the image-guided procedure. Methods and results: We presented the case of a 41-year-old female diagnosed with a biopsy that was proven cervical cancer stage IIIB. At diagnosis, the imaging studies identified an anteverted uterus. The patient underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Prior to brachytherapy, the patient underwent a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which identified a displacement of the uterus in the retroverted position. Discussion: A great variety of brachytherapy applicators is available nowadays. Major changes in uterus position and lack of evaluation prior to brachytherapy might lead to a higher rate of incidents during this procedure. Also, by using orthogonal simulation and bidimensional (2D) treatment planning, brachytherapy would undoubtedly fail to treat the remaining tumoral tissue. This is the reason why we proposed the implementation of a prior imaging of the uterus and computed tomography (CT)/ MRI-based simulation in the brachytherapy procedure. Abbreviations: MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, CT = computed tomography, CTV = clinical target volume, DVH = dose-volume histogram, EBRT = external beam radiotherapy, GTV = gross tumor volume, Gy = Gray (unit), ICRU = International Commission of Radiation Units, IGRT = image guided radiotherapy, IM = internal margin, IMRT = image modulated radiotherapy, ITV = internal target

  1. Variation in uterus position prior to brachytherapy of the cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, M T; Anghel, R

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: brachytherapy is administered in the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer following chemoradiotherapy. Lack of local anatomy evaluation prior to this procedure might lead to the selection of an inappropriate brachytherapy applicator, increasing the risk of side effects (e.g. uterus perforation, painful procedure ...). Objective: To assess the movement of the uterus and cervix prior to brachytherapy in patients with gynecological cancer, in order to select the proper type of brachytherapy applicator. Also we wanted to promote the replacement of the plain X-ray brachytherapy with the image-guided procedure. Methods and results: We presented the case of a 41-year-old female diagnosed with a biopsy that was proven cervical cancer stage IIIB. At diagnosis, the imaging studies identified an anteverted uterus. The patient underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Prior to brachytherapy, the patient underwent a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which identified a displacement of the uterus in the retroverted position. Discussion: A great variety of brachytherapy applicators is available nowadays. Major changes in uterus position and lack of evaluation prior to brachytherapy might lead to a higher rate of incidents during this procedure. Also, by using orthogonal simulation and bidimensional (2D) treatment planning, brachytherapy would undoubtedly fail to treat the remaining tumoral tissue. This is the reason why we proposed the implementation of a prior imaging of the uterus and computed tomography (CT)/ MRI-based simulation in the brachytherapy procedure. Abbreviations: MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, CT = computed tomography, CTV = clinical target volume, DVH = dose-volume histogram, EBRT = external beam radiotherapy, GTV = gross tumor volume, Gy = Gray (unit), ICRU = International Commission of Radiation Units, IGRT = image guided radiotherapy, IM = internal margin, IMRT = image modulated radiotherapy, ITV = internal target

  2. WE-F-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy II: Integrating Imaging with HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Craciunescu, O; Todor, D; Leeuw, A de

    2014-06-15

    In recent years, with the advent of high/pulsed dose rate afterloading technology, advanced treatment planning systems, CT/MRI compatible applicators, and advanced imaging platforms, image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatments (IGABT) have started to play an ever increasing role in modern radiation therapy. The most accurate way to approach IGABT treatment is to provide the infrastructure that combines in a single setting an appropriate imaging device, a treatment planning system, and a treatment unit. The Brachytherapy Suite is not a new concept, yet the modern suites are incorporating state-of-the-art imaging (MRI, CBCT equipped simulators, CT, and /or US) that require correct integration with each other and with the treatment planning and delivery systems. Arguably, an MRI-equipped Brachytherapy Suite is the ideal setup for real-time adaptive brachytherapy treatments. The main impediment to MRI-IGABT adoption is access to MRI scanners. Very few radiation oncology departments currently house MRI scanners, and even fewer in a dedicated Brachytherapy Suite. CBCT equipped simulators are increasingly offered by manufacturers as part of a Brachytherapy Suite installation. If optimized, images acquired can be used for treatment planning, or can be registered with other imaging modalities. This infrastructure is relevant for all forms of brachytherapy, especially those utilizing multi-fractionated courses of treatment such as prostate and cervix. Moreover, for prostate brachytherapy, US imaging systems can be part of the suite to allow for real-time HDR/LDR treatments. Learning Objectives: Understand the adaptive workflow of MR-based IGBT for cervical cancer. Familiarize with commissioning aspects of a CBCT equipped simulator with emphasis on brachytherapy applications Learn about the current status and future developments in US-based prostate brachytherapy.

  3. Dynamic modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) and intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT) for the treatment of rectal and breast carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Matthew Julian

    The ultimate goal of any treatment of cancer is to maximize the likelihood of killing the tumor while minimizing the chance of damaging healthy tissues. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this is through radiation therapy, which must be able to target the tumor volume with a high accuracy while minimizing the dose delivered to healthy tissues. A successful method of accomplishing this is brachytherapy which works by placing the radiation source in very close proximity to the tumor. However, most current applications of brachytherapy rely mostly on the geometric manipulation of isotropic sources, which limits the ability to specifically target the tumor. The purpose of this work is to introduce several types of shielded brachytherapy applicators which are capable of targeting tumors with much greater accuracy than existing technologies. These applicators rely on the modulation of the dose profile through a high-density tungsten alloy shields to create anisotropic dose distributions. Two classes of applicators have been developed in this work. The first relies on the active motion of the shield, to aim a highly directional radiation profile. This allows for very precise control of the dose distribution for treatment, achieving unparalleled dose coverage to the tumor while sparing healthy tissues. This technique has been given the moniker of Dynamic Modulated Brachytherapy (DMBT). The second class of applicators, designed to reduce treatment complexity uses static applicators. These applicators retain the use of the tungsten shield, but the shield is motionless during treatment. By intelligently designing the shield, significant improvements over current methods have been demonstrated. Although these static applicators fail to match the dosimetric quality of DMBT applicators the simplified setup and treatment procedure gives them significant appeal. The focus of this work has been to optimize these shield designs, specifically for the treatment of rectal and

  4. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Glioblastoma Multiforme Treated With Radiotherapy With or Without Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, Ashley H. Chang, Susan M.; Larson, David; Butowski, Nicholas; Cha, Soonmee

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To compare temporal patterns of recurrent contrast enhancement in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) vs. EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: We evaluated serial MRI scans for 15 patients who received brachytherapy followed by EBRT (6000 cGy) and 20 patients who received standard EBRT alone (5940-6000 cGy). Brachytherapy consisted of permanent, low-activity {sup 125}I seeds placed around the resection cavity at the time of initial gross total resection. Contrast enhancement (linear, nodular, feathery, or solid), serial progression, and location of contrast enhancement were described. Results: In the EBRT group, 14 patients demonstrated focal nodular contrast enhancement along the resection cavity within 4 months. The 6 remaining EBRT patients developed either transient linear enhancement or no abnormal enhancement. In the brachytherapy plus EBRT group, 7 patients initially developed linear rim enhancement within 4 months that progressed to feathery contrast enhancement over the course of 1 to 2 years. Histopathology confirmed radiation necrosis in all 7 patients. The remaining 8 brachytherapy patients eventually developed focal nodular contrast enhancement along the resection cavity and tumor recurrence. Conclusions: Our data suggest that longitudinal MRI features differ between GBM patients treated with EBRT vs. brachytherapy plus EBRT. In both groups, nodular enhancement adjacent to or remote from the resection cavity strongly suggested tumor recurrence. Feathery enhancement, which progressed from linear rim enhancement immediately adjacent to the cavity, seen only in brachytherapy patients, strongly indicated radiation necrosis.

  5. Brachytherapy in cancer cervix: Time to move ahead from point A?

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anurita; Datta, Niloy Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy forms an integral part of the radiation therapy in cancer cervix. The dose prescription for intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cancer cervix is based on Tod and Meredith’s point A and has been in practice since 1938. This was proposed at a time when accessibility to imaging technology and dose computation facilities was limited. The concept has been in practice worldwide for more than half a century and has been the fulcrum of all ICBT treatments, strategies and outcome measures. The method is simple and can be adapted by all centres practicing ICBT in cancer cervix. However, with the widespread availability of imaging techniques, clinical use of different dose-rates, availability of a host of applicators fabricated with image compatible materials, radiobiological implications of dose equivalence and its impact on tumour and organs at risk; more and more weight is being laid down on individualised image based brachytherapy. Thus, computed tomography, magnetic-resonance imaging and even positron emission computerized tomography along with brachytherapy treatment planning system are being increasingly adopted with promising outcomes. The present article reviews the evolution of dose prescription concepts in ICBT in cancer cervix and brings forward the need for image based brachytherapy to evaluate clinical outcomes. As is evident, a gradual transition from “point” based brachytherapy to “profile” based image guided brachytherapy is gaining widespread acceptance for dose prescription, reporting and outcome evaluation in the clinical practice of ICBT in cancer cervix. PMID:25302176

  6. Electromagnetically navigated brachytherapy as a new treatment option for peripheral pulmonary tumors.

    PubMed

    Harms, Wolfgang; Krempien, Robert; Grehn, Christian; Hensley, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Becker, Heinrich D

    2006-02-01

    This technical note describes the principles of navigated brachytherapy for treatment of peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective feasibility trial a first patient with medically inoperable NSCLC in the right upper lobe was treated with external-beam radiotherapy (50 Gy) and navigated endoluminal brachytherapy (15 Gy). Navigated bronchoscopy was performed with an electromagnetic navigation system for localization of a microsensor mounted on the tip of a dedicated catheter placed within the working channel of a bronchoscope. The probe can be actively guided by a steering mechanism to targeted lesions in the periphery of the lung. After successful localization of the NSCLC, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) was performed to confirm the exact position in the center of the lesion. A 6-F brachytherapy catheter was placed within the tumor. Primary 3-D-planned brachytherapy was performed on chest CTs acquired with the inserted catheter. High-dose-rate brachytherapy (370 GBq iridium-192) was applied as a boost three times a week (single dose 5 Gy) and provided highly conformal irradiations of the NSCLC including the draining bronchovascular bundle. The brachytherapy catheter was tolerated well during treatment (5 days) and alimentation was possible without any problems. Repeated CTs showed stable positioning of the catheter. During follow-up (12 months), endoluminal ultrasound and CT demonstrated a partial remission while histology showed a complete remission of the tumor. Navigated brachytherapy for peripheral pulmonary tumors not amenable to conventional bronchoscopy is feasible.

  7. High-dose-rate brachytherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Firuza D. . E-mail: patelfd@glide.net.in; Rai, Bhavana; Mallick, Indranil; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is in wide use for curative treatment of cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has recommended that the individual fraction size be <7.5 Gy and the range of fractions should be four to eight; however, many fractionation schedules, varying from institution to institution, are in use. We use 9 Gy/fraction of HDR in two to five fractions in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We found that our results and toxicity were comparable to those reported in the literature and hereby present our experience with this fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients with Stage I-III carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1996 and 2000. The total number of patients analyzed was 113. The median patient age was 53 years, and the histopathologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% of patients. The patients were subdivided into Groups 1 and 2. In Group 1, 18 patients with Stage Ib-IIb disease, tumor size <4 cm, and preserved cervical anatomy underwent simultaneous external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks with central shielding and HDR brachytherapy of 9 Gy/fraction, given weekly, and interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy. The 95 patients in Group 2, who had Stage IIb-IIIb disease underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions within 4.5 weeks followed by two sessions of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy of 9 Gy each given 1 week apart. The follow-up range was 3-7 years (median, 36.4 months). Late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rate was 74.5% and 62.0%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 100% for Stage I, 80% for Stage II, and 67.2% for Stage III patients. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 88.8% for

  8. High brachytherapy doses can counteract hypoxia in cervical cancer—a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Emely; Dasu, Alexandru; Beskow, Catharina; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia is a well-known adverse factor for the outcome of radiotherapy. For cervical tumours in particular, several studies indicate large variability in tumour oxygenation. However, clinical evidence shows that the management of cervical cancer including brachytherapy leads to high rate of success. It was the purpose of this study to investigate whether the success of brachytherapy for cervical cancer, seemingly regardless of oxygenation status, could be explained by the characteristics of the brachytherapy dose distributions. To this end, a previously used in silico model of tumour oxygenation and radiation response was further developed to simulate the treatment of cervical cancer employing a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. Using a clinically-derived brachytherapy dose distribution and assuming a homogeneous dose delivered by external radiotherapy, cell survival was assessed on voxel level by taking into account the variation of sensitivity with oxygenation as well as the effects of repair, repopulation and reoxygenation during treatment. Various scenarios were considered for the conformity of the brachytherapy dose distribution to the hypoxic region in the target. By using the clinically-prescribed brachytherapy dose distribution and varying the total dose delivered with external beam radiotherapy in 25 fractions, the resulting values of the dose for 50% tumour control, D 50, were in agreement with clinically-observed values for high cure rates if fast reoxygenation was assumed. The D 50 was furthermore similar for the different degrees of conformity of the brachytherapy dose distribution to the tumour, regardless of whether the hypoxic fraction was 10%, 25%, or 40%. To achieve 50% control with external RT only, a total dose of more than 70 Gy in 25 fractions would be required for all cases considered. It can thus be concluded that the high doses delivered in brachytherapy can counteract the increased

  9. [Permanent implant prostate cancer brachytherapy: 2013 state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Cosset, J-M; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D; Delannes, M; Pommier, P; Pierrat, N; Nickers, P; Thomas, L; Chauveinc, L

    2013-04-01

    With an experience of more than 25 years for the pioneers (and more than 14 years in France), permanent implant brachytherapy using iodine 125 seeds (essentially) is now recognized as a valuable alternative therapy for localized low-risk prostate cancer patients. The possible extension of the indications of exclusive brachytherapy towards selected patients in the intermediate-risk group has now been confirmed by several studies. Moreover, for the other patients in the intermediate-risk group and for the patients in the high-risk group, brachytherapy, as an addition to external radiotherapy, could represent one of the best ways to escalate the dose. Different permanent implant brachytherapy techniques have been proposed; preplanning or real-time procedure, loose or stranded seeds (or both), manual or automatic injection of the seeds. The main point here is the ability to perfectly master the procedure and to comply with the dosimetric constraints, which have been recently redefined by the international societies, such as the GEC-ESTRO group. Mid- and long-term results, which are now available in the literature, indicate relapse-free survival rates of about 90% at 5-10 years, the best results being obtained with satisfactory dosimetric data. Comparative data have shown that the incontinence and impotence rates after brachytherapy seemed to be significantly inferior to what is currently observed after surgery. However, a risk of about 3 to 5% of urinary retention is usually reported after brachytherapy, as well as an irritative urinary syndrome, which may significantly alter the quality of life of the patients, and last several months. In spite of those drawbacks, with excellent long-term results, low rates of incontinence and impotence, and emerging new indications (focal brachytherapy, salvage brachytherapy after localized failure of an external irradiation), permanent implant prostate brachytherapy can be expected to be proposed to an increasing number of patients

  10. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    SciTech Connect

    Todor, D.

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  11. MO-E-BRD-01: Is Non-Invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good?

    SciTech Connect

    Hiatt, J.

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  12. MO-E-BRD-00: Breast Brachytherapy: The Phoenix of Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  13. Conformal Brachytherapy Planning for Cervical Cancer Using Transabdominal Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Sylvia Narayan, Kailash; Fisher, Richard; Bernshaw, David

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To determine if transabdominal ultrasound (US) can be used for conformal brachytherapy in cervical cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-one patients with locoregionally advanced cervix cancer treated with chemoradiation and brachytherapy were included in this study. The protocol consisted of US-assisted tandem insertion and conformal US-based planning. Orthogonal films for applicator reconstruction were also taken. A standard plan was modified to suit the US-based volume and treatment was delivered. The patient then underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan with the applicators in situ. Retrospectively, individual standard (STD), US, and MRI plans were extrapolated for five fractions and superimposed onto the two-dimensional sagittal MRI images for comparison. Doses to Point A, target volume, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) 38 bladder and rectal points, and individualized bowel points were calculated on original implant geometry on Plato for each planning method. Results: STD (high-dose-rate) plans reported higher doses to Point A, target volume, ICRU 38 bladder and rectal points, and individualized bowel point compared with US and MRI plans. There was a statistically significant difference between standard plans and image-based plans-STD vs. US, STD vs. MRI, and STD vs. Final-having consistent (p {<=} 0.001) respectively for target volume, Point A, ICRU 38 bladder, and bowel point. US plan assessed on two-dimensional MRI image was comparable for target volume (p = 0.11), rectal point (p = 0.8), and vaginal mucosa (p = 0.19). Local control was 90%. Late bowel morbidity (G3, G4) was <2%. Conclusions: Transabdominal ultrasound offers an accurate, quick, accessible, and cost-effective method of conformal brachytherapy planning.

  14. Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS

    SciTech Connect

    Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy

    2015-09-30

    PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm{sup 3}. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm{sup 3}. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.

  15. Failure modes and effects analysis for ocular brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongsook C; Kim, Yongbok; Huynh, Jason Wei-Yeong; Hamilton, Russell J

    2017-08-18

    The aim of the study was to identify potential failure modes (FMs) having a high risk and to improve our current quality management (QM) program in Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) ocular brachytherapy by undertaking a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and a fault tree analysis (FTA). Process mapping and FMEA were performed for COMS ocular brachytherapy. For all FMs identified in FMEA, risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by assigning and multiplying occurrence, severity, and lack of detectability values, each ranging from 1 to 10. FTA was performed for the major process that had the highest ranked FM. Twelve major processes, 121 sub-process steps, 188 potential FMs, and 209 possible causes were identified. For 188 FMs, RPN scores ranged from 1.0 to 236.1. The plaque assembly process had the highest ranked FM. The majority of FMs were attributable to human failure (85.6%), and medical physicist-related failures were the most numerous (58.9% of all causes). After FMEA, additional QM methods were included for the top 10 FMs and 6 FMs with severity values > 9.0. As a result, for these 16 FMs and the 5 major processes involved, quality control steps were increased from 8 (50%) to 15 (93.8%), and major processes having quality assurance steps were increased from 2 to 4. To reduce high risk in current clinical practice, we proposed QM methods. They mainly include a check or verification of procedures/steps and the use of checklists for both ophthalmology and radiation oncology staff, and intraoperative ultrasound-guided plaque positioning for ophthalmology staff. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael P.; Song, Danny Y.; Kang, Jin; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-03-01

    We conducted an approved canine study to investigate the in vivo feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Brachytherapy seeds coated with black ink were inserted into the canine prostate using methods similar to a human procedure. A transperineal, interstitial, fiber optic light delivery method, coupled to a 1064 nm laser, was utilized to irradiate the prostate and the resulting acoustic waves were detected with a transrectal ultrasound probe. The fiber was inserted into a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy needle that acted as a light-diffusing sheath, enabling radial light delivery from the tip of the fiber inside the sheath. The axis of the fiber was located at a distance of 4-9 mm from the long axis of the cylindrical seeds. Ultrasound images acquired with the transrectal probe and post-operative CT images of the implanted seeds were analyzed to confirm seed locations. In vivo limitations with insufficient light delivery within the ANSI laser safety limit (100 mJ/cm2) were overcome by utilizing a short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer, which provided average seed contrasts of 20-30 dB for energy densities ranging 8-84 mJ/cm2. The average contrast was improved by up to 20 dB with SLSC beamforming compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamforming. There was excellent agreement between photoacoustic, ultrasound, and CT images. Challenges included visualization of photoacoustic artifacts that corresponded with locations of the optical fiber and hyperechoic tissue structures.

  17. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  18. Tissue modeling schemes in low energy breast brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharpour, Hossein; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous and is mainly composed of glandular (G) and adipose (A) tissues. The proportion of G versus A varies considerably among the population. The absorbed dose distributions in accelerated partial breast irradiation therapy with low energy photon brachytherapy sources are very sensitive to tissue heterogeneities. Current clinical algorithms use the recommendations of the AAPM TG43 report which approximates the human tissues by unit density water. The aim of this study is to investigate various breast tissue modeling schemes for low energy brachytherapy. A special case of breast permanent seed implant is considered here. Six modeling schemes are considered. Uniform and non-uniform water breast (UWB and NUWB) consider the density but neglect the effect of the composition of tissues. The uniform and the non-uniform G/A breast (UGAB and NUGAB) as well the age-dependent breast (ADB) models consider the effect of the composition. The segmented breast tissue (SBT) method uses a density threshold to distinguish between G and A tissues. The PTV D90 metric is used for the analysis and is based on the dose to water (D90(w,m)). D90(m,m) is also reported for comparison to D90(w,m). The two-month post-implant D90(w,m) averaged over 38 patients is smaller in NUWB than in UWB by about 4.6% on average (ranging from 5% to 13%). Large average differences of G/A breast models with TG43 (17% and 26% in UGAB and NUGAB, respectively) show that the effect of the chemical composition dominates the effect of the density on dose distributions. D90(w,m) is 12% larger in SBT than in TG43 when averaged. These differences can be as low as 4% or as high as 20% when the individual patients are considered. The high sensitivity of dosimetry on the modeling scheme argues in favor of an agreement on a standard tissue modeling approach to be used in low energy breast brachytherapy. SBT appears to generate the most geometrically reliable breast tissue models in this report. This

  19. Matlab Tools: An Alternative to Planning Systems in Brachytherapy Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar

    2006-09-08

    This work proposes the use of the Matlab environment to obtain the treatment dose based on the reported data by Krishnaswamy and Liu et al. The comparison with reported measurements is showed for the Amersham source model. For the 3M source model, measurements with TLDs and a Monte Carlo simulation are compared to the data obtained by Matlab. The difference for the Amersham model is well under the 15% recommended by the IAEA and for the 3M model, although the difference is greater, the results are consistent. The good agreement to the reported data allows the Matlab calculations to be used in daily brachytherapy treatments.

  20. Ruby-based inorganic scintillation detectors for 192Ir brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Beddar, Sam

    2016-11-01

    We tested the potential of ruby inorganic scintillation detectors (ISDs) for use in brachytherapy and investigated various unwanted luminescence properties that may compromise their accuracy. The ISDs were composed of a ruby crystal coupled to a poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber-optic cable and a charge-coupled device camera. The ISD also included a long-pass filter that was sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable. The long-pass filter prevented the Cerenkov and fluorescence background light (stem signal) induced in the fiber-optic cable from striking the ruby crystal, which generates unwanted photoluminescence rather than the desired radioluminescence. The relative contributions of the radioluminescence signal and the stem signal were quantified by exposing the ruby detectors to a high-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The photoluminescence signal was quantified by irradiating the fiber-optic cable with the detector volume shielded. Other experiments addressed time-dependent luminescence properties and compared the ISDs to commonly used organic scintillator detectors (BCF-12, BCF-60). When the brachytherapy source dwelled 0.5 cm away from the fiber-optic cable, the unwanted photoluminescence was reduced from  >5% to  <1% of the total signal as long as the ISD incorporated the long-pass filter. The stem signal was suppressed with a band-pass filter and was  <3% as long as the source distance from the scintillator was  <7 cm. Some ruby crystals exhibited time-dependent luminescence properties that altered the ruby signal by  >5% within 10 s from the onset of irradiation and after the source had retracted. The ruby-based ISDs generated signals of up to 20 times that of BCF-12-based detectors. The study presents solutions to unwanted luminescence properties of ruby-based ISDs for high-dose-rate brachytherapy. An optic filter should be sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable to suppress the

  1. Ruby-based inorganic scintillation detectors for (192)Ir brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Beddar, Sam

    2016-11-07

    We tested the potential of ruby inorganic scintillation detectors (ISDs) for use in brachytherapy and investigated various unwanted luminescence properties that may compromise their accuracy. The ISDs were composed of a ruby crystal coupled to a poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber-optic cable and a charge-coupled device camera. The ISD also included a long-pass filter that was sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable. The long-pass filter prevented the Cerenkov and fluorescence background light (stem signal) induced in the fiber-optic cable from striking the ruby crystal, which generates unwanted photoluminescence rather than the desired radioluminescence. The relative contributions of the radioluminescence signal and the stem signal were quantified by exposing the ruby detectors to a high-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The photoluminescence signal was quantified by irradiating the fiber-optic cable with the detector volume shielded. Other experiments addressed time-dependent luminescence properties and compared the ISDs to commonly used organic scintillator detectors (BCF-12, BCF-60). When the brachytherapy source dwelled 0.5 cm away from the fiber-optic cable, the unwanted photoluminescence was reduced from  >5% to  <1% of the total signal as long as the ISD incorporated the long-pass filter. The stem signal was suppressed with a band-pass filter and was  <3% as long as the source distance from the scintillator was  <7 cm. Some ruby crystals exhibited time-dependent luminescence properties that altered the ruby signal by  >5% within 10 s from the onset of irradiation and after the source had retracted. The ruby-based ISDs generated signals of up to 20 times that of BCF-12-based detectors. The study presents solutions to unwanted luminescence properties of ruby-based ISDs for high-dose-rate brachytherapy. An optic filter should be sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable to suppress the

  2. Survival following interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, N D; Hughes, S W; Taub, N A; Sofat, A; Beaney, R P; Thomas, D G

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of recurrent malignant glioma is difficult and at present largely disappointing. Furthermore the results of any treatment modality need to be interpreted with knowledge regarding patient selection and timing of treatment. The results of interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 in 23 patients are presented. There were no operative complications. Median survival time from tumour recurrence and implantation was 36 and 25 weeks respectively. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was significantly associated with survival, though patient age, original tumour histology, prior chemotherapy, and time to recurrence were not. Treatment does confer modest survival benefit as compared to controls, but our results are not as impressive as others. Reasons for this finding are discussed.

  3. [Endobronchial brachytherapy: state of the art in 2013].

    PubMed

    Derhem, N; Sabila, H; Mornex, F

    2013-04-01

    Endobronchial brachytherapy is an invasive technique, which allows localizing radioactive sources at the tumour contact. Therefore, high doses are administered to tumour while healthy tissues can be spared. Initially dedicated to a palliative setting, improvements helped reaching 60 to 88% symptoms alleviation and 30 to 100% of endoscopic macroscopic response. New diagnostic techniques and early diagnosis extended the indications to a curative intent: endoluminal primitive tumour, post radiation endobronchial recurrence, inoperable patients. CT-based dosimetry is a keypoint to optimize treatment quality and to minimize potential side effects, making this treatment a safe and efficient technique for specific indications.

  4. Optimized source selection for intracavitary low dose rate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nurushev, T.; Kim, Jinkoo

    2005-05-01

    A procedure has been developed for automating optimal selection of sources from an available inventory for the low dose rate brachytherapy, as a replacement for the conventional trial-and-error approach. The method of optimized constrained ratios was applied for clinical source selection for intracavitary Cs-137 implants using Varian BRACHYVISION software as initial interface. However, this method can be easily extended to another system with isodose scaling and shaping capabilities. Our procedure provides optimal source selection results independent of the user experience and in a short amount of time. This method also generates statistics on frequently requested ideal source strengths aiding in ordering of clinically relevant sources.

  5. Use of brachytherapy in management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goes, R N; Beart, R W; Simons, A J; Gunderson, L L; Grado, G; Streeter, O

    1997-10-01

    Locally recurrent rectal cancer is associated with poor quality of life and has justified aggressive surgical and adjuvant approaches to control the disease. This study was designed to evaluate if the use of brachytherapy in association with wide surgical excision (debulking operation) can offer reasonable palliation for patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent rectal cancer who were not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy and who were previously considered as having unresectable tumors were included in the study and were followed-up from May 1981 to November 1990. All of them had undergone laparotomy and had either radical or debulking surgical resection performed. At the same time, brachytherapy was used with temporary or permanent implant of seeds of iridium-192 or iodine-125. Thirty patients were included. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 74 years, and 16 patients were female. No mortality was observed, and morbidity was low (small-bowel obstruction (1 patient), intestinal fistula (1 patient), and urinary fistula (1 patient). Histologic examination of the specimen showed gross residual disease in 67 percent of patients and microscopic disease in 25 percent of patients. Long-term follow-up was possible in 28 patients. Mean follow-up and local control were, respectively, 26.5 months and 37.5 percent for gross residual disease and 34 months and 66 percent for microscopic residual disease. Eighteen patients (64 percent) had locally recurrent rectal cancer under control at the time of the last follow-up, with seven patients (25 percent) having no evidence of local or distant recurrence. This is the first report of brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer. This appears to offer a therapeutic alternative to patients who are not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy. Surgical morbidity and mortality are acceptable. Local control in 18 patients (64 percent) is comparable with

  6. Radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Luciana Batista; de Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was investigated for future applications in brachytherapy. The main goal was to determine the radiological viability of ceramic and polymeric devices in vitro by performing simple radiological diagnostic methods such as conventional X-ray analysis and mammography due to its easy access to the population. The radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was determined using conventional X-ray, mammography and CT analysis.

  7. Growth delay effect of combined interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy in a rat solid tumor model.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, D; Kimler, B F; Estes, N C; Durham, F J

    1989-01-01

    The rat mammary AC33 solid tumor model was used to investigate the efficacy of interstitial hyperthermia and/or brachytherapy. Subcutaneous flank tumors were heated with an interstitial microwave (915 MHz) antenna to a temperature of 43 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 45 min for two treatments, three days apart, and/or implanted with Ir-192 seeds for three days (-25 Gy tumor dose). Following treatments, tumors were measured 2 to 3 times per week. Hyperthermia alone produced a modest delay in tumor volume regrowth, while brachytherapy was substantially more effective. The combination produced a improvement in tumor regrowth delay compared to brachytherapy alone.

  8. Pulsed-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Francesca; Caiazzo, Rossella; Benevento, Ilaria; Musio, Daniela; Rubini, Filippo; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecologic malignancy. The aim of this review is to outline clinical practice recommendations, to suggest a technical solution, and to advise doses selection for pulsed-dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy in EC. Electronic bibliographic databases, including PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting Library, were searched for articles in English. Clinical guidelines and systematic reviews were also considered. The appropriate therapeutic approach should consider risk factors for tumor relapse and PDR brachytherapy and have a convincing role in this multidisciplinary scenario. Performing PDR brachytherapy in EC requires robust training and experience. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Brachytherapy for cervix cancer: low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy – a meta-analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Gustavo A; Manta, Gustavo B; Stefano, Eduardo J; de Fendi, Ligia I

    2009-01-01

    Background The literature supporting high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) in the treatment of cervical carcinoma derives primarily from retrospective series. However, controversy still persists regarding the efficacy and safety of HDR brachytherapy compared to low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, in particular, due to inadequate tumor coverage for stage III patients. Whether LDR or HDR brachytherapy produces better results for these patients in terms of survival rate, local control rate and the treatment complications remain controversial. Methods A meta-analysis of RCT was performed comparing LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer treated for radiotherapy alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT and Cochrane Library databases, as well as abstracts published in the annual proceedings were systematically searched. We assessed methodological quality for each outcome by grading the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations, and "suggest" for weak recommendations. Results Pooled results from five randomized trials (2,065 patients) of HDR brachytherapy in cervix cancer showed no significant increase of mortality (p = 0.52), local recurrence (p = 0.68), or late complications (rectal; p = 0.7, bladder; p = 0.95 or small intestine; p = 0.06) rates as compared to LDR brachytherapy. In the subgroup analysis no difference was observed for overall mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stages I, II and III. The quality of evidence was low for mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stage I, and moderate for other clinical stages. Conclusion Our meta-analysis shows that there are no differences between HDR and LDR for overall survival, local recurrence and late complications for clinical stages I, II and III. By means of the GRADE system, we recommend the use of HDR for all clinical stages of cervix cancer. PMID:19344527

  10. American Brachytherapy Task Group Report: Adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Harkenrider, Matthew M; Block, Alec M; Alektiar, Kaled M; Gaffney, David K; Jones, Ellen; Klopp, Ann; Viswanathan, Akila N; Small, William

    This article aims to review the risk stratification of endometrial cancer, treatment rationale, outcomes, treatment planning, and treatment recommendations of vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in the postoperative management of endometrial cancer patients. The authors performed a thorough review of the literature and reference pertinent articles pertaining to the aims of this review. Adjuvant VBT for early-stage endometrial cancer patients results in very low rates of vaginal recurrence (0-3.1%) with low rates of late toxicity which are primarily vaginal in nature. Post-Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer 2 (PORTEC-2) supports that VBT results in noninferior rates of vaginal recurrence compared to external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of high-intermediate risk patients. VBT as a boost after external beam radiotherapy, in combination with chemotherapy, and for high-risk histologies have shown excellent results as well though randomized data do not exist supporting VBT boost. There are many different applicators, dose-fractionation schedules, and treatment planning techniques which all result in favorable clinical outcomes and low rates of toxicity. Recommendations have been published by the American Brachytherapy Society and the American Society of Radiation Oncology to help guide practitioners in the use of VBT. Data support that patients and physicians prefer joint decision making regarding the use of VBT, and patients often desire additional treatment for a marginal benefit in risk of recurrence. Discussions regarding adjuvant therapy for endometrial cancer are best performed in a multidisciplinary setting, and patients should be counseled properly regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brachytherapy dosimetry parameters calculated for a 131Cs source.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the IsoRay Medical model CS-1 Rev2 131Cs brachytherapy source was performed. Dose distributions were simulated using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) in liquid water, Solid Water, and Virtual Water spherical phantoms. From these results, the in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters have been determined, and were compared with those of Murphy et al. [Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)] using measurements and simulations. Our results suggest that calculations obtained using erroneous cross-section libraries should be discarded as recommended by the 2004 AAPM TG-43U1 report. Our Mclambda value of 1.046+/-0.019 cGy h(-1) U(-1) is within 1.3% of that measured by Chen et al. [Med. Phys. 32, 3279-3285 (2005)] using TLDs and the calculated results of Wittman and Fisher [Med. Phys. 34, 49-54 (2007)] using MCNP5. Using the discretized energy approach of Rivard [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 775-782 (2001)] to ascertain the impact of individual 131Cs photons on radial dose function and anisotropy functions, there was virtual equivalence of results for 29.461< or =Egamma< or = 34.419 keV and for a mono-energetic 30.384 keV photon source. Comparisons of radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function data are also included, and an analysis of material composition and cross-section libraries was performed.

  12. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  13. Prostate brachytherapy training with simulated ultrasound and fluoroscopy images.

    PubMed

    Goksel, Orcun; Sapchuk, Kirill; Morris, William J; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a novel computer-based virtual training system for prostate brachytherapy is presented. This system incorporates, in a novel way, prior methodologies of ultrasound image synthesis and haptic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) transducer interaction in a complete simulator that allows a trainee to maneuver the needle and the TRUS, to see the resulting patient-specific images and feel the interaction forces. The simulated TRUS images reflect the volumetric tissue deformation and comprise validated appearance models for the needle and implanted seeds. Rendered haptic forces use validated models for needle shaft flexure and friction, tip cutting, and deflection due to bevel. This paper also presents additional new features that make the simulator complete, in the sense that all aspects of the brachytherapy procedure as practiced at many cancer centers are simulated, including simulations of seed unloading, fluoroscopy imaging, and transversal/sagittal TRUS plane switching. For real-time rendering, methods for fast TRUS-needle-seed image formation are presented. In addition, the simulator computes real-time dosimetry, allowing a trainee to immediately see the consequence of planning changes. The simulation is also patient specific, as it allows the user to import the treatment plan for a patient together with the imaging data in order for a physician to practice an upcoming procedure or for a medical resident to train using typical implant scenarios or rarely encountered cases.

  14. Dosimetric Study of a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Arzamendi, S.; Díaz-Perches, R.

    Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common malignancy - in terms of both incidence and mortality - in Mexican women. Low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy is normally prescribed for the treatment of this disease to the vast majority of patients attending public hospitals in our country. However, most treatment planning systems being used in these hospitals still rely on Sievert integral dose calculations. Moreover, experimental verification of dose distributions are hardly ever done. In this work we present a dosimetric characterisation of the Amersham CDCS-J 137Cs source, an LDR brachytherapy source commonly used in Mexican hospitals. To this end a Monte Carlo simulation was developed, that includes a realistic description of the internal structure of the source embedded in a scattering medium. The Monte Carlo results were compared to experimental measurements of dose distributions. A lucite phantom with the same geometric characteristics as the one used in the simulation was built. Dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters together with commercial RadioChromic dye film. A comparison between our Monte Carlo simulation, the experimental data, and results reported in the literature is presented.

  15. Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Toita, Takafumi

    2009-02-01

    Standard definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer consists of whole pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). In Japan, high-dose-rate ICBT (HDR-ICBT) has been utilized in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Several randomized clinical trials demonstrated that HDR-ICBT achieved comparative outcomes, both for pelvic control and incidences of late complications, to low-dose-rate (LDR) ICBT. In addition, HDR-ICBT has some potential advantages over LDR-ICBT, leading to further improvement in treatment results. Prior to the current computer planning systems, some excellent treatment planning concepts were established. At present, systems modified from these concepts, or novel approaches, such as image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) are under investigation. One serious problem to be solved in HDR-ICBT for cervical cancer is that of the discrepancy in standard treatment schedules for combination HDR-ICBT and EBRT between the United States and Japan. Prospective studies are ongoing to assess the efficacy and toxicity of the Japanese schedule.

  16. In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael P.; Song, Danny Y.; Kang, Jin U.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a canine study to investigate the in vivo feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. A fiber coupled to a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser was inserted into high-dose-rate brachytherapy needles, which diffused light spherically. These needles were inserted through the perineum into the prostate for interstitial light delivery and the resulting acoustic waves were detected with a transrectal ultrasound probe. Postoperative computed tomography images and ex vivo photoacoustic images confirmed seed locations. Limitations with insufficient light delivery were mitigated with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamforming, providing a 10-20 dB contrast improvement over delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming for pulse energies ranging from 6.8 to 10.5 mJ with a fiber-seed distance as large as 9.5 mm. For the same distance and the same range of energy densities, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were similar while the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was higher in SLSC compared to DAS images. Challenges included visualization of signals associated with the interstitial fiber tip and acoustic reverberations between seeds separated by ≤2 mm. Results provide insights into the potential for clinical translation to humans.

  17. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  18. Impact of Radionuclide Physical Distribution on Brachytherapy Dosimetry Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, M.J.; Kirk, B.L.; Leal, L.C.

    2005-01-15

    Radiation dose distributions of brachytherapy sources are generally characterized with the assumption that all internal components are equally radioactive. Autoradiographs and discussions with source manufacturers indicated this assumption of the radionuclide physical distribution may be invalid. Consequently, clinical dose distributions would be in error when not accounting for these internal variations. Many implants use brachytherapy sources with four {sup 125}I resin beads and two radiopaque markers used for imaging. Monte Carlo methods were used to determine dose contributions from each of the resin beads. These contributions were compared with those from an idealized source having a uniform physical distribution. Upon varying the {sup 125}I physical distribution while retaining the same overall radioactivity, the dose distribution along the transverse plane remained constant within 5% for r > 0.5 cm. For r {<=} 0.5 cm, relative positioning of the resin beads dominated the shielding effects, and dose distributions varied up to a factor of 3 at r = 0.05 cm. For points off the transverse plane, comparisons of the uniform and nonuniform dose distributions produced larger variations. Shielding effects within the capsule were virtually constant along the source long axis and demonstrated that anisotropy variations among the four resin beads were dependent on internal component positioning.

  19. In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael P.; Song, Danny Y.; Kang, Jin U.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We conducted a canine study to investigate the in vivo feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. A fiber coupled to a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser was inserted into high-dose-rate brachytherapy needles, which diffused light spherically. These needles were inserted through the perineum into the prostate for interstitial light delivery and the resulting acoustic waves were detected with a transrectal ultrasound probe. Postoperative computed tomography images and ex vivo photoacoustic images confirmed seed locations. Limitations with insufficient light delivery were mitigated with short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamforming, providing a 10–20 dB contrast improvement over delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming for pulse energies ranging from 6.8 to 10.5 mJ with a fiber-seed distance as large as 9.5 mm. For the same distance and the same range of energy densities, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were similar while the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was higher in SLSC compared to DAS images. Challenges included visualization of signals associated with the interstitial fiber tip and acoustic reverberations between seeds separated by ≤2 mm. Results provide insights into the potential for clinical translation to humans. PMID:25531797

  20. Penile brachytherapy-Retrospective review of a single institution.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Ana; Gutierrez, Cristina; Mosquera, David; Pera, Juan; Martínez, Evelyn; Londres, Bradley; Pino, Francisco; Moreno, Sergio; Garcia, Marc; Guedea, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the results of exclusive brachytherapy (BT) to treat patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma confined to the glans or prepuce. Retrospective analysis of 25 patients treated for T1-T2 penile cancer with exclusive interstitial BT between July 1989 and March 2014 at our institution. Median followup was 9.2 years (range, 0-19). The mean patient age was 65.3 years (range, 51-80). Most patients underwent exclusive low-dose-rate BT (56%; n = 14) or pulsed-dose-rate BT (40%; n = 10). Only 1 patient received high-dose-rate BT (4%). The median prescribed dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients died during follow-up because of systemic progression (one case) and other intercurrent causes (seven cases). Two failures were recorded (one local and one regional), both at 4 months after BT. The remaining patients continued follow-up at our institution and maintained response. Two patients underwent partial phallectomy for toxicity. At the time of this report, 12 of the 25 patients are alive and free of disease. The most common late toxicities were telangiectasia, urethral stenosis, and atrophy, in 48%, 43%, and 17.4% of patients, respectively. BT with low dose rate/pulsed dose rate provides excellent locoregional control for small (≤4 cm) T1-T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the penile glans. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of a diamond detector to brachytherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rustgi, S N

    1998-08-01

    The feasibility of using a diamond detector for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources has been investigated. A high-activity 192Ir source was selected for this purpose. The dosimetric characteristics measured included the photon fluence anisotropy in air, transverse dose profiles in planes parallel to the plane containing the HDR source and isodose distributions. The 'in-air' anisotropy of the photon fluence relative to seed orientation was measured at 5 and 10 cm from the source centre and compared with TLD measurements. Transverse dose distributions in planes parallel to the plane containing the source long axis were measured in a water phantom and compared with calculations performed with a treatment planning system. Isodose distributions were also measured in several planes around the 192Ir source. Measurements on two sources indicate that the 'in-air' photon fluence anisotropy measured by the diamond detector and the TLDs is very similar. Dose profiles measured at several distances from the source are also found to be in good agreement with the calculated dose profiles and isodose distributions. Results of this feasibility study indicate that the diamond detector, with its excellent spatial resolution and nearly tissue equivalent and isotropic radiation response, is an appropriate detector for dose measurements around brachytherapy sources.

  2. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  3. Intraluminal urethral brachytherapy for recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder in urethral stump.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bikramjit; Ghorai, Suman; Ray, Somapriya Basu; Kar, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-03-01

    We report a unique case of successfully performed intraluminal brachytherapy for low volume urethral mucosal recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma urinary bladder, initially treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor, followed by radical cystectomy. Since the patient was unwilling to undergo any other operational interventions, intraluminal brachytherapy of urethra was attempted. Fluroscopy guided intraluminal HDR brachytherapy using Lumencath(®) catheter under local anesthesia, and remote afterloading system (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was performed. A fraction dose of 7 Gy in seven weekly fractions was prescribed at 0.5 cm from the single applicator. The result was promising in terms of local control and symptomatic relief. Therefore, intraluminal brachytherapy in low volume superficial local disease in urethra may play a potential role, and should be applied when repeated surgery is not feasible due to technical or medical reasons.

  4. Intraluminal urethral brachytherapy for recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder in urethral stump

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Suman; Ray, Somapriya Basu; Kar, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We report a unique case of successfully performed intraluminal brachytherapy for low volume urethral mucosal recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma urinary bladder, initially treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor, followed by radical cystectomy. Since the patient was unwilling to undergo any other operational interventions, intraluminal brachytherapy of urethra was attempted. Fluroscopy guided intraluminal HDR brachytherapy using Lumencath® catheter under local anesthesia, and remote afterloading system (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was performed. A fraction dose of 7 Gy in seven weekly fractions was prescribed at 0.5 cm from the single applicator. The result was promising in terms of local control and symptomatic relief. Therefore, intraluminal brachytherapy in low volume superficial local disease in urethra may play a potential role, and should be applied when repeated surgery is not feasible due to technical or medical reasons. PMID:23634154

  5. FIGO stage IB1 cervical carcinoma: Place and principles of brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Huertas, A; Oldrini, S; Nesseler, J-P; Courrech, F; Rétif, P; Charra-Brunaud, C; Peiffert, D

    2017-02-20

    The treatment of cervical cancers according to FIGO staging is well defined. For FIGO stage IB2 or more, chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy boost is the standard treatment. Surgery is the preferred choice for less advanced tumors. However, most French institutions propose preoperative brachytherapy followed by hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for FIGO stage IB1 tumors over 2cm. Brachytherapy is also used for the boost after adjuvant pelvic external beam radiotherapy. Tridimensional dosimetry with optimization allows better treatment planning, delivering high doses to target volumes with limited irradiation to the organs at risk. We will discuss the indications of brachytherapy for FIGO stage IB1 tumors and the principles of pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate techniques.

  6. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beta or gamma-emitting material or 0.37 MBq (10 µCi) or less of alpha-emitting material; (4) Seeds of... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual physical...

  7. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beta or gamma-emitting material or 0.37 MBq (10 µCi) or less of alpha-emitting material; (4) Seeds of... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual physical...

  8. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... hours of classroom and laboratory training in the following areas— (A) Radiation physics and... a medical institution, involving— (A) Ordering, receiving, and unpacking radioactive materials...

  9. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... hours of classroom and laboratory training in the following areas— (A) Radiation physics and... a medical institution, involving— (A) Ordering, receiving, and unpacking radioactive materials...

  10. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... hours of classroom and laboratory training in the following areas— (A) Radiation physics and... a medical institution, involving— (A) Ordering, receiving, and unpacking radioactive materials...

  11. Feasibility of calibrating elongated brachytherapy sources using a well-type ionization chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Meigooni, Ali S.; Awan, Shahid B.; Dou, Kai

    2006-11-15

    Recently, elongated brachytherapy sources (active length >1 cm) have become commercially available for interstitial prostate implants. These sources were introduced to improve the quality of brachytherapy procedures by eliminating the migration and seed bunching associated with loose seed-type implants. However, the inability to calibrate elongated brachytherapy sources with the Wide-Angle Free-Air Chamber (WAFAC) used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hinders the experimental determination of dosimetric parameters of these source types. In order to resolve this shortcoming, an interim solution has been introduced for calibration of elongated brachytherapy sources using a commercially available well-type ionization chamber. The feasibility of this procedure was examined by calibrating RadioCoil{sup Tm} {sup 103}Pd sources with active lengths ranging from 1 to 7 cm.

  12. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Łyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Łaskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step. PMID:23346132

  13. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Matys, Robert; Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Lyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Laskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step.

  14. The trail of the development of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    2003-07-01

    The differences in radiotherapeutic treatment systems for cervical cancer between the United States and Japan can be attributed either to the tolerance of high-risk organs, or dosimetry itself. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is the standard treatment for uterine cervix carcinoma in Japan. In addition, HDR Co-60 afterloading machines have been gradually replaced with Ir-192 micro-source afterloading machines during the past ten years. This implies that it has now become impossible to conduct a prospective comparative study of HDR versus low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Japan. An examination of the history of HDR intracavitary radiotherapy for uterine cervix carcinoma in Japan led us to the conclusion that HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer is as effective as LDR intracavitary brachytherapy in terms of both survival and complications. In Japan, studies on the former can be drawn from a long experience of more than 35 years.

  15. Brachytherapy, A viable option of globe salvage in treatment of large ciliary body melanocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P.; Saxena, Manish; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Tekwani, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of large histopathologically proven melanocytoma of the ciliary body in a 15-year-old male, presented with rapid extraocular growth following incisional biopsy with scleral patch graft. We chose brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 plaque over enucleation as the later was refused by the parents. The initial apical height of the tumor was 14.2 mm on ultrasonography. Two weeks after brachytherapy, the mass regressed to a size of 8.1 mm and 1 year later to 6.7 mm. This is the first case report showing the response of brachytherapy to ciliary body melanocytoma, which results in ocular and visual acuity salvation with considerable decreased in size of the tumor. The authors conclude that brachytherapy is an option in the management of non-resectable melanocytoma of the ciliary body. PMID:25370406

  16. Comparison of dose calculation methods for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, Mark J.; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Finger, Paul T.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E.; Rogers, D. W. O.; Thomson, Rowan M.; Nath, Ravinder

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric differences among several clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) and Monte Carlo (MC) codes for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors using {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd plaques, and to evaluate the impact on the prescription dose of the adoption of MC codes and certain versions of a TPS (Plaque Simulator with optional modules). Methods: Three clinical brachytherapy TPS capable of intraocular brachytherapy treatment planning and two MC codes were compared. The TPS investigated were Pinnacle v8.0dp1, BrachyVision v8.1, and Plaque Simulator v5.3.9, all of which use the AAPM TG-43 formalism in water. The Plaque Simulator software can also handle some correction factors from MC simulations. The MC codes used are MCNP5 v1.40 and BrachyDose/EGSnrc. Using these TPS and MC codes, three types of calculations were performed: homogeneous medium with point sources (for the TPS only, using the 1D TG-43 dose calculation formalism); homogeneous medium with line sources (TPS with 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes); and plaque heterogeneity-corrected line sources (Plaque Simulator with modified 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes). Comparisons were made of doses calculated at points-of-interest on the plaque central-axis and at off-axis points of clinical interest within a standardized model of the right eye. Results: For the homogeneous water medium case, agreement was within {approx}2% for the point- and line-source models when comparing between TPS and between TPS and MC codes, respectively. For the heterogeneous medium case, dose differences (as calculated using the MC codes and Plaque Simulator) differ by up to 37% on the central-axis in comparison to the homogeneous water calculations. A prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth based on calculations in a homogeneous medium delivers 76 Gy and 67 Gy for specific {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS-plaque heterogeneities. For off

  17. Patterns of practice survey for brachytherapy for cervix cancer in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; van Dyk, Sylvia; Khaw, Pearly; Veera, Jacqueline; Mileshkin, Linda; Ohanessian, Lucy; Harrison, Michelle; Vinod, Shalini K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to explore the current patterns of practice for brachytherapy in cervix cancer in Australia and New Zealand. The survey was also intended to explore clinician attitudes towards image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) and identify barriers to the implementation of IGABT. Electronic surveys were sent to all radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand under collaboration with Australia New Zealand Gynaecology and Oncology Group (ANZGOG), in order to identify patterns of radiotherapy practice. The survey was sent out in December 2013, with a reminder in February 2014. Of the 75 radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand, 23 centres replied (31% response rate). Twenty-two responding departments treat cervix cancer with external beam radiation (EBRT) (22/23; 96%). Fourteen responses were from departments that also use intracavitary brachytherapy (14/22; 64%). The remaining eight departments who do not offer intracavitary brachytherapy referred their patients on to other centres for brachytherapy. Ultrasound was used by 86% for applicator guidance. CT and MRI were used by 79%, and 50% respectively for planning. Optimisation was based on organs at risk (93%) and target volumes (64%). Brachytherapy remains an integral component of definitive treatment for cervix cancer in Australia and New Zealand. There was increased use of soft tissue imaging modalities with emphasis on verification; high rates of volumetric planning, and adherence to a defined overall treatment period. Brachytherapy was not substituted with other EBRT modalities. Despite this, there remain barriers to implementation of image-guided brachytherapy. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Bojaxhiu, Beat; Simcock, Mathew; Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard; Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

  19. Evaluation of neuropathic pain occurring after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of oral tongue

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Oinam, Arun S.; Ghoshal, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy of oral tongue and to evaluate the possible causes of neuropathy. Material and methods Twenty one patients who underwent interstitial brachytherapy for early cancer of oral tongue were evaluated. The patients either underwent primary brachytherapy (42-48 Gy at 3-4 Gy/fraction) or a boost (18-24 Gy at 3 Gy/fraction) after external radiation to 40 Gy. Lingual nerve was the nerve concerned and the sublingual space (SLS) was contoured as its surrogate. Dosimetric parameters were correlated with onset of pain. Results Ten patients out of 21 (47.61%) developed painful neuropathy. Five patients of six (5/6) who underwent primary brachytherapy developed neuropathy. Five out of 15 (5/15) patients who underwent brachytherapy as a boost developed neuropathy. The patients who underwent primary brachytherapy were ten times more likely to develop neuropathy. Among the patients receiving boost treatment, the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) to 2 cc of SLS was higher (39.25 Gy) in the patients who developed pain compared to those without pain (10.29 Gy). Conclusions This is the first report to recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of HDR brachytherapy of oral tongue. Patients undergoing primary brachytherapy were more likely to develop pain. Among other factors like dose to SLS, number of catheters, size of the primary tumor, and the dose rate, only dose to 2 cc of the SLS correlated with onset of pain. The SLS (containing the lingual nerve) may be considered an organ at risk to prevent the occurrence of this complication. PMID:26034495

  20. Highly efficient method for production of radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Roberta Mansini; de Souza, Carla Daruich; Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins; Araki, Koiti

    2017-02-01

    A simple and highly efficient (shorter reaction time and almost no rework) method for production of iodine based radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy is described. The method allows almost quantitative deposition of iodine-131 on dozens of silver substrates at once, with even distribution of activity per core and insignificant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, allowing the fabrication of cheaper radioactive iodine seeds for brachytherapy.

  1. GEC-ESTRO recommendations for brachytherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Haie-Méder, Christine; Kovács, György; Levendag, Peter; Peiffert, Didier; Polo, Alfredo; Rovirosa, Angels; Strnad, Vratislav

    2009-05-01

    Both primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are classic indications for brachytherapy. A high rate of local tumor control at the cost of limited morbidity can be achieved with brachytherapy through good patient selection, meticulous source implantation and careful treatment planning. However, no randomized trials have been performed, and there is scant evidence in the literature especially regarding practical clinical recommendations for brachytherapy for head and neck subsites. The Head and Neck Working Group of the European Brachytherapy Group (Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) therefore decided to formulate the present consensus recommendations for low-dose rate, pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy. The use of brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy and/or surgery is also covered as well as the use of brachytherapy in previously irradiated patients. Given the paucity of evidence in the literature, these recommendations are mainly based on clinical experience accumulated by the members of the working group over several decades and the respective publications. The recommendations cover in a general part (1) patient selection, the pre-treatment work up and patient care, (2) treatment strategy, (3) target definition, (4) implant techniques, (5) dose and dose rate prescription, (6) treatment planning and reporting, (7) treatment monitoring (8) catheter removal, and (9) post-treatment patient care and follow-up. The recommendations are then specified for the classical brachytherapy tumor sites following an analogue more focussed structure (patient selection, implant technique, target definition, dose and dose rate prescription, results): lip, oral mucosa, mobile tongue, floor of mouth, oropharynx, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses.

  2. Targeting MRS-Defined Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    computed tomography –based high dose rate brachytherapy of prostate cancer, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Fall 2007...Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jean Pouliot, Ph.D. I-Chow Hsu, M.D...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  3. Targeting MRS-Defined Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jean Pouliot, Ph.D. I-Chow Hsu...data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this...NUMBER Targeting MRS-Defined Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0262

  4. Targeting MRS-Defined Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Intraprostatic Lesions with Inverse-Planned High Dose Rate Brachytherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jean Pouliot, Ph.D. I-Chow Hsu...data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this...Intraprostatic lesions with Inverse-Planned 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0262 High Dose Rate Brachytherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  5. Endovascular brachytherapy for treatment of bilateral renal artery in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Goldstein, Jeffrey A; Casserly, Ivan P; Rogers, Jason H; Kurz, Howard I; Thorstad, Wade L; Singh, Jasvindar; Lasala, John M

    2003-06-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of renal artery stenosis is an attractive alternative to surgical therapy. However, even with endovascular stenting, the overall rate of restenosis is 21%. While brachytherapy for coronary in-stent restenosis has proven efficacy, its use for renal artery in-stent restenosis has not been formally evaluated. We report a case of bilateral in-stent renal artery restenosis treated with endovascular brachytherapy. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Microfocus X-ray imaging of the internal geometry of brachytherapy seeds.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ito, Hidetaka; Masuda, Shinji; Kawahara, Maki; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-04-01

    Precise and reliable geometrical data on the internal structure of seeds are indispensable for dosimetric calculation in brachytherapy. We used a novel microfocus X-ray imaging technique for observing the internal structure of brachytherapy seeds. Two popular (125)I seed models were evaluated. Obtained high precision images enabled us to observe the internal structure of seeds qualitatively. Geometrical size parameters were evaluated quantitatively with uncertainty of 0.01-0.04 mm (k=2).

  7. Preparation of (103)Pd brachytherapy seeds by electroless plating of (103)Pd onto carbon bars.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yong; Gao, Hui-Bo; Deng, Xue-Song; Zhou, Leng; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Han, Lian-Ge; Jin, Xiao-Hai; Cui, Hai-Ping

    2015-09-01

    A method for preparing (103)Pd brachytherapy seeds is reported. The key of the method was to deposit (103)Pd onto carbon bars by electroless plating so as to prepare source cores. After each carbon bar with (103)Pd was sealed in a titanium capsule, the (103)Pd seeds were fabricated. This paper provides valuable experiences and data for the preparation of (103)Pd brachytherapy seeds.

  8. Brachytherapy for accelerated partial-breast irradiation: a rapidly emerging technology in breast cancer care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Grace L; Xu, Ying; Buchholz, Thomas A; Smith, Benjamin D; Giordano, Sharon H; Haffty, Bruce G; Vicini, Frank A; White, Julia R; Arthur, Douglas W; Harris, Jay R; Shih, Ya-Chen T

    2011-01-10

    Brachytherapy is a method for delivering partial-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). It is currently used in the community setting, although its efficacy has yet to be validated in prospective comparative trials. Frequency and factors influencing use have not been previously identified. In a nationwide database of 6,882 Medicare beneficiaries (age ≥ 65 years) with private supplemental insurance (MarketScan Medicare Supplemental), claims codes identified patients treated with brachytherapy versus external-beam radiation after BCS for incident breast cancer (diagnosed from 2001 to 2006). Logistic regression modeled predictors of brachytherapy use. Frequency of brachytherapy use as an alternative to external-beam radiation after BCS increased over time (< 1% in 2001, 2% in 2002, 3% in 2003, 5% in 2004, 8% in 2005, 10% in 2006; P < .001). Increased use correlated temporally with US Food and Drug Administration approval and Medicare reimbursement of brachytherapy technology. Brachytherapy use was more likely in women with lymph node-negative disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.17 to 4.11) or axillary surgery (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.44). Brachytherapy use was also more likely in women with non-health maintenance organization insurance (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.64) and in areas with higher median income (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.38), lower density of radiation oncologists (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.86), or higher density of surgeons (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.31). Despite ongoing questions regarding efficacy, breast brachytherapy was rapidly incorporated into the care of older, insured patients. In our era of frequently emerging novel technologies yet growing demands to optimize costs and outcomes, results provide insight into how clinical, policy, and socioeconomic factors influence new technology diffusion into conventional care.

  9. Temporal relationship between prostate brachytherapy and the diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, Sarah A.; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To identify the location of pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal malignancies and posttreatment colorectal polyps in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through July 2004, 1,351 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 2002) prostate cancer. Supplemental external beam radiotherapy (XRT) was administered to 699 patients. The median follow-up was 4.6 years. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed for all patients with pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal cancer and posttreatment colorectal polyps. Multiple parameters were evaluated for the development of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps. Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 23 and 25 patients before and after prostate brachytherapy, respectively. No differences were identified in the distribution of colorectal cancers either before or after treatment (3 and 4 rectal cancers in the pre- and postbrachytherapy cohorts). Thirty-five of the 48 colorectal cancers (73%) were diagnosed within 5 years of brachytherapy with a peak incidence 1 year after brachytherapy. One hundred ninety-two colorectal polyps were diagnosed after brachytherapy, 160 (83%) occurred within 4 years of brachytherapy, and only 27 (14%) were located in the rectum. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, prostate D{sub 9} (minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume) predicted for posttreatment colorectal cancer. Rectal polyps were most closely related to patient age and percent positive biopsies, whereas sigmoid/colon polyps were best predicted by patient age, planning volume, and supplemental XRT. Conclusions: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed with equal frequency before and after brachytherapy with comparable geographic distributions. In addition, the vast majority of postbrachytherapy colorectal polyps were located beyond the confines of the

  10. Effect of brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on cervical cancer implant dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, Christopher J.; O'Donnell, Kristen; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gaffney, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) in patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. From 1998 to 2008, 31 patients with cervical cancer with full dosimetric data were identified who received definitive external-beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy with tandem and ovoid applicators. Doses were recorded at point A, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)-38 rectal point, the ICRU-38 bladder point, the vaginal surface, and the pelvic sidewall. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the significance of changes in OAR to point A dose ratios with differences in brachytherapy technique or patient characteristics. Patients underwent a median of 5 brachytherapy procedures (range, 3 to 5), with a total of 179 procedures for 31 patients. For all brachytherapy treatments, the average ratios between the doses for the rectal, bladder, vaginal surface, and pelvic sidewall reference points to those at point A were 0.49, 0.59, 1.15, and 0.17, respectively. In general, decreased OAR dose was associated with a lower stage, younger age, increased ovoid size, increased tandem length, and earlier implant number. Increased tandem curvature significantly increased bladder dose and decreased rectal dose. Intravenous anesthesia usage was not correlated with improved dosimetry. This study allowed identification of patient and procedure characteristics influencing OAR dosing. Although the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy will bring new advances in treatment optimization, the actual technique involved at the time of the brachytherapy implant procedure will remain important.

  11. Prospective evaluation of patient satisfaction after the use of brachytherapy specific educational materials for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Rash, Dominique; Hess, Clayton; Lentz, Susan; Tait, Lauren; Michaud, Anthony; Mayadev, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer patients are faced with an enormous amount of medical information in a complex oncology field with sophisticated treatments including brachytherapy. We investigated the use of enhanced vs. standard brachytherapy-specific educational materials on patient-reported satisfaction during the informed consent process for intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy. A single-institution, prospective, randomized trial was performed to study patient-reported satisfaction with novel educational materials for high-dose-rate brachytherapy in women undergoing definitive radiation for cervical cancer. Fourteen women receiving informed consent with a customized educational booklet were randomized between no further intervention and take-home educational materials. The weighted average for 10 of 11 survey questions was higher in the intervention arm but ranged between 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree) for all questions in both arms. The mean weighted patient satisfaction scores ± standard deviations in the control arm and the intervention arms were 54.3 ± 6.4 and 57.5 ± 2.7, respectively (p = 0.26). Knowledge acquisition is presumed to be part of the coping process for women facing increased stress during a cancer diagnosis. A brachytherapy-specific, visual, patient-educational booklet and take-home materials used to supplement the informed consent process for high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in high levels of patient-reported satisfaction among women treated with cervical cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  13. WE-E-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy I: Overview of Clinical Application and QA

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, B; Showalter, T

    2014-06-15

    With the increased usage of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and the introduction of dedicated image guided brachytherapy suites, it is necessary to review the processes and procedures associated with safely delivering these treatments in the expedited time scales that dedicated treatment suites afford. The speakers will present the clinical aspects of switching from LDR to HDR treatments, including guidelines for patient selection, and the clinical outcomes comparing LDR to HDR. The speakers will also discuss the HDR treatment process itself, because the shortened clinical timeline involved with a streamlined scan/plan/treat workflow can introduce other issues. Safety and QA aspects involved with the streamlined process, including increased personnel required for parallel tasks, and possible interfering tasks causing delays in patient treatments will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To understand the clinical aspects of HDR Brachytherapy, including common clinical indications, patient selection, and the evolving evidence in support of this therapeutic modality To review the current prominent clinical trials for HDR brachytherapy To interpret the established guidelines for HDR brachytherapy quality assurance for implementation into practical clinical settings. To introduce the basic requirements for image guided brachytherapy.

  14. Seeing is saving: the benefit of 3D imaging in gynecologic brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Akila N; Erickson, Beth A

    2015-07-01

    Despite a concerning decline in the use of brachytherapy over the past decade, no other therapy is able to deliver a very high dose of radiation into or near a tumor, with a rapid fall-off of dose to adjacent structures. Compared to traditional X-ray-based brachytherapy that relies on points, the use of CT and MR for 3D planning of gynecologic brachytherapy provides a much more accurate volume-based calculation of dose to an image-defined tumor and to the bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and other pelvic organs at risk (OAR) for radiation complications. The publication of standardized guidelines and an online contouring teaching atlas for performing 3D image-based brachytherapy has created a universal platform for communication and training. This has resulted in a uniform approach to using image-guided brachytherapy for treatment and an internationally accepted format for reporting clinical outcomes. Significant improvements in survival and reductions in toxicity have been reported with the addition of image guidance to increase dose to tumor and decrease dose to the critical OAR. Future improvements in individualizing patient treatments should include a more precise definition of the target. This will allow dose modulation based on the amount of residual disease visualized on images obtained at the time of brachytherapy.

  15. Perioperative Search for Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients Undergoing Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsumura, Hideyasu; Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Takenaka, Kouji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Nakamura, Masaki; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the absence of local prostate cancer recurrence, some patients develop distant metastases after prostate brachytherapy. We evaluate whether prostate brachytherapy procedures have a potential risk for hematogenous spillage of prostate cancer cells. Fifty-nine patients who were undergoing high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy participated in this prospective study. Thirty patients with high-risk or locally advanced cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Twenty-nine patients with clinically localized cancer were treated with LDR brachytherapy without neoadjuvant ADT. Samples of peripheral blood were drawn in the operating room before insertion of needles (preoperative) and again immediately after the surgical manipulation (intraoperative). Blood samples of 7.5 mL were analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the CellSearch System. While no preoperative samples showed CTCs (0%), they were detected in intraoperative samples in 7 of the 59 patients (11.8%; preoperative vs. intraoperative, p = 0.012). Positive CTC status did not correlate with perioperative variables, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, use of neoadjuvant ADT, type of brachytherapy, Gleason score, and biopsy positive core rate. We detected CTCs from samples immediately after the surgical manipulation. Further study is needed to evaluate whether those CTCs actually can survive and proliferate at distant sites. PMID:28085051

  16. American Brachytherapy Society: Brachytherapy treatment recommendations for locally advanced cervix cancer for low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Gita; Brown, Derek; Chang, Amy; Erickson, Beth; Fidarova, Elena; Grover, Surbhi; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Nag, Subir; Narayan, Kailash; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Viegas, Celia; Viswanathan, Akila N; Lin, Ming Yin; Gaffney, David

    Most cervix cancer cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), and outcomes are suboptimal, even for early stage disease. Brachytherapy plays a central role in the treatment paradigm, improving both local control and overall survival. The American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) aims to provide guidelines for brachytherapy delivery in resource-limited settings. A panel of clinicians and physicists with expertise in brachytherapy administration in LMIC was convened. A survey was developed to identify practice patterns at the authors' institutions and was also extended to participants of the Cervix Cancer Research Network. The scientific literature was reviewed to identify consensus papers or review articles with a focus on treatment of locally advanced, unresected cervical cancer in LMIC. Of the 40 participants invited to respond to the survey, 32 responded (response rate 80%). Participants were practicing in 14 different countries including both high-income (China, Singapore, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States) and low-income or middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). Recommendations for modifications to existing ABS guidelines were reviewed by the panel members and are highlighted in this article. Recommendations for treatment of locally advanced, unresectable cervical cancer in LMIC are presented. The guidelines comment on staging, external beam radiotherapy, use of concurrent chemotherapy, overall treatment duration, use of anesthesia, applicator choice and placement verification, brachytherapy treatment planning including dose and prescription point, recommended reporting and documentation, physics support, and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of malignant lung tumours.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Sacristán, J A; Granda-Orive, J I; Gutiérrez Jiménez, T; Delgado, J M; Rodero Baños, A; Saez Valls, R

    2004-09-01

    A prospective study was made to assess the short-term clinical and endoscopic response to high-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDREB) in patients with malignant endobronchial tumours. From July 1995 to May 2000, 288 HDREB sessions were carried out on 81 patients. The mean patient age was 61.57 yrs (range 34-82); males were predominant (87.65%). Tumours were primary in 76 patients (93.82%) and metastatic in five patients (6.18%). The inclusion criteria were malignant endobronchial tumour and either palliative treatment for incurable disease or intent-to-cure treatment for residual malignancy on the bronchial resection surface after surgery or an inoperable tumour. The exclusion criteria were as follows: impediments to catheter placement, expected survival <2 months, Karnofsky index <60, or absence of informed consent. The clinical response of a symptom was categorised as complete (disappearance of the symptom), partial (less than complete) or absent. The endoscopic response was considered to be complete if lesions disappeared and biopsy findings remained negative 1 month after the last radiation session; partial if lesions improved to some extent, but the biopsy findings were positive; and absent if there was no change in relation to baseline. The technique consisted of delivering high-dose irradiation from an Ir192 source to a target volume using one or two endobronchial catheters inserted under optical or video bronchoscopic guidance. Four sessions were scheduled at weekly intervals and 500 cGy was applied per session over a length of 1-9 cm, measured 0.5-1 cm from the centre of the source. In total, 85% of the symptoms analysed (haemoptysis, cough, dyspnoea, expectoration, and stridor) disappeared with HDREB, which was categorised as a complete response. The endoscopic response was complete in 56.79% of patients, partial or less than complete in 40.74% and absent in 2.46%. One major complication occurred (bronchial fistula 1.2%), but no lethal haemoptysis

  18. Primary Causes of Death After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, Nathan; Merrick, Gregory S. Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Moyad, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy. All patients underwent brachytherapy >3 years before analysis. Of the patients, 532 (39.3%) received androgen deprivation therapy and 703 (51.9%) received supplemental radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific survival was 97.0% (99.7%, 99.0%, and 90.1% for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients). Overall survival was 76.7% (82.5%, 78.3%, and 67.6% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively). The cumulative death rate for cardiovascular disease was 11.5% (8.7%, 9.3%, and 19.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients). The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group. Death from all other causes was 6.5% for the entire cohort but 1.3%, 5.0%, and 10.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use. Conclusions: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths. In particular, overall survival was poorest in the high-risk group. Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily

  19. Clinical implementation of MR-guided vaginal cylinder brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Owrangi, Amir M; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M; Cao, Yue; Maturen, Katherine E; Young, Lisa; Zhu, Tong; Prisciandaro, Joann I

    2015-11-08

    We present an institutional experience on the clinical implementation of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided vaginal brachytherapy using commercially available solid applicator models. To test the fidelity of solid applicator models to digitize vaginal cylinder applicators, three datasets were evaluated. The first included 15 patients who were simulated with CT alone. Next, a water phantom was used to evaluate vaginal cylinders ranging from 20 to 35 mm in diameter with CT and MR. Finally, three patients undergoing HDR brachytherapy with vaginal cylinders that were simulated with both CT and MR were evaluated. In these assessments, the solid applicator models were aligned based on the outline of the applicators on the corresponding volumetric image, and deviations between the central source positions defined based on X-ray markers (on CT) and solid applicator models (on CT and MR), and the percent dose difference between select reference points were calculated. The mean central source deviation defined based on X-ray markers (on CT) and solid applicator models (on CT and MR) for the 15-patient cohort, the phantom, and the 3-patient cohort is 0.6 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1.2 mm, respectively. The average absolute percent dose difference for the bladder, rectum, prescription, and inferior reference points were 2.2%, 2.3%, 2.2%, and 2.4%, respectively, for the 15 patient cohort. For the phantom study, the average, absolute percent dose difference for the prescription and inferior reference points are 2.0% and 2.1% for the CT, 2.3% and 2.2% for the T1W, and 2.8% and 3.0% for the T2W images. For the three patient cohort, the average absolute percent dose difference for the bladder, rectum, prescription, and inferior reference points are 2.9%, 2.6%, 3.0%, and 4.2% for the CT, 6.5%, 1.6%, 2.5%, and 4.7% for the T1W, and 6.0%, 7.4%, 2.6, and 2.0% for the T2W images. Based on the current study, aligning the applicator model to MR images provides a practical, efficient approach to perform

  20. Dosimetric equivalence of nonstandard HDR brachytherapy catheter patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, J. A. M.; Hsu, I-C.; Pouliot, J.

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To determine whether alternative high dose rate prostate brachytherapy catheter patterns can result in similar or improved dose distributions while providing better access and reducing trauma. Materials and Methods: Standard prostate cancer high dose rate brachytherapy uses a regular grid of parallel needle positions to guide the catheter insertion. This geometry does not easily allow the physician to avoid piercing the critical structures near the penile bulb nor does it provide position flexibility in the case of pubic arch interference. This study used CT datasets with 3 mm slice spacing from ten previously treated patients and digitized new catheters following three hypothetical catheter patterns: conical, bi-conical, and fireworks. The conical patterns were used to accommodate a robotic delivery using a single entry point. The bi-conical and fireworks patterns were specifically designed to avoid the critical structures near the penile bulb. For each catheter distribution, a plan was optimized with the inverse planning algorithm, IPSA, and compared with the plan used for treatment. Irrelevant of catheter geometry, a plan must fulfill the RTOG-0321 dose criteria for target dose coverage (V{sub 100}{sup Prostate}>90%) and organ-at-risk dose sparing (V{sub 75}{sup Bladder}<1 cc, V{sub 75}{sup Rectum}<1 cc, V{sub 125}{sup Urethra}<<1 cc). Results: The three nonstandard catheter patterns used 16 nonparallel, straight divergent catheters, with entry points in the perineum. Thirty plans from ten patients with prostate sizes ranging from 26 to 89 cc were optimized. All nonstandard patterns fulfilled the RTOG criteria when the clinical plan did. In some cases, the dose distribution was improved by better sparing the organs-at-risk. Conclusion: Alternative catheter patterns can provide the physician with additional ways to treat patients previously considered unsuited for brachytherapy treatment (pubic arch interference) and facilitate robotic guidance of

  1. Critical Organ Preservation in Reirradiation Brachytherapy by Injectable Spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Kazushi Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shirai, Shintaro; Sato, Morio; Tanaka, Kayo

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: This case series study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of an interstitial high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) procedure combined with an at-risk organ-sparing procedure. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients who were scheduled for reirradiation treatment for recurrent cancer after receiving a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 44-70 Gy) in 2-Gy fractions of previous external beam treatment were enrolled. Thirteen patients had lesions in the head and neck, and other lesions were located in the axilla, skeleton, breast, pelvis, and abdominal wall. Chief complaints included local masses (for 25) and refractory pain (for 21). After high-dose rate brachytherapy applicator needle implantation, an optimal CT-based three-dimensional brachytherapy plan was created with a virtual at-risk organ shift from the target. According to the plan, hyaluronic acid gel was injected to maintain the shift during irradiation. The prescribed dose was the result of an individualized tradeoff between target dose and at-risk organ dose, to avoid serious complications. A single-fraction dose of 18.0 Gy (median, equivalent to 75.6 Gy at an {alpha}/{beta} value of 3; range, 16-20 Gy) was applied to the tumor. Results: The at-risk organ dose decreased from 9.1 {+-} 0.9 Gy to 4.4 {+-} 0.4 Gy (mean {+-} standard deviation, p < 0.01), and the normal tissue complication probability decreased from 60.8% {+-} 12.6% to 16.1% {+-} 19.8% (p < 0.01). The shift effect lasted at least 4 hours and disappeared gradually. Distinct tumor shrinkage in 20 of 21 eligible patients, including tumor disappearance in 6 patients, pain reduction in 18 of 21 eligible patients, and no unexpected late toxicity greater than grade 2 were observed during the 19.5-month observation period. Conclusions: This at-risk organ-sparing preservation procedure may provide a safe and efficient reirradiation treatment.

  2. Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Versus Cryotherapy in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gestaut, Matthew M; Cai, Wendi; Vyas, Shilpa; Patel, Belur J; Hasan, Salman A; MunozMaldonado, Yolanda; Deb, Niloyjyoti; Swanson, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    Cryotherapy and brachytherapy are definitive local treatment options for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. There are both prospective and retrospective data for brachytherapy, but the use of cryotherapy has been limited primarily to single-institution retrospective studies. Currently, no published evidence has compared low-dose-rate brachytherapy versus cryotherapy. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients treated at our institution from 1990 to 2012. For inclusion, patients must have received a prostate cancer diagnosis and have been considered to have low- to intermediate-risk disease according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. All patients received brachytherapy or cryotherapy treatment. Disease specifics and failure details were collected for all patients. Failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen nadir +2 ng/mL. A total of 359 patients were analyzed. The groups comprised 50 low-risk cryotherapy (LRC), 92 intermediate-risk cryotherapy (IRC), 133 low-risk brachytherapy (LRB), and 84 intermediate-risk brachytherapy (IRB) patients. The median prostate-specific antigen follow-up periods were 85.6 months (LRC), 59.2 months (IRC), 74.9 months (LRB), and 59.8 months (IRB). The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) rate was 57.9% in the cryotherapy group versus 89.6% in the brachytherapy group (P<.0001). The 5-year bPFS rate was 70.0% (LRC), 51.4% (IRC), 89.4% (LRB), and 89.7% (IRB). The bPFS rate was significantly different between brachytherapy and cryotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk groups (P<.05). The mean nadir temperature reached for cryotherapy patients was -35°C (range, -96°C to -6°C). Cryotherapy used a median of 2 freeze-thaw cycles (range, 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles). Results from this study suggest that cryotherapy is inferior to brachytherapy for patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Patient selection

  3. Regeneration in cervix cancer after sup 252 Cf neutron brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J.; Feola, J.; Urano, M. )

    1990-07-01

    Regeneration of clonogens in human cervical cancer was assessed by the pathological evaluation of the hysterectomy specimen after intracavitary {sup 252}Cf neutron brachytherapy implants separated by varying time intervals followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. In this study, patients with bulky/barrel shaped Stage IB cervical cancers received {sup 252}Cf implants plus approximately 45 Gy of whole pelvis linear accelerator radiotherapy in approximately 25 fractions in 5 weeks followed by hysterectomy 4-6 weeks after radiotherapy. The specimens were studied grossly and microscopically for residual tumor. It was found that the fraction of positive specimens increased with elapsed time interval between implants. These findings support the hypothesis that there is repopulation of surviving clonogens with increased time interval between the implants. The observation also supports current concerns that rapid depopulation of tumor can lead to rapid repopulation, that is, rapid shrinkage of tumor can alter the physiological environment such that clonogens can rapidly regenerate.

  4. Registration of structurally dissimilar images in MRI-based brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, F. F.; Kotte, A. N. T. J.; de Leeuw, A. A. C.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, I. M.; Viergever, M. A.; Pluim, J. P. W.

    2014-08-01

    A serious challenge in image registration is the accurate alignment of two images in which a certain structure is present in only one of the two. Such topological changes are problematic for conventional non-rigid registration algorithms. We propose to incorporate in a conventional free-form registration framework a geometrical penalty term that minimizes the volume of the missing structure in one image. We demonstrate our method on cervical MR images for brachytherapy. The intrapatient registration problem involves one image in which a therapy applicator is present and one in which it is not. By including the penalty term, a substantial improvement in the surface distance to the gold standard anatomical position and the residual volume of the applicator void are obtained. Registration of neighboring structures, i.e. the rectum and the bladder is generally improved as well, albeit to a lesser degree.

  5. Apparatus and method for high dose rate brachytherapy radiation treatment

    DOEpatents

    Macey, Daniel J.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Smith, Mark Frederick; Kross, Brian James

    2005-01-25

    A method and apparatus for the in vivo location and tracking of a radioactive seed source during and after brachytherapy treatment. The method comprises obtaining multiple views of the seed source in a living organism using: 1) a single PSPMT detector that is exposed through a multiplicity of pinholes thereby obtaining a plurality of images from a single angle; 2) a single PSPMT detector that may obtain an image through a single pinhole or a plurality of pinholes from a plurality of angles through movement of the detector; or 3) a plurality of PSPMT detectors that obtain a plurality of views from different angles simultaneously or virtually simultaneously. The plurality of images obtained from these various techniques, through angular displacement of the various acquired images, provide the information required to generate the three dimensional images needed to define the location of the radioactive seed source within the body of the living organism.

  6. HDR intraluminal brachytherapy for lung tumours--a case report.

    PubMed

    Wee, J T; Yang, E T; Lim, Y C

    1994-06-01

    The lung is a common site for cancer to occur, for both primary as well as metastases. The presence of such tumours can give rise to symptoms such as haemoptysis, cough, breathlessness and pneumonia. In most cases, treatment is strictly for palliation. We present a case report of a patient with an endobronchial metastasis from a primary hypernephroma which recurred following external beam radiotherapy. He was treated with a single fraction of intraluminal brachytherapy to a dose of 10Gy at 1 cm from the axis on a High Dose Rate Ir192 Remote Afterloading Machine. There were no adverse effects following treatment. On follow-up 7 months later, the patient did not have any further recurrence of breathlessness although his disease had progressed at other sites.

  7. Evaluating the cost of therapy for restenosis: considerations for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S

    1996-11-01

    Costs have become increasingly important in medicine in recent years as demand for services has outstripped readily available resources. Clinical microeconomics offers an approach to understanding cost and outcomes in an environment of economic scarcity. In this article the types of costs and methods for determining cost are presented. In addition, methods for assessing outcome and outcome in relation to cost are developed. Restenosis after coronary angioplasty is a prime example of a clinical problem requiring economic evaluation. This is because it results in little serious morbidity except for recurrent chest pain, but it has serious economic consequences which occur some time after the original angioplasty. This makes the economic assessment of restenosis complicated. The application of health care microeconomic principles to brachytherapy for restenosis in the coronary arteries is presented.

  8. Electron capture radioactive sources for intravascular brachytherapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2003-06-21

    The feasibility of electron capture (EC) radionuclides as an alternative to the beta and high-energy gamma emitters presently in use for intravascular brachytherapy is investigated. A potential advantage of the low-energy x-ray radiation from EC isotopes may be an enhanced biological effectiveness with respect to the presently applied beta nuclides, but at the same time avoiding the shielding problems induced by the large penetrability of high-energy gamma rays. A survey considering the most important practical aspects such as dose delivery to the vessel walls in reasonable time spans, absorption properties, possible production of sources with the required specific activities and radiation safety reveals 71Ge as the most promising candidate.

  9. Radiobiological evaluation of low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaup, Courtney James

    Low dose-rate brachytherapy is a radiation therapy treatment for men with prostate cancer. While this treatment is common, the use of isotopes with varying dosimetric characteristics means that the prescription level and normal organ tolerances vary. Additionally, factors such as prostate edema, seed loss and seed migration may alter the dose distribution within the prostate. The goal of this work is to develop a radiobiological response tool based on spatial dose information which may be used to aid in treatment planning, post-implant evaluation and determination of the effects of prostate edema and seed migration. Aim 1: Evaluation of post-implant prostate edema and its dosimetric and biological effects. Aim 2: Incorporation of biological response to simplify post-implant evaluation. Aim 3: Incorporation of biological response to simplify treatment plan comparison. Aim 4: Radiobiologically based comparison of single and dual-isotope implants. Aim 5: Determine the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of seed disappearance and migration.

  10. Neutron brachytherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.

    1988-12-01

    In the 1930's both neutrons and the cyclotron were discovered, developed and used almost immediately for neutron beam therapy. Cf-252 was discovered in 1950 but its potential for cancer therapy was not postulated until 1965. Early sporadic clinical trials were used to treat only a few patients. The recognition of its curative properties and usefulness for bulky localized and radioresistant cancer therapy was not made until recently. In 1985, the Lexington Workshop led to a sharing of independent experiences from the USA, Japan, and the USSR; early trial experiences were related to neutron beam results. Localized neutron therapy using brachytherapy methods was found effective against radioresistance and bulky tumors. However, it needed to be used properly and with full appreciation of clinical oncology and the role of photon adjuvant therapy.

  11. Inorganic scintillator detectors for real-time verification during brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertzscher, G.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    Widespread use of real-time dose measurement technology to verify brachytherapy (BT) treatments is currently limited because only few detectors exhibit the large dynamic range and signal intensities that is required to accurately report the data. Inorganic scintillator detectors (ISDs) are promising for real-time BT verification because they can exhibit large signal intensities. Luminescence properties of ISDs based on ruby, Y2O3:Eu and CsI:Tl were compared with BCF-60 plastic scintillators to determine their potential for BT verification. Measurements revealed that ISDs can exhibit signal intensities 1800 times larger than BCF-60 and that the Čerenkov and fluorescence light contamination is negligible. The favourable luminescence properties of ISDs opens the possibility to manufacture simplified detector systems that can lead to more widespread real-time verification during BT treatment deliveries.

  12. Refining prostate seed brachytherapy: Comparing high-, intermediate-, and low-activity seeds for I-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Delouya, Guila; Bahary, Pascal; Carrier, Jean-François; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Hervieux, Yannick; Béliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the difference in prostate coverage and dose to the rectum in men with prostate carcinoma treated with permanent seed brachytherapy with different seed activities. Forty-nine patients treated with iodine-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy with low-activity seeds of 0.30-0.37 mCi were identified. For each of these patients, 2 patients with similar prostate volume (±2 cc) were paired: one treated with intermediate seed activity (0.44-0.46 mCi) and one with high seed activity (0.60-0.66 mCi). The doses to prostate and rectum were compared using CT on Day 30. A total of 147 patients divided into the three seed activity groups were analyzed. Mean prostate volume was 35.7 cc (standard deviation [SD], 11.70). Compared with low-activity seeds, implants with high-activity seeds consisted of an average of 22 seeds and 4.7 needles less. The dose to the prostate (prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose [V100], prostate volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose, and minimal dose covering 90% of the prostate volume expressed in Gy) was not higher on Day 30 (p = 0.58-0.97). The mean volume (in cubic centimeters) of rectal wall receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) increased with activity: low activity, 0.34 cc (SD, 0.49), intermediate activity, 0.47 cc (SD, 0.48), and high activity, 0.72 cc (SD, 0.79) (p = 0.009). There was a trend (p = 0.073) toward a higher frequency of clinically unfavorable rectal dosimetry (V100 > 1.3 cc) in patients with high-activity seeds (16.7%) compared with low-activity (6.3%) or intermediate-activity (4.2%) seeds. High-activity seeds do not result in a higher dose to the prostate but in a higher dose to the rectum. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GAMMA DOSE RATE NEAR A NEW (252)Cf BRACHYTHERAPY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Fortune, Eugene C; Gauld, Ian C; Wang, C

    2011-01-01

    A new generation of medical grade (252)Cf sources was developed in 2002 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The combination of small size and large activity of (252)Cf makes the new source suitable to be used with the conventional high-dose-rate remote afterloading system for interstitial brachytherapy. A recent in-water calibration experiment showed that the measured gamma dose rates near the new source are slightly greater than the neutron dose rates, contradicting the well established neutron-to-gamma dose ratio of approximately 2:1 at locations near a (252)Cf brachytherapy source. Specifically, the MCNP-predicted gamma dose rate is a factor of two lower than the measured gamma dose rate at the distance of I cm, and the differences between the two results gradually diminish at distances farther away from the source. To resolve this discrepancy, we updated the source gamma spectrum by including in the ORIGEN-S data library the experimentally measured (252)Cf prompt gamma spectrum as well as the true (252)Cf spontaneous fission yield data to explicitly model delayed gamma emissions from fission products. We also investigated the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by the beta particles emitted from fission product decays. The results show that the discrepancy of gamma dose rates is mainly caused by the omission of the bremsstrahlung X-rays in the MCNP runs. By including the bremsstrahlung X-rays, the MCNP results show that the gamma dose rates near a new (252)Cf source agree well with the measured results and that the gamma dose rates are indeed greater than the neutron dose rates.

  14. Dose verification of eye plaque brachytherapy using spectroscopic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Jarema, T; Cutajar, D; Weaver, M; Petasecca, M; Lerch, M; Kejda, A; Rosenfeld, A

    2016-09-01

    Eye plaque brachytherapy has been developed and refined for the last 80 years, demonstrating effective results in the treatment of ocular malignancies. Current dosimetry techniques for eye plaque brachytherapy (such as TLD- and film-based techniques) are time consuming and cannot be used prior to treatment in a sterile environment. The measurement of the expected dose distribution within the eye, prior to insertion within the clinical setting, would be advantageous, as any errors in source loading will lead to an erroneous dose distribution and inferior treatment outcomes. This study investigated the use of spectroscopic dosimetry techniques for real-time quality assurance of I-125 based eye plaques, immediately prior to insertion. A silicon detector based probe, operating in spectroscopy mode was constructed, containing a small (1 mm(3)) silicon detector, mounted within a ceramic holder, all encapsulated within a rubber sheath to prevent water infiltration of the electronics. Preliminary tests of the prototype demonstrated that the depth dose distribution through the central axis of an I-125 based eye plaque may be determined from AAPM Task Group 43 recommendations to a deviation of 6 % at 3 mm depth, 7 % at 5 mm depth, 1 % at 10 mm depth and 13 % at 20 mm depth, with the deviations attributed to the construction of the probe. A new probe design aims to reduce these discrepancies, however the concept of spectroscopic dosimetry shows great promise for use in eye plaque quality assurance in the clinical setting.

  15. The role of vaginal cuff brachytherapy in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Harkenrider, Matthew M; Block, Alec M; Siddiqui, Zaid A; Small, William

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the data, rationale, and recommendations of vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in the post-operative treatment of endometrial cancer patients. The authors performed a thorough review of the medical literature regarding the use of adjuvant VBT in the treatment of endometrial cancer. Relevant data are presented in this review. Additionally, personal and institutional practices from the authors are incorporated where relevant. VBT for the adjuvant treatment of early stage endometrial cancer patients results in a low rate of recurrence (0-3.1%) with very low rates of toxicity. PORTEC-2 supports the use of adjuvant VBT versus external beam radiotherapy specifically for high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer patients. VBT has low rates of acute and chronic gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity and very low rates of second primary malignancy. The primary toxicity of VBT is vaginal atrophy and stenosis with controversy regarding the use of vaginal dilators for prevention. Data support that patients prefer to be involved in the decision making process for their adjuvant therapy, and patients have a lower minimal desired benefit of adjuvant VBT than do physicians. Guidelines exist from the American Brachytherapy Society and American Society of Radiation Oncology with support from the Society for Gynecologic Oncologists regarding the use of adjuvant VBT. VBT decreases the risk of recurrence with minimal toxicity in the adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Adjuvant therapy should be discussed in a multi-disciplinary setting with detailed counseling of the risks and benefits with the patient so that she ultimately makes an informed decision regarding her adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dosimetry of the 198Au Source used in Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dauffy, L; Braby, L; Berner, B

    2004-05-18

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 report, AAPM TG-43, provides an analytical model and a dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy dose calculations, as well as documentation and results for some sealed sources. The radionuclide {sup 198}Au (T{sub 1/2} = 2.70 days, E{gamma} = 412 keV) has been used in the form of seeds for brachytherapy treatments including brain, eye, and prostate tumors. However, the TG-43 report has no data for {sup 198}Au seeds, and none have previously been obtained. For that reason, and because of the conversion of most treatment planning systems to TG-43 based methods, both Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP 4C) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are used in this work to determine these data. The geometric variation in dose is measured using an array of TLDs in a solid water phantom, and the seed activity is determined using both a well ion chamber and a High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). The results for air kerma strength, S{sub k}, per unit apparent activity, are 2.06 (MCNP) and 2.09 (measured) U mCi{sup -1}. The former is identical to what was published in 1991 in the AAPM Task Group 32 report. The dose rate constant results, {Lambda}, are 1.12 (MCNP) and 1.10 (measured), cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The radial dose function, g(r), anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), and anisotropy factor, {psi}{sub an}(r), are given. The anisotropy constant values are 0.973 (MCNP) and 0.994 (measured) and are consistent with both source geometry and the emitted photon energy.

  17. Remote afterloading for neutron brachytherapy using californium-252.

    PubMed

    Tacev, Taco; Grigorov, Grigor; Papírek, Tomás; Kolarík, Vladimír

    2003-02-01

    Despite a pronounced technical process attained in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms, no remarkable improvement in the treatment results has been achieved. The reason for this stagnation is the interaction between tumor cell and photon radiation. Tumor resistance against photon bombardment can be broken down by applying high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-based treatment. The discovery of californium-252 ((252)Cf) nuclide, a source of gamma neutron radiation, established a precondition for using neutrons in tumor brachytherapy. The design of a remote afterloading device using (252)Cf sources remains an unsolved problem. The afterloading device has been designed as a stationary radiator which is composed of three mutually interconnected units: 1. the control and drive unit consisting of a control computer and a motor-driven bowden system carrying the (252)Cf source; 2. the source which is housed in a watertight concrete vessel-storage strong room, situated in the ground at a depth of 25 cm beneath the patient's bed; 3. the afterloading application module installed in the irradiation room. Remote afterloading allows simple, inexpensive and highly efficient radiation protection and work safety for the operating personnel. The sources may be moved arbitrarily during treatment with a position accuracy of 0.5-1.0 mm within a distance of 520 cm from the source storage position in the strong room to the application position. Both afterloading systems' unused indexer outputs are protected electronically and mechanically against any unintentional movement of the source outside the application tubes. The technologic concept of the present automatic afterloading device for neutron brachytherapy represents a possible option from the range of conceivable design variants, which - while minimizing technologic and economic requirements - provides the operating personnel with optimum protection and work safety, thus extending the applicability of high LET radiation

  18. A Monte Carlo investigation of lung brachytherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Furutani, K. M.; Thomson, R. M.

    2013-07-01

    Iodine-125 (125I) and Caesium-131 (131Cs) brachytherapy have been used in conjunction with sublobar resection to reduce the local recurrence of stage I non-small cell lung cancer compared with resection alone. Treatment planning for this procedure is typically performed using only a seed activity nomogram or look-up table to determine seed strand spacing for the implanted mesh. Since the post-implant seed geometry is difficult to predict, the nomogram is calculated using the TG-43 formalism for seeds in a planar geometry. In this work, the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to recalculate nomograms using a variety of tissue models for 125I and 131Cs seeds. Calculated prescription doses are compared to those calculated using TG-43. Additionally, patient CT and contour data are used to generate virtual implants to study the effects that post-implant deformation and patient-specific tissue heterogeneity have on perturbing nomogram-derived dose distributions. Differences of up to 25% in calculated prescription dose are found between TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations with the TG-43 formalism underestimating prescription doses in general. Differences between the TG-43 formalism and Monte Carlo calculated prescription doses are greater for 125I than for 131Cs seeds. Dose distributions are found to change significantly based on implant deformation and tissues surrounding implants for patient-specific virtual implants. Results suggest that accounting for seed grid deformation and the effects of non-water media, at least approximately, are likely required to reliably predict dose distributions in lung brachytherapy patients.

  19. Prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds: radiation protection issues.

    PubMed

    Anglesio, Silvia; Calamia, Elisa; Fiandra, Christian; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Ropolo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Brachytherapy for prostate cancer by means of permanently implanted 125I sources is a well established procedure. An increasing number of patients all over the world are treated with this modality. When the technique was introduced at our institution, radiation protection issues relative to this technique were investigated in order to comply with international recommendations and national regulations. Particular attention was paid to the need for patient shielding after discharge from hospital. The effective and equivalent doses to personnel related to implantation, the effective dose to patient relatives as computed by a developed algorithm, the air kerma strength values for the radioactive sources certified by the manufacturer compared with those measured by a well chamber, and the effectiveness of lead gloves in shielding the hands were evaluated. The effective dose to the bodies of personnel protected by a lead apron proved to be negligible. The mean equivalent doses to the physician's hands was 420 microSv for one implant; the technician's hands received 65 microSv. The mean air kerma rate measured at the anterior skin surface of the patient who had received an implant was 55 microGy/h (range, 10-115) and was negligible with lead protection. The measured and certified air kerma strength for125I seeds in RAPID Strand corresponded within a margin of +/- 5%. The measured attenuation by lead gloves in operative conditions was about 80%. We also defined the recommendations to be given to the patient at discharge. The exposure risks related to brachytherapy with 125I to operators and public are limited. However, alternation of operators should be considered to minimize exposure. Patient-related measurements should verify the dose rate around the patient to evaluate the need for shielding and to define appropriate radiation protection recommendations.

  20. The calorimetric measurement of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aus, Robert John

    Historically, the dose rate to tissue from 125I and 103Pd sources was based on a source's apparent activity in free space. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (TG43) established a protocol that clarified this formalism for the dose rate determination that was universally accepted in the Medical Physics community. The TG43 protocol is based on air kerma strength and a different set of conversion factors for determining the dose rate. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with this methodology. These uncertainties are predominantly the result of the unknown effects of variations in the source encapsulation and internal source structure on the dose distribution surrounding a source. Currently, there is no method of nondestructively determining the contained radioactivity of brachytherapy sources. Without the knowledge of the contained activity, the effects of source construction variations cannot be evaluated accurately. The goal of this work was to develop a calorimeter that measures the total power generated by a source. This information could then be used to nondestructively determine the contained radioactivity activity of a source. The power generated by three different, well characterized source designs of 125I brachytherapy seeds was measured with the calorimeter. A theoretical model of the calorimeter was also developed to demonstrate that the calorimeter operated as expected. The measured and theoretical temperature results for the three different source models were consistent within the uncertainty of the measurements. The consistency between the calorimetric measurements and the theoretical expected results demonstrates proof of principle of the calorimeter. The information determined from the model can also be useful for future calorimetric research by identifying required calorimeter design features, potential design improvements and potential difficulties.

  1. ACR appropriateness criteria: Permanent source brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian J; Taira, Al V; Nguyen, Paul L; Assimos, Dean G; D'Amico, Anthony V; Gottschalk, Alexander R; Gustafson, Gary S; Keole, Sameer R; Liauw, Stanley L; Lloyd, Shane; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Movsas, Benjamin; Prestidge, Bradley R; Showalter, Timothy N; Vapiwala, Neha

    To provide updated American College of Radiology (ACR) appropriateness criteria for transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal interstitial permanent source brachytherapy. The ACR appropriateness criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is a treatment option for appropriately selected patients with localized prostate cancer with low to very high risk disease. PPB monotherapy remains an appropriate and effective curative treatment for low-risk prostate cancer patients demonstrating excellent long-term cancer control and acceptable morbidity. PPB monotherapy can be considered for select intermediate-risk patients with multiparametric MRI useful in evaluation of such patients. High-risk patients treated with PPB should receive supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) along with androgen deprivation. Similarly, patients with involved pelvic lymph nodes may also be considered for such combined treatment but reported long-term outcomes are limited. Computed tomography-based postimplant dosimetry completed within 60 days of PPB is essential for quality assurance. PPB may be considered for treatment of local recurrence after EBRT but is associated with an increased risk of toxicity. Updated appropriateness criteria for patient evaluation, selection, treatment, and postimplant dosimetry are given. These criteria are intended to be advisory only with the final responsibility for patient care residing with the treating

  2. Comparison of biochemical failure definitions for permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, Deborah A. . E-mail: dakuban@mdanderson.org; Levy, Larry B.; Potters, Louis; Beyer, David C.; Blasko, John C.; Moran, Brian J.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To assess prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure definitions for patients with Stage T1-T2 prostate cancer treated by permanent prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,693 patients treated with radioisotopic implant as solitary treatment for T1-T2 prostatic adenocarcinoma were studied. All patients had a pretreatment PSA, were treated at least 5 years before analysis, 1988 to 1998, and did not receive hormonal therapy before recurrence. Multiple PSA failure definitions were tested for their ability to predict clinical failure. Results: Definitions which determined failure by a certain increment of PSA rise above the lowest PSA level to date (nadir + x ng/mL) were more sensitive and specific than failure definitions based on PSA doubling time or a certain number of PSA rises. The sensitivity and specificity for the nadir + 2 definition were 72% and 83%, vs. 51% and 81% for 3 PSA rises. The surgical type definitions (PSA exceeding an absolute value) could match this sensitivity and specificity but only when failure was defined as exceeding a PSA level in the 1-3 ng/mL range and only when patients were allowed adequate time to nadir. When failure definitions were compared by time varying covariate regression analysis, nadir + 2 ng/mL retained the best fit. Conclusions: For patients treated by permanent radioisotopic implant for prostate cancer, the definition nadir + 2 ng/mL provides the best surrogate for failure throughout the entire follow-up period, similar to patients treated by external beam radiotherapy. Therefore, the same PSA failure definition could be used for both modalities. For brachytherapy patients with long-term follow-up, at least 6 years, defining failure as exceeding an absolute PSA level in the 0.5 ng/mL range may be reasonable.

  3. Monte Carlo dosimetry of a new (90)Y brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Junxiang, Wu; Shihu, You; Jing, Huang; Fengxiang, Long; Chengkai, Wang; Zhangwen, Wu; Qing, Hou; Chengjun, Gou

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we attempted to obtain full dosimetric data for a new (90)Y brachytherapy source developed by the College of Chemistry (Sichuan University) for use in high-dose-rate after-loading systems. The dosimetric data for this new source were used as required by the dose calculation formalisms proposed by the AAPM Task Group 60 and Task Group 149. The active core length of the new (90)Y source was increased to 4.7 mm compared to the value of 2.5 mm for the old (90)Sr/(90)Y source. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4 was used to calculate these parameters. The source was located in a 30-cm-radius theoretical sphere water phantom. The dosimetric data included the reference absorbed dose rate, the radial dose function in the range of 1.0 to 8.0 mm in the longitudinal axis, and the anisotropy function with a θ in the range of 0° to 90° at 5° intervals and an r in the range of 1.0 to 8.0 mm in 0.2-mm intervals. The reference absorbed dose rate for the new (90)Y source was determined to be equal to 1.6608 ± 0.0008 cGy s(-1) mCi(-1), compared to the values of 0.9063 ± 0.0005 cGy s(-1) mCi(-1) that were calculated for the old (90)Sr/(90)Y source. A polynomial function was also obtained for the radial dose function by curve fitting. Dosimetric data are provided for the new (90)Y brachytherapy source. These data are meant to be used commercially in after-loading system.

  4. Prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetry: Automatic plan reconstruction of stranded implants

    SciTech Connect

    Chng, N.; Spadinger, I.; Morris, W. J.; Usmani, N.; Salcudean, S.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Plan reconstruction for permanent implant prostate brachytherapy is the process of determining the correspondence between planned and implanted seeds in postimplant analysis. Plan reconstruction informs many areas of brachytherapy quality assurance, including the verification of seed segmentation, misplacement and migration assessment, implant simulations, and the dosimetry of mixed-activity or mixed-species implants. Methods: An algorithm has been developed for stranded implants which uses the interseed spacing constraints imposed by the suture to improve the accuracy of reconstruction. Seventy randomly selected clinical cases with a mean of 23.6 (range 18-30) needles and mean density of 2.0 (range 1.6-2.6) 2.0 (range 1.6-2.6) seeds/cm{sup 3} were automatically reconstructed and the accuracy compared to manual reconstructions performed using a custom 3D graphical interface. Results: Using the automatic algorithm, the mean accuracy of the assignment relative to manual reconstruction was found to be 97.7{+-}0.5%. Fifty-two of the 70 cases (74%) were error-free; of seeds in the remaining cases, 96.7{+-}0.3% were found to be attributed to the correct strand and 97.0{+-}0.3% were correctly connected to their neighbors. Any necessary manual correction using the interface is usually straightforward. For the clinical data set tested, neither the number of seeds or needles, average density, nor the presence of clusters was found to have an effect on reconstruction accuracy using this method. Conclusions: Routine plan reconstruction of stranded implants can be performed with a high degree of accuracy to support postimplant dosimetry and quality analyses.

  5. Seed migration to the spinal canal after postresection brachytherapy to treat a large brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Cole B; Schwartz, Theodore H; Parashar, Bhupesh; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Seed migration after interstitial prostate brachytherapy has been well documented in the literature. However, there have been no detailed reports of seed migration after permanent interstitial brachytherapy to treat cerebral malignancies. In this article, the authors report a rare case of seed migration after adjuvant cesium-131 ((131)Cs) brachytherapy was used to treat a large paraventricular brain metastasis. The patient was a 63-year-old man with a 5.8-cm right frontal metastasis abutting the right lateral ventricle and causing severe edema and mass effect. The patient was enrolled in an ongoing clinical trial at our institution to receive permanent intraoperative (131)Cs brachytherapy in an effort to prevent tumor recurrence in the resection cavity. Stranded seeds were covered with Surgicel, and the cavity was filled with Tisseel to prevent seed migration. Imaging obtained at 54 days postsurgery showed no seed migration, but imaging obtained at 158 days revealed 12 brachytherapy seeds in the spinal canal from T11 to S2. The seeds were left in place because they were inactive at this time due to the short half-life of (131)Cs (9.7 days); they remained stable on followup imaging, and the patient was asymptomatic. Although the clinical consequences remain unclear, the migration of inactive seeds is not currently considered to be a complication of intracerebral brachytherapy and we do not believe that additional measures must be taken to prevent it. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison study on various low energy sources in interstitial prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Knaup, Courtney; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Low energy sources are routinely used in prostate brachytherapy. 125I is one of the most commonly used sources. Low energy 131Cs source was introduced recently as a brachytherapy source. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions of 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs sources in interstitial brachytherapy of prostate. Material and methods ProstaSeed 125I brachytherapy source was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Additionally, two hypothetical sources of 103Pd and 131Cs were simulated with the same geometry as the ProstaSeed 125I source, while having their specific emitted gamma spectra. These brachytherapy sources were simulated with distribution of forty-eight seeds in a phantom including prostate. The prostate was considered as a sphere with radius of 1.5 cm. Absolute and relative dose rates were obtained in various distances from the source along the transverse and longitudinal axes inside and outside the tumor. Furthermore, isodose curves were plotted around the sources. Results Analyzing the initial dose profiles for various sources indicated that with the same time duration and air kerma strength, 131Cs delivers higher dose to tumor. However, relative dose rate inside the tumor is higher and outside the tumor is lower for the 103Pd source. Conclusions The higher initial absolute dose in cGy/(h.U) of 131Cs brachytherapy source is an advantage of this source over the others. The higher relative dose inside the tumor and lower relative dose outside the tumor for the 103Pd source are advantages of this later brachytherapy source. Based on the total dose the 125I source has advantage over the others due to its longer half-life. PMID:26985200

  7. Treatment Planning for MRI Assisted Brachytherapy of Gynecologic Malignancies Based on Total Dose Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Stefan Kirisits, Christian; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Georg, Dietmar; Poetter, Richard

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for treatment planning and optimization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assisted gynecologic brachytherapy that includes biologically weighted total dose constraints. Methods and Materials: The applied algorithm is based on the linear-quadratic model and includes dose, dose rate, and fractionation of the whole radiotherapy setting, consisting of external beam therapy plus high-dose-rate (HDR), low-dose-rate (LDR) or pulsed-dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy. Biologically effective doses (BED) are converted to more familiar isoeffective (equivalent) doses in 2-Gy fractions. For individual treatment planning of each brachytherapy fraction, the algorithm calculates the physical dose per brachytherapy fraction that corresponds to a predefined isoeffective total dose constraint. Achieved target dose and sparing of organs at risk of already delivered brachytherapy fractions are incorporated. Results: Since implementation for use in clinical routine in 2001, MRI assisted treatment plans of 216 gynecologic patients (161 HDR, 55 PDR brachytherapy) were prospectively optimized taking into account isoeffective dose-volume histogram-based total dose constraints for high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) and organs at risk (bladder, rectum, sigmoid). The algorithm is implemented in a spreadsheet and the procedure is fast and efficient. An uncertainty analysis of the isoeffective total doses based on variations of tissue parameters shows that confidence intervals are larger for PDR compared with HDR brachytherapy. For common treatment schedules, overall uncertainties of high-risk clinical target volume and organs at risk are within 8 Gy, except for the bladder when using the PDR technique. Conclusion: The presented method to respect total dose constraints is reliable and efficient and an essential tool when aiming to increase local control and minimize side effects.

  8. Transition from LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Evaluation of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Romano, K D; Pugh, K J; Trifiletti, D M; Libby, B; Showalter, T N

    In 2012, our institution transitioned from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We report clinical outcomes after brachytherapy for cervical cancer at our institution over a continuous 10-year period. From 2004 to 2014, 258 women (184 LDR and 74 HDR) were treated with tandem and ovoid brachytherapy in the multidisciplinary management of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages IA-IVB cervical cancer. Clinical and treatment-related prognostic factors including age, stage, smoking status, relevant doses, and toxicity data were recorded. Median followup for the LDR and HDR groups was 46 months and 12 months, respectively. The majority of patients (92%) received external beam radiotherapy as well as concurrent chemotherapy (83%) before the start of brachytherapy. For all stages, the 1-year local control and overall survival (OS) rates were comparable between the LDR and HDR groups (87% vs. 81%, p = 0.12; and 75% vs. 85%, p = 0.16), respectively. Factors associated with OS on multivariate analysis include age, stage, and nodal involvement. On multivariate analysis, severe toxicity (acute or chronic) was higher with HDR than LDR (24% vs. 10%, p = 0.04). Additional prognostic factors associated with increased severe toxicity include former/current smokers and total dose to lymph nodes. This comparative retrospective analysis of a large cohort of women treated with brachytherapy demonstrates no significant difference in OS or local control between the LDR and HDR. Acute and chronic toxicity increased shortly after the implementation of HDR, highlighting the importance of continued refinement of HDR methods, including integrating advanced imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison study on various low energy sources in interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Knaup, Courtney; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-02-01

    Low energy sources are routinely used in prostate brachytherapy. (125)I is one of the most commonly used sources. Low energy (131)Cs source was introduced recently as a brachytherapy source. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions of (125)I, (103)Pd, and (131)Cs sources in interstitial brachytherapy of prostate. ProstaSeed (125)I brachytherapy source was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Additionally, two hypothetical sources of (103)Pd and (131)Cs were simulated with the same geometry as the ProstaSeed (125)I source, while having their specific emitted gamma spectra. These brachytherapy sources were simulated with distribution of forty-eight seeds in a phantom including prostate. The prostate was considered as a sphere with radius of 1.5 cm. Absolute and relative dose rates were obtained in various distances from the source along the transverse and longitudinal axes inside and outside the tumor. Furthermore, isodose curves were plotted around the sources. Analyzing the initial dose profiles for various sources indicated that with the same time duration and air kerma strength, (131)Cs delivers higher dose to tumor. However, relative dose rate inside the tumor is higher and outside the tumor is lower for the (103)Pd source. The higher initial absolute dose in cGy/(h.U) of (131)Cs brachytherapy source is an advantage of this source over the others. The higher relative dose inside the tumor and lower relative dose outside the tumor for the (103)Pd source are advantages of this later brachytherapy source. Based on the total dose the (125)I source has advantage over the others due to its longer half-life.

  10. Radiofrequency ablation versus 125I-seed brachytherapy for painful metastases involving the bone

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dechao; Wu, Gang; Ren, Jianzhuang; Han, Xinwei

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to demonstrate and compare the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and 125I-seed brachytherapy for painful bone metastases after failure of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). From June 2013 to October 2015, 79 patients with moderate-to-severe pain caused by metastatic bone lesions who underwent either RFA (n = 41) or 125I-seed brachytherapy (n = 38) were enrolled. Pain in patients was measured using the brief pain inventory (BPI) before treatment, 1 week after treatment, and 3 months after treatment. Response rates were assessed by measuring the changes in pain and incorporation of changes in the analgesic requirements. At baseline, 1 week, and 3 months, the mean worst pain scores of BPI were 7.8, 5.4, and 2.7, respectively, for the RFA group and 7.7, 6.1, and 2.8, respectively, for the brachytherapy group. At 1 week, the complete and partial response rates were 12% and 59%, respectively, in the RFA group compared with 3% and 45%, respectively, in the brachytherapy group. At 3 months, the complete and partial response rates were 23% and 58%, respectively, in the RFA group compared with 24% and 52% in the brachytherapy group (p = 0.95). The response rates in the RFA group were significantly higher than those in the brachytherapy group at 1 week (p = 0.32), but comparable at 3 weeks (p = 0.95). Both groups had low rates of complications and no treatment-related mortality. In conclusion, the short-term curative efficiency of RFA was better than that of brachytherapy, but the log-term efficiency of both treatments was equal. PMID:27636995

  11. GGEMS-Brachy: GPU GEant4-based Monte Carlo simulation for brachytherapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaréchal, Yannick; Bert, Julien; Falconnet, Claire; Després, Philippe; Valeri, Antoine; Schick, Ulrike; Pradier, Olivier; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boussion, Nicolas; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    In brachytherapy, plans are routinely calculated using the AAPM TG43 formalism which considers the patient as a simple water object. An accurate modeling of the physical processes considering patient heterogeneity using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) methods is currently too time-consuming and computationally demanding to be routinely used. In this work we implemented and evaluated an accurate and fast MCS on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for brachytherapy low dose rate (LDR) applications. A previously proposed Geant4 based MCS framework implemented on GPU (GGEMS) was extended to include a hybrid GPU navigator, allowing navigation within voxelized patient specific images and analytically modeled 125I seeds used in LDR brachytherapy. In addition, dose scoring based on track length estimator including uncertainty calculations was incorporated. The implemented GGEMS-brachy platform was validated using a comparison with Geant4 simulations and reference datasets. Finally, a comparative dosimetry study based on the current clinical standard (TG43) and the proposed platform was performed on twelve prostate cancer patients undergoing LDR brachytherapy. Considering patient 3D CT volumes of 400  × 250  × 65 voxels and an average of 58 implanted seeds, the mean patient dosimetry study run time for a 2% dose uncertainty was 9.35 s (≈500 ms 10-6 simulated particles) and 2.5 s when using one and four GPUs, respectively. The performance of the proposed GGEMS-brachy platform allows envisaging the use of Monte Carlo simulation based dosimetry studies in brachytherapy compatible with clinical practice. Although the proposed platform was evaluated for prostate cancer, it is equally applicable to other LDR brachytherapy clinical applications. Future extensions will allow its application in high dose rate brachytherapy applications.

  12. A dosimetric comparison of MammoSite high-dose-rate brachytherapy and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael C; Seif, Neil; Griem, Katherine; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Francescatti, Darius; Abrams, Ross A

    2007-01-01

    Over 20,000 patients have been treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) using the MammoSite balloon brachytherapy applicator (IBB). Recently, a new form of balloon-based PBI, Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy (KVB), which uses a 50-kV x-ray source, has been introduced. This analysis was undertaken to dosimetrically compare the results of treatment using these two methods of PBI. The study population consisted of 15 patients previously treated with IBB. The planning CT scans from these 15 patients were used to construct hypothetical treatment plans using the source characteristics of the KVB device. The plans were then compared using the dosimetric parameters discussed below. The mean %V(90) was 99.6% vs. 99.0% (p=nonsignificant [ns]), the mean %V(100) was 96.5% vs. 96.5%, the mean %V(150) was 41.8% vs. 59.4% (p<0.05), the mean %V(200) was 11.3% vs. 32.0% (p<0.05), and the mean %V(300) was 0.4% vs. 6.7% (p<0.05) for the IBB and KVB methods, respectively. The mean ipsilateral breast %V(50) was 19.8% vs. 13.0% (p<0.05), the mean ipsilateral lung %V(30) was 3.7% vs. 1.1% (p<0.05), and the mean heart %V(5) was 59.2% vs. 9.4% (p<0.05) for the IBB and KVB methods, respectively. The IBB and KVB methods of PBI offer comparable target volume coverage; however, the KVB method is associated with an increased volume of breast tissue in the high-dose regions and a decreased dose to the adjacent normal tissues.

  13. 10 CFR 35.2067 - Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources. 35.2067 Section 35.2067 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2067 Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy...

  14. 10 CFR 35.2067 - Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources. 35.2067 Section 35.2067 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2067 Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy...

  15. A comparison of the expected costs of high dose rate brachytherapy using 252Cf versus 192Ir.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J; Kirk, Bernadette L; Stapleford, Liza J; Wazer, David E

    2004-12-01

    A cost analysis to compare high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy using either californium-252 (252Cf) or 192Ir was performed to determine the prospects of widespread clinical implementation of HDR 252Cf. Interest in the neutron-emitting 252Cf radioisotope as a radiotherapy nuclide has undergone a resurgence given recent efforts to fabricate HDR remotely afterloaded sources, and other efforts to create a miniature source for improved accessibility to a variety of anatomic sites. Therefore, HDR 252Cf brachytherapy may prove to be a potential rival to the use of HDR 192Ir remotely afterloaded brachytherapy--the current standard-of-care treatment modality using HDR brachytherapy. Considering the possible improvements in clinical efficacy using HDR 252Cf brachytherapy and the enormous costs of other high-LET radiation sources, the cost differences between 252Cf and 192Ir may be well-justified.

  16. The Meaning and Experience of Patients Undergoing Rectal High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Néron, Sylvain; Benc, Renata; Rosberger, Zeev; Vuong, Té

    2016-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a precise form of radiation therapy that targets cancerous tumors by directly applying the radiation source at the site or directly next to the tumor. Patients often experience but underreport pain and anxiety related to cancer treatments. At present, there is no research available concerning the pervasiveness and intensity of patients' pain and anxiety during rectal brachytherapy. The aim of this study was to examine patients' thoughts, emotions, coping strategies, physical sensations, and needs during rectal HDR brachytherapy treatment. Twenty-five patients with rectal cancer were interviewed using a semi-structured qualitative interview following the completion of their brachytherapy treatment delivered at a Montreal-based hospital in Quebec, Canada. The experiences of pain and discomfort varied greatly between patients and were linked to the meaning patients attributed to the treatment itself, sense of time, the body's lithotomic position, insertion of the treatment applicator, and the patients' sense of agency and empowerment during the procedure. Patients drew upon a variety of internal and external resources to help them cope with discomfort. Staff need to know about the variation in the physical and emotional experiences of patients undergoing this treatment. Clinical teams can tailor their procedural behavior (eg, using certain language, psychosocial interventions) according to patients' needs to increase patients' comfort and ultimately improve their experience of HDR rectal brachytherapy.

  17. Prescribing, recording, and reporting in endovascular brachytherapy. Quality assurance, equipment, personnel and education.

    PubMed

    Pötter, R; Van Limbergen, E; Dries, W; Popowski, Y; Coen, V; Fellner, C; Georg, D; Kirisits, C; Levendag, P; Marijnissen, H; Marsiglia, H; Mazeron, J J; Pokrajac, B; Scalliet, P; Tamburini, V

    2001-06-01

    Endovascular brachytherapy is a new, rapidly growing field of interest in radiotherapy for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty in both coronary and peripheral arteries. Many physics aspects of these treatments have already been addressed in the report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine task group on 'Intravascular brachytherapy', but up to now there are no generally accepted recommendations for recording and reporting radiation doses and volumes. The terminology to be used by all individuals involved in such treatments (radiation oncologists, physicists, and interventionalists) is not clearly defined. The Endovascular Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Working Group in this document presents recommendations for a common language for general use in endovascular brachytherapy. This proposal addresses general terms and concepts for target and dose specification as well as detailed recommendations for dose prescription, recording and reporting in endovascular brachytherapy for both peripheral and coronary arteries. Additionally, quality assurance and radiation safety aspects are briefly addressed, as are aspects related to equipment, personnel, and training and education related to endovascular brachytherapy.

  18. Comparison of 60Co and 192Ir sources in HDR brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zwierzchowski, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the isotopes 60Co and 192Ir as radiation sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) afterloading brachytherapy. The smaller size of 192Ir sources made it the preferred radionuclide for temporary brachytherapy treatments. Recently also 60Co sources have been made available with identical geometrical dimensions. This paper compares the characteristics of both nuclides in different fields of brachytherapy based on scientific literature. In an additional part of this paper reports from medical physicists of several radiation therapy institutes are discussed. The purpose of this work is to investigate the advantages or disadvantages of both radionuclides for HDR brachytherapy due to their physical differences. The motivation is to provide useful information to support decision-making procedures in the selection of equipment for brachytherapy treatment rooms. The results of this work show that no advantages or disadvantages exist for 60Co sources compared to 192Ir sources with regard to clinical aspects. Nevertheless, there are potential logistical advantages of 60Co sources due to its longer half-life (5.3 years vs. 74 days), making it an interesting alternative especially in developing countries. PMID:23346129

  19. Evaluating the performance of TG-43 protocol in esophageal HDR brachytherapy viewpoint to trachea inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Daghigh, Seyed Mohsen; Baghani, Hamid Reza; Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud Reza; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air within trachea on dose calculations of esophageal HDR brachytherapy treatment planning. Dose calculations in esophageal HDR brachytherapy treatment planning systems are greatly based on TG-43 protocol which in all materials are considered to be water equivalent. A cylindrical PMMA phantom with a tube in the center (neck equivalent phantom) accompanied by Flexitron HDR brachytherapy system was used in this study. Brachytherapy applicators with various diameters were placed inside the esophageal tube and EDR2 film was used for dosimetry. The absorbed dose by reference point of esophageal HDR brachytherapy and anterior wall of trachea were measured and compared with those calculated by Flexiplan treatment planning system. Based on the performed statistical analysis (t-test) with 95% confidence level (t-value >1.96), there was a meaningful difference between the results of film dosimetry and treatment planning at all of the points understudy. The meaningful difference between the results of film dosimetry and treatment planning indicates that the trachea inhomogeneity has a considerable effect on dose calculations of Flexiplan treatment planning software featuring the TG-43 dose calculation algorithm. This mismatch can affect the accuracy of performed treatment plan and irradiation.

  20. Introduction of novel 3D-printed superficial applicators for high-dose-rate skin brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma-Louise; Tonino Baldion, Anna; Thomas, Christopher; Burrows, Tom; Byrne, Nick; Newton, Victoria; Aldridge, Sarah

    Custom-made surface mold applicators often allow more flexibility when carrying out skin brachytherapy, particularly for small treatment areas with high surface obliquity. They can, however, be difficult to manufacture, particularly if there is a lack of experience in superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy techniques or with limited resources. We present a novel method of manufacturing superficial brachytherapy applicators utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-printing techniques. We describe the treatment planning process and the process of applicator manufacture. The treatment planning process, with the introduction of a pre-plan, allows for an "ideal" catheter arrangement within an applicator to be determined, exploiting varying catheter orientations, heights, and curvatures if required. The pre-plan arrangement is then 3D printed to the exact specifications of the pre-plan applicator design. This results in improved target volume coverage and improved sparing of organs at risk. Using a pre-plan technique for ideal catheter placement followed by automated 3D-printed applicator manufacture has greatly improved the entire process of superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment. We are able to design and manufacture flexible, well-fitting, superior quality applicators resulting in a more efficient and improved patient pathway and patient experience. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disease-specific survival following the brachytherapy management of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stock, Richard G; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N

    2006-03-01

    To determine disease-specific survival (DSS) and associated predictive factors after prostate brachytherapy. A total of 1561 patients underwent brachytherapy for prostate cancer from 1990 to 2004 (median follow-up, 3.8 years). Treatment included brachytherapy alone (n = 634), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 420), and implant and external beam therapy (n = 507). The DSS and overall survival rates at 10 years were 96% and 74%, respectively. Gleason score significantly impacted DSS, with 10-year rates of 98%, 91%, and 92% for scores of < or = 6, 7, and > or = 8, respectively (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that PSA status after treatment had the most significant effect on DSS. Ten-year DSS rates were 100%, 52%, and 98%, respectively for patients without PSA failure (n = 1430), failure with a doubling time (DT) < or = 10 months (n = 64), and failure with a DT > 10 months (n = 67), respectively (p < 0.0001). In patients with PSA failure, DSS rates were 30%, 67%, and 98%, for those with DT < or = 6 months, > 6-10 months, and > 10 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). The 10-year DSS rate supports the efficacy of brachytherapy. Patients dying with disease within 10 years after treatment harbor inherently aggressive cancer with high Gleason scores and short DT.

  2. Low-dose-rate or high-dose-rate brachytherapy in treatment of prostate cancer – between options

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Permanent low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) and temporary high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) brachytherapy are competitive techniques for clinically localized prostate radiotherapy. Although a randomized trial will likely never to be conducted comparing these two forms of brachytherapy, a comparative analysis proves useful in understanding some of their intrinsic differences, several of which could be exploited to improve outcomes. The aim of this paper is to look for possible similarities and differences between both brachytherapy modalities. Indications and contraindications for monotherapy and for brachytherapy as a boost to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are presented. It is suggested that each of these techniques has attributes that advocates for one or the other. First, they represent the extreme ends of the spectrum with respect to dose rate and fractionation, and therefore have inherently different radiobiological properties. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy has the great advantage of being practically a one-time procedure, and enjoys a long-term follow-up database supporting its excellent outcomes and low morbidity. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy has been a gold standard for prostate brachytherapy in low risk patients since many years. On the other hand, HDR is a fairly invasive procedure requiring several sessions associated with a brief hospital stay. Although lacking in significant long-term data, it possesses the technical advantage of control over its postimplant dosimetry (by modulating the source dwell time and position), which is absent in LDR brachytherapy. This important difference in dosimetric control allows HDR doses to be escalated safely, a flexibility that does not exist for LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions Radiobiological models support the current clinical evidence for equivalent outcomes in localized prostate cancer with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy, using current dose regimens. At present, all available clinical data regarding these two techniques

  3. Error Analysis of non-TLD HDR Brachytherapy Dosimetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoush, Ahmad

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report43 (AAPM-TG43) and its updated version TG-43U1 rely on the LiF TLD detector to determine the experimental absolute dose rate for brachytherapy. The recommended uncertainty estimates associated with TLD experimental dosimetry include 5% for statistical errors (Type A) and 7% for systematic errors (Type B). TG-43U1 protocol does not include recommendation for other experimental dosimetric techniques to calculate the absolute dose for brachytherapy. This research used two independent experimental methods and Monte Carlo simulations to investigate and analyze uncertainties and errors associated with absolute dosimetry of HDR brachytherapy for a Tandem applicator. An A16 MicroChamber* and one dose MOSFET detectors† were selected to meet the TG-43U1 recommendations for experimental dosimetry. Statistical and systematic uncertainty analyses associated with each experimental technique were analyzed quantitatively using MCNPX 2.6‡ to evaluate source positional error, Tandem positional error, the source spectrum, phantom size effect, reproducibility, temperature and pressure effects, volume averaging, stem and wall effects, and Tandem effect. Absolute dose calculations for clinical use are based on Treatment Planning System (TPS) with no corrections for the above uncertainties. Absolute dose and uncertainties along the transverse plane were predicted for the A16 microchamber. The generated overall uncertainties are 22%, 17%, 15%, 15%, 16%, 17%, and 19% at 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 4cm, and 5cm, respectively. Predicting the dose beyond 5cm is complicated due to low signal-to-noise ratio, cable effect, and stem effect for the A16 microchamber. Since dose beyond 5cm adds no clinical information, it has been ignored in this study. The absolute dose was predicted for the MOSFET detector from 1cm to 7cm along the transverse plane. The generated overall uncertainties are 23%, 11%, 8%, 7%, 7%, 9%, and 8% at 1cm, 2cm, 3cm

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging for planning intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Oñate Miranda, M; Pinho, D F; Wardak, Z; Albuquerque, K; Pedrosa, I

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecological cancer. Its treatment depends on tumor staging at the time of diagnosis, and a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in locally advanced cervical cancers. The combined use of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy increases survival in these patients. Brachytherapy enables a larger dose of radiation to be delivered to the tumor with less toxicity for neighboring tissues with less toxicity for neighboring tissues compared to the use of external beam radiotherapy alone. For years, brachytherapy was planned exclusively using computed tomography (CT). The recent incorporation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides essential information about the tumor and neighboring structures making possible to better define the target volumes. Nevertheless, MRI has limitations, some of which can be compensated for by fusing CT and MRI. Fusing the images from the two techniques ensures optimal planning by combining the advantages of each technique.

  5. WE-F-201-01: Identify Key Clinical Applications Needing Advanced Dose Calculation in Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, R.

    2015-06-15

    With the recent introduction of heterogeneity correction algorithms for brachytherapy, the AAPM community is still unclear on how to commission and implement these into clinical practice. The recently-published AAPM TG-186 report discusses important issues for clinical implementation of these algorithms. A charge of the AAPM-ESTRO-ABG Working Group on MBDCA in Brachytherapy (WGMBDCA) is the development of a set of well-defined test case plans, available as references in the software commissioning process to be performed by clinical end-users. In this practical medical physics course, specific examples on how to perform the commissioning process are presented, as well as descriptions of the clinical impact from recent literature reporting comparisons of TG-43 and heterogeneity-based dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Identify key clinical applications needing advanced dose calculation in brachytherapy. Review TG-186 and WGMBDCA guidelines, commission process, and dosimetry benchmarks. Evaluate clinical cases using commercially available systems and compare to TG-43 dosimetry.

  6. WE-F-201-00: Practical Guidelines for Commissioning Advanced Brachytherapy Dose Calculation Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    With the recent introduction of heterogeneity correction algorithms for brachytherapy, the AAPM community is still unclear on how to commission and implement these into clinical practice. The recently-published AAPM TG-186 report discusses important issues for clinical implementation of these algorithms. A charge of the AAPM-ESTRO-ABG Working Group on MBDCA in Brachytherapy (WGMBDCA) is the development of a set of well-defined test case plans, available as references in the software commissioning process to be performed by clinical end-users. In this practical medical physics course, specific examples on how to perform the commissioning process are presented, as well as descriptions of the clinical impact from recent literature reporting comparisons of TG-43 and heterogeneity-based dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Identify key clinical applications needing advanced dose calculation in brachytherapy. Review TG-186 and WGMBDCA guidelines, commission process, and dosimetry benchmarks. Evaluate clinical cases using commercially available systems and compare to TG-43 dosimetry.

  7. Potential role of ultrasound imaging in interstitial image based cervical cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, more than 500,000 cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed worldwide. Over three quarters of these cases occur in less developed countries [1]. Advancements in image-guided brachytherapy are resulting in improved outcomes and reduced morbidity for women with this disease, but its worldwide adoption is hampered by lack of accessibility to advanced imaging techniques. Ultrasound is emerging as a potential option for tumor visualization, brachytherapy catheter placement, and treatment planning. While additional work is needed, ultrasound can potentially serve as the sole imaging modality for catheter insertion and planning. This paper will review our current knowledge on the use of ultrasound in interstitial brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. PMID:25097565

  8. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-01

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  9. Methodology for characterizing seeds under development for brachytherapy by means of radiochromic and photographic films.

    PubMed

    Meira-Belo, L C; Rodrigues, E J T; Grynberg, S E

    2013-04-01

    The development of new medical devices possess a number of challenges, including designing, constructing, and assaying prototypes. In the case of new brachytherapy seeds, this is also true. In this paper, a methodology for rapid dosimetric characterization of (125)I brachytherapy seeds during the early stages of their development is introduced. The characterization methodology is based on the joint use of radiochromic and personal monitoring photographic films in order to determine the planar anisotropy due to the radiation field produced by the seed under development, by means of isodose curves. To evaluate and validate the process, isodose curves were obtained with both types of films after irradiation with a commercial (125)I brachytherapy seed.

  10. AAPM Task Group 128: Quality assurance tests for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Douglas; Sutlief, Steven; Feng Wenzheng; Pierce, Heather M.; Kofler, Jim

    2008-12-15

    While ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy has gained wide acceptance as a primary treatment tool for prostate cancer, quality assurance of the ultrasound guidance system has received very little attention. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was created to address quality assurance requirements specific to transrectal ultrasound used for guidance of prostate brachytherapy. Accurate imaging guidance and dosimetry calculation depend upon the quality and accuracy of the ultrasound image. Therefore, a robust quality assurance program for the ultrasound system is essential. A brief review of prostate brachytherapy and ultrasound physics is provided, followed by a recommendation for elements to be included in a comprehensive test phantom. Specific test recommendations are presented, covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, needle template/electronic grid alignment, and geometric consistency with the treatment planning computer.

  11. [Experience of brachytherapy using I-125 seed permanent implants for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Toya, Kazuhito; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ohashi, Toshio; Okada, Masahiro; Itoh, Reiko; Monma, Tetsuo; Saito, Shiro; Fukada, Junichi; Sugawara, Akitomo; Dokiya, Takushi

    2005-10-01

    We report here our experience of brachytherapy using I-125 seeds for localized prostate cancer in 100 patients. We carried out brachytherapy with I-125 seed permanent implants in 100 patients with localized prostate cancer between September 2003 and October 2004. Preplanning dosimetry was done using transrectal ultrasonic images obtained three or four weeks prior to treatment. Using transrectal ultrasound, we inserted I-125 seeds in the prostate through needles according to the preplanning diagram. We then examined the results on prostate CT performed one month later. It was necessary to describe transrectal ultrasonic image such as preplanning. There were several cases in which the source arrangement of the schedule was corrected immediately before the operation. In the examination after one month, the numerical value at the start of treatment initially was not satisfactory, but we eventually obtained a result that could to be evaluated. We carried out permanent implant brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer using I-125 seeds and reported our experience.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: initiating a program

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, Joann I.; Soliman, Abraam; Ravi, Ananth; Song, William Y.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increased, and there is growing evidence to suggest that improvements in accuracy of target delineation in MRI-guided brachytherapy may improve clinical outcomes in cervical cancer. To implement a high quality image guided brachytherapy program, a multidisciplinary team is required with appropriate expertise as well as an adequate patient load to ensure a sustainable program. It is imperative to know that the most important source of uncertainty in the treatment process is related to target delineation and therefore, the necessity of training and expertise as well as quality assurance should be emphasized. A short review of concepts and techniques that have been developed for implementation and/or improvement of workflow of a MRI-guided brachytherapy program are provided in this document, so that institutions can use and optimize some of them based on their resources to minimize their procedure times. PMID:26622249

  13. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-30

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  14. Update on prostate brachytherapy: long-term outcomes and treatment-related morbidity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Johnny; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Current research in prostate brachytherapy focuses on five key concepts covered in this review. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy assisted by intraoperative treatment planning is the most advanced form of image-guided radiation delivery. Prostate brachytherapy alone for low-risk prostate cancer achieves lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadirs than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or protons while maintaining durable biochemical control in about 90% of patients without late failures seen in surgically treated patients. As an organ-conserving treatment option, seed implant results in a lower rate of erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence than surgery that has been validated in several recent prospective studies. Combined IMRT and seed implant has emerged as a rational and highly effective approach to radiation-dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Preliminary results suggest that seed implantation may play a role in improving outcomes for historically poor-prognosis locally advanced and recurrent prostate cancers.

  15. Quantifying IOHDR brachytherapy underdosage resulting from an incomplete scatter environment

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, Sanjay; Avadhani, Jaiteerth S.; Oh, Moonseong; Malhotra, Harish K.; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Kuettel, Michael R.; Podgorsak, Matthew B. . E-mail: matthew.podgorsak@roswellpark.org

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Most brachytherapy planning systems are based on a dose calculation algorithm that assumes an infinite scatter environment surrounding the target volume and applicator. Dosimetric errors from this assumption are negligible. However, in intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) where treatment catheters are typically laid either directly on a tumor bed or within applicators that may have little or no scatter material above them, the lack of scatter from one side of the applicator can result in underdosage during treatment. This study was carried out to investigate the magnitude of this underdosage. Methods: IOHDR treatment geometries were simulated using a solid water phantom beneath an applicator with varying amounts of bolus material on the top and sides of the applicator to account for missing tissue. Treatment plans were developed for 3 different treatment surface areas (4 x 4, 7 x 7, 12 x 12 cm{sup 2}), each with prescription points located at 3 distances (0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm) from the source dwell positions. Ionization measurements were made with a liquid-filled ionization chamber linear array with a dedicated electrometer and data acquisition system. Results: Measurements showed that the magnitude of the underdosage varies from about 8% to 13% of the prescription dose as the prescription depth is increased from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. This treatment error was found to be independent of the irradiated area and strongly dependent on the prescription distance. Furthermore, for a given prescription depth, measurements in planes parallel to an applicator at distances up to 4.0 cm from the applicator plane showed that the dose delivery error is equal in magnitude throughout the target volume. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the magnitude of underdosage in IOHDR treatments delivered in a geometry that may not result in a full scatter environment around the applicator. This implies that the target volume and, specifically, the prescription

  16. Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Zourari, K.; Peppa, V.; Papagiannis, P.; Ballester, Facundo; Siebert, Frank-André

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions

  17. Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Vision Prognostication Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Niloufer; Khan, Mohammad K.; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To generate a vision prognostication model after plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. Methods and Materials: All patients with primary single ciliary body or choroidal melanoma treated with iodine-125 or ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2010, were included. The primary endpoint was loss of visual acuity. Only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/50 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/50 at the end of the study, and only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/200 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/200 at the end of the study. Factors analyzed were sex, age, cataracts, diabetes, tumor size (basal dimension and apical height), tumor location, and radiation dose to the tumor apex, fovea, and optic disc. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the influence of baseline patient factors on vision loss. Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank analysis) were used to estimate freedom from vision loss. Results: Of 189 patients, 92% (174) were alive as of February 1, 2011. At presentation, visual acuity was better than or equal to 20/50 and better than or equal to 20/200 in 108 and 173 patients, respectively. Of these patients, 44.4% (48) had post-treatment visual acuity of worse than 20/50 and 25.4% (44) had post-treatment visual acuity worse than 20/200. By multivariable analysis, increased age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.01 [1.00-1.03], P=.05), increase in tumor height (HR of 1.35 [1.22-1.48], P<.001), and a greater total dose to the fovea (HR of 1.01 [1.00-1.01], P<.001) were predictive of vision loss. This information was used to develop a nomogram predictive of vision loss. Conclusions: By providing a means to predict vision loss at 3 years after treatment, our vision prognostication model can be an important tool for patient selection and treatment counseling.

  18. Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data.

    PubMed

    Zourari, K; Peppa, V; Ballester, Facundo; Siebert, Frank-André; Papagiannis, P

    2014-04-01

    To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20-1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20-1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced by Archer et al. ["Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation," Health Phys. 44, 507-517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. ["Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities," Med. Phys. 34, 1398-1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. The data of this work allow for the accurate

  19. Dosimetry modeling for focal high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Mason, Josh; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Bownes, Peter; Thwaites, David; Henry, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The dosimetry of focal high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy was assessed. Dose volume histogram parameters, robustness to source position errors, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were compared for whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (HEMI), and ultra-focal (UF) treatment plans. Tumor volumes were delineated based on MRI and template biopsy results for 9 patients. WG, HEMI, and UF plans were produced assuming 19 Gy single fraction monotherapy treatments. For UF plans, a 6-mm margin was applied to the visible tumor to create a focal-planning target volume (F-PTV). Systematic source position shifts of 1-4 mm were applied to assess plan robustness. The dosimetric impact of steel catheters was assessed using MC simulation. Mean D90 and V100 were 20.4 Gy and 97.9% for prostate in WG plans, 22.2 Gy and 98.1% for hemi-prostate in HEMI plans, and 23.0 Gy and 98.2% for F-PTV in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 20.3, 19.7, and 9.2 Gy in WG, HEMI, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectal D2cc was 12.5, 9.8, and 4.6 Gy in WG, HEMI, and UF plans, respectively. Focal treatment plans were sensitive to source position errors-2 mm systematic shifts reduced mean prostate D90 by 0.7%, hemi-prostate D90 by 2.6%, and F-PTV D90 by 8.3% in WG, HEMI, and UF plans, respectively. MC simulation results were similar for all plan types with most dose volume histogram parameters reduced by <2%. HEMI and UF treatments can achieve higher D90 values compared with WG treatments with reduced organ at risk dose. Focal treatments are more sensitive to systematic source position errors than WG treatments. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraoperative fluoroscopic dose assessment in prostate brachytherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel R; Wallner, Kent E; Narayanan, Sreeram; Sutlief, Steve G; Ford, Eric C; Cho, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate a fluoroscopy-based intraoperative dosimetry system to guide placement of additional sources to underdosed areas, and perform computed tomography (CT) verification. Twenty-six patients with prostate carcinoma treated with either I-125 or Pd-103 brachytherapy at the Puget Sound VA using intraoperative postimplant dosimetry were analyzed. Implants were performed by standard techniques. After completion of the initial planned brachytherapy procedure, the initial fluoroscopic intraoperative dose reconstruction analysis (I-FL) was performed with three fluoroscopic images acquired at 0 (AP), +15, and -15 degrees. Automatic seed identification was performed and the three-dimensional (3D) seed coordinates were computed and imported into VariSeed for dose visualization. Based on a 3D assessment of the isodose patterns additional seeds were implanted, and the final fluoroscopic intraoperative dose reconstruction was performed (FL). A postimplant computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained after the procedure and dosimetric parameters and isodose patterns were analyzed and compared. An average of 4.7 additional seeds were implanted after intraoperative analysis of the dose coverage (I-FL), and a median of 5 seeds. After implantation of additional seeds the mean V100 increased from 89% (I-FL) to 92% (FL) (p < 0.001). In I-125 patients an improvement from 91% to 94% (p = 0.01), and 87% to 93% (p = 0.001) was seen for Pd-103. The D90 increased from 105% (I-FL) to 122% (FL) (p < 0.001) for I-125, and 92% (I-FL) to 102% (FL) (p = 0.008) for Pd-103. A minimal change occurred in the R100 from a mean of 0.32 mL (I-FL) to 0.6 mL (FL) (p = 0.19). No statistical difference was noted in the R100 (rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose) between the two techniques. The rate of adverse isodose patterns decreased between I-FL and FL from 42% to 8%, respectively. The I-125 patients demonstrated a complete resolution of adverse isodose patterns after the initial isodose

  1. Rapid emission angle selection for rotating-shield brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Yang, Wenjun; Kim, Yusung; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Sun, Wenqing; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present a rapid emission angle selection (REAS) method that enables the efficient selection of the azimuthal shield angle for rotating shield brachytherapy (RSBT). The REAS method produces a Pareto curve from which a potential RSBT user can select a treatment plan that balances the tradeoff between delivery time and tumor dose conformity. Methods: Two cervical cancer patients were considered as test cases for the REAS method. The RSBT source considered was a Xoft AxxentTM electronic brachytherapy source, partially shielded with 0.5 mm of tungsten, which traveled inside a tandem intrauterine applicator. Three anchor RSBT plans were generated for each case using dose-volume optimization, with azimuthal shield emission angles of 90°, 180°, and 270°. The REAS method converts the anchor plans to treatment plans for all possible emission angles by combining neighboring beamlets to form beamlets for larger emission angles. Treatment plans based on exhaustive dose-volume optimization (ERVO) and exhaustive surface optimization (ERSO) were also generated for both cases. Uniform dwell-time scaling was applied to all plans such that that high-risk clinical target volume D90 was maximized without violating the D2cc tolerances of the rectum, bladder, and sigmoid colon. Results: By choosing three azimuthal emission angles out of 32 potential angles, the REAS method performs about 10 times faster than the ERVO method. By setting D90 to 85–100 Gy10, the delivery times used by REAS generated plans are 21.0% and 19.5% less than exhaustive surface optimized plans used by the two clinical cases. By setting the delivery time budget to 5–25 and 10–30 min/fx, respectively, for two the cases, the D90 contributions for REAS are improved by 5.8% and 5.1% compared to the ERSO plans. The ranges used in this comparison were selected in order to keep both D90 and the delivery time within acceptable limits. Conclusions: The REAS method enables efficient RSBT

  2. Rapid emission angle selection for rotating-shield brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yunlong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Sun, Wenqing; Yang Wenjun; Wu Xiaodong

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The authors present a rapid emission angle selection (REAS) method that enables the efficient selection of the azimuthal shield angle for rotating shield brachytherapy (RSBT). The REAS method produces a Pareto curve from which a potential RSBT user can select a treatment plan that balances the tradeoff between delivery time and tumor dose conformity. Methods: Two cervical cancer patients were considered as test cases for the REAS method. The RSBT source considered was a Xoft Axxent{sup TM} electronic brachytherapy source, partially shielded with 0.5 mm of tungsten, which traveled inside a tandem intrauterine applicator. Three anchor RSBT plans were generated for each case using dose-volume optimization, with azimuthal shield emission angles of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 270 Degree-Sign . The REAS method converts the anchor plans to treatment plans for all possible emission angles by combining neighboring beamlets to form beamlets for larger emission angles. Treatment plans based on exhaustive dose-volume optimization (ERVO) and exhaustive surface optimization (ERSO) were also generated for both cases. Uniform dwell-time scaling was applied to all plans such that that high-risk clinical target volume D{sub 90} was maximized without violating the D{sub 2cc} tolerances of the rectum, bladder, and sigmoid colon. Results: By choosing three azimuthal emission angles out of 32 potential angles, the REAS method performs about 10 times faster than the ERVO method. By setting D{sub 90} to 85-100 Gy{sub 10}, the delivery times used by REAS generated plans are 21.0% and 19.5% less than exhaustive surface optimized plans used by the two clinical cases. By setting the delivery time budget to 5-25 and 10-30 min/fx, respectively, for two the cases, the D{sub 90} contributions for REAS are improved by 5.8% and 5.1% compared to the ERSO plans. The ranges used in this comparison were selected in order to keep both D{sub 90} and the delivery time within acceptable

  3. Evaluation of 101Rh as a brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently a number of hypothetical sources have been proposed and evaluated for use in brachytherapy. In the present study, a hypothetical 101Rh source with mean photon energy of 121.5 keV and half-life of 3.3 years, has been evaluated as an alternative to the existing high-dose-rate (HDR) sources. Dosimetric characteristics of this source model have been determined following the recommendation of the Task Group 43 (TG-43) of the American Association of the Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), and the results are compared with the published data for 57Co source and Flexisource 192Ir sources with similar geometries. Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of the 101Rh hypothetical HDR source design. Geometric design of this hypothetical source was considered to be similar to that of Flexisource 192Ir source. Task group No. 43 dosimetric parameters, including air kerma strength per mCi, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated for the 101Rh source through simulations. Results Air kerma strength per activity and dose rate constant for the hypothetical 101Rh source were 1.09 ± 0.01 U/mCi and 1.18 ± 0.08 cGy/(h.U), respectively. At distances beyond 1.0 cm in phantom, radial dose function for the hypothetical 101Rh source is higher than that of 192Ir. It has also similar 2D anisotropy functions to the Flexisource 192Ir source. Conclusions 101Rh is proposed as an alternative to the existing HDR sources for use in brachytherapy. This source provides medium energy photons, relatively long half-life, higher dose rate constant and radial dose function, and similar 2D anisotropy function to the Flexisource 192Ir HDR source design. The longer half-life of the source reduces the frequency of the source exchange for the clinical environment. PMID:26034499

  4. MO-FG-210-00: US Guided Systems for Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medical practice. Since US imaging offers real-time imaging capability, it has becomes an excellent option to provide image guidance for brachytherapy (IGBT). (1) The physics and the fundamental principles of US imaging are presented, and the typical steps required to commission an US system for IGBT is provided for illustration. (2) Application of US for prostate HDR brachytherapy, including partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound co-registration to enable a focused treatment on the disease within the prostate is also presented. Prostate HDR with US image guidance planning can benefit from real time visualization of the needles, and fusion of the ultrasound images with T2 weighted MR allows the focusing of the treatment to the specific areas of disease within the prostate, so that the entire gland need not be treated. Finally, (3) ultrasound guidance for an eye plaque program is presented. US can be a key component of placement and QA for episcleral plaque brachytherapy for ocular cancer, and the UCLA eye plaque program with US for image guidance is presented to demonstrate the utility of US verification of plaque placement in improving the methods and QA in episcleral plaque brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of an US system and the necessary aspects of commissioning US for image guided brachytherapy (IGBT). To understand real time planning of prostate HDR using ultrasound, and its application in partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound fusion to focus treatment on disease within the prostate. To understand the methods and QA in applying US for localizing the target and the implant during a episcleral plaque brachytherapy procedures.

  5. Comparison of radiation shielding requirements for HDR brachytherapy using 169Yb and 192Ir sources.

    PubMed

    Lymperopoulou, G; Papagiannis, P; Sakelliou, L; Georgiou, E; Hourdakis, C J; Baltas, D

    2006-07-01

    169Yb has received a renewed focus lately as an alternative to 192Ir sources for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following the results of a recent work by our group which proved 169Yb to be a good candidate for HDR prostate brachytherapy, this work seeks to quantify the radiation shielding requirements for 169Yb HDR brachytherapy applications in comparison to the corresponding requirements for the current 192Ir HDR brachytherapy standard. Monte Carlo simulation (MC) is used to obtain 169Yb and 192Ir broad beam transmission data through lead and concrete. Results are fitted to an analytical equation which can be used to readily calculate the barrier thickness required to achieve a given dose rate reduction. Shielding requirements for a HDR brachytherapy treatment room facility are presented as a function of distance, occupancy, dose limit, and facility workload, using analytical calculations for both 169Yb and 192Ir HDR sources. The barrier thickness required for 169Yb is lower than that for 192Ir by a factor of 4-5 for lead and 1.5-2 for concrete. Regarding 169Yb HDR brachytherapy applications, the lead shielding requirements do not exceed 15 mm, even in highly conservative case scenarios. This allows for the construction of a lead door in most cases, thus avoiding the construction of a space consuming, specially designed maze. The effects of source structure, attenuation by the patient, and scatter conditions within an actual treatment room on the above-noted findings are also discussed using corresponding MC simulation results.

  6. The changing landscape of brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a Canadian practice survey

    PubMed Central

    Phan, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Pavamani, S.; Pearce, A.; D’Souza, D.; Patil, N.G.; Traptow, L.; Doll, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We documented changes in practice from 2009 to 2012 for cervical cancer brachytherapy in Canada. Methods Centres with gynecologic brachytherapy services were sent an e-mail questionnaire querying their 2012 practice. Responses are reported and compared with practice patterns identified in a similar survey for 2009. Results The response rate was 77% (24 of 31 centres). Almost all use high-dose-rate brachytherapy (92%); low-dose-rate brachytherapy has been completely phased out. Most continue to move patients from the site of applicator insertion to the radiation treatment simulation suite (75%) or to a diagnostic imaging department (29%), or both. In 2012, the imaging modalities used for dose specification were computed tomography [ct (75%)], magnetic resonance imaging [mri (38%)], plain radiography (21%), and cone-beam ct (8%). The number of institutions using mri guidance has markedly increased during the period of interest (9 vs. 1). Most respondents (58% vs. 14%) prescribed using guidelines from the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, but they also used point A as a reference. Commonly used high-dose radiation regimens included 30 Gy in 5 fractions and 24 Gy in 3 fractions. Conclusions In Canada, image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer continues to evolve. Although ct-based imaging remains the most commonly used modality, many centres have adopted mri for at least 1 brachytherapy treatment. More centres are using fewer fractions and a slightly lower biologically effective dose, but are still achieving EQD2 (2-Gy equivalent) doses of 80–90 Gy in combination with external-beam radiation therapy. PMID:26628868

  7. SU-F-BRA-04: Prostate HDR Brachytherapy with Multichannel Robotic System

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, F Maria; Podder, T; Yu, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is gradually becoming popular in treating patients with prostate cancers. However, placement of the HDR needles at desired locations into the patient is challenging. Application of robotic system may improve the accuracy of the clinical procedure. This experimental study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a multichannel robotic system for prostate HDR brachytherapy. Methods: In this experimental study, the robotic system employed was a 6-DOF Multichannel Image-guided Robotic Assistant for Brachytherapy (MIRAB), which was designed and fabricated for prostate seed implantation. The MIRAB has the provision of rotating 16 needles while inserting them. Ten prostate HDR brachytherapy needles were simultaneously inserted using MIRAB into a commercially available prostate phantom. After inserting the needles into the prostate phantom at desired locations, 2mm thick CT slices were obtained for dosimetric planning. HDR plan was generated using Oncetra planning system with a total prescription dose of 34Gy in 4 fractions. Plan quality was evaluated considering dose coverage to prostate and planning target volume (PTV), with 3mm margin around prostate, as well as the dose limit to the organs at risk (OARs) following the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines. Results: From the CT scan, it is observed that the needles were inserted straight into the desired locations and they were adequately spaced and distributed for a clinically acceptable HDR plan. Coverage to PTV and prostate were about 91% (V100= 91%) and 96% (V100=96%), respectively. Dose to 1cc of urethra, rectum, and bladder were within the ABS specified limits. Conclusion: The MIRAB was able to insert multiple needles simultaneously into the prostate precisely. By controlling the MIRAB to insert all the ten utilized needles into the prostate phantom, we could achieve the robotic HDR brachytherapy successfully. Further study for assessing the system

  8. Radiochromic film-based quality assurance for CT-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Asgharizadeh, Saeid; Bekerat, Hamed; Syme, Alasdair; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, François; Vuong, Té; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    In the past, film dosimetry was developed into a powerful tool for external beam radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. The objective of this work was the development and clinical testing of the EBT3 model GafChromic film based brachytherapy quality assurance (QA) system. Retrospective dosimetry study was performed to test a patient-specific QA system for preoperative endorectal brachytherapy that uses a radiochromic film dosimetry system. A dedicated phantom for brachytherapy applicator used for rectal cancer treatment was fabricated enabling us to compare calculated-to-measured dose distributions. Starting from the same criteria used for external beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy QA (3%, 3 mm), passing criteria for high- and low-dose gradient regions were subsequently determined. Finally, we investigated the QA system's sensitivity to controlled source positional errors on selected patient plans. In low-dose gradient regions, measured dose distributions with criteria of 3%, 3 mm barely passed the test, as they showed 95% passing pixels. However, in the high-dose gradient region, a more stringent condition could be established. Both criteria of 2%, 3 mm and 3%, 2 mm with gamma function calculated using normalization to the same absolute dose value in both measured and calculated dose distributions, and matrix sizes rescaled to match each other showed more than 95% of pixels passing, on average, for 15 patient plans analyzed. Although the necessity of the patient-specific brachytherapy QA needs yet to be justified, we described a radiochromic film dosimetry-based QA system that can be a part of the brachytherapy commissioning process, as well as yearly QA program. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Royal College of Radiologists' audit of prostate brachytherapy in the year 2012.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A J; Drinkwater, K J; Laing, R W; Nobes, J P; Locke, I

    2015-06-01

    This audit provides a comprehensive overview of UK prostate brachytherapy practice in the year 2012, measured against existing standards, immediately before the introduction of new Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. This audit allows comparison with European and North American brachytherapy practice and for the impact of the RCR 2012 guidelines to be assessed in the future. A web-based data collection tool was developed by the RCR Clinical Audit Committee and sent to audit leads at all cancer centres in the UK. Standards were developed based on available guidelines in use at the start of 2012 covering case mix and dosimetry. Further questions were included to reflect areas of anticipated change with the implementation of the 2012 guidelines. Audit findings were compared with similar audits of practice in Europe, the USA and Latin America. Forty-nine of 59 cancer centres submitted data. Twenty-nine centres reported carrying out prostate brachytherapy; of these, 25 (86%) provided data regarding the number of implants, staffing, dosimetry, medication and anaesthesia and follow-up. Audit standards achieved excellent compliance in most areas, although were low in post-implant dosimetry and in post-implant scanning at 30 days. This audit provides a comprehensive picture of prostate brachytherapy in the UK in 2012. Patterns of care of prostate brachytherapy are similar to practice in the USA and Europe. The number of prostate brachytherapy implants carried out in the UK has grown significantly since a previous RCR audit in 2005 and it is important that centres maintain minimum numbers of cases to ensure that experience can be maintained and compliance to guidelines achieved. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The emerging role of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is a comparatively new brachytherapy procedure for prostate cancer. In addition to the intrinsic advantages of brachytherapy, including radiation dose concentration to the tumor and rapid dose fall-off at the surrounding normal tissue, HDR brachytherapy can yield a more homogeneous and conformal dose distribution through image-based decisions for source dwell positions and by optimization of individual source dwell times. Indication can be extended even to T3a/b or a part of T4 tumors because the applicators can be positioned at the extracapsular lesion, into the seminal vesicles, and/or into the bladder, without any risk of source migration or dropping out. Unlike external beam radiotherapy, with HDR brachytherapy inter-/intra-fraction organ motion is not problematic. However, HDR monotherapy requires patients to stay in bed for 1–4 days during hospitalization, even though the actual overall treatment time is short. Recent findings that the α/β value for prostate cancer is less than that for the surrounding late-responding normal tissue has made hypofractionation attractive, and HDR monotherapy can maximize this advantage of hypofractionation. Research on HDR monotherapy is accelerating, with a growing number of publications reporting excellent preliminary clinical results due to the high ‘biologically effective dose (BED)’ of >200 Gy. Moreover, the findings obtained for HDR monotherapy as an early model of extreme hypofractionation tend to be applied to other radiotherapy techniques such as stereotactic radiotherapy. All these developments point to the emerging role of HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer. PMID:23543798

  11. The emerging role of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is a comparatively new brachytherapy procedure for prostate cancer. In addition to the intrinsic advantages of brachytherapy, including radiation dose concentration to the tumor and rapid dose fall-off at the surrounding normal tissue, HDR brachytherapy can yield a more homogeneous and conformal dose distribution through image-based decisions for source dwell positions and by optimization of individual source dwell times. Indication can be extended even to T3a/b or a part of T4 tumors because the applicators can be positioned at the extracapsular lesion, into the seminal vesicles, and/or into the bladder, without any risk of source migration or dropping out. Unlike external beam radiotherapy, with HDR brachytherapy inter-/intra-fraction organ motion is not problematic. However, HDR monotherapy requires patients to stay in bed for 1-4 days during hospitalization, even though the actual overall treatment time is short. Recent findings that the α/β value for prostate cancer is less than that for the surrounding late-responding normal tissue has made hypofractionation attractive, and HDR monotherapy can maximize this advantage of hypofractionation. Research on HDR monotherapy is accelerating, with a growing number of publications reporting excellent preliminary clinical results due to the high 'biologically effective dose (BED)' of >200 Gy. Moreover, the findings obtained for HDR monotherapy as an early model of extreme hypofractionation tend to be applied to other radiotherapy techniques such as stereotactic radiotherapy. All these developments point to the emerging role of HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer.

  12. The evolving practice of intrauterine cervix brachytherapy in Canada: a medical physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Kristin Joy; Sadikov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    To determine the current equipment, technology, and treatment planning methods used in Canadian cancer centers for intrauterine cervix brachytherapy. A questionnaire was developed to survey medical physicists in Canada regarding technical aspects of intrauterine cervix brachytherapy. A response was obtained from one physicist at each radiotherapy facility in Canada. A total of 32 of the 41 Canadian radiotherapy facilities perform intrauterine brachytherapy. Most (88%) use high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Images used for treatment planning are two-dimensional (2D) X-rays (63%), CT (66%), MRI (13%), and cone beam CT (9%). Patients are moved to another room to obtain images at 66% of the centers. Dose is prescribed to a volume at 28% of centers, and dose-volume histogram information is used in evaluating dose to the organs at risk (47%) and target (31%). Manual optimization was the most common optimization method (81%). A total of 69% of the institutions made significant changes within the past 5 years, and 66% plan major changes within the next 2 years. Intrauterine brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer is rapidly evolving in Canada, with centers moving toward 3D image-based methods. Often these imaging modalities are not located in the brachytherapy room, so studies on immobilization and verification would be useful. Access to MRI is increasing, but remains low, correlating with a low adoption of volume-based parameters for evaluating target coverage. National treatment guidelines would be useful for centers making the transition from 2D to 3D methods and for encouraging access to MRI. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on optical fluence distribution: preliminary ex vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Ding, Meisong; Newman, Francis; Dole, Kenneth C.; Huang, Zheng; Blanc, Dominique

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gradually found its place in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant human diseases. Currently, interstitial PDT is being explored as an alternative modality for newly diagnosed and recurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. The interstitial PDT for the treatment of prostate cancer might be considered to treat prostates with permanent radioactive seeds implantation. However, the effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on the optical fluence distribution of PDT light has not been studied before. This study investigated, for the first time, the effect of brachytherapy seed on the optical fluence distribution of 760 nm light in ex vivo models (meat and canine prostate).

  14. [Partial breast irradiation technique with external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Chand-Fouché, M-E; Lam Cham Kee, D; Gautier, M; Hannoun-Levi, J-M

    2016-10-01

    Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) appears to be an efficient therapeutic modality provided that it uses strict selection criteria and a reliable and well-managed technique. The techniques that enable to deliver postoperative APBI are interstitial brachytherapy, endocavitary brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy. Once an appropriate selection of the candidates is made, each radiation technique needs an exact target volume definition and a strict compliance with its own dosimetric constraints. Results of ongoing randomized trials should increase our knowledge of all these parameters, and give us responses about the comparison of the different techniques.

  15. Survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer after iodine125 seeds implantation brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Quanli; Deng, Muhong; Lv, Yao; Dai, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Brachytherapy with iodine125-labeled seeds (125I-seeds) implantation is increasingly being used to treat tumors because of its positional precision, minimal invasion, least damage to noncancerous tissue due to slow and continuous release of radioactivity and facilitation with modern medical imaging technologies. This study evaluates the survival and pain relief outcomes of the 125I-seeds implantation brachytherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: Literature search was carried out in multiple electronic databases (Google Scholar, Embase, Medline/PubMed, and Ovid SP) and studies reporting I125 seeds implantation brachytherapy in pancreatic cancer patients with unresectable tumor were selected by following predetermined eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis was performed to achieve inverse variance weighted effect size of the overall survival rate after the intervention. Sensitivity and subgroups analyses were also carried out. Results: Twenty-three studies (824 patients’ data) were included in the meta-analysis. 125I-seeds implantation brachytherapy alone was associated with 8.98 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.94, 11.03] months (P < 0.00001) overall survival with 1-year survival of 25.7 ± 9.3% (mean ± standard deviation; SD) and 2-year survival was 17.9 ± 8.6% (mean ± SD). In stage IV pancreatic cancer patients, overall survival was 7.13 [95% CI: 4.75, 9.51] months (P < 0.00001). In patients treated with 125I-seeds implantation along with 1 or more therapies, overall survival was 11.75 [95% CI: 9.84, 13.65] months (P < 0.00001) with 1-year survival of 47.4 ± 22.75% (mean ± SD) and 2-year survival was 16.97 ± 3.1% (mean ± SD). 125I-seeds brachytherapy was associated with relief of pain in 79.7 ± 9.9% (mean ± SD) of the patients. Conclusions: Survival of pancreatic cancer patients after 125I-seeds implantation brachytherapy is found to be 9 months

  16. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations.

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy-guided transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Agnieszka Szot; Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; So, Minna; D'Amico, Anthony V; Tempany, Clare M

    2005-12-01

    Brachytherapy targeted to the peripheral zone with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is a prostate cancer treatment option with potentially fewer complications than other treatments. Follow-up MRI when failure is suspected is, however, difficult because of radiation-induced changes. Furthermore, MR spectroscopy (MRS) is compromised by susceptibility artifacts from radioactive seeds in the peripheral zone. We report a case in which combined MRI/MRS was useful for the detection of prostate cancer in the transitional zone in patients previously treated with MR-guided brachytherapy. We propose that MRI/MRS can help detect recurrent prostate cancer, guide prostate biopsy, and help manage salvage treatment decisions.

  18. [Usefulness of urethral endoprosthesis in the management of urinary retention after brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, W; Chahwan, C; Lenormand, C; Dubray, B; Benyoucef, A; Pfister, C

    2014-03-01

    Brachytherapy is a possible treatment for localized low risk prostate cancer. Although this option is minimally invasive, some side effects may occur. Acute retention of urine (ARU) has been observed in 5% to 22% of cases and can be prevented in most cases by alpha-blocker treatment. Several alternatives have been reported in the literature for the management of ARU following brachytherapy: prolonged suprapubic catheterization, transurethral resection of the prostate and also intermittent self-catheterization. The authors report an original endoscopic approach, using urethral endoprosthesis, with a satisfactory voiding status.

  19. Transradial coronary brachytherapy with the Novoste Beta-Rail system.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Olivier F; De Larochellière, Robert; Gleeton, Onil; Plante, Sylvain; Tessier, Michel; Guimond, Jean

    2002-03-01

    We report our initial experience in 10 consecutive patients who underwent transradial coronary brachytherapy for in-stent restenosis using a 90Sr/Y source and the Novoste Beta-Rail system. In all patients, procedures were successfully completed using a right transradial approach. We performed the procedures with the Beta-Rail catheter using 7 Fr (Zuma II, Medtronic, MN; n = 5) or 8 Fr (Cordis, Miami, FL; n = 5) guiding catheters. All lesions were successfully dilated and no additional stent was inserted. We used a 40 mm source (n = 3) or a 60 mm source (n = 7) with manual stepping in four cases. In three cases, we did one stepping, and in one case, we did three steppings. The mean dwell time was 195 plus minus 44 sec. The mean delivered dose was 23 +/- 3 Gy at 2 mm distance from the source. No radiation treatment was interrupted. Mean fluoroscopy time was 26 +/- 13 min. Procedural success was achieved in all patients. Three patients had mild CK elevations (< 3 times upper normal limit). All patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (300 mg) and combined treatment with aspirin + clopidogrel is to be continued for at least 1 year. Clinical follow-up up to 3 months has not yielded any complication and all patients have remained free from angina.

  20. Long term results of PDR brachytherapy for lip cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Leif; Hardell, Lennart; Persliden, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long time outcome with regard to local tumour control and side effects of a pulsed dose rate (PDR) monobrachytherapy of primary or recurrent cancer of the lip. Material and methods Between 1995 and 2007 we treated 43 patients with primary or recurrent clinical T1-T3N0 lip cancers. There were 22 T1 patients (51%), 16 T2 (37%) and 5 T3 cases (12%). A median dose of 60 (55-66) Gy was given, depending on the tumour volume. The PDR treatment was delivered with 0.83 Gy/pulse every second hour for 5.5-6.5 days. The patients were followed for a median of 55 (1-158) months. Results The 2-, 5- and 10-year rates of actuarial local control were 97.6%, 94.5% and 94.5%, overall survival 88.0%, 58.9% and 39.1%, disease free survival 92.7%, 86.4% and 86.4% respectively. The regional control rate was 93%. One patient (2%) developed distant metastases. A dosimetrical analysis showed a mean treated volume of 14.9 (3.0-56.2) cm3. Long-term side effects were mild and the cosmetic outcome excellent, except for 1 case (2%) of soft tissue necrosis and 1 case (2%) of osteoradionecrosis. Conclusions Local outcome is excellent and similar to other published studies of continuous low dose rate (cLDR) brachytherapy. PMID:27895671

  1. Local recurrence of soft tissue sarcoma following brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Gemer, L S; Trowbridge, D R; Neff, J; Lin, F; Reddy, E; Evans, R G; Hassanein, R

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-five patients with soft tissue sarcomas were treated with Ir192 implants following wide local excision at our institution between 1982 and 1987. External beam radiotherapy was given in addition to the implant in a majority of patients. The median follow-up in these 25 patients is 36 months (12 to 75 months). Twenty patients have had no evidence of local recurrence following their primary treatment (FFR = 80%). A multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression was used to predict failure in 3 years or less. Potential predictors examined included age, sex, tumor location, primary versus recurrent disease, grade, histology, surgical margins, implant only versus implant plus external beam, and a ratio of the volume of tissue which received 65 Gy (TV65) to the tumor volume (TV), that is (TV65/TV). The single variable which was significantly associated with local failure by 3 years was a TV65/TV of less than one. Once this variable was entered into the analysis, no other factor proved statistically significant. Our data suggest that when attempting local control of soft tissue sarcomas with brachytherapy, the volume of tissue receiving 65 Gy (TV65) from both implant and external beam must exceed the volume of the excised lesion (TV). Since the volume of a tumor can be readily determined prior to surgical excision either by CT or MRI scanning, pre-planning of the implant volume could potentially reduce the rate of local failure.

  2. Properties of liquid ionization chambers at LDR brachytherapy dose rates.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Wickman, G; Holmström, T

    1995-04-01

    Properties such as sensitivity, general recombination and reproducibility of liquid-filled parallel-plate ionization chambers for dosimetry in low-dose-rate brachytherapy radiation fields have been evaluated. Two different dielectric liquids, isooctane (C8H(1)8) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4), have been used as sensitive media in chambers having a coin-shaped sensitive volume of 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness. An electric field strength of 300 kV m-1 was found to be optimal with respect to sensitivity, leakage current and general recombination. At absorbed dose rates from 0.1-100 mGy min-1 the ionization charge measurements at an irradiation time of 1 min showed a reproducibility better than 1%, and a general recombination not exceeding 0.5%. The calibration--absorbed dose to water against ionization charge at a 60Co reference source--did not show any significant change over an observation time of one year for any of the chambers.

  3. Long-term results of endobronchial brachytherapy: A curative treatment?

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Christophe . E-mail: christophe.hennequin@sls.ap-hop-paris.fr; Bleichner, Olivier; Tredaniel, Jean; Quero, Laurent; Sergent, Guillaume; Zalcman, Gerard; Maylin, Claude

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after high-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EBBT) for limited lung carcinoma. Methods: A total of 106 patients with endobronchial lung cancer and not eligible for surgery or external beam radiotherapy, without nodal or visceral metastases, were treated with HDR-EBBT. They had developed disease relapse after surgery (n = 43) or external beam radiotherapy (n = 27) or had early lung cancer with respiratory insufficiency (n = 36). Treatment consisted of six fractions of 5 or 7 Gy, usually delivered 1 cm from the source. Results: The complete histologic response rate, evaluated at 3 months after HDR-EBBT, was 59.4%. At 3 and 5 years, the local control, overall survival, and cause-specific survival rates were 60.3% and 51.6%, 47.4 and 24%, and 67.9 and 48.5%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with local failure were high tumor volume (tumor length >2 cm, bronchial obstruction >25%, tumor visibility on CT scan) and previous endoscopic treatment. Cause-specific survival, but not overall survival, was significantly associated with local control, probably because of the high rate of deaths not related to lung cancer. Five deaths were attributed to the HDR-EBBT procedure (two from fatal hemoptysis and three from bronchial necrosis). Conclusion: High-dose-rate-EBBT achieved a long-term cause-specific survival rate of 50% of the patients with localized endobronchial carcinoma and could be considered curative.

  4. Developing a dose-volume histogram computation program for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Panitsa, E; Rosenwald, J C; Kappas, C

    1998-08-01

    A dose-volume histogram (DVH) computation program was developed for brachytherapy treatment planning in an attempt to benefit from the DVH's ability to present graphically information on 3D dose distributions. The program is incorporated into a planning system that utilizes a pair of orthogonal radiographs to localize the radiation sources. DVHs are calculated for the volume of tissue enclosed by an isodose surface (e.g. half the value of the reference isodose). The calculation algorithm is based on a non-uniform random sampling that gives a denser point distribution at the centre of the implants. Our program was tested and proved to be fast enough for clinical use and sufficiently accurate (i.e. computation time of 20 s and less than 2% relative error for one point source, for 100,000 calculation points). The accuracy improves when a larger calculation point number is used, but the computation time also increases proportionally. The DVH is presented in the form of a simple graph or table, or as Anderson's 'natural' DVH graph. The cumulative DVH tables can be used to extract a series of indexes characterizing the homogeneity and the dose levels of the distribution in the treatment volume and the surrounding tissues. If a reference plan is available, the DVH results can be assessed relative to the reference plan's DVH.

  5. In vivo dosimetry: trends and prospects for brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, A; Beddar, S; Tanderup, K; Cygler, J E

    2014-01-01

    The error types during brachytherapy (BT) treatments and their occurrence rates are not well known. The limited knowledge is partly attributed to the lack of independent verification systems of the treatment progression in the clinical workflow routine. Within the field of in vivo dosimetry (IVD), it is established that real-time IVD can provide efficient error detection and treatment verification. However, it is also recognized that widespread implementations are hampered by the lack of available high-accuracy IVD systems that are straightforward for the clinical staff to use. This article highlights the capabilities of the state-of-the-art IVD technology in the context of error detection and quality assurance (QA) and discusses related prospects of the latest developments within the field. The article emphasizes the main challenges responsible for the limited practice of IVD and provides descriptions on how they can be overcome. Finally, the article suggests a framework for collaborations between BT clinics that implemented IVD on a routine basis and postulates that such collaborations could improve BT QA measures and the knowledge about BT error types and their occurrence rates. PMID:25007037

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intravascular brachytherapy of the coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. A.

    2002-02-01

    This is a review of the relatively recently developed field of intravascular brachytherapy of coronary arteries. It presents a brief overview of the discipline of coronary angioplasty describing the problem of restenosis and discusses the potential for ionizing radiation to overcome this problem. It examines the various methods that have been used to irradiate the coronary arteries comparing their advantages and disadvantages. Special consideration is given to seeds and wires in the artery, radioactive liquids in the angioplasty balloon and radioactive stents. Passing reference is made to a number of other methods that have also been proposed, but which are not commonly used to irradiate the coronary arteries at present. The dosimetry of each of the major techniques is discussed and the data from different laboratories compared. Specific consideration is given to the need for centring of the radioactive source and the factors affecting the selection of a dose prescription. A brief review of recent clinical trials is followed by an examination of possible future directions in this field including the use of intravascular ultrasound to improve dosimetry, the use of gas-filled balloons to enhance the penetration of beta-emitting sources and the use of gamma-emitting stents to overcome the problems associated with edge restenosis.

  7. Optimizing parametrial aperture design utilizing HDR brachytherapy isodose distribution.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Katherine L; Ohri, Nitin; Showalter, Timothy N; Doyle, Laura A

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer includes combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BRT). Traditionally, coronal images displaying dose distribution from a ring and tandem (R&T) implant aid in construction of parametrial boost fields. This research aimed to evaluate a method of shaping parametrial fields utilizing contours created from the high-dose-rate (HDR) BRT dose distribution. Eleven patients receiving HDR-BRT via R&T were identified. The BRT and EBRT CT scans were sent to FocalSim (v4.62)(®) and fused based on bony anatomy. The contour of the HDR isodose line was transferred to the EBRT scan. The EBRT scan was sent to CMS-XIO (v4.62)(®) for planning. This process provides an automated, potentially more accurate method of matching the medial parametrial border to the HDR dose distribution. This allows for a 3D-view of dose from HDR-BRT for clinical decision-making, utilizes a paperless process and saves time over the traditional technique.

  8. Robotic Assistance for Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fichtinger, Gabor; Fiene, Jonathan P.; Kennedy, Christopher W.; Kronreif, Gernot; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Danny Y.; Burdette, Everette C.; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present a robotically assisted prostate brachytherapy system and test results in training phantoms and Phase-I clinical trials. The system consists of a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and a spatially co-registered robot, fully integrated with an FDA-approved commercial treatment planning system. The salient feature of the system is a small parallel robot affixed to the mounting posts of the template. The robot replaces the template interchangeably, using the same coordinate system. Established clinical hardware, workflow and calibration remain intact. In all phantom experiments, we recorded the first insertion attempt without adjustment. All clinically relevant locations in the prostate were reached. Non-parallel needle trajectories were achieved. The pre-insertion transverse and rotational errors (measured with a Polaris optical tracker relative to the template’s coordinate frame) were 0.25mm (STD=0.17mm) and 0.75° (STD=0.37°). In phantoms, needle tip placement errors measured in TRUS were 1.04mm (STD=0.50mm). A Phase-I clinical feasibility and safety trial has been successfully completed with the system. We encountered needle tip positioning errors of a magnitude greater than 4mm in only 2 out of 179 robotically guided needles, in contrast to manual template guidance where errors of this magnitude are much more common. Further clinical trials are necessary to determine whether the apparent benefits of the robotic assistant will lead to improvements in clinical efficacy and outcomes. PMID:18650122

  9. Quality of life of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Teguh, David N; Levendag, Peter C; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine; van Rooij, Peter; Schmitz, Paul I M

    2009-03-01

    Brachytherapy (BT) is a highly conformal (accurate clinical target volume delineation, no planning target volume margin) radiotherapy technique; the radioactive source, guided by afterloading catheters, is implanted into the heart of the tumor. The localized high dose of radiation enables high tumor control rates and, because of rapid dose fall-off, sparing of the adjacent normal tissues. At the Erasmus Medical Center, excellent results were observed: 5-year local regional control of 84%, 5-year disease-free survival of 59%, and 5-year overall survival of 64%. Therefore, in the case of moderately sized tumors, for well-trained, skillful physicians, BT is the therapy of choice (if technically feasible). However, side effects are not totally negligible, partly because of the cumulative dose of BT and the first series of 46/2 Gy. However, patients treated with BT still have a better swallowing-related quality of life, which might improve further if summation of BT and the first series of 46/2 Gy, as well as autocontouring of the neck levels, are realized. So far, there is no significant relationship between the -quality index of the BT implants and local control/overall survival and/or quality of life.

  10. Optimizing parametrial aperture design utilizing HDR brachytherapy isodose distribution

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Katherine L.; Ohri, Nitin; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer includes combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BRT). Traditionally, coronal images displaying dose distribution from a ring and tandem (R&T) implant aid in construction of parametrial boost fields. This research aimed to evaluate a method of shaping parametrial fields utilizing contours created from the high-dose-rate (HDR) BRT dose distribution. Eleven patients receiving HDR-BRT via R&T were identified. The BRT and EBRT CT scans were sent to FocalSim (v4.62)® and fused based on bony anatomy. The contour of the HDR isodose line was transferred to the EBRT scan. The EBRT scan was sent to CMS-XIO (v4.62)® for planning. This process provides an automated, potentially more accurate method of matching the medial parametrial border to the HDR dose distribution. This allows for a 3D-view of dose from HDR-BRT for clinical decision-making, utilizes a paperless process and saves time over the traditional technique. PMID:23634156

  11. High-dose-rate and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy for oral cavity cancer and oropharynx cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy represents the treatment of choice for small tumours, regionally localized in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. In the technical setting, continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy represented for many years the gold standard for administering radiation in head and neck brachytherapy. Large series of head and neck cancer patients treated with LDR brachytherapy have been reported, constituting an invaluable source of clinical data and the gold standard to compare results of new techniques. Nowadays, LDR brachytherapy competes with fractionated HDR and hyperfractionated PDR. In the paper an overview of the different time-dose-fraction alternatives to LDR brachytherapy in head and neck cancer is presented, as well as the radiobiological basis of different dose-rate schedules, the linear-quadratic model, interconversion of fractionation schedules and the repair half-times for early- and late-responding tissues. In subsequent sections essentials of switching from LDR to HDR and from LDR to PDR are discussed. Selected clinical results using HDR and PDR brachytherapy in oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are presented. PMID:28050175

  12. Comparison of accelerated partial breast irradiation via multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy versus whole breast radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brachytherapy as adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer has become widely available and offers patients an expedited treatment schedule. Given this, many women are electing to undergo brachytherapy in lieu of standard fractionation radiotherapy. We compare outcomes between patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) via multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy versus patients who were also eligible for and offered APBI but who chose whole breast radiation (WBI). Methods Patients treated from December 2002 through May 2007 were reviewed. Selection criteria included patients with pTis-T2N0 disease, ≤ 3 cm unifocal tumors, and negative margins who underwent breast conservation surgery. Local control (LC), cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results 202 patients were identified in the APBI cohort and 94 patients in the WBI cohort. Median follow-up for both groups exceeded 60 months. LC was 97.0% for the APBI cohort and 96.2% for the WBI cohort at 5 years (ns). Classification by 2010 ASTRO APBI consensus statement categories did not predict worse outcomes. Conclusion APBI via multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy provides similar local failure rates compared to WBI at 5 years for properly selected patients. Excellent results were seen despite the high fraction of younger patients (< 60 years old) and patients with DCIS. PMID:22458887

  13. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY... discretion for certain violations of regulations for reporting medical events occurring under an NRC licensee...: Background In SECY-05-0234, ``Adequacy of Medical Event Definitions in 10 CFR 35.3045, and...

  14. Real-time photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Nathanael; Kang, Hyun Jae; Song, Danny Y.; Kang, Jin U.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-06-01

    Prostate brachytherapy is a popular prostate cancer treatment option that involves the permanent implantation of radioactive seeds into the prostate. However, contemporary brachytherapy procedure is limited by the lack of an imaging system that can provide real-time seed-position feedback. While many other imaging systems have been proposed, photoacoustic imaging has emerged as a potential ideal modality to address this need, since it could easily be incorporated into the current ultrasound system used in the operating room. We present such a photoacoustic imaging system built around a clinical ultrasound system to achieve the task of visualizing and localizing seeds. We performed several experiments to analyze the effects of various parameters on the appearance of brachytherapy seeds in photoacoustic images. We also imaged multiple seeds in an ex vivo dog prostate phantom to demonstrate the possibility of using this system in a clinical setting. Although still in its infancy, these initial results of a photoacoustic imaging system for the application of prostate brachytherapy seed localization are highly promising.

  15. The role of interstitial brachytherapy in the management of primary radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuma; Kato, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shima, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kashihara, Tairo; Harada, Ken; Takahashi, Kana; Umezawa, Rei; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to report the clinical results of uterine cervical cancer patients treated by primary radiation therapy including brachytherapy, and investigate the role of interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). Material and methods All consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients who were treated by primary radiation therapy were reviewed, and those who were treated by ISBT were further investigated for clinical outcomes and related toxicities. Results From December 2008 to October 2014, 209 consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients were treated with primary radiation therapy. Among them, 142 and 42 patients were treated by intracavitary and hybrid brachytherapy, respectively. Twenty-five patients (12%) were treated by high-dose-rate (HDR)-ISBT. Five patients with distant metastasis other than para-aortic lymph node were excluded, and 20 patients consisted of the analysis. Three-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rate were 44.4%, 38.9%, and 87.8%, respectively. Distant metastasis was the most frequent site of first relapse after HDR-ISBT. One and four patients experienced grade 3 and 2 rectal bleeding, one grade 2 cystitis, and two grade 2 vaginal ulcer. Conclusions Feasibility and favorable local control of interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer was demonstrated through a single institutional experience with a small number of patients. PMID:27895680

  16. {beta}-Ray brachytherapy with {sup 106}Ru plaques for retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, Andreas O. . E-mail: andreas.schueler@uni-essen.de; Fluehs, Dirk; Anastassiou, Gerassimos; Jurklies, Christine; Neuhaeuser, Markus; Schilling, Harald; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of 134 patients who received {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for retinoblastomas (175 tumors in 140 eyes). Treatment and follow-up were analyzed with special emphasis on tumor control organ, preservation, and late complications. Results: Treated tumors had a mean height and diameter of 3.7 {+-} 1.4 mm and 5.0 {+-} 2.8 disk diameters, respectively. The radiation dose values were recalculated according to the calibration standard recently introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The recalculation revealed a mean applied dose of 419 Gy at the sclera (SD, 207 Gy) and 138 Gy (SD, 67 Gy) at the tumor apex. The 5-year tumor control rate was 94.4%. Tumor recurrence was more frequent in eyes with vitreous tumor cell seeding or fish-flesh regression. The estimated 5-year eye preservation rate was 86.5%. Previous treatment by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy, as well as a large tumor diameter, were significant factors for enucleation. The radiotherapy-induced complications after 5 years of follow-up were retinopathy (22%), optic neuropathy (21%), and cataract (17%). These complications were significantly more frequent after prior brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Conclusion: Brachytherapy using {sup 106}Ru plaques is a highly efficient therapy with excellent local tumor control and an acceptable incidence of side effects.

  17. Intraluminal brachytherapy in oesophageal cancer: defining its role and introducing the technique

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Vratislav

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal brachytherapy plays an important role in the treatment of oesophageal tumours. This article aims to define this role in the curative as well as in the palliative treatment settings drawing on data from the literature, and also emphasizing its potential for harm when used inexpertly. It also provides a short introduction to practical aspects of the treatment procedure and treatment planning. PMID:25097567

  18. A gEUD-based inverse planning technique for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Giantsoudi, D.; Baltas, D.; Karabis, A.; Mavroidis, P.; Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N.; Shi, C.; Papanikolaou, N.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of a new inverse planning technique based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose for image-guided high dose rate (HDR) prostate cancer brachytherapy in comparison to conventional dose-volume based optimization. Methods: The quality of 12 clinical HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate utilizing HIPO (Hybrid Inverse Planning Optimization) is compared with alternative plans, which were produced through inverse planning using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). All the common dose-volume indices for the prostate and the organs at risk were considered together with radiobiological measures. The clinical effectiveness of the different dose distributions was investigated by comparing dose volume histogram and gEUD evaluators. Results: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of gEUD-based inverse planning in HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate. A statistically significant decrease in D{sub 10} or/and final gEUD values for the organs at risk (urethra, bladder, and rectum) was found while improving dose homogeneity or dose conformity of the target volume. Conclusions: Following the promising results of gEUD-based optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment optimization, as reported in the literature, the implementation of a similar model in HDR brachytherapy treatment plan optimization is suggested by this study. The potential of improved sparing of organs at risk was shown for various gEUD-based optimization parameter protocols, which indicates the ability of this method to adapt to the user's preferences.

  19. Incidence and prediction of seed migration to the chest after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junqing; Yang, Weizhu; Jiang, Na; Zheng, Qubin; Huang, Jingyao; Huang, Ning; Li, Ang; Jiang, Han

    2017-08-08

    The aims were to determine the incidence of seed migration to the chest and to analyze the predictive factors after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Three hundred ninety-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent iodine-125 seed brachytherapy. After seed implantation, chest X-ray radiograph or computerized tomography were undertaken to assess the occurrence and location of seed migration at 3 months after brachytherapy. The incidence of seed migration to the lung and heart was calculated. A statistical analysis of the influences of seed loss to the chest was performed between patients with and without seed migration. A total of 13,977 seeds were implanted in 399 patients. One hundred fifty of the 13,977 (1.07%) seeds migrated to the chest in 81 of the 399 (20.30%) patients. Of all the migrated seeds, 112 (74.67%) migrated to the lungs in 59 (67.82%) patients, and 38 (25.33%) seeds migrated to the heart in 28 (47.46%) patients. No case exhibited clinical symptoms related to the migrated seeds. The number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantations were significantly associated with seed migration. The occurrence of seed migration to the lungs and heart was evaluated. Furthermore, the number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantation procedures are significant predictors of seed migration. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical modelling of response of polymer gel dosimeters to brachytherapy radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Chain, J. N. M.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    A dynamic partial differential equation (PDE) model is used to simulate effects of a single Ir192 brachytherapy seed on the amount and composition of polymer formed during polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimetry. Simulations are conducted for a point-source brachytherapy seed placed at the center of a 6%T 50% C anoxic PAG phantom. The seed is removed after one minute, but polymerization is simulated up to a final time of 24 hours. Simulation results indicate that changes occur in both the mass of polymer formed per unit dose and in the crosslink density as a function of the radial distance from the brachytherapy seed. For example, at a distance of 5 mm from the seed, 41 mg of polymer form per Gy of radiation absorbed (after 24 hours), whereas at a larger distance of 5 cm from the seed 75 mg of polymer form per Gy. The polymer that forms near the seed is predicted to have a higher level of crosslinking than the polymer that forms further away. These results suggest potential calibration problems that may occur during brachytherapy dosimetry using polymer gels.

  1. [The use of disposable vascular catheters in interstitial brachytherapy of skin cancers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Daly, N J; Malissard, L; Douchez, J; Combes, P F

    1978-05-01

    Authors present technical improvements dealing with interstitial brachytherapy (Ir192) of skin cancers. They use fine disposable plastic tubes fitted with mandril, which allow loading of light radioactive material in any case. Short term results are discussed according to 101 applications.

  2. Efficacy and toxicity of MDR versus HDR brachytherapy for primary vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, T; Białas, B; Rembielak, A; Fijałkowski, M; Nowakowski, K

    2002-01-01

    The retrospective analysis includes a group of 50 patients with primary, invasive vaginal cancer treated with brachytherapy in the period of 1982-1993. Over 80% cases were squamous cell carcinoma. There were 14 patients in stage I according to FIGO classification and 20%, 36%, and 16% of patients in stage II, III and IV, respectively. Twenty one patients (42%) received MDR brachytherapy using Cs137 source, the remaining 29 (58%) were treated with HDR using Co60 or Ir192 sources. Among 50 patients 31 (62%) received also external beam irradiation. An overall 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 40%, and it was 78.6% (11/14), 40% (4/10), 27.8% (5/18), 0% (0/8) for stage I, II, III and IV, respectively. For MDR or HDR5-year disease-free survival was 38% and 41%, respectively. No influence of dose rate on survival has been found (p=0.7). Local failure occurred in 20 patients (40%). Recurrences appeared in 10 patients (20%). Late complications rate was 0% and 17% for MDR and HDR, respectively. Effectiveness of brachytherapy MDR and HDR was similar, whereas serious late complications developed more often after HDR brachytherapy.

  3. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or the Royal College of Physicians and... Medical Education or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the Committee...

  4. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or the Royal College of Physicians and... Medical Education or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the Committee...

  5. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.67 Requirements for possession of sealed sources and... other intervals approved by the Commission or an Agreement State in the Sealed Source and Device...

  6. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.67 Requirements for possession of sealed sources and... other intervals approved by the Commission or an Agreement State in the Sealed Source and Device...

  7. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.67 Requirements for possession of sealed sources and... other intervals approved by the Commission or an Agreement State in the Sealed Source and Device...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2432 - Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.2432 Section 35.2432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... last use of the source. (b) The record must include— (1) The date of the calibration; (2)...

  9. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Jasmine H.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  10. HDR Brachytherapy Dose Distribution is Influenced by the Metal Material of the Applicator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Jen; Shiau, An-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2015-12-11

    Applicators containing metal have been widely used in recent years when applying brachytherapy to patients with cervical cancer. However, the high dose rate (HDR) treatment-planning system (TPS) that is currently used in brachytherapy still assumes that the treatment environment constitutes a homogeneous water medium and does not include a dose correction for the metal material of the applicator. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the HDR (192)Ir dose distribution in cervical cancer patients when performing brachytherapy using a metal-containing applicator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code were used to explore the doses to the rectum and bladder when using a Henschke applicator containing metal during brachytherapy. When the applicator was assumed to be present, the absolute dose difference between the TLD measurement and MCNPX simulation values was within approximately 5%. A comparison of the MCNPX simulation and TPS calculation values revealed that the TPS overestimated the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) rectum and bladder reference doses by 57.78% and 49.59%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the TPS should be modified to account for the shielding effects of the applicator to ensure the accuracy of the delivered doses.

  11. HDR Brachytherapy Dose Distribution is Influenced by the Metal Material of the Applicator

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Jen; Shiau, An-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Applicators containing metal have been widely used in recent years when applying brachytherapy to patients with cervical cancer. However, the high dose rate (HDR) treatment-planning system (TPS) that is currently used in brachytherapy still assumes that the treatment environment constitutes a homogeneous water medium and does not include a dose correction for the metal material of the applicator. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the HDR 192Ir dose distribution in cervical cancer patients when performing brachytherapy using a metal-containing applicator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code were used to explore the doses to the rectum and bladder when using a Henschke applicator containing metal during brachytherapy. When the applicator was assumed to be present, the absolute dose difference between the TLD measurement and MCNPX simulation values was within approximately 5%. A comparison of the MCNPX simulation and TPS calculation values revealed that the TPS overestimated the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) rectum and bladder reference doses by 57.78% and 49.59%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the TPS should be modified to account for the shielding effects of the applicator to ensure the accuracy of the delivered doses. PMID:26658746

  12. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  13. The active catheter: a novel approach for in-situ dose measurements in brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Radiation therapy is the primary mean to combat cancerous tissues. However, although efficient, it still lacks from having a tool that could enable accurate measurement of the dose delivered to the tissue in-situ. The active catheter concept was taken from a common approach used in nuclear/high energy physics where the target is sometimes constructed so as to provide additional information on the scattering process (i.e., active target). By making the catheters used to transport radioactive sources during brachytherapy treatments becoming sensitive to radiation, one is able to extract dose information in-vivo with minimal to no modification during the treatment process. The technique relies on the use of thin (few 1o0s microns) scintillating fibers embedded within the brachytherapy device. We will report on two applications of such active catheters pertaining to breast and prostate cancer. The former was applied to the MammoSite balloon from Cytyc, the accelerated partial breast irradiation technique that is becoming the preferred mode of radiation in breast brachytherapy. Results from water phantom data will be presented and discussed. For the latter, gel phantom tests were performed simulating prostate brachytherapy treatments. Comparison with a treatment planning to these data will be also presented and discussed.

  14. 'In Vivo' Dosimetry in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Azcorra, S. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Buenfil, A. E.; Mota-Garcia, A.; Poitevin-Chacon, M. A.; Santamaria-Torruco, B. J.; Rodriguez-Ponce, M.; Herrera-Martinez, F. P.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2008-08-11

    In this prospective study, rectal dose was measured 'in vivo' using TLD-100 crystals (3x3x1 mm{sup 3}), and it has been compared to the prescribed dose. Measurements were performed in patients with cervical cancer classified in FIGO stages IB-IIIB and treated with high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan)

  15. Interactive multiobjective optimization for anatomy-based three-dimensional HDR brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Henri; Miettinen, Kaisa; Palmgren, Jan-Erik; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present an anatomy-based three-dimensional dose optimization approach for HDR brachytherapy using interactive multiobjective optimization (IMOO). In brachytherapy, the goals are to irradiate a tumor without causing damage to healthy tissue. These goals are often conflicting, i.e. when one target is optimized the other will suffer, and the solution is a compromise between them. IMOO is capable of handling multiple and strongly conflicting objectives in a convenient way. With the IMOO approach, a treatment planner's knowledge is used to direct the optimization process. Thus, the weaknesses of widely used optimization techniques (e.g. defining weights, computational burden and trial-and-error planning) can be avoided, planning times can be shortened and the number of solutions to be calculated is small. Further, plan quality can be improved by finding advantageous trade-offs between the solutions. In addition, our approach offers an easy way to navigate among the obtained Pareto optimal solutions (i.e. different treatment plans). When considering a simulation model of clinical 3D HDR brachytherapy, the number of variables is significantly smaller compared to IMRT, for example. Thus, when solving the model, the CPU time is relatively short. This makes it possible to exploit IMOO to solve a 3D HDR brachytherapy optimization problem. To demonstrate the advantages of IMOO, two clinical examples of optimizing a gynecologic cervix cancer treatment plan are presented.

  16. Novel Use of the Contura for High Dose Rate Cranial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Alksne, John F.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Murphy, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    A popular choice for treatment of recurrent gliomas was cranial brachytherapy using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System. However, this device was taken off the market in late 2008, thus leaving a treatment void. This case study presents our experience treating a cranial lesion for the first time using a Contura multilumen, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy balloon applicator. The patient was a 47-year-old male who was diagnosed with a recurrent right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Previous radiosurgery made him a good candidate for brachytherapy. An intracavitary HDR balloon brachytherapy device (Contura) was placed in the resection cavity and treated with a single fraction of 20 Gy. The implant, treatment, and removal of the device were all completed without incident. Dosimetry of the device was excellent because the dose conformed very well to the target. V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 98.9%, 95.7%, 27.2, and 8.8 cc, respectively. This patient was treated successfully using the Contura multilumen balloon. Contura was originally designed for deployment in a postlumpectomy breast for treatment by accelerated partial breast irradiation. Being an intracavitary balloon device, its similarity to the GliaSite system makes it a viable replacement candidate. Multiple lumens in the device also make it possible to shape the dose delivered to the target, something not possible before with the GliaSite applicator.

  17. Customized high-dose-rate brachytherapy using MRI planning for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Lara; Cohn, Jamie; Voros, Laszlo; Kim, Sae Hee; Heaton, Todd; Wolden, Suzanne L

    2015-01-01

    To report the technical aspects of customized high-dose-rate brachytherapy for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma using MRI- and CT-based planning in a 20-month-old girl. An impression of the vaginal cavity at the resection site was taken after adequate lubrication of the vagina with lidocaine jelly. The impression was processed in the dental laboratory to obtain an MRI-compatible device with three imbedded catheters 0.4 mm apart, assuring tumor coverage. An MRI- and CT-based simulation under anesthesia with the applicator in place were performed, and the images were registered for contouring and planning to deliver 40 Gy in 10 fractions daily. Dose to the ovaries was limited to a mean dose less than 4 Gy. Treatment was delivered daily under anesthesia with no acute complications. Brachytherapy using a customized applicator has many advantages over prefabricated vaginal cylinders for young girls. It allows greater dose distribution conformality with the possibility of contralateral vaginal wall sparing and more reproducible daily positioning. MRI-based planning is mainly performed to facilitate delineation of the target volume and the ovaries, which are easily identified on MRI. The customized applicator offers many advantages of which treatment reproducibility, inherent MRI compatibility, and excellent dose distribution conformality. Our brachytherapy technique using MRI and CT scan planning allows precise tumor and normal tissues delineation resulting in excellent tumor coverage and normal tissues sparing. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 10 CFR 35.2432 - Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.2432 Section 35.2432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... manufacturer's name, model number, and serial number for the source and the instruments used to calibrate...

  19. Individualised 3D printed vaginal template for MRI guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Madsen, Mikkel Lænsø; Traberg, Anders; Meisner, Bjarne; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Tanderup, Kari; Spejlborg, Harald; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Nørrevang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Intracavitary-interstitial applicators for MRI guided brachytherapy are becoming increasingly important in locally advanced cervical cancer. The 3D printing technology enables a versatile method for obtaining a high degree of individualisation of the implant. Our clinical workflow is presented and exemplified by a stage IVA cervical cancer with superior dose distribution.

  20. Clinical practice and quality assurance challenges in modern brachytherapy sources and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Merrick, Gregory S

    2008-01-01

    Modern brachytherapy has led to effective treatments through the establishment of broadly applicable dosimetric thresholds for maximizing survival with minimal morbidity. Proper implementation of recent dosimetric consensus statements and quality assurance procedures is necessary to maintain the established level of safety and efficacy. This review classifies issues as either "systematic" or "stochastic" in terms of their impact on large groups or individual patients, respectively. Systematic changes affecting large numbers of patients occur infrequently and include changes in source dosimetric parameters, prescribing practice, dose calculation formalism, and improvements in calculation algorithms. The physicist must be aware of how incipient changes accord with previous experience. Stochastic issues involve procedures that are applied to each patient individually. Although ample guidance for quality assurance of brachytherapy sources exists, some ambiguities remain. The latest American Association of Physicists in Medicine guidance clarifies what is meant by independent assay, changes source sampling recommendations, particularly for sources in sterile strands and sterile preassembled needles, and modifies action level thresholds. The changing environment of brachytherapy has not changed the fact that the prime responsibility for quality assurance in brachytherapy lies with the institutional medical physicist.

  1. Modeling a Hypothetical {sup 170}Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of {sup 170}Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount (<1%) in water. Platinum encapsulation resulted in bremsstrahlung effects similar to those with the gold encapsulation. The range of the beta particles decreases by 1.1 mm with the stainless-steel encapsulation compared to the bare source but the tissue will still receive dose from the beta particles several millimeters from the source capsule. The gold and platinum capsules not only absorb most of the electrons but also attenuate low energy photons. The mean energy of the photons escaping the core and the stainless-steel capsule is 113 keV while for the gold and platinum the mean energy is 160 keV and 165 keV, respectively. Conclusions: A {sup 170}Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being

  2. MO-D-BRD-01: Clinical Implementation of An Electronic Brachytherapy Program for the Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouhib, Z.

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  3. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Neeharika; Cifter, Gizem; Sajo, Erno; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas; Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application with

  4. MO-D-BRD-04: NIST Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitch, M.

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  5. MO-D-BRD-03: Radiobiology and Commissioning of Electronic Brachytherapy for IORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  6. MO-D-BRD-02: Radiological Physics and Surface Lesion Treatments with Electronic Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, R.

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  7. A review of californium-252 neutron brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; van Nagell, J.R.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.; Kryscio, R.J. )

    1991-09-15

    Since 1976 a clinical trial has been conducted to test the feasibility, the potential, and to develop methods for using the neutron-emitting radioactive isotope, californium-252 (Cf-252), for the treatment of cervical cancer. A total of 218 patients were treated in the initial study period from 1976 until 1983. The trials initially treated advanced cervical cancer patients using different doses and schedules; they were extended to include unfavorable presentations of Stages 1 and 2 because of favorable results in the initial trials. The authors began to treat patients with Stage IB bulky or barrel-shaped tumors and the majority were treated with both radiation and hysterectomy. Actuarial survival was determined for Stage IB disease and was 87% at 5 years and 82% at 10 years. For those tested with preoperative radiation it was 92% at 5 and 87% at 10 years. For Stage 2, it was 62% 5 years and 61% at 10. Survival 5 years after combined radiation and surgical therapy for Stage 2 disease was 68%. For Stage 3, it was 33% at 5 years and 25% at 10. However, 5-year survival using the early neutron implant was 46% versus approximately 19% for delayed Cf-252 or cesium 137. Different schedules and sequences of neutrons and photons greatly altered outcome. Neutron treatment before external photon therapy was better for all stages of disease. Only about 5% of all patients developed complications after neutron therapy. No hematologic or mesenchymal second tumors were observed. Neutron brachytherapy was found to be very effective for producing rapid response and greatly improved local control of bulky, barrel, or advanced cervical cancers. The clinical trial identified and evolved schedules, doses, doses per session, and developed methods different from standard photon therapy but highly effective for local control and cure of cervical cancers of all stages.

  8. Fast treatment planning with IVUS imaging in intravascular brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novario, Raffaele; Bianchi, Carla; Lorusso, Rita; Sampietro, Chiara; Tanzi, Fabio; Conte, Leopoldo; Vescovi, Mario; Caccia, Massimo; Alemi, Mario; Cappellini, Chiara

    2004-05-01

    The planned target volume in intracoronary brachytherapy is the vessel wall. The success of the treatment is based on the need of delivering doses possibly not lower than 8 and not higher than 30 Gy. An automatic procedure in order to acquire intravascular ultrasound images of the whole volume to be irradiated is pointed out; a motor driven pullback device, with velocity of the catheter of 0.5 and 1 mm/s allows to acquire the entire target volume of the vessel with a number of slices normally ranging from 400 to 1600. A semiautomatic segmentation and classification of the different structures in each slice of the vessel is proposed. The segmentation and the classification of the structures allows the calculation of their volume; this is very useful in particular for plaque volume assessment in the follow-up of the patients. A 3D analyser tool was developed in order to visualize the walls and the lumen of the vessel. The knowledge, for each axial slice, of the position of the source (in the centre of the catheter) and the position of the target (vessel walls) allows the calculation of a set of source-target distances. Given a time of irradiation, and a type of source a dose volume histogram (DVH) describing the distribution of the doses in the whole target can be obtained. The whole procedure takes few minutes and then is compatible with a safe treatment of the patient, giving an important indication about the quality of the radiation treatment selected.

  9. Virtual modelling of novel applicator prototypes for cervical cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hudej, Robert; Al-Hammadi, Noora; Segedin, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Standard applicators for cervical cancer Brachytherapy (BT) do not always achieve acceptable balance between target volume and normal tissue irradiation. We aimed to develop an innovative method of Target-volume Density Mapping (TDM) for modelling of novel applicator prototypes with optimal coverage characteristics. Patients and methods. Development of Contour-Analysis Tool 2 (CAT-2) software for TDM generation was the core priority of our task group. Main requests regarding software functionalities were formulated and guided the coding process. Software validation and accuracy check was performed using phantom objects. Concepts and terms for standardized workflow of TDM post-processing and applicator development were introduced. Results CAT-2 enables applicator-based co-registration of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structures from a sample of cases, generating a TDM with pooled contours in applicator-eye-view. Each TDM voxel is assigned a value, corresponding to the number of target contours encompassing that voxel. Values are converted to grey levels and transformed to DICOM image, which is transported to the treatment planning system. Iso-density contours (IDC) are generated as lines, connecting voxels with same grey levels. Residual Volume at Risk (RVR) is created for each IDC as potential volume that could contain organs at risk. Finally, standard and prototype applicators are applied on the TDM and virtual dose planning is performed. Dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters are recorded for individual IDC and RVR delineations and characteristic curves generated. Optimal applicator configuration is determined in an iterative manner based on comparison of characteristic curves, virtual implant complexities and isodose distributions. Conclusions Using the TDM approach, virtual applicator prototypes capable of conformal coverage of any target volume, can be modelled. Further systematic assessment, including studies on

  10. Praseodymium-142 glass seeds for the brachytherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Won

    A beta-emitting glass seed was proposed for the brachytherapy treatment of prostate cancer. Criteria for seed design were derived and several beta-emitting nuclides were examined for suitability. 142Pr was selected as the isotope of choice. Seeds 0.08 cm in diameter and 0.9 cm long were manufactured for testing. The seeds were activated in the Texas A&M University research reactor. The activity produced was as expected when considering the meta-stable state and epi-thermal neutron flux. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the quantitative dosimetric parameters suggested in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43/60. The Monte Carlo calculation results were compared with those from a dose point kernel code. The dose profiles agree well with each other. The gamma dose of 142Pr was evaluated. The gamma dose is 0.3 Gy at 1.0 cm with initial activity of 5.95 mCi and is insignificant to other organs. Measurements were performed to assess the 2-dimensional axial dose distributions using Gafchromic radiochromic film. The radiochromic film was calibrated using an X-ray machine calibrated against a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable ion chamber. A calibration curve was derived using a least squares fit of a second order polynomial. The measured dose distribution agrees well with results from the Monte Carlo simulation. The dose was 130.8 Gy at 6 mm from the seed center with initial activity of 5.95 mCi. AAPM TG-43/60 parameters were determined. The reference dose rate for 2 mm and 6 mm were 0.67 and 0.02 cGy/s/mCi, respectively. The geometry function, radial dose function and anisotropy function were generated.

  11. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with

  12. TU-F-201-03: Applications in Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trichter, S.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  13. Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To clarify the significant clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters to predict PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer. Methods We studied 200 consecutive patients who received LDR-brachytherapy between July 2004 and November 2008. Of them, 137 patients did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. One hundred and forty-two patients were treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and 58 were treated with LDR-brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy. The cut-off value of PSA bounce was 0.1 ng/mL. The incidence, time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were investigated. Clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters were evaluated to elucidate independent factors to predict PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients who underwent LDR-brachytherapy alone. Results Fifty patients (25%) showed PSA bounce and 10 patients (5%) showed PSA failure. The median time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were 17 months, 0.29 ng/mL, and 7.0 months, respectively. In 103 hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and univariate Cox proportional regression hazard model indicated that age and minimal percentage of the dose received by 30% and 90% of the urethra were independent predictors of PSA bounce. With a multivariate Cox proportional regression hazard model, minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant parameter of PSA bounce. Conclusions Minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone. PMID:22974428

  14. Ejaculatory Function After Permanent {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huyghe, Eric Delannes, Martine; Wagner, Fabien M.; Delaunay, Boris; Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J. Yeung; Plante, Pierre; Soulie, Michel; Thonneau, Patrick; Bachaud, Jean Marc

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  15. On the Development of a Miniature Neutron Generator for the Brachytherapy Treatment of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, L.

    2009-03-10

    Brachytherapy refers to application of an irradiation source within a tumor. {sup 252}Cf needles used in brachytherapy have been successfully applied to treatment of some of the most virulent cancers but it is doubtful that it will be widely used because of difficulty in dealing with unwanted dose (source cannot be turned off) and in adhering to stringent NRC regulations that have been exacerbated in our post 911 environment. We have been working on the development of a miniature neutron generator with the reaction target placed at the end of a needle (tube) for brachytherapy applications. Orifice geometries are most amenable, e.g. rectum and cervix, but interstitial use is possible with microsurgery. This paper dicusses the results of a 30 watt DD neutron generator SBU project that demonstrates that sufficient hydrogen isotope current can be delivered down a small diameter needle required for a DT neutron treatment device, and, will summarize the progress of building a commercial device pursued by the All Russian Institute for Automatics (VNIIA) supported by the DOE's Industrial Proliferation Prevention Program (IPP). It is known that most of the fast neutron (FN) beam cancer treatment facilities have been closed down. It appears that the major limitation in the use of FN beams has been damage to healthy tissue, which is relatively insensitive to photons, but this problem is alleviated by brachytherapy. Moreover, recent clinical results indicate that fast neutrons in the boost mode are most highly effective in treating large, hypoxic, and rapidly repopulating diseases. It appears that early boost application of FN may halt angiogenesis (development and repair of tumor vascular system) and shrink the tumor resulting in lower hypoxia. The boost brachytherapy application of a small, low cost neutron generator holds promise of significant contribution to the treatment of cancer.

  16. Chemoradiation and brachytherapy in biliary tract carcinoma: Long-term results

    SciTech Connect

    Deodato, Francesco . E-mail: fdeodato@rm.unicatt.it; Clemente, Gennaro; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Macchia, Gabriella; Costamagna, Guido; Giuliante, Felice; Smaniotto, Daniela; Luzi, Stefano; Valentini, Vincenzo; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Cellini, Numa; Morganti, Alessio G.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term effects of chemoradiation and intraluminal brachytherapy in terms of local control, disease-free survival, overall survival, and symptom relief in patients with unresectable or residual extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with unresectable (17 patients) or residual (5 patients) nonmetastatic extrahepatic bile tumors received external beam radiation therapy (39.6-50.4 Gy) between 1991 and 1997. In 21 patients, 5-fluorouracil (96-h continuous infusion, Days 1-4, 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was administered. Twelve patients received a boost of intraluminal brachytherapy with {sup 192}Ir wires (30-50 Gy) 1 cm from the source axis. Results: During external beam radiotherapy, 10 patients (45.4%) developed Grade 1 to 2 gastrointestinal toxicity. In patients with unresectable tumor who could be evaluated, the clinical response was 28.6% (4 of 14). Two patients showed complete response. In all 22 patients, median durations of local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 44.5 months, 16.3 months, and 23.0 months, respectively. Two patients who received external beam radiation therapy and intraluminal brachytherapy developed late duodenal ulceration. In patients with unresectable tumors, median survival was 13.0 months and 22.0 months in those treated with and without brachytherapy, with 16.7% and no 5-year survival, respectively (p = 0.607). Overall 5-year survival was 18.0%: 40% and 11.7% in patients treated with partial resection and in those with unresectable tumor, respectively (p = 0.135). Conclusion: This study confirmed the role of concurrent chemoradiation in advanced biliary carcinoma; the role of intraluminal brachytherapy boost remains to be further analyzed in larger clinical trials.

  17. Dosimetric impact of an air passage on intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nishioka, Shie; Aikawa, Ako; Kato, Toru; Abe, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Inaba, Koji; Murakami, Naoya; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The brachytherapy dose calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPSs) have conventionally been performed assuming homogeneous water. Using measurements and a Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the dosimetric impact of an air passage on brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. To obtain the geometrical characteristics of an air passage, we analyzed the anatomical information from CT images of patients who underwent intraluminal brachytherapy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source (MicroSelectron V2r®, Nucletron). Using an ionization chamber, we developed a measurement system capable of measuring the peripheral dose with or without an air cavity surrounding the catheter. Air cavities of five different radii (0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 and 1.5 cm) were modeled by cylindrical tubes surrounding the catheter. A Monte Carlo code (GEANT4) was also used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the air cavity. Compared with dose calculations in homogeneous water, the measurements and GEANT4 indicated a maximum overdose of 5–8% near the surface of the air cavity (with the maximum radius of 1.5 cm). Conversely, they indicated a minimum overdose of ~1% in the region 3–5 cm from the cavity surface for the smallest radius of 0.3 cm. The dosimetric impact depended on the size and the distance of the air passage, as well as the length of the treatment region. Based on dose calculations in water, the TPS for intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer had an unexpected overdose of 3–5% for a mean radius of 0.75 cm. This study indicates the need for improvement in dose calculation accuracy with respect to intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. PMID:27605630

  18. SU-E-J-263: Dosimetric Analysis On Breast Brachytherapy Based On Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T; Nie, K; Narra, V; Zou, J; Zhang, M; Khan, A; Haffty, B; Yue, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare and evaluate the dosimetry difference between breast brachytherapy protocols with different fractionation using deformable image registration. Methods: The accumulative dose distribution for multiple breast brachytherapy patients using four different applicators: Contura, Mammosite, Savi, and interstitial catheters, under two treatment protocols: 340cGy by 10 fractions in 5 days and 825cGy by 3 fractions in 2days has been reconstructed using a two stage deformable image registration approach. For all patients, daily CT was acquired with the same slice thickness (2.5mm). In the first stage, the daily CT images were rigidly registered to the initial planning CT using the registration module in Eclipse (Varian) to align the applicators. In the second stage, the tissues surrounding the applicator in the rigidly registered daily CT image were non-rigidly registered to the initial CT using a combination of image force and the local constraint that enforce zero normal motion on the surface of the applicator, using a software developed in house. We calculated the dose distribution in the daily CTs and deformed them using the final registration to convert into the image domain of the initial planning CT. The accumulative dose distributions were evaluated by dosimetry parameters including D90, V150 and V200, as well as DVH. Results: Dose reconstruction results showed that the two day treatment has a significant dosimetry improvement over the five day protocols. An average daily drop of D90 at 1.3% of the prescription dose has been observed on multiple brachytherapy patients. There is no significant difference on V150 and V200 between those two protocols. Conclusion: Brachytherapy with higher fractional dose and less fractions has an improved performance on being conformal to the dose distribution in the initial plan. Elongated brachytherapy treatments need to consider the dose uncertainty caused by the temporal changes of the soft tissue.

  19. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  20. Redesign of process map to increase efficiency: Reducing procedure time in cervical cancer brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Damato, Antonio L; Lee, Larissa J; Bhagwat, Mandar S; Buzurovic, Ivan; Cormack, Robert A; Finucane, Susan; Hansen, Jorgen L; O'Farrell, Desmond A; Offiong, Alecia; Randall, Una; Friesen, Scott; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2015-01-01

    To increase intraprocedural efficiency in the use of clinical resources and to decrease planning time for cervical cancer brachytherapy treatments through redesign of the procedure's process map. A multidisciplinary team identified all tasks and associated resources involved in cervical cancer brachytherapy in our institution and arranged them in a process map. A redesign of the treatment planning component of the process map was conducted with the goal of minimizing planning time. Planning time was measured on 20 consecutive insertions, of which 10 were performed with standard procedures and 10 with the redesigned process map, and results were compared. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was measured with a two-tailed t test. Twelve tasks involved in cervical cancer brachytherapy treatments were identified. The process map showed that in standard procedures, the treatment planning tasks were performed sequentially. The process map was redesigned to specify that contouring and some planning tasks are performed concomitantly. Some quality assurance tasks were reorganized to minimize adverse effects of a possible error on procedure time. Test dry runs followed by live implementation confirmed the applicability of the new process map to clinical conditions. A 29% reduction in planning time (p < 0.01) was observed with the introduction of the redesigned process map. A process map for cervical cancer brachytherapy was generated. The treatment planning component of the process map was redesigned, resulting in a 29% decrease in planning time and a streamlining of the quality assurance process. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-dose-rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer in Low-resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michelle I; Naghavi, Arash O; Abuodeh, Yazan A; Ahmed, Kamran A; Chevere, Carlos; Fernandez, Daniel; Yamoah, Kosj

    2017-10-01

    In areas with limited health care, it is important to identify and implement effective treatment methods and to optimize available resources. We investigated the implementation of a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy program for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in a low-resource setting such as Puerto Rico (PR), where PCa is the main cause of cancer-associated death. After institutional approval, the medical records of patients with nonmetastatic PCa undergoing LDR brachytherapy from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed from PR. The factors analyzed included adequate D90 (radiation dose delivered to 90% of the target volume) coverage (≥140 Gy), early and late toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade >2), and prostate-specific antigen failure. Freedom from biochemical failure was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The barriers to implementation of LDR brachytherapy in a country with limited resources were identified. These included lack of access to funding for startup costs, specific referral patterns, lack of trained support staff, such as dosimetrists and physicists, and initial opposition from insurance companies for reimbursement. The initial results from 191 patients were included in the present study with a median follow-up period of 26 months. Prostate-specific antigen failure occurred in 6 patients (3%). No early or late gastrointestinal toxicity (grade >2) developed. Only 3 (2%) and 2 (1%) patients experienced early and late genitourinary toxicity (grade >2), respectively. The 2- and 3-year freedom from biochemical failure in this population was 97% and 95.9%, respectively. At present, limited data are available delineating the barriers faced by low-resource settings in the implementation of LDR brachytherapy. Our data highlight the issues unique to this environment and support the use of LDR brachytherapy as a reliable and effective treatment modality for patients with PCa in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  2. EM-Navigated Catheter Placement for Gynecologic Brachytherapy: An Accuracy Study.

    PubMed

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-12

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and/or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  3. Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy treatment planning in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Mutic, Sasa M.S.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Low, Daniel A.; Miller, Tom R.; Vicic, Milos; LaForest, Richard; Zoberi, Imran; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brachytherapy treatment planning in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervix were included in this prospective study. The clinical stage of their disease was Ib (7), IIa (1), IIb (7), and IIIb (9). Patients were treated with irradiation and brachytherapy, with the majority receiving concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy. Patients underwent diagnostic FDG-PET imaging before treatment, sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging during treatment, and diagnostic FDG-PET 3 months after treatment completion. Delineation of the gross tumor volume, bladder, and rectum was performed for all scans using a commercially available treatment-planning system. Actual treatment delivery was based on two-dimensional orthogonal planning. Results: The mean gross tumor volume and percent coverage by the target isodose surface for the initial, mid, and last implant were 37 cm{sup 3}, 17 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and 68%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. Nine of 11 patients were found to have continued decrease in tumor volume as measured by FDG-PET, with 3 patients having complete regression of their tumor before treatment was completed. The maximal bladder and rectal doses obtained from three-dimensional dose-volume histograms were significantly higher than the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal points obtained by two-dimensional treatment-planning. Conclusions: Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging identifies the tumor response in individual patients, potentially making patient-specific brachytherapy treatment planning possible.

  4. Iodine-125 Interstitial Brachytherapy for Pediatric Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis of the Head and Neck: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Guo, Hua-Qiu; Yu, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a locally aggressive benign soft tissue tumor. It is rarely observed in the head and neck region and is particularly uncommon in the parotid gland. This report describes the case of a 32-month-old girl with DF of the head and neck. The tumor was resected with gross residual tumors. Recurrence occurred 3 months later and then the patient was treated with iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy. The tumor was completely absent 6 months after brachytherapy. No recurrence was found 60 months after brachytherapy during follow-up. No severe toxicities or growth abnormalities were observed. Very-low-dose rate brachytherapy as the sole modality could be a reasonable alternative for the treatment of inoperable DF of the head and neck, which avoids the risk of cosmetic deformity caused by surgery, especially in pediatric patients. In addition, long-term follow-up is recommended.

  5. Development of an open source software module for enhanced visualization during MR-guided interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Egger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, gynecologic malignancies were the 4th leading cause of death in U.S. women and for patients with extensive primary or recurrent disease, treatment with interstitial brachytherapy may be an option. However, brachytherapy requires precise insertion of hollow catheters with introducers into the tumor in order to eradicate the cancer. In this study, a software solution to assist interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy has been investigated and the software has been realized as an own module under (3D) Slicer, which is a free open source software platform for (translational) biomedical research. The developed research module allows on-time processing of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) data over a direct DICOM connection to a MR scanner. Afterwards follows a multi-stage registration of CAD models of the medical brachytherapy devices (template, obturator) to the patient's MR images, enabling the virtual placement of interstitial needles to assist the physician during the intervention.

  6. 2nd FY Khoo Memorial Lecture. Brachytherapy--one man's meat, a personal journey in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Khor, T H

    2005-06-01

    The Lecture covers the author's personal experience in brachytherapy in radiation oncology, beginning with low-dose rate (LDR) treatments using 226Ra "hot" sources, in the 1960s and early 1970s, through manual afterloading for treating gynaecological cancers with the same sources in the 1970s and 1980s, to high-dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading on a microSelectron HDR machine, from 1989 on. This progression in brachytherapy is discussed, and specific applications to various tumour sites are presented, including long-term results of a personal series of 106 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, treated with radiotherapy incorporating HDR brachytherapy. The Lecture rounds off with an unusual case of equine sarcoid, treated with a postoperative implant, using 192Ir LDR brachytherapy.

  7. Brachytherapy for Patients With Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/Cancer Care Ontario Joint Guideline Update.

    PubMed

    Chin, Joseph; Rumble, R Bryan; Kollmeier, Marisa; Heath, Elisabeth; Efstathiou, Jason; Dorff, Tanya; Berman, Barry; Feifer, Andrew; Jacques, Arthur; Loblaw, D Andrew

    2017-03-27

    Purpose To jointly update the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer to account for new evidence. Methods An Update Panel conducted a targeted systematic literature review and identified more recent randomized controlled trials comparing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with brachytherapy in men with prostate cancer. Results Five randomized controlled trials provided the evidence for this update. Recommendations For patients with low-risk prostate cancer who require or choose active treatment, low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR) alone, EBRT alone, and/or radical prostatectomy (RP) should be offered to eligible patients. For patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer choosing EBRT with or without androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or high-dose rate [HDR]) should be offered to eligible patients. For low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (Gleason 7, prostate-specific antigen < 10 ng/mL or Gleason 6, prostate-specific antigen, 10 to 20 ng/mL), LDR brachytherapy alone may be offered as monotherapy. For patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving EBRT and androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or HDR) should be offered to eligible patients. Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are each reasonable isotope options for patients receiving LDR brachytherapy; no recommendation can be made for or against using cesium-131 or HDR monotherapy. Patients should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials to test novel or targeted approaches to this disease. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/Brachytherapy-guideline and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

  8. Penile necrosis requiring penectomy complicating recto-urethral fistula post prostate cancer external beam radiation and brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Kinahan, John; Pai, Howard; Martens, Mildred; Gray, Jason; Biberdorf, Darren; Mihailovic, Alex; McAuley, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a well-recognized treatment for unfavourable risk localized prostate cancer. Radiation induced recto-urethral fistulae are known rare complications particularly from brachytherapy. We report a case of a recto-urethral fistula 7 years post-external beam radiation and I-125 brachytherapy, which was complicated by a severe polymicrobial soft tissue infection. This infection required penectomy and pelvic exenteration with diverting colostomy, Indiana pouch urinary diversion and gracilis myo-cutaneuos flap closure of the perineum.

  9. Towards real-time 3D ultrasound planning and personalized 3D printing for breast HDR brachytherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Eric; Gardi, Lori; Fenster, Aaron; Pouliot, Jean; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Two different end-to-end procedures were tested for real-time planning in breast HDR brachytherapy treatment. Both methods are using a 3D ultrasound (3DUS) system and a freehand catheter optimization algorithm. They were found fast and efficient. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept approach for personalized real-time guidance and planning to breast HDR brachytherapy treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective perturbation of in vivo linear energy transfer using high- Z vaginal applicators for Cf-252 brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, M. J.; Evans, K. E.; Leal, L. C.; Kirk, B. L.

    2004-01-01

    Californium-252 ( 252Cf) brachytherapy sources emit both neutrons and photons, and have the potential to vastly improve the current standard-of-practice for brachytherapy. While hydrogenous materials readily attenuate the 252Cf fission energy neutrons, high- Z materials are utilized to attenuate the 252Cf gamma-rays. These differences in shielding materials may be exploited when treating with a vaginal applicator to possibly improve patient survival through perturbation of the in vivo linear energy transfer radiation.

  11. High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy Boost for Early T Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma{l_brace}PRIVATE{r_brace}

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, T.-W. Wong, Victy Y.W.; Sze, W.-K.; Lui, Collin M.M.; Tung, Stewart Y.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate any possible therapeutic gain from dose escalation with brachytherapy for early T stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-five patients with T1-2b N0-3 NPC were boosted with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy after completion of two-dimensional external radiotherapy (ERT) during the period from 1999 to 2003. To compare the efficacy of brachytherapy boost, another 142 patients with T1-2b N0-3 disease who were treated with ERT alone during 1994 to 1999 were evaluated. All patients were treated with ERT to a total dose of 66 Gy in 6.5 weeks. The brachytherapy boost group was given 10-12 Gy in 2 weekly fractions. Results: Dose escalation beyond 66 Gy with brachytherapy boost was shown to improve local control and survival. The 5-year actuarial local failure-free survival, regional failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival rates for the brachytherapy group and the control group were 95.8% and 88.3% (p = 0.020), 96% and 94.6% (p = 0.40), 95% and 83.2% (p = 0.0045), 89.2% and 74.8% (p = 0.0021), 94.5% and 83.4% (p = 0.0058), and 91.1% and 79.6% (p = 0.0062), respectively. The 5-year major-complication-free survival rate was 89.5% for the brachytherapy group and 85.6% for the control group (p = 0.23). Conclusions: For patients who are treated with two-dimensional treatment techniques, dose escalation with brachytherapy boost improves local control and overall survival of patients with T1-T2a and possibly non-bulky T2b disease.

  12. Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  13. Technical note: contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leonard H; Zhang, Miao; Howell, Roger W; Yue, Ning J; Khan, Atif J

    2013-01-01

    Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  14. Study of encapsulated 170Tm sources for their potential use in brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Facundo; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Venselaar, Jack L M; Rivard, Mark J

    2010-04-01

    High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is currently performed with 192Ir sources, and 60Co has returned recently into clinical use as a source for this kind of cancer treatment. Both radionuclides have mean photon energies high enough to require specific shielded treatment rooms. In recent years, 169Yb has been explored as an alternative for HDR-brachytherapy implants. Although it has mean photon energy lower than 192Ir, it still requires extensive shielding to deliver treatment. An alternative radionuclide for brachytherapy is 170Tm (Z=69) because it has three physical properties adequate for clinical practice: (a) 128.6 day half-life, (b) high specific activity, and (c) mean photon energy of 66.39 keV. The main drawback of this radionuclide is the low photon yield (six photons per 100 electrons emitted). The purpose of this work is to study the dosimetric characteristics of this radionuclide for potential use in HDR-brachytherapy. The authors have assumed a theoretical 170Tm cylindrical source encapsulated with stainless steel and typical dimensions taken from the currently available HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources. The dose-rate distribution was calculated for this source using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code considering both photon and electron 170Tm spectra. The AAPM TG-43 U1 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters were derived. To study general properties of 170Tm encapsulated sources, spherical sources encapsulated with stainless steel and platinum were also studied. Moreover, the influence of small variations in the active core and capsule dimensions on the dosimetric characteristics was assessed. Treatment times required for a 170Tm source were compared to those for 192Ir and 169Yb for the same contained activity. Due to the energetic beta spectrum and the large electron yield, the bremsstrahlung contribution to the dose was of the same order of magnitude as from the emitted gammas and characteristic x rays. Moreover, the electron spectrum contribution to the dose

  15. Determination of the prescription dose for biradionuclide permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nuttens, V E; Lucas, S

    2008-12-01

    A model based on the linear quadratic model that has been corrected for repopulation, sublethal cell damage repair, and RBE effect has been used to determine the prescription dose for prostate permanent brachytherapy using seeds loaded with a mixture of 103Pd and 125I or a mixture of 103Pd and 131Cs. The prescription dose was determined by comparing the tumor cell survival fractions between the considered biradionuclide seed implant and one monoradionuclide seed implant chosen from 103Pd, 125I, and 131Cs. Prostate edema is included in the model. The influence of the value of the radiobiological parameters and RBE were also investigated. Two mixtures of radionuclides were considered: 103Pd0.75-125I0.25 and 103Pd0.25-131Cs0.75, where the subscripts indicate the fractions of total initial internal activity in the biradionuclide seed. These fractions were selected in order to obtain a dose distribution that lies between that of 103Pd and 125I/131Cs. As expected, the computed prescription dose values are dependent on the model parameters (edema half-life and magnitude, radiobiogical parameters, and RBE). The radionuclide used as a benchmark also has a strong impact on the derived prescribed dose. The large uncertainties in the radiobiological parameters and RBE values produce big errors in the computed prescribed dose. Averaged over the range of all the parameters and depending on the radionuclide used as a benchmark (in subscript), the derived prescription dose for the first mixture (PdI) would be: D(PdI)(Pd)=142(+15)(-16) Gy and D(PdI)(I)=142(+6)(-8) Gy; and D(PdCs)(Pd)=128(+13)(-13) Gy and D(PdCs)(Cs)=115(+6)(-7) Gy for the PdCs mixture. The uncertainties could be reduced if the radiobiological parameters and RBE value were known more accurately. However, as edema characteristics are patient dependent and can be obtained only after the treatment, an unpredictable error is unavoidable.

  16. Prostate brachytherapy: a descriptive analysis from CaPSURE.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Robert; Sharkey, Jerrold; Cowan, Janet E; DuChane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a large disease registry of prostate cancer patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PB) and to identify factors influencing the use of supplemental external beam (SEB) radiation therapy and choice of isotope. Data were abstracted from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), a disease registry of 11,804 men with various stages of prostate cancer. The study population consisted of those men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1990 and 2003, had no prior history of cancer and were treated with PB (alone or with SEB). The influence of patient demographics, disease characteristics, and year of diagnosis on the use of SEB and isotope choice was examined. The study population included 791 men. Six hundred nine men (77%) were treated with PB alone and 182 men (23%) were treated with PB and SEB. Patient demographics were not associated with the use of SEB. Disease characteristics were associated with the use of SEB. Patients treated with PB and SEB had higher pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA), higher T-stage, higher Gleason score, and were more likely to be placed in the high-risk category (all p<0.01). The use of SEB increased over the period studied. In a multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed after 1999 were much more likely to receive SEB after controlling for disease characteristics (PSA, T-stage, Gleason). Likewise, higher clinical PSA (odds ratio [OR]=1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.13), higher biopsy Gleason (OR=3.64; 95% CI: 2.60-5.09), and cT2 vs. cT1 (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.22-3.48) were more likely to have PB with SEB than PB alone. Patient demographics differed according to isotope. Compared to men treated with 125)I, men treated with (103)Pd were older, less educated, less wealthy, and less likely to have private insurance. Disease characteristics also differed according to isotope. Compared to men

  17. Source localisation and dose verification for a novel brachytherapy unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Marinos G.

    A recent development in the field of radiotherapy has been the introduction of the PRS Intrabeam system (Carl Zeiss Surgical GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany). This is essentially a portable, miniaturised, electron-driven photon generator that allows high intensity, soft-energy x-rays (50 kVp) to be delivered directly to the tumour site in a single fraction. The system has been used for the interstitial radiation treatment of both brain and breast tumours. At present, a standardised in-vivo dose verification technique is not available for the PRS treatments. The isotropical distribution of photons about the tip of the PRS probe inserted in the tissue can effectively be viewed as a point source of radiation buried in the body. This work has looked into ways of localising the PRS source utilising its own radiation field. Moreover, the response of monoenergetic sources, mimicking realistic brachytherapy sources, has also been investigated. The purpose of this project was to attempt to localise the source as well as derive important dosimetric information from the resulting image. A detection system comprised of a well-collimated Germanium detector (HPGe) has been devised in a rotate-translate Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) modality. The superior energy resolving ability of the detection system allowed for energy selective reconstruction to be carried out in the case of the monoenergetic source (241Am). Results showed that the monoenergetic source can be localised to within 1 mm and the continuous PRS x-ray source to within 3mm. For the PRS dose map derivation, Monte Carlo studies have been employed in order to extract information on the dosimetric aspect of the resulting image. The final goal of this work was therefore to formulate a direct mathematical relation (Transform Map) between the image created by the escaping photons and the dose map as predicted by the theoretical model. The formation therefore of the in-vivo PRS image could allow for a real-time monitoring

  18. Determination of the prescription dose for biradionuclide permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttens, V. E.; Lucas, S.

    2008-12-15

    A model based on the linear quadratic model that has been corrected for repopulation, sublethal cell damage repair, and RBE effect has been used to determine the prescription dose for prostate permanent brachytherapy using seeds loaded with a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I or a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 131}Cs. The prescription dose was determined by comparing the tumor cell survival fractions between the considered biradionuclide seed implant and one monoradionuclide seed implant chosen from {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs. Prostate edema is included in the model. The influence of the value of the radiobiological parameters and RBE were also investigated. Two mixtures of radionuclides were considered: {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.75}-{sup 125}I{sub 0.25} and {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.25}-{sup 131}Cs{sub 0.75}, where the subscripts indicate the fractions of total initial internal activity in the biradionuclide seed. These fractions were selected in order to obtain a dose distribution that lies between that of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I/{sup 131}Cs. As expected, the computed prescription dose values are dependent on the model parameters (edema half-life and magnitude, radiobiogical parameters, and RBE). The radionuclide used as a benchmark also has a strong impact on the derived prescribed dose. The large uncertainties in the radiobiological parameters and RBE values produce big errors in the computed prescribed dose. Averaged over the range of all the parameters and depending on the radionuclide used as a benchmark (in subscript), the derived prescription dose for the first mixture (PdI) would be: D{sub Pd}{sup PdI}=142{sub -16}{sup +15} Gy and D{sub I}{sup PdI}=142{sub -8}{sup +6} Gy; and D{sub Pd}{sup PdCs}=128{sub -13}{sup +13} Gy and D{sub Cs}{sup PdCs}=115{sub -7}{sup +6} Gy for the PdCs mixture. The uncertainties could be reduced if the radiobiological parameters and RBE value were known more accurately. However, as edema characteristics are patient

  19. An investigation of a PRESAGE® in vivo dosimeter for brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovic, A. K.; Juang, T.; Meltsner, S.; Adamovics, J.; Chino, J.; Steffey, B.; Craciunescu, O.; Oldham, M.

    2014-07-01

    Determining accurate in vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy treatment with high dose gradients is challenging. Here we introduce, investigate, and characterize a novel in vivo dosimeter and readout technique with the potential to address this problem. A cylindrical (4 mm × 20 mm) tissue equivalent radiochromic dosimeter PRESAGE® in vivo (PRESAGE®-IV) is investigated. Two readout methods of the radiation induced change in optical density (OD) were investigated: (i) volume-averaged readout by spectrophotometer, and (ii) a line profile readout by 2D projection imaging utilizing a high-resolution (50 micron) telecentric optical system. Method (i) is considered the gold standard when applied to PRESAGE® in optical cuvettes. The feasibility of both methods was evaluated by comparison to standard measurements on PRESAGE® in optical cuvettes via spectrophotometer. An end-to-end feasibility study was performed by a side-by-side comparison with TLDs in an 192Ir HDR delivery. 7 and 8 Gy was delivered to PRESAGE®-IV and TLDs attached to the surface of a vaginal cylinder. Known geometry enabled direct comparison of measured dose with a commissioned treatment planning system. A high-resolution readout study under a steep dose gradient region showed 98.9% (5%/1 mm) agreement between PRESAGE®-IV and Gafchromic® EBT2 Film. Spectrometer measurements exhibited a linear dose response between 0-15 Gy with sensitivity of 0.0133 ± 0.0007 ΔOD/(Gy ṡ cm) at the 95% confidence interval. Method (ii) yielded a linear response with sensitivity of 0.0132 ± 0.0006 (ΔOD/Gy), within 2% of method (i). Method (i) has poor spatial resolution due to volume averaging. Method (ii) has higher resolution (˜1 mm) without loss of sensitivity or increased noise. Both readout methods are shown to be feasible. The end-to-end comparison revealed a 2.5% agreement between PRESAGE®-IV and treatment plan in regions of uniform high dose. PRESAGE®-IV shows promise for in vivo dose verification

  20. International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Craighead, Peter; McCormack, Mary; Toita, Takafumi; Narayan, Kailash; Reed, Nicholas; Long, Harry; Kim, Hak-Jae; Marth, Christian; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Cerrotta, Annmarie; Small, William; Trimble, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E) and North America (NAm). Materials and Methods A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) utilized HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for 5 fractions (18%), 6 Gy × 4 (15%), 7 Gy × 3 (11%), and for Stage IIB-IVA patients were 6 Gy for 5 fractions (19%), 7 Gy × 4 (8%), and 7 Gy × 3 (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD], 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD, 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD, 11.2) (p=0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD, 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD, 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD, 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p=0.02 for Asia vs. other regions). The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p=0.0002). Conclusion Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean dose administered for cervical cancer is similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials. PMID:21183288

  1. International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Craighead, Peter; McCormack, Mary; Toita, Takafumi; Narayan, Kailash; Reed, Nicholas; Long, Harry; Kim, Hak-Jae; Marth, Christian; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Cerrotta, Annmarie; Small, William; Trimble, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). Methods and Materials: A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results: A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB-IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials.

  2. For-Profit Hospital Ownership Status and Use of Brachytherapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sounok; Soulos, Pamela R.; Herrin, Jeph; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Yu, James B.; Lesnikoski, Beth-Ann; Ross, Joseph S.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Gross, Cary P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relation between surgical care for breast cancer at for-profit hospitals and subsequent use of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Among Medicare beneficiaries, we examined whether hospital ownership status is associated with the use of breast brachytherapy – a newer and more expensive modality – as well as overall RT. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of female Medicare beneficiaries receiving breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer in 2008 and 2009. We assessed the relationship between hospital ownership and receipt of brachytherapy or overall RT using hierarchical generalized linear models. RESULTS The sample consisted of 35,118 women, 8.0% of whom had surgery at for-profit hospitals. Among patients who received RT, those who underwent surgery at for-profit hospitals were significantly more likely to receive brachytherapy (20.2%) than patients treated at not-for-profit hospitals (15.2%; OR for for-profit vs. not-for-profit: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.23–1.84; p<0.001). Among women aged 66–79, there was no relation between hospital ownership status and overall RT use. Among women aged 80–94 years old – the group least likely to benefit from RT due to shorter life expectancy – receipt of surgery at a for-profit hospital was significantly associated with higher overall RT use (OR: 1.22; 95%CI: 1.03–1.45, p=0.03) and brachytherapy use (OR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.18–2.34, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS Surgical care at for-profit hospitals was associated with increased use of the newer and more expensive RT modality, brachytherapy. Among the oldest women, who are least likely to benefit from RT, surgical care at a for-profit hospital was associated with higher overall RT use, with this difference largely driven by the use of brachytherapy. PMID:24787104

  3. Effect of edema, relative biological effectiveness, and dose heterogeneity on prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian Z.; Mayr, Nina A.; Nag, Subir; Montebello, Joseph; Gupta, Nilendu; Samsami, Nina; Kanellitsas, Christos

    2006-04-15

    Many factors influence response in low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Among them, edema, relative biological effectiveness (RBE), and dose heterogeneity have not been fully modeled previously. In this work, the generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model, extended to account for the effects of edema, RBE, and dose heterogeneity, was used to assess these factors and their combination effect. Published clinical data have shown that prostate edema after seed implant has a magnitude (ratio of post- to preimplant volume) of 1.3-2.0 and resolves exponentially with a half-life of 4-25 days over the duration of the implant dose delivery. Based on these parameters and a representative dose-volume histogram (DVH), we investigated the influence of edema on the implant dose distribution. The LQ parameters ({alpha}=0.15 Gy{sup -1} and {alpha}/{beta}=3.1 Gy) determined in earlier studies were used to calculate the equivalent uniform dose in 2 Gy fractions (EUD{sub 2}) with respect to three effects: edema, RBE, and dose heterogeneity for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd implants. The EUD{sub 2} analysis shows a negative effect of edema and dose heterogeneity on tumor cell killing because the prostate edema degrades the dose coverage to tumor target. For the representative DVH, the V{sub 100} (volume covered by 100% of prescription dose) decreases from 93% to 91% and 86%, and the D{sub 90} (dose covering 90% of target volume) decrease from 107% to 102% and 94% of prescription dose for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd implants, respectively. Conversely, the RBE effect of LDR brachytherapy [versus external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy] enhances dose effect on tumor cell kill. In order to balance the negative effects of edema and dose heterogeneity, the RBE of prostate brachytherapy was determined to be approximately 1.2-1.4 for {sup 125}I and 1.3-1.6 for {sup 103}Pd implants. These RBE values are consistent with the RBE data published in the

  4. International brachytherapy practice patterns: a survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG).

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Akila N; Creutzberg, Carien L; Craighead, Peter; McCormack, Mary; Toita, Takafumi; Narayan, Kailash; Reed, Nicholas; Long, Harry; Kim, Hak-Jae; Marth, Christian; Lindegaard, Jacob C; Cerrotta, Annmarie; Small, William; Trimble, Edward

    2012-01-01

    To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB-IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical resection with adjuvant brachytherapy in soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Łyczek, Jarosław; Kowalik, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Surgery is the major therapeutic method in soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity (E-STS). Treatment of large high-grade tumours, which resection cannot be performed with a wide safe margin, should include complementary radiation and/or chemo-therapy. Hopefully, the use of adjuvant brachytherapy will improve the prognosis of E-STS. Case description After a long process of diagnosing a tumour in the medial compartment of the thigh, a 65-year-old woman with diagnosed synovial sarcoma underwent a surgery. Compartment resection was performed and the tumour was removed with a 10 mm safety margin of healthy tissue. Adjuvant brachytherapy was delivered with 192Ir (MicroSelectron, Nucletron Electa Group, Stockholm, Sweden®) with 10 Ci of nominal activity to a dose of 55 Gy in 16 days because of large tumour size (99 × 78 × 73 mm) and its proximity to the neurovascular bundle. No complications were reported. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 28th day after the surgery. The wound healed without any complications and the outpatient follow-up is being continued. Discussion Adjuvant brachytherapy is rarely used after surgical treatment due to its limited accessibility in hospitals with surgical and orthopaedic departments. There are numerous publications proving positive influence of brachytherapy on local control and decreased number of recurrences. The recurrence-free survival time also increased significantly, however no direct impact on the number of distant metastases was found. Treatment is well tolerated and short. The complication rate varies between centres from 5 to 30%. The most common adverse effects include: peripheral neuropathy, skin necrosis and osteonecrosis of the long bones. Conclusions Treatment of large soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity (E-STS) should include combination of surgical intervention and external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Adjuvant brachytherapy improves local control rate up to 78%, is well tolerated and

  6. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Grace L.; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Xu, Ying; Hoffman, Karen E.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone

  7. 3D-image-guided HDR-brachytherapy versus 2D HDR - brachytherapy after external beam radiotherapy for early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, YuFeng; Zhao, QuanCheng; Liu, Hui; Huang, YingJuan; Wang, ZhenYu; Cao, XinPing; Teh, Bin S; Wen, BiXiu

    2014-11-29

    Two-dimensional high-dose-rate brachytherapy (2D-HDR-BT) is an effective method of dose escalation for local tumor control in early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Treatment outcomes for 3D-image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (3D-image-guided-HDR-BT) after external beam radiotherapy (ERT) have not been examined in early T-stage NPC patients. The current study was designed to evaluate whether addition of 3D-HDR-BT to ERT showed further improvement in treatment outcomes in patients with early T-stage NPC when compared to 2D-HDR-BT after ERT. The current study retrospectively analyzed and compared treatment outcomes for patients with nonmetastatic stage T1-2b NPC treated with 2D-HDR-BT (n =101) or 3D-HDR-BT (n =118) after ERT. Patients in both groups were treated with ERT at a mean dose of 60 Gy and a brachytherapy dose of 12Gy (8 ~ 20Gy), 2.5 ~ 5Gy per fraction under local anesthesia. Compared to patients treated with 2D-HDR-BT after ERT, patients treated with 3D-HDR-BT after ERT showed improvement in five-year actuarial local control survival rates (p = 0.024), local/regional relapse-free survival rates (p = 0.038), and disease-free survival rates (p = 0.021). Multivariate analysis showed that NPC patients treated with 3D-HDR-BT had improved local control survival (p = 0.042). The incidence rates of acute or chronic complications were similar between two groups. The current study showed that 3D-image-guided HDR-BT after ERT was an effective treatment modality for patients with stage T1-2 NPC with acceptable complications. The improvement in local tumor control and disease free survival is likely due to improved conformal dose distributions.

  8. A novel approach to brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma using a phosphorous{sup 32} ({sup 32}P) brachytherapy delivery device-a first-in-man study

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Anthony Soon-Whatt; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Lo, Richard Houa-Gong; Lau, T.-N.; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Chng, May; Satchithanantham, Somanesan; Loong, Susan Li-Er; Ng, David Chee-Eng; Lim, Beng-Choo; Connor, Stephen; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe . E-mail: gsupc@singnet.com.sg

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: While potentially very useful, percutaneously delivered brachytherapy of inoperable intra-abdominal solid tumors faces significant technical challenges. This first-in-man study is designed to determine the safety profile and therapeutic efficacy of a novel phosphorous ({sup 32}P) brachytherapy device (BrachySil) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients received single percutaneous and transperitoneal implantations of BrachySil under local anesthesia directly into liver tumors under ultrasound or computed tomographic guidance, at an activity level of 4 MBq/cc of tumor. Toxicity was assessed by the nature, incidence, and severity of adverse events (Common Toxicity Criteria scores) and by hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. Target tumor response was assessed with computed tomographic scans at 12 and 24 weeks postimplantation using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Implantations were successfully carried out in 8 patients (13-74 MBq, mean 40 MBq per tumor) awake and under local anesthesia. Six of the 8 patients reported 19 adverse events, but no serious events were attributable to the study device. Changes in hematology and clinical chemistry were similarly minimal and reflected progressive underlying hepatic disease. All targeted tumors were responding at 12 weeks, with complete response (100% regression) in three lesions. At the end of the study, there were two complete responses, two partial responses, three stable diseases, and one progressive disease. Conclusion: Percutaneous implantation of this novel {sup 32}P brachytherapy device into hepatocellular carcinoma is safe and well tolerated. A significant degree of antitumor efficacy was demonstrated at this low dose that warrants further investigation.

  9. Complications associated with brachytherapy alone or with laser in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Khanavkar, B.; Stern, P.; Alberti, W.; Nakhosteen, J.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Relatively little has been reported about destruction through brachytherapy of mucosa-perforating and extraluminary tumors with probable large vessel involvement causing major hemorrhagic or fistular complications. We report 12 patients subjected to laser and brachytherapy for centrally occluding lung cancer, whom we have periodically followed up from June 1986 until they died. Although all laser procedures were free from complications, necrotic cavitation in five cases, two of which were accompanied by large bronchoesophageal fistulas, and massive fatal hemoptysis occurred in six. Minor complications included radiation mucositis (two), noncritical mucosal scarring (two), and cough (four). Characteristics that will identify patients at risk of developing fatal hemoptysis and fistulas should be better defined by imaging and endoscopic techniques. In such cases, modifying the protocol or using alternative procedures should be considered. Minor complications, such as cough, can be avoided by using topical steroid therapy (eg, beclomethasone dipropionate).

  10. Dosimetric characterization of a {sup 131}Cs brachytherapy source by thermoluminescence dosimetry in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tailor, Ramesh; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Lampe, Stephanie; Bivens Warren, Whitney; Tolani, Naresh

    2008-12-15

    Dosimetry measurements of a {sup 131}Cs brachytherapy source have been performed in liquid water employing thermoluminescence dosimeters. A search of the literature reveals that this is the first time a complete set of dosimetric parameters for a brachytherapy ''seed'' source has been measured in liquid water. This method avoids the medium correction uncertainties introduced by the use of water-equivalent plastic phantoms. To assure confidence in the results, four different sources were employed for each parameter measured, and measurements were performed multiple times. The measured dosimetric parameters presented here are based on the AAPM Task Group 43 formalism. The dose-rate constant measured in liquid water was (1.063{+-}0.023) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} and was based on the air-kerma strength standard for this source established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Measured values for the 2D anisotropy function and the radial dose function are presented.

  11. Brachytherapy boost to the tumour bed in high risk patients after limited surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ulutin, H C; Ash, D; Dodwell, D

    2003-05-01

    The results of treatment for 174 patients at high risk of local recurrence, referred for radiotherapy after conservative surgery for early breast cancer, are evaluated. Microscopic margin involvement, extensive carcinoma in situ, and vascular/lymphatic invasion were the main risk factors for local recurrence. Whole-breast irradiation (40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks) followed with a brachytherapy boost (Ir192 wire implant or PDR Ir192) of 25 Gy was applied. Median follow-up was 80 months. The actuarial 6-year overall survival rate was 91% and the within breast recurrence-free survival was 88%. The most common risk factor among those recurring within the breast was involved surgical margins (13 out of 17). Cosmesis was reported to be good or excellent in 79% of cases. In patients at high risk for local recurrence, tumour-bed boost with brachytherapy can provide satisfactory local control after limited surgery and external radiotherapy.

  12. Dosimetric study of surface applicators of HDR brachytherapy GammaMed Plus equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Rivera, E. E-mail: modesto@fisica.ugto.mx Sosa, M. E-mail: modesto@fisica.ugto.mx Reyes, U. E-mail: modesto@fisica.ugto.mx Jesús Bernal-Alvarado, José de E-mail: theo@fisica.ugto.mx Córdova, T. E-mail: theo@fisica.ugto.mx Gil-Villegas, A. E-mail: theo@fisica.ugto.mx; Monzón, E.

    2014-11-07

    The cone type surface applicators used in HDR brachytherapy for treatment of small skin lesions are an alternative to be used with both electron beams and orthovoltage X-ray equipment. For a good treatment planning is necessary to know the dose distribution of these applicators, which can be obtained by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo simulation as well. In this study the dose distribution of surface applicators of 3 and 3.5 cm diameter, respectively of HDR brachytherapy GammaMed Plus equipment has been estimated using the Monte Carlo method, MCNP code. The applicators simulated were placed on the surface of a water phantom of 20 × 20 × 20 cm and the dose was calculated at depths from 0 to 3 cm with increments of 0.25 mm. The dose profiles obtained at depth show the expected gradients for surface therapy.

  13. A new, simple method of making a spacer in interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, K; Kawazu, T; Morita, M; Uehara, S; Kunitake, N; Kanda, S

    2000-04-01

    This article demonstrates a new method of making a spacer that increases the distance between the mandible and implanted radioactive sources in interstitial brachytherapy for patients with mobile tongue cancer. Fifty-three patients with mobile tongue cancer underwent interstitial brachytherapy with spacers made by this new technique. Our spacer is not difficult to create or to use. The spacer was made from a plastic splint by using thermoforming techniques and quick self-curing resin, which did not need waxing, wiring, or casting. The surface of the spacer, which comes in contact with the tongue, is smooth because it is covered with tissue-conditioning material. There were no complaints of pain from the patients. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible developed in only 1 (1.9%) of these patients. This spacer is simple to make and prevented osteoradionecrosis.

  14. Commissioning and periodic tests of the Esteya(®) electronic brachytherapy system.

    PubMed

    Candela-Juan, Cristian; Niatsetski, Yury; Ouhib, Zoubir; Ballester, Facundo; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A new electronic brachytherapy unit from Elekta, called Esteya(®), has recently been introduced to the market. As a part of the standards in radiation oncology, an acceptance testing and commissioning must be performed prior to treatment of the first patient. In addition, a quality assurance program should be implemented. A complete commissioning and periodic testing of the Esteya(®) device using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines for linacs and brachytherapy units as well as our personal experience is described in this paper. In addition to the methodology, recommendations on equipment required for each test are provided, taking into consideration their availability and traceability of the detectors. Finally, tolerance levels for all the tests are provided, and a specific frequency for each test is suggested.

  15. Commissioning and periodic tests of the Esteya® electronic brachytherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Niatsetski, Yury; Ouhib, Zoubir; Ballester, Facundo; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    A new electronic brachytherapy unit from Elekta, called Esteya®, has recently been introduced to the market. As a part of the standards in radiation oncology, an acceptance testing and commissioning must be performed prior to treatment of the first patient. In addition, a quality assurance program should be implemented. A complete commissioning and periodic testing of the Esteya® device using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines for linacs and brachytherapy units as well as our personal experience is described in this paper. In addition to the methodology, recommendations on equipment required for each test are provided, taking into consideration their availability and traceability of the detectors. Finally, tolerance levels for all the tests are provided, and a specific frequency for each test is suggested. PMID:26034501

  16. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with brachytherapy: patient selection and technique considerations

    PubMed Central

    Trifiletti, Daniel M; Romano, Kara D; Showalter, Shayna L; Reardon, Kelli A; Libby, Bruce; Showalter, Timothy N

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) through breast brachytherapy is a relatively recent development in breast radiotherapy that has gained international favor because of its reduction in treatment duration and normal tissue irradiation while maintaining favorable cancer-specific and cosmetic outcomes. Despite the fact that several large national trials have not reported final results yet, many providers are currently offering APBI to select patients and APBI is listed as a treatment option for selecting patients in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Multiple consensus guidelines exist in selecting patients for APBI, some with conflicting recommendations. In this review, the existing patient selection guidelines are reported, compared, and critiqued, grouping them in helpful subcategories. Unique patient and technical selection factors for APBI with brachytherapy are explored. PMID:26251627

  17. European research projects for metrology in Brachytherapy and External Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike; Toni, Maria Pia

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), two projects were launched with the central objective of providing reliable measuring techniques for the methods of modern cancer therapy using ionizing radiation—such as brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and hadron therapy—and using high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. The two three-year projects are ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ (Brachytherapy) and ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’ (EBCT). For these modern treatment methods there is an urgent requirement for establishing a sound metrological basis with regard to the radiation dose delivered and its spatial distribution. This paper gives a brief overview about the two projects' work, their goals and findings. The details of the projects' work and their outcomes are presented within these conference proceedings or in the cited publications.

  18. High-dose Rate Electronic Brachytherapy: A Nonsurgical Treatment Alternative for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rakesh; Werschler, William Philip; Ceilley, Roger I.; Strimling, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The authors summarized data from a group of physicians with experience using high-dose rate electronic brachytherapy for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The data have been published or presented in abstract format at national dermatology and radiation oncology meetings. The data included 1,822 treated lesions from 2009 to 2014 in patients ranging in age from 52 to 104 years. Most lesions were basal cell carcinoma (57%) or squamous cell carcinoma (38%) less than 2cm in size (97%). Median follow-up at the various centers ranged from 4 to 16 months, and results yielded an extremely low recurrence rate of less than one percent. Results show that within the confines of this follow up period, electronic brachytherapy is an effective, convenient, nonsurgical treatment option for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer with few recurrences and excellent cosmetic results. PMID:28210385