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Sample records for bradley fighting vehicle

  1. Modification of Selected Integrated Sight Unit Controls on the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    the Bradley Fighting Vehicle David F. Champion, Robert L. Rollier, Stephen D. Knapp, and David L. Lewis Litton Computer Services Division Litton...on the Bradley Fighting Vehicle 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Champion, David F.; Rollier, Robert L.; Knapp, Steven D.; and Lewis, David L. (Litton Computer...reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV)4integrated sight unit, Bradley Fighting Vehicle

  2. Development of a Driver Alert System (DAS) for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    FIGHTING VEHICLE The survivability of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) depends, in large part, on rapid response and movement in changing battle conditions...ARI Research Note 88-73 I6 0 Development of aDriver AertSystem CO (DAS) for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle * David F. Champion, Paul R. Roberson, and...System (DAS) Final Report for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle September 85 - September 87 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT

  3. Analysis of Content and Organization of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Commanders Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    ARI Research Note 86-91 ANALYSIS OF CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLE COMMANDERS COURSE Mike S. Perkins and Robert L. Rollier... FIGHTING VEHICLE COMMANDERS COURSE January 85 - December 85 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Mike S...reveree aide if neceery and Identify by block number) Bradley Commanders Course Leadership Bradley Fighting Vehicle System Tactics Infantry Fighting

  4. Devising Doctrine for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Platoon Dismount Element -- Finding the Right Starting Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-09

    iflri I I DEVISING DOCTRINE FOR THE CD BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLE PLATOON Mt" DISMOUNT ELEMENT -- FINDING THE RIGHT STARTING POINT N A Monograph by...8217 WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Inctude Security Classification) Devising Doctrine for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Platoon...reverse if necessary and identify by blocK numver) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Bradley Fighting Vehicle, Firepower, Maneuver, Squad, Leadership, Protection, time

  5. Feasibility Tests for 400m Offset Zeroing the 25mm Gun of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Bradley Fighting Vehicle 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Perkins, Mike S. ; and Wilkinson, Craig S. (Litton Computer Services Div., Litton Systems, Inc.) 13a...number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 25mm automatic gurn M242C , Bradley Fighting Vehicle/ I Zeroing. 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify...by block number) --> Researchers developed a short-range zeroing procedure and target for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle’s 25mm gun to minimize the

  6. Techniques and Procedures to Improve 25mm Gunnery of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Gunnery of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle DTIC Mike S. Perkins F I-ECTE Litton Computer Services Division SEP 07 1989 Litton Systems, Inc. October 1988...Classification, Techniques and Procedures to Improve 25mm Gunnery of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Perkins, Mike S. (Litton Computer...Research has been conducted to develop and evaluate procedures and techniques to im- prove 25mm gunnery of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle OB1RV)P. The

  7. Analysis of Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery with Emphasis on Factors Affecting First-Round Accuracy of the 25-mm Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    ARI Research Note 87-67 OR FILE COPY ANALYSIS OF BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLE GUNNERY WITH EMPHASIS ON FACTORS AFFECTING FIRST-ROUND ACCURACY OF THE 25...of Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery Jinal Deeport 1 with Emphasis on Factors Affecting First-Round January - December 1985 Accuracy of the 25-mm Gun 6...Determination Preliminary Gunnery Bradley Fighting Vehicle Zeroing Procedures -_Analysis of the problems and potential improvements in gunnery effectiveness

  8. Increasing the Combat Effectiveness of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle: New and Modified Thermal Training Procedures and Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1518 Increasing the Combat Effectiveness of the Bradley Fighting ...Increasing the Combat Effectiveness of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle: New and Modified Thermal Training Procedures and Products 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Scanning techniques Thermal training, Bradley Fighting Thermal camouflage Thermal sight Venicie (BFV), inte

  9. Analysis of Gunnery Training for the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    positions to allow access to the individual boxes. When the turret is properly positioned for each box, the Gunner physically loads the box with the...maintenance and operational training, including gunnery training, were % done at the remote location. Thus, unit personnel were more under the % control of...quality of the training program, so do the availability and ease of access to other resources impact on the quality of training. If Bradley units are

  10. Built to Last: The Army’s Failed Quest to Replace the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Army’s most recent failure to design and field a new ground combat vehicle since fielding the Big Five weapon systems in the early 1980’s. Today, the...process. Since the Big Five systems will not last forever, it is important to identify why Army efforts to modernize have failed. By comparing the...GCV’s cancelation marked the US Army’s most recent failure to design and field a new ground combat vehicle since fielding the Big Five weapon systems in

  11. Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Procedures Guides: Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    can open and close fully and locks in both OPEN and CLOSED positions. 8. Check that safety pin is not missing. Internal fire suppression handles 9...that safety pin is not missing. Driver’s instrument panel 19. Check VOLTS gage. 20. Check ENGINE COOLANT TEMP gage. 21. Check ENGINE OIL gage. 22

  12. Tropic Test of Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    operation of the M2/M3 system in a humid tropic environment in terms of materiel degradation and performance, in accordance with the Basic Climatic ...Factors Test of Weapon Systems Loading is contained in Appendix G. 1.3.2 Two 10 week storage periods are planned to achieve the Basic Climate conditions...maintainability for further testing. 1.3.3 The Basic Climatic Conditions (Variable and Constant High Humidity Daily Cycles) are accomplished by utilizing two

  13. Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Procedures Guides: Commander and Gunner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    HATCH SAFETY PIN X _X X X D ENGINE TRANSMISSION OIL X X X D ALL X X S FRONT RING EXTERIOR SIGHT X X S ANTENNA MOUNT X S SHIELD DOOR X X S TURRET LAUNCHER...D-DRIVER G-GUNNER 2 EnrA14S-OTHER , W- E -4 LOCATION SYSTEM EQUIPMENT = P I DRIVER’S COVER X X D EXTERIOR HATCH SAFETY PIN X XX D RAMP X X X D RAMP

  14. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Conduct of Fire Trainer: The Instructor Operator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    poorly trained. Black and Graham (1986) urged development of expanded and more adequate COFT performance measures. Kraemer and Bessemer (1987), in an...operator reassessment must be a continuous process in order to maintain the quality personnel needed. 1O COFT behavior must be standardized, and then...phenomenon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, No.4, 630-640. 27 Kraemer, R. E. & Bessemer , D. W. (1987). Tank platoon training for the 1987 Canadian

  15. The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    the most critical responsibilities on the AirLand battlefield: the role of the infantry fighting vehicle. The forty plus years of peace in Europe are...DTJ 4 FIL 1 COPY AD-A227 430 THE ROLE OF THE FIGHTING VEHICLE ON THE AIRLAND BATTLEFIELD A thesis presented to the faculty of the U. S. Army Command...1 June 1990 Ma q1,I.q. 8-1989 t-. 6- 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield. 6. AUTHOR(S

  16. Task Analysis of Tactical Leadership Skills for Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    behind. At the same time as the oattalion commander is capitalizing on the gr^ac firepower and mobility of the BIFV, he must be aware of the limitations...buildings, built-up areas, posts, trenches, ditches, craters, abatis, tank ditches, rubble, field expedi- ents, fugas lAüJO HISSION PHASE TASKS

  17. The Interrelationship of Weapons and Doctrine: The Case of the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-04

    capability of this infantry unit wuas its mobility The entire 2,500 man unit was mounted’ Wilder’s brigade nad superior motilty and firepower when...compared to other Union or Cofederate ,nfantrj units While the mobility plays a role, it is the -epower tne introduction of the new technology, the...o% -- Jflr 1 7N&A road mobility Moreover, the soldiers riding in the back were vulnerable to artillery, grenade and small arms fire At the close of

  18. The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle Program and Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Current and Upgraded Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Notional Ground Combat Vehicle Israeli Namer Armored Personnel Carrier German Puma ...19Option 1: Purchase the Israeli Namer APC 21 Option 2: Upgrade the Bradley IFV 26 Option 3: Purchase the German Puma IFV 28 Option 4: Cancel the GCV Program...2008 German Puma IFV 35 to 47 6 6.9 2011 2013 dollars) (Millions of Unit Costb Existing Vehicles Vehicles Requiring Development Into Service Year of

  19. A Manpower Training Requirements Model for New Weapons Systems, with Applications to the Infantry Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    INFAN4TRY FIGHTING VEHICLE by Douglas J. Kenehan December 1981 Thesis Advisor: K. T. Marshall Approved for~ public release; distribution unlimited ý1...Thesis New Weapons Systems, with Applications to p~armhal. ]Q the Infantry Fighting Vehicle 0 ~ iPRM~S 7. AUT140111) .CNNC NOATNwUtS Douglas J...S IN, bl N IOSI Manpower model, Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV), training requirements, new weapons systems, manpower planning. Al. AEOYNAIT elf

  20. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery: An Analysis of Engagement Strategies for the M242 25-mm Automatic Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    have changed the face of the Army. Our senior planners envision that the nature of modern warfare will lead to future battles of unprecedented scope...gunner index 1600 meters (extended battlesight) to increase the probability of a first round hit. The nature of the future battlefield may be the limiting...motion of the gun barrel at the instant of firing, and the nature of the recoil of guns mounted on such unstable, platforms. It is commonly assumed

  1. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements David R. Gillingham Prashant R. Patel, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE...Paul M. Kodzwa, David A. Sparrow, and Jeremy A. Teichman for performing technical review of this document. Copyright Notice © 2013 Institute for...Paper P-5032 Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements David R. Gillingham

  2. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  3. The Marine’s Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...DATE 19 DEC 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Marine’s Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 9 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form

  4. Parametric Cost Estimation Utilizing Development-to-Production Relationship Applied to the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    cime span between development and production to predict TFUs. The inclusion of a variable that explains time spent in development is compatible with...1971. "Cost Performance Reports", Bradley Fighting Vehicle, FMC Corp., 1980-1989. Fisher, Gene H., Cost Considerations in Systems Analysis, RAND Corp

  5. The Marines’ Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    Vehicle [NAV] but now called the Amphibious Combat Vehicle [ ACV ]). The Commandant of the Marine Corps, General James Amos, has committed the Marine...Corps to fielding the ACV within four years. General Dynamics, the EFV’s developer, suggests that it would be more affordable to “finish what’s...Marines plan to incorporate into the ACV to help to ensure that there is “value added” by these technologies and that they meet “cost-benefit” criteria

  6. Bradley's Benzedrine studies on children with behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Strohl, Madeleine P

    2011-03-01

    In 1937, psychiatrist Charles Bradley administered Benzedrine sulfate, an amphetamine, to "problem" children at the Emma Pendleton Bradley Home in Providence, Rhode Island, in an attempt to alleviate headaches; however, Bradley noticed an unexpected effect upon the behavior of the children: improved school performance, social interactions, and emotional responses. Drawing on Bradley's published articles on his experiments, this paper explores the historical context of his experiments and the effect this background had on the emerging field of child psychiatry. Bradley's studies went largely ignored in the field of child psychiatry for nearly 25 years. However, they proved to be an important precursor to studies of amphetamines like Ritalin and their use in conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Bradley's Benzedrine trials were thus highly influential in shaping modern objective understandings of children with behavior disorders.

  7. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley - Photographer April, 4, 1936 CEILING MAIN AUDITORIUM - Independent Presbyterian Church, Bull & Oglethorpe Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley - Photographer April 6, 1936. INTERIOR DETAIL OF STAIRWAY - Independent Presbyterian Church, Bull & Oglethorpe Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley - Photographer April 6, 1936. FRONT ELEVATION OF TOWER - Independent Presbyterian Church, Bull & Oglethorpe Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Western Maps/Yanyuwa Meaning: An Interview with John Bradley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin-Glass, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003 an important one-volume text, "Forget about Flinders: A Yanyuwa atlas of the south west gulf of Carpentaria" (Yanyuwa Families, Bradley & Cameron, 2003) produced in a limited edition of 14 copies, returned to Yanyuwa country and to the families who collaborated with John Bradley and artist Nona Cameron on the project. Subsequently, a…

  11. James Bradley and reflections on a special year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K. A. P.

    2012-12-01

    James Bradley, the third Astronomer Royal, made arguably some of the most important measurements in the history of science, yet he remains a relatively obscure figure. In the 250th year since his death, Kevin Walsh focuses on some of the events of 2012 that present particularly timely reminders of the greatness of Bradley's work and the extraordinary legacy he left.

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley - Photographer April, 18, 1936 DETAIL OF INTERIOR TRIM LOOKING ACROSS MAIN ENTRANCE HALL - Ware-Sibley-Clark House, 506 Telfair Street, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  13. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Lawrence Bradley - Photographer April 6, 1936. INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMNS AND DOME MAIN AUDITORIUM - Independent Presbyterian Church, Bull & Oglethorpe Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Bradley Reeder d/b/a Reeder Construction Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bradley Reeder d/b/a Reeder Construction (the Company) is located in Mexico, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Mexico, Missouri.

  15. Measuring Aerosols Generated Inside Armoured Vehicles Perforated by Depleted Uranium Ammunition

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), a study was initiated to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects of soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this experimental study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterized. The aerosol sampling system designed for these tests consisted of filter cassettes, cascade impactors, a five-stage cyclone, and a moving filter. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. The aerosol samples were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and in vitro solubility. These data will provide input for use in future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of DU aerosols.

  16. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be…

  17. Student Skills and the Bradley Agenda in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jennifer; Dearlove, Joanne; Marland, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the study strategies that first-year Australian university students bring with them to university. The research has currency due to the implementation of the Review of Australian higher education [Bradley, D., Noonan, P., Nugent, H., & Scales, B. (2008). "Review of Australian higher education: Final report".…

  18. The Bradley Challenge: A Sea Change for Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Thomas; Gill, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins with a focus on the problematic nature of one key term in the Bradley Report. "Socioeconomic status," or SES as commonly used, lacks clear definition leading to ongoing debates about its measurement. A working consensus on SES and its measurement is necessary for the report's recommendations to proceed effectively. Next…

  19. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  20. Fighting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  1. Diatom data from Bradley Lake, Oregon: downcore analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Lewis, Roger C.

    2003-01-01

    Displaced marine diatoms provide biostratigraphic evidence for tsunami inundation at Bradley Lake, a small freshwater lake on the south-central Oregon coast. During the past 7,200 years, fine-grained lacustrine deposits in the deep axis of the lake were disturbed 17 times by the erosion and emplacement of coarse-grained gyttja and, in some cases, sand. By identifying diatoms in closely spaced core samples, we determined that 13 of the 17 events (termed idisturbance eventsi) record prehistoric tsunamis in Bradley Lake. We consider the evidence strong for 11 events, based on numbers and diversity of marine taxa: De1, De2, De4, De5, De6, De7, De8, De11, De12, De13, and De17. The evidence is less compelling for an additional 2 events (De9 and De10), although tsunami inundation is likely. Finally, we identified 4 events (De3, De14, De15 and De16) in which there were no marine diatoms to support tsunami inundation, although stratigraphic data shows that the lake bottom was disturbed. Freshwater diatoms dominate throughout the Bradley Lake record, showing that the lake has remained a freshwater habitat throughout its existence. However, anomalous occurrences of three species of brackish diatoms (Thalassiosira bramaputrae, Cyclotella meneghiniana, and Mastogloia smithii) may be evidence for short-lived periods of slightly elevated salinities in the lake following De16, De13, De12, De11, De9, De8, and De5. With the exception of De12, increased abundances of one or more of the brackish species is coincident with decreased numbers of freshwater diatoms. A temporary rise in salinity, as evidenced by short-lived increases in abundances of brackish species and decreases in abundances of freshwater species, is consistent with tsunami inundation into the lake.

  2. Bradley and Lacaille: Praxis as Passionate Pursuit of Exact Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A.

    1997-12-01

    From 1700 to 1800, astronomical observation and prediction improved in accuracy by an order of magnitude or more: by century's end astronomers could trust catalogued and predicted positions to within a few arcseconds. Crucial to this improvement were the discoveries of Bradley, which grew out of an endeavor of "normal science," the attempt to confirm with precision Robert Hooke's earlier supposed discovery of annual parallax in Gamma Draconis. On the theoretical side, Bradley's discoveries led to the quiet demise of two earlier doctrines, the Tychonic System and the Aristotelian and Cartesian doctrine of the instantaneous transmission of light. On the side of praxis, Bradley's discoveries meant that observational astronomy must be re-done from the ground up. In 1742 Nicolas-Louis Lacaille (1713-62), who had been admitted to the Paris Academie des Sciences only the year before, proposed to his astronomer colleagues that they take up this task as a cooperative enterprise. His proposal met with silence, but he undertook the project on his own, making it his life's work. By 1757 he had completed his Fundamenta Astronomiae, including a catalogue of 400 bright stars in which for the first time star positions were corrected for aberration and nutation. In 1758 he published his solar tables, the first to incorporate lunar and planetary perturbations as well as aberration and nutation. Lacaille's pendulum clock was not temperature-compensated, and his sextant poorly calibrated, but he was to some extent able to compensate for these flaws by bringing a massive number of observations to bear. Till the 1790s his Fundamenta Astronomiae and Tabulae Solares were important for the increments in accuracy they brought about, and for the inspiration they gave to later astronomers such as Delambre.

  3. Some Thoughts on Censorship and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn: An Interview with David Bradley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mark I.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an interview with David Bradley, professor of English at Temple University (PA), who defends the teaching of Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn" to black students despite recent moves to remove the book from some public school libraries because it is deemed offensive. Bradley provides recommendations for teaching "Huckleberry…

  4. The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and other Human-Machine Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    performance measurement; effective- ness measurement; system populations; Bradley Infantry . Fighting Vehicle; BIFV; Analytic Process Model; APM...process model (APM) was developed from earlier models, applied in sample fashions to an existing system (the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and...liradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Carrier Team Subsystem) 11 6. Example of a System Hierarchical Structure 14 7. Guidelines for Identifying

  5. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  6. Measuring Aerosols Generated Inside Armoured Vehicles Perforated by Depleted Uranium Ammunition

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn )

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), the U.S. Department of Defense initiated a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects of soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterized. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and to monitor continuously the sampler flow rates. Interior aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. These data will provide input for future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of inhaled or ingested DU aerosols. This paper briefly discusses the target vehicles, firing trajectories, aerosol samplers and instrumentation control systems, and the types of analyses conducted on the samples.

  7. Bradley v. University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    1993-10-07

    The U.S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, affirmed a lower court's holding that an HIV positive surgical technician, Brian Bradley, was no longer "qualified" to continue in that position within the meaning of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Bradley had also contended that the hospital's reassignment was retaliation against him for disclosing his HIV status to a newspaper and therefore constituted a violation of his First Amendment right of free speech. The court found that the newspaper interview was not a motivating factor in the hospital's actions. The hospital validly determined that the work of a surgical technician creates some risk of viral transmission. Although the risk of Bradley's transmitting the disease to a patient was low, the risk was not inconsequential given the possibly fatal repercussions of an accident resulting in such transmission.

  8. Stimulating a normal adjustment: misbehavior, amphetamines, and the electroencephalogram at the Bradley Home for children.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article uses an historical case study to describe the influence of social and contextual factors on the adoption of somatic approaches to children's misbehavior. The child guidance movement and the emergence of medicalized residential treatment facilities for children influenced the theoretical orientations of physicians treating children's behavior disorders in the United States in the 1930s. Charles Bradley and his colleagues at the Bradley Home in Rhode Island defined behavior disorders in social terms but investigated and treated misbehavior with somatic tools. The use of amphetamines and the electroencephalogram reorganized concepts of maladjustment along neurological lines, even as the research relied on the Home's social priorities. Electroencephalographic investigations especially shaped an organic concept of misbehavior. Ultimately, the somatic orientation obscured the central role of local context in Bradley Home physicians' research.

  9. Boresighting and Weapon Checks with the Close-in Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    27 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Contracting Officer’s Representative: Seward Smith. Material is part of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery Field...Bradley Fighting Vehicle Boresighting Drift Boresight retention Equilabrator Close-in panel Backlash 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary...and identify by block number) A specially designed "close-in panel" can be used in boresighting the turret weapons and sights of the Bradley Fighting

  10. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  11. Fighting Spam And Winning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBose, Cornelius B.

    2004-01-01

    E-mail has become a significant means of communication between teachers, students, parents and administrators in many school systems. The increasing amount of SPAM e-mail threatens to overload school email systems. The experience of Lake Forest, IL School District #67 in fighting e-mail spam is described. Spam basics, spam fighting tools, and…

  12. The Fighting Mynahs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story from Hawaii about how it is better to share and cooperate than to squabble and fight. The story is about two large mynah birds fighting for a ripe mango hanging from a tree. In the midst of their battle, a mother and father sparrow pecked small pieces from the mango to feed their large hungry family. Flying back and…

  13. Accounting for Individual Differences in Bradley-Terry Models by Means of Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, Florian; Zeileis, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The preference scaling of a group of subjects may not be homogeneous, but different groups of subjects with certain characteristics may show different preference scalings, each of which can be derived from paired comparisons by means of the Bradley-Terry model. Usually, either different models are fit in predefined subsets of the sample or the…

  14. Basic Design Teaching into Secondary Art Education: James Bradley at Sidcot School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunliffe, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the term "basic design" has become well known as a type of design education practiced at England's King's College and Leeds College of Art in the 1950s and early 1960s. Describes the work of James Bradley, who brought the basic design approach to Sidcot School, a secondary school in Avon. (CFR)

  15. Making Space for VET Learning after the Bradley Review: Rethinking Knowledge to Support Inclusion and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, John; Seddon, Terri

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between higher education and vocational education and training in Australia is under discussion as a result of the Bradley Review of Higher Education. This reform process, which is intended to create a more inclusive, mass tertiary education sector, has significant implications for VET. This article examines the implications of…

  16. Looking for a Fight.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    111112 , L.25 H.i... W(RoU ’U OLU~ICG ifVI Kb). t £ AD-A195 290 .-:IECTE JUNO 8~ AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE STUDENT REPORT LOOKING FOR A FIGHT MAJOR...8217. .-47- UO _.-.",’ .’_ ,= .% REPORT NUMBER 88-1115 TITLE LOOKING FOR A FIGHT AUTHOR(S) MAJOR BARNEY A. GRIMESIII, USMC FACULTY ADVISOR MAJOR R...Classification) LOOKING FOR A FIGHT 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Grimes, Barney A. III Major, USMC 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  17. Fighting Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Chronic Pain Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... diagnose, health care professionals and scientists know that chronic pain is very complex. Below are some of the ...

  18. Why Men Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A Review Essay WHY MEN FIGHT DR MARK R. SHULMAN FOR TOO LONG, military historians have attempted to adhere to Clausewitz’s description of war as...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why Men Fight

  19. Systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model against nonlinear ranking hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Shev, Aaron; Fujii, Kevin; Hsieh, Fushing; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    We take a system point of view toward constructing any power or ranking hierarchy onto a society of human or animal players. The most common hierarchy is the linear ranking, which is habitually used in nearly all real-world problems. A stronger version of linear ranking via increasing and unvarying winning potentials, known as Bradley-Terry model, is particularly popular. Only recently non-linear ranking hierarchy is discussed and developed through recognition of dominance information contents beyond direct dyadic win-and-loss. We take this development further by rigorously arguing for the necessity of accommodating system's global pattern information contents, and then introducing a systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model. Our test statistic with an ensemble based empirical distribution favorably compares with the Deviance test equipped with a Chi-squared asymptotic approximation. Several simulated and real data sets are analyzed throughout our development.

  20. Fast Fight Detection

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  1. Fast fight detection.

    PubMed

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications.

  2. Effect of ice formation and streamflow on salmon incubation habitat in the lower Bradley River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A minimum flow of 40 cubic feet per second is required in the lower Bradley River, near Homer, Alaska, from November 2 to April 30 to ensure adequate salmon egg incubation habitat. The study that determined this minimum flow did not account for the effects of ice formation on habitat. An investigation was made during periods of ice formation. Hydraulic properties and field water-quality data were measured in winter only from March 1993 to April 1995 at six transects in the lower Bradley River. Discharge in the lower Bradley River ranged from 42.6 to 73.0 cubic feet per second (average 57 cubic feet per second) with ice conditions ranging from near ice free to 100 percent ice cover. Stream water velocity and depth were adequate for habitat protection for all ice conditions and discharges. No relation was found between percent ice cover and mean velocity and depth for any given discharge and no trends were found with changes in discharge for a given ice condition. Velocity distribution within each transect varied significantly from one sampling period to the next. Mean depth and velocity at flows of 40 cubic feet per second or less could not be predicted. No consistent relation was found between the amount of wetted perimeter and percent ice cover. Intragravel-water temperature was slightly warmer than surface-water temperature. Surface and intragravel-water dissolved-oxygen levels were adequate for all flows and ice conditions. No apparent relation was found between dissolved-oxygen levels and streamflow or ice conditions. Excellent oxygen exchange was indicated throughout the study reach. Stranding potential of salmon fry was found to be low throughout the study reach. The limiting factors for determining the minimal acceptable flow limit appear to be stream-water velocity and depth, although specific limits could not be estimated because of the high flows that occurred during this study.

  3. Comparison of the Bradley Method and HypnoBirthing Childbirth Education Classes

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Corry A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to compare and contrast two forms of childbirth education: HypnoBirthing (the Mongan Method) and the Bradley Method (husband-coached natural childbirth). Evidence was obtained using a formal literature review, reading published books and workbooks on the two methods, and attending classes to document content delivered. Similarities and differences in content are reported along with birth outcomes from evaluations of the two methods. Tables with this content were formatted so that they can be used by educators and providers. PMID:26957896

  4. Teams ranking of Malaysia Super League using Bayesian expectation maximization for Generalized Bradley Terry Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Shahdiba Binti Md; Mahmud, Zamalia

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of sports data has always aroused great interest among statisticians and sports data have been investigated from different perspectives often aim at forecasting the results. The study focuses on the 12 teams who join the Malaysian Super League (MSL) for season 2015. This paper used Bayesian Expectation Maximization for Generalized Bradley Terry Model to estimate all the football team's rankings. The Generalized Bradley-Terry model is possible to find the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the skill ratings λ using a simple iterative procedure. In order to maximize the function of ML, we need inferential bayesian method to get posterior distribution which can be computed quickly. The team's ability was estimated based on the previous year's game results by calculating the probability of winning based on the final scores for each team. It was found that model with tie scores does make a difference in affect the model of estimating the football team's ability in winning the next match. However, team with better results in the previous year has a better chance for scoring in the next game.

  5. Reflectance measurements of well cuttings from Ashley and Bradley Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ratchford, Michael E.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined for twenty-three well cuttings samples from Ashley and Bradley Counties, Arkansas, to evaluate coal rank and coalbed gas potential in the Desha Basin of the southern Missisissippi Embayment. Samples were selected from the Norman F. Williams Well Sample Library using geophysical logs to identify coaly shale and coal intervals from conventional oil and gas wells. Results indicate that maturation of vitrinite ranges from lignite to subbituminous B in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) at depths of 1400 to 2300 feet, and from subbituminous C to subbituminous A/high volatile bituminous C in the Trinity Group/Hosston Formation (Lower Cretaceous) at depths of 3000 to 3100 feet.

  6. When Your Parents Fight (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? When Your Parents Fight KidsHealth > For Kids > When Your Parents Fight A ... of kids. What Does It Mean When Parents Fight? Kids often worry about what it means when ...

  7. The Shaping of Policy: Exploring the Context, Contradictions, and Contours of Privilege in "Milliken v. Bradley," over 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.; Gooden, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: "Milliken v. Bradley" (1974) ("Milliken I") is a pivotal Supreme Court case that halted a metropolitan school desegregation remedy between Detroit and 53 surrounding suburban school districts. In a 5-4 Supreme Court decision, the "Milliken" ruling was a significant retraction from the landmark…

  8. Reflections on "Brown" to Understand "Milliken v. Bradley": What if We Are Focusing on the Wrong Policy Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Delale-O'Connor, Lori A.; Murray, Ira E.; Farinde, Abiola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research on "Milliken v. Bradley" focuses on the failure of this case to implement interdistrict busing in the highly segregated Detroit schools. Much of this work focuses explicitly on desegregation, rather than on equity and addressing individual, systemic, institutional, and organizational challenges that may…

  9. Teaching Family Communication Concepts through Family Stories: An Analysis of Stories and Rituals in David Bradley's "Harvest Home"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Marcia D.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, students will be able to apply the concepts of stories and rituals to an analysis of the ritual in the short story "Harvest Home" by David Bradley, gaining understanding of how stories and rituals affect and reflect family values, power structures and identities. "Harvest Home" talks about the rituals involved in a…

  10. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  11. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F; Mueller, André N; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  12. Applying a System-of-Systems Engineering Perspective to Current and Future Army Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Figure 12. ASAALT Acquisition Chart (from Carroll 2015) ...........................................62 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST...of the Abrams tank with equivalent firepower (Congressional Budget Office [CBO] 2006). The infantry carrier vehicle (ICV) would replace the Bradley ...fighting vehicle and M113 personnel carriers. The ICV would also be lighter and faster than the Bradley with increased firepower. Similarly, the non

  13. Applying a System-of-Systems Engineering Perspective to Current and Future Army Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ASAALT Acquisition Chart (from Carroll 2015) ...........................................62 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF...Abrams tank with equivalent firepower (Congressional Budget Office [CBO] 2006). The infantry carrier vehicle (ICV) would replace the Bradley ...fighting vehicle and M113 personnel carriers. The ICV would also be lighter and faster than the Bradley with increased firepower. Similarly, the non- line

  14. Instrumentation Development: The Multiple Subsystem Timing Meter (MSTM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    developed to record operational times for the turret drive, turret power, infrared sight unit and the Stabe system on the Bradley Fighting vehicle... RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Bruce Buzzo (602)-328-3131) STEYP-MT-TS DD Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous editions are...development of instrumention currently in use that displays and maintain accurate operational time of critical components in the Bradley Fighting Vehicle(s

  15. Hotol fights for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, Alan

    1989-03-01

    It is projected that if aerospace industry interests outside of Britain fail to assume a financial and developmental role in the unmanned, airbreathing propulsion-incorporating, horizontal takeoff and landing of 'Hotol' transatmospheric vehicle for satellite launching into LEO, the entire enterprise may collapse. Hotol is an attempt to achieve launch costs only one-fifth those incurred by NASA Space Shuttle flights. Virtually all details of the Hotol powerplant and its operational cycle are secret, but it is readily understood that the use of an airbreathing, LOX-fueled phase in flight yields a weight-saving so great as to drastically reduce costs relative to nonair-breathing propulsion launch vehicles.

  16. Preparing for the Next Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    Preparing for the Next Fight EWS Contemporary Issue Paper Submitted by Captain ET Sprague To Major AB Irvin, CG...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...for the Next Fight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  17. Flight and fight

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for ‘fight or flight’, possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABA-B-R1). PMID:17379239

  18. Lee C. Bradley III (Phillips Exeter Class of 1943): Physicist, Officer, and Gentleman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    2004-03-01

    Lee Carrington Bradley's career as a physicist began as an accomplished student at Phillips Exeter Academy, where he was influenced by Professor John C. Hogg, chairman of the Science Department. He graduated in 1943 and entered the V-12 program for naval officers and completed his undergraduate degree in physics at Princeton University. After a brief tour as a Navy Ensign he joined the first group of American Rhodes Scholars to attend Oxford University, in 1947, following the conclusion of World War II. Under the guidance of H.G. Kuhn of Clarendon Laboratory, Lee completed his Ph.D. in physics in 1950. He then accepted an instructorship in physics at Princeton until he was called to MIT as an assistant professor in 1954 and later as a research associate in the Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory. In 1966 he joined the technical staff of MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and became a senior staff member in 1978, a position he held until his retirement in 1992. From 1947 to 1966 Lee's interest was primarily in the field of optical spectroscopy, where his work brought him into contact with many of the outstanding physicists of his era. Upon joining Lincoln Laboratory, his physics interests shifted toward optics and laser propagation, the latter a field in which he made significant contributions. My illustrated tribute will discuss Lee's passage from Phillips Exeter to Lincoln Laboratory, describing his physics and some of the notable physicists with whom he worked.

  19. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  20. The Challenges in Training of the Mechanized Infantry Units of the Republic of Korea Army in Transitioning from the Armored Personnel Carrier (K200) to Infantry Fighting Vehicle (K21)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    mounted 12.7mm M2 MG in center of roof with rectangular hatch to rear (Foss 1996, 210). The M113 APC, powered by petrol engine , acts like a battle taxi...vehicle was classified M2A2, and included an increase in engine power to accommodate the weight increase (Urbina 1999, 427). After proving itself in...powerful engine , spall liners and optional applique armor (Foss 1992, 304). Meanwhile, the K200 APC was developed by the ROKA and Special Products

  1. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  2. Why Adolescents Fight: A Qualitative Study of Youth Perspectives on Fighting and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C.; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Methods Focus groups were conducted with middle and high-school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/non-fighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by three coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13–17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or due to anger; having goals for the future is protective. Non-fighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked, and teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Non-fighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Conclusions Non-fighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using non-violent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. PMID:25528128

  3. Stress, fighting and neuroendocrine function.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. L.; Levine, S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adrenocortical steroids in rats after testing in the shock-induced fighting paradigm were examined. The investigations provide data consistent with the view that psychological aspects of the stressful situation are important in determining the effects of shock on physiological function. The data indicate that the pituitary-adrenal response can be attenuated by the expression of an organized pattern of behavior.

  4. 76 FR 5193 - Felsenthal/Overflow National Wildlife Refuges, Ashley, Desha, Union, and Bradley Counties, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... hardwood forests considered vital for maintaining mallard, wood duck, and other waterfowl populations in... interpretation; (5) power boating; (6) all-terrain vehicle use; (7) bee keeping; (8) berry picking; (9) camping... wildlife and habitat management to identify, conserve, and restore populations of native fish and...

  5. Plant-Made Vaccines in the Fight Against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong-Arce, Alejandra; González-Ortega, Omar; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Immunotherapies constitute an important trend in developing new cancer treatments, and several promising candidates are under evaluation in clinical trials. Plants have entered the fight against cancer because they constitute low-cost and efficient hosts for biopharmaceutical production that can also serve as oral delivery vehicles. This review is focused on the knowledge gained through the development of anticancer plant-made vaccines reported thus far, and highlights the potential of this technology - its success being reflected in the number of candidates that are close to market. Future prospects for anticancer plant-made vaccines are also identified.

  6. Illicit Trafficking Challenges: Fighting the Good Fight Against Illicit Trafficking Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    2012 U.S. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL • CENTER ON CONTEMPORARY CONFLICT PASCC REPORT NUMBER 2012 012 ILLICIT TRAFFICKING CHALLENGES FIGHTING THE...GOOD FIGHT AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFICKING NETWORKS Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection... Trafficking Challenges: Fighting the Good Fight Against Illicit Trafficking Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. A Sad Journey down History: A Conversation with Judge Nathaniel Jones about Litigating "Milliken v. Bradley I" (1974), 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Green, Terrance L.

    2016-01-01

    The Honorable Judge Nathaniel Jones litigated the "Milliken v. Bradley I" case before the U.S. District Court and Supreme Court in 1971 and 1974. Nathaniel Jones was born May 12, 1926 in Youngstown, Ohio, and served as the general counsel for the NAACP from 1969-1979. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Nathaniel Jones to the U.S.…

  8. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled: William Bradley Coley, Third Surgeon-in-Chief 1925–1933

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In January 1925, the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed William Bradley Coley, M.D., age 63, Surgeon-in-Chief of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C) to succeed Virgil P. Gibney who submitted his resignation the month before. It would be the first time a general surgeon held that position at the oldest orthopedic hospital in the nation, now known as Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Coley had been on staff for 36 years and was world famous for introducing use of toxins to treat malignant tumors, particularly sarcomas. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical College, Coley interned at New York Hospital and was appointed, soon after, to the staff of the New York Cancer Hospital (now Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) located at that time at 106th Street on the West Side of New York. With his mentor Dr. William Bull, Coley perfected the surgical treatment of hernias at R & C. He was instrumental in raising funds for his alma maters, Yale, Harvard and Memorial Hospital. His crusade in immunology as a method of treatment for malignant tumors later fell out of acceptance in the medical establishment. After his death in 1936, an attempt to revive interest in use of immunotherapy for inoperable malignancies was carried out by his daughter, Helen Coley Nauts, who pursued this objective until her death at age 93 in 2000. Coley’s health deteriorated in his later years, and in 1933, he resigned as chief of Bone Tumors at Memorial Hospital and Surgeon-in-Chief at R & C, being succeeded at Ruptured and Crippled as Surgeon-in-Chief by Dr. Eugene H. Pool. William Bradley Coley died of intestinal infarction in 1936 and was buried in Sharon, Connecticut. PMID:18751855

  9. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  10. Utilization of a Vehicle Integrated Intelligence (V(INT)2) System in Armor Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    using his best judgment, taking whatever prudent risks he deems necessary. In short the commander can rapidly apply the principles of war-- maneuver ...them in making rapid, well-founded battlefield decisions. Vehicle commanders will take the most appropriate actions (e.g., seek cover, take evasive ...action, maneuver , fire weapons, etc.) to properly fight their vehicles. Unit cotmanders will both fight their own vehicles and will use V(INT)2 and it’s

  11. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  12. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Ants medicate to fight disease.

    PubMed

    Bos, Nick; Sundström, Liselotte; Fuchs, Siiri; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-11-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit, or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (reactive oxygen species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful to healthy ants, leads to higher survival of exposed ants. The fact that ingestion of this substance carries a fitness cost in the absence of pathogens rules out compensatory diet choice as the mechanism, and provides evidence that social insects medicate themselves against fungal infection, using a substance that carries a fitness cost to uninfected individuals.

  14. Cryptococcus bestiolae and Cryptococcus dejecticola, two new yeast species isolated from frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Hai, Dao Anh; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-03-01

    Two new yeast species, Cryptococcus bestiolae and Cryptococcus dejecticola, were discovered in the frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley. The yeasts utilize inositol, hydrolyze urea, produce starch-like substance, and contain CoQ10. Phylogenetic analyses of D1/D2 26S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences indicate that the yeasts are closely related to Bullera dendrophila and an undescribed species of Cryptococcus (strain CBS 8507). The two new species differed from each other by 17 nucleotides in the D1/D2 region and by 68 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus bestiolae is a sister species to Cryptococcus sp. CBS 8507, from which it differs by eight nucleotides in the D1/D2 region and 59 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus dejecticola and B. dendrophila differed by 13 nucleotides in the D1/D2 and 57 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus bestiolae and Cr. dejecticola formed with B. dendrophila a well defined clade consisting of insect associated species. The type strain of Cr. bestiolae is TH3.2.59 (=CBS 10118=NRRL Y-27894), and the type strain of Cr. dejecticola is Litch 17 (=CBS 10117=NRRL Y-27898).

  15. When Your Parents Fight (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... a job or other worries. continue How Do Kids Feel When Their Parents Fight? Kids usually feel ...

  16. Yemen’s Fight Against Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT YEMEN’S FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM by COL Mohamed H. Al-Bukaiti Yemen Army Dr Larry Goodson Project Advisor The views...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Yemen’s Fight Against Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  17. Biocatalytic nerve agent detoxification in fire fighting foams.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, K E; Russell, A J

    1999-03-20

    Current events across the globe necessitate rapid technological advances to combat the epidemic of nerve agent chemical weapons. Biocatalysis has emerged as a viable tool in the detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxins, such as the chemical weapons VX and sarin. Efficient detoxification of contaminated equipment, machinery, and soils are of principal concern. This study describes the incorporation of a biocatalyst (organophosphorus hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.8.1) into conventional formulations of fire fighting foam. The capacity of fire fighting foams to decrease volatilization of contained contaminants, increase surface wettability, and control the rate of enzyme delivery to large areas makes them useful vehicles for enzyme application at surfaces. The performance of enzyme containing foams has been shown to be not only reproducible but also predictable. An empirical model provides reasonable estimations for the amounts of achievable surface decontamination as a function of the important parameters of the system. Theoretical modeling illustrates that the enzyme-containing foam is capable of extracting agent from the surface and is catalytically active at the foam-surface interface and throughout the foam itself. Biocatalytic foam has proven to be an effective, "environmentally friendly" means of surface and soil decontamination.

  18. The Fighting Phenomenon: What It Means to Be a Girl Who Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Maureen Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate why girls in an urban high school setting engage in physical fights in order to better understand the female student's mindset about fighting. A search of ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and dissertations was conducted to review research in the following…

  19. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.

  20. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and…

  1. Chinese American Students Fight for Their Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…

  2. "Chiefs for Change" Elbows into Policy Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Amid the cacophony of special interests fighting to be heard in statehouses and on Capitol Hill, a cadre of current and former chief state school officers is elbowing its way into the nation's education debate at a time when states are taking more control of K-12 education. A little more than a year old, Chiefs for Change is an invitation-only…

  3. Kaiser retools to fight for lost ground.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, L

    1995-07-17

    In the face of mounting competition, the country's oldest not-for-profit HMO is retooling to fight for lost ground. Kaiser, headed by David Lawrence, M.D., is focusing on regaining robust growth in profits and enrollment by improving its roll as an industry leader.

  4. Guidelines for Evaluating the Thermal Environment of Enclosed Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    stoves) or heat sinks (e.g., cool or cold concrete floors, walls ). Solar radiation transmitted through windows or windshields also needs to be...space. Three studies of concrete tanks and metal containers, the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle; and the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, are...driver’s compartment leading to the passenger zone. The curved shape is the wall of the turret

  5. Fratricide and a Correlation to ABCS Training Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    the M1A2 Abrams Tank and the M2A2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and non-stabilized platforms like the M1114 HMMWV, Special Forces non-standard vehicles...Leavenworth, Kans.: Center for Army Lessons Learned, US Army Combined Arms Command, April 1992. Usry, Jr., Capt. Floyd J. "Stop Killing Each Other

  6. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  7. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  8. Vehicle Rustproofing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Areas - G.M.) 11. Vehicle Rustproofing Guide for Vehicle Maintenance Managers 12. Chart - Vehicle Buy Program FY 83-87 13. Vehicle ...on the Vehicle Buy Program. k. The impact of a total fleet rustproofing policy on industry. I. Potential problems in Quality Control and Warranty...FY83-87, the Air Force intends to buy $2.5 billion worth of vehicles (Atch 12); thus, a total fleet treatment program for that period could cost as

  9. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer.

  10. Is Airpower Relevant in a COIN Fight?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    venture--so airpower is at a discount simply because it is a military tool . Second, airpower is a military tool 3 inherently incapable of engaging ‘up... tools that possess a precision that did not exist in the mid-twentieth century COIN fights. In addition to precision, airpower now further enhances...increasing number and capability of ISR assets, the Air Force exploits these tools producing actionable information. Michael W. Isherwood in Airpower

  11. Fighting Proliferation New Concerns for the Nineties,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    facing all of us have been prioritized within the US Department of Defense (DOD) by Secretary William Perry as ( 1 ) preserving the fruits of the end of the...Publication Data Fighting proliferation : new concerns for the nineties / edited by Henry Sokolski. p. cm. Includes index. 1 . Nuclear nonproliferation. I...xiii INTRODUCTION: The Proliferation Challenges Ahead ........... xv PART I Rethinking the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Model 1 What Does the

  12. Recommended Solutions to Fire Fighting Training Problems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    L. MALOY, Ed-D Training Analysis and Evaluation Group Deputy Chief of Naval Education and Training for Educational Development/ Research , Development...responsibility would ensure coordinated responses to senior commands, prevent duplication and interference of research and development efforts with... research rr t into the instructor communications problem in order to provide instrurte t -i f-re fighting schools with safe, satisfactory equipment. It is

  13. Strategy changes in subsequent fights as consequences of winning and losing in fruit fly fights.

    PubMed

    Trannoy, Séverine; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-11-11

    In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests. In a recent report, we examined these loser and winner effects in greater detail and demonstrated that both winners and losers show short-term memory of the results of previous bouts while only losers demonstrate a longer-term memory that requires protein synthesis. The recent findings also suggested that an individual recognition mechanism likely exists that can serve important roles in evaluating the fighting ability of opponents and influencing future fighting strategy. In this article, we follow up on these results by asking how previous defeated and victorious flies change their fighting strategies in the presence of 2(nd) losing and winning flies, by searching for evidence of territory marking, and discussing the existing literature in light of our findings.

  14. How to pick a good fight.

    PubMed

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties.

  15. The Armys M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    to machine large, complex metal structures for the ground combat vehicle industrial base;  Unique capabilities exist at each production and...force structure cuts and lack of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) opportunities, Congress has expressed a great deal of concern with the health of the...medium-weight brigade combat team in 2003. The Army’s original goal was to structure these brigades light enough to deploy anywhere in the world within

  16. Application of the Modified Urey-Bradley-Shimanouchi Force field of α-D-Glucopyranose and β-D-Fructopyranose to Predict the Vibrational Spectra of Disaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafour, H. M.; Sekkal-Rahal, M.; Sail, K.

    2014-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the disaccharide isomaltulose in the solid state have been reproduced in the 50-4000 cm-1 range. The modified Urey-Bradley-Shimanouchi force field was used, combined with an inter molecular potential energy function that includes van der Waals interactions, electrostatic terms, and an explicit hydrogen bond function. The force constants previously established for α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-fructo pyranose, as well as the crystallographic data of isomaltulose monohydrate, were the starting parameters for the present work. The vibrational frequencies of isomaltulose were calculated and assigned to the experimentally observed vibrational frequencies. Overall, there was good agreement between the observed and calculated frequencies with an average error of 4 cm-1. Furthermore, good agreement was found between our calculated results and the vibration spectra of other disaccharides and monosaccharides.

  17. Building a History-Centered Curriculum for Kindergarten through Grade Four: Guidelines for Using Themes and Selecting Content. The Building a History Curriculum Series: Guides for Implementing the History Curriculum Recommended by the Bradley Commission on History in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for History Education, Inc., Westlake, OH.

    The distinguished teachers and historians on the Bradley Commission on History in Schools suggested the basic themes, narratives, topics, and questions essential to the study of United States history, of Western civilization, and of world history. This guide provides teachers, administrators, and parents with principles of selection and…

  18. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  19. Organizing to Fight: Goldwater-Nichols and the Military Strategist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    closely tied to how we organize to fight . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Fenster, Lynn lfenster...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizing to Fight : Goldwater-Nichols and the Military Strategist Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT...That legislation focused almost completely on how we organize to fight . The history of the American defense establishment provides a back-drop for the

  20. USAF Cyberspace Command: To Fly and Fight in Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AFB, Louisiana. He is responsible for establishing cyberspace as a domain in and through which the Air Force flies and fights to deliver sovereign...Lord.indd 5 8/8/08 12:54:27 PM USAF Cyberspace Command To Fly and Fight in Cyberspace William T. Lord, Major General, USAF Safeguarding our...nation at war. Our military is engaged in a fight against groups and individuals who follow an ideology that has as its fundamental tenets a

  1. Status of Efforts to Initiate an Amphibious Combat Vehicle Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-10

    the ACV program until 2018. the Department of Defense (DOD) canceled the Marine Corps’ Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle acquisition program due to...concerns regarding its affordability. The Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) is a potential, but not yet initiated, successor program to the Expeditionary...findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. This is the first of the mandated GAO reports. It discusses (1) the current status of the ACV

  2. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  3. Inflatable partition for fighting mine fires

    DOEpatents

    Conti, Ronald S.; Lazzara, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    The seal is a lightweight, inflatable, bag which may be inflated by a portable air generator and is used to seal a burning mine passage. A collapsible tube-like aperture extends through the seal and allows passage of high expansion foam through the seal in a feed tube. The foam fills the passageway and extinguishes the fire. In other embodiments, the feed tubes incorporate means to prevent collapse of the aperture. In these embodiments a shroud connects the feed tube to a foam generator. This seal allows creation of a high expansion foam fire fighting barrier even in upward sloping passages.

  4. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  5. Phytochemicals in the Fight Against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Kristoffer T; Zhu, Ziwen; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemicals are chemical compounds from fruits, vegetables, or grains and they have been used to treat various diseases for thousands of years. More than one million people in the United States get cancer each year. Although recent advances in medicine have improved the outcomes for cancer patients, there is still a need for novel approaches in the fight against cancer. One such approach that has shown promise in recent years is the use of phytochemicals alone or as synergistic agents. In this review, we will discuss the use of phytochemicals as therapeutic agents against cancer with an emphasis on apple extract.

  6. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  7. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  8. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  9. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  10. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  11. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  12. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  13. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  14. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  15. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  16. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  17. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  18. Urban youths' perspectives on violence and the necessity of fighting

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S; Frattaroli, S; Wright, J; Pearson-Fields, C; Cheng, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess youth perceptions of the causes and consequences of violence generally, the causes and consequences of fighting specifically, and to determine how best to approach fighting in the context of violence prevention activities. Methods: Thirteen structured focus group interviews with youths from three high violence urban settings: a large, urban high school, a training center for disadvantaged youths, and a school for adjudicated youths. Participants were 120 urban, predominately African-American youths and young adults ages 14–22 years (mean: 17.2 years). Seven focus groups were conducted with females, and six with males. Results: Adolescents identified the causes of violence on multiple levels including: individual, family, interpersonal, and community level factors. Most youths (89%) had been in a physical fight. Participants felt that fighting was not "right", but identified situations in which it was necessary. Specifically, fighting was used as a problem solving tool, and could prevent escalation of violence. Youths felt that the adults in their lives, including physicians, were generally ill equipped to give advice about violence, as adults' experiences were so removed from their own. Participants looked to experienced role models to offer problem solving and harm reduction strategies. Youths were open to receiving anticipatory guidance about violence and fighting from primary care physicians they felt comfortable with, and who showed respect for their experiences. Conclusions: Interventions that include blanket admonitions against fighting should be reassessed in light of youth perceptions that fighting plays a complex role in both inciting and preventing more serious violence. PMID:15470008

  19. School Violence: Social Bond Theory and Physical Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemmetz, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical fighting in school is a concern for school administrators, juvenile justice professionals, and students. This quantitative study examined the involvement of physical fights at school among 5,674 adolescents across the United States via a casual comparative design with a correlational subcomponent. Differences were discovered between…

  20. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in...

  1. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in...

  2. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in...

  3. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in...

  4. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in...

  5. Why Do I Fight with My Parents So Much?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Do I Fight With My Parents So Much? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Do I Fight With My Parents So Much? A A ... Friend Is Talking About Running Away: What Should I Do? When Parents Argue Coping With an Alcoholic ...

  6. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

  7. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  8. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  9. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent.

  10. A History of the U.S. Army Officer Corps, 1900-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    consisting of the Abrams tank, the Bradley fighting vehicle, the Apache attack heli- copter, the Black Hawk utility helicopter, and the Pa- triot air...II-17/18; Lieutenant Col- onel Carroll B. Hodges, Chief, Personnel Research Branch, Per- sonnel Retrieval and Processing (PR&P) Division, the

  11. Electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  12. Vehicle Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    Dimensions. Pertinent physical dimensions are determined using standard mensurative instrumentation such as steel tape measures, plumb bobs...vehicles use ITOP 2-2- 801(1)5. 4.2.3 Center of Gravity (CG). Determine the center of gravity of the test vehicle in accordance with TOP 2-2...8006. For tracked vehicles use ITOP 2-2-800(1)7. 4.2.4 Ground Pressure. Determine ground pressure in accordance with TOP 2-2-801. For tracked

  13. Aircraft Maintenance Wartime Command and Control: The Might to Fight.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    activities on the flight line. The model is also flexible enough to be used by fight -in-place units, those units deploying from CONUS, and those...MIGHT TO FIGHT (U) AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL UNCLSSIFED RFB AL P A PEVER APR 88 RCSC-88-2li5 / 151 N 7 UNCL ARCA FTNEACEMR IECOMN N CO6...COMMANI) AND STAFF COLLEGE ,STUDENT REPORT AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DTIC WARTIME COMMAND AND CONTROL: ELW -TE THE MIGHT TO FIGHT I I MAJOR POLLY A. PEYER

  14. Crash Rescue and Fire Fighting Concepts for Expeditionary Airfields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    considered: 1. Emergency call 2. Helicopter take off 3. Fire fighting A. Safe rescue path opened The time between events 1 and 2 depends on the flight ...enough so that time gain is vital. Data show that even at the minimum time response , such fire- fighting effort can be quite futile, i.e., the life-saving...was discontinued In the Air Force in 1972. From the standpoint of time response , the use of any airlift units for ground crash fire fighting is

  15. Launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, William S.

    1994-06-01

    Concentrated efforts by NASA and the DOD to begin development of a new large launch vehicle have been under way for over a decade. Options include the National Launch System, Advanced Launch System, a heavy lift vehicle, a Shuttle-derived vehicle, a Titan-derived vehicle, Single stage To Orbit, NASP and Spacelifter, to name a few. All initially promised low operations costs achieved at development costs in the $5 billion - $10 billion range. However, none has obtained approval for development, primarily because it became apparent that these cost goals could not realistically be met.

  16. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  17. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  18. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  19. Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163244.html Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia Tweaking T-cells ... 25, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Two infants with an advanced form of leukemia are ...

  20. Busy Minds May Be Better At Fighting Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163310.html Busy Minds May Be Better at Fighting Dementia Computer use, ... and behavioral neurologist at Mayo Clinic's Arizona campus. Reading books and newspapers regularly didn't seem to ...

  1. Joint Force Transformation to Fight the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-08

    JOINT FORCE TRANSFORMATION TO FIGHT THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Capt Stephen Guse LTC Paul Disney...for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...AND SUBTITLE Joint Force Transformation to Fight the Global War on Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Shaping the Joint Fight in Air, Space, and Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    world. In addition to flying and fighting , the Air Force has maintained a credible nuclear deterrent, exploited space, and is now tapping the...Joint Fight in Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  3. It’s Time to Fight Back: Operationalizing Network Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Fall 2010 | 29 Views & Analyses It’s Time to Fight Back “Operationalizing” Network Defense Mr. Nicolas Adam Fraser Lt Col Robert J. Kaufman III...tenant Colonel Rydell as a senior associate with Booz, Allen, and Hamilton. All served tours on the Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team. The...warfare constructs with the goal of ensuring that network warfare operations carry out the Air Force’s stated mission: “to fly, fight , and win . . . in

  4. ARFF Ultra High Pressure Fire Fighting Systems (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    dry chemical •20-30 gpm UHP with water and foam •LP handline hookup •Response to cargo aircraft engine fire •Pure water UHP alone would not extinguish...Air Force Research Laboratory has developed Ultra High Pressure ( UHP ) fire fighting as a method to reduce the amount of agent and extinguishment time...to demonstrate an overall reduction of agent usage to 28% of the amount required using conventional technology. UHP fire fighting is now fully

  5. Understanding and fighting the medicine counterfeit market.

    PubMed

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves; Margot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious worldwide issue, involving networks of manufacture and distribution that are an integral part of industrialized organized crime. Despite the potentially devastating health repercussions involved, legal sanctions are often inappropriate or simply not applied. The difficulty in agreeing on a definition of counterfeiting, the huge profits made by the counterfeiters and the complexity of the market are the other main reasons for the extent of the phenomenon. Above all, international cooperation is needed to thwart the spread of counterfeiting. Moreover effort is urgently required on the legal, enforcement and scientific levels. Pharmaceutical companies and agencies have developed measures to protect the medicines and allow fast and reliable analysis of the suspect products. Several means, essentially based on chromatography and spectroscopy, are now at the disposal of the analysts to enable the distinction between genuine and counterfeit products. However the determination of the components and the use of analytical data for forensic purposes still constitute a challenge. The aim of this review article is therefore to point out the intricacy of medicine counterfeiting so that a better understanding can provide solutions to fight more efficiently against it.

  6. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  7. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  8. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost.

  9. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  10. STS-47 crew during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit during fire fighting exercises. Manning the hose in the foreground are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson, at rear. Lined up on the second hose are Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran firefighter monitors the effort from a position between the two hoses. In the background, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, donning gloves, and MS Mae C. Jemison look on. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai all represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  11. Occupational exposures in California wildland fire fighting.

    PubMed

    Materna, B L; Jones, J R; Sutton, P M; Rothman, N; Harrison, R J

    1992-01-01

    Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted in northern California during three consecutive fire seasons (1986-1989) in conjunction with three separate health effects studies. Chemicals that were monitored included carbon monoxide, total and respirable particulates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crystalline silica, aldehydes, and benzene. Measurements were taken at both wildland fires and prescribed (planned) burns. A variety of collection methods were employed--colorimetric detector tubes and a CO monitor were used for direct-reading area measurements; colorimetric diffusion tubes, filter cassettes, sorbent tubes, and passive vapor monitors were used for determining personal time-weighted average exposures. A new screening method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 2539) was used to identify the presence of specific aldehydes. Results show that wildland fire fighters may at times be exposed to concentrations of carbon monoxide, total or respirable particulates, or silica at levels near or higher than recommended occupational exposure limits, although group means were generally well below the limits. Time-weighted average formaldehyde levels, measured in a few instances above 0.37 mg/m3 (0.3 ppm), indicate a potential for formaldehyde-induced eye or respiratory irritation under these conditions. Certain characteristics of the work such as high altitude, temperature, and breathing rate; extended work shifts; and additional off-shift exposures suggest that adjustment of 8-hr exposure limits may be necessary to provide adequate protection. In part, because of the rigors of performing industrial hygiene measurements under fire fighting conditions, data are limited and could not be considered representative of the full range of exposures fire fighters may encounter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  14. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  15. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  16. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  17. Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAV) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Lee, Ting N.

    2007-04-01

    The UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) have great potentials in different civilian applications, such as oil pipeline surveillance, precision farming, forest fire fighting (yearly), search and rescue, boarder patrol, etc. The related industries of UAVs can create billions of dollars for each year. However, the road block of adopting UAVs is that it is against FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ATC (Air Traffic Control) regulations. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest technologies and researches on UAV navigation and obstacle avoidance. We have purposed a system design of Jittering Mosaic Image Processing (JMIP) with stereo vision and optical flow to fulfill the functionalities of autonomous UAVs.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents.

  19. Bradley, James (1693-1762)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Sherborne, Gloucestershire, England. From 1742 third Astronomer Royal. With SAMUEL MOLYNEUX discovered the `aberration of light' (a very large and unsuspected apparent motion of the stars that was, up to that time, an uncontrolled error in star observations). The explanation for the discovery (the addition of the Earth's orbital velocity to the velocity of the light incoming ...

  20. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  1. A Mismatch between the Perceived Fighting Signal and Fighting Ability Reveals Survival and Physiological Costs for Bearers

    PubMed Central

    González-Santoyo, Isaac; González-Tokman, Daniel M.; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto E.; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal) but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink) in territory owners, we investigated: a) the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b) survival cost and c) three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed), experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers. PMID:24409304

  2. The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    Puma IFV that was developed based on lessons learned from Iraq and Afghanistan. SAIC also emphasized all work, including production, would take place...for proposal and aspects of the team’s bid were discounted because of a lack of familiarity with the German Puma infantry fighting vehicle that

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2016-11-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium fish. Serious attentions have been paid to the biodiversity of the fish. The mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish is reported to be 17 099 bp and includes 37 genes. The gene organization is similar to other fish mitogenomes. The control region is AT-rich and includes three tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the fish is close to fish in the Macropodus genus. This mitogenome will assist in studying the mitochondrial variations and population structure in this fish and examine the evolutionary relationship among fish in the Osphronemidae family.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  5. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  8. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Background and Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-24

    Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria: Background and Current Issues Updated March 24, 2005 Raymond W. Copson and Tiaji Salaam Foreign Affairs...number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 MAR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis , and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria: Background and Current Issues Summary The Global Fund to Fight

  9. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... augmented to meet paragraph (a) of this section from local fire fighting assets. A 30-minute response time... fighting service. 121.106 Section 121.106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and Flag Operations § 121.106 ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (a) Except...

  10. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and functioning. Gambling perceptions and correlates of problem-gambling severity were examined in fighting and non-fighting adolescents. Results: Gambling perceptions were more permissive and at-risk/problem gambling was more frequent amongst adolescents reporting serious fights versus those denying serious fights. A stronger relationship between problem-gambling severity and regular smoking was observed for adolescents involved in fights. Discussion and conclusions: The more permissive gambling attitudes and heavier gambling associated with serious fights in high school students suggest that youth who engage in physical fights warrant enhanced prevention efforts related to gambling. The stronger relationship between tobacco smoking and problem-gambling severity amongst youth engaging in serious fights suggest that fighting youth who smoke might warrant particular screening for gambling problems and subsequent interventions. PMID:24294502

  11. Stifled Laughter: One Woman's Story about Fighting Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Claudia

    Part memoir, part courtroom drama, part primer for fighting assaults on free speech, this book narrates a 5-year-long federal battle which began in 1986 to reinstate several literary classics to the reading list of a public high school in Lake City, Florida. The book recounts how the superintendent, the local school board, and several religious…

  12. A Fight for Lodgement: Future Joint Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    commander in chief, U.S. Army Europe; he formerly served as executive officer, 3d Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. A Fight for Lodgement... response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...

  13. Another Way To Fight: Combat Aviation Advisory Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    their intention for advisors to conduct tactical flight operations with foreign aircrews. Further, theater responses detailed categories and types of...AIR FORCE FELLOWS PROGRAM AIR UNIVERSITY ANOTHER WAY TO FIGHT : COMBAT AVIATION ADVISORY OPERATIONS by Norman...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing

  14. Frank Capra's "Why We Fight" Series and the American Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Kathleen M.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the United States government suppressed Frank Capra's 1944 documentary, "The Battle of China," because it lacked the visual framework of arguments evidenced by the other films in Capra's "Why We Fight" series. Investigates Capra's portrayal of fundamental American values through the visual contrast techniques of…

  15. How Captain Amerika uses neural networks to fight crime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Steven K.; Kabrisky, Matthew; Ruck, Dennis W.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial neural network models can make amazing computations. These models are explained along with their application in problems associated with fighting crime. Specific problems addressed are identification of people using face recognition, speaker identification, and fingerprint and handwriting analysis (biometric authentication).

  16. Transforming Teacher Unions: Fighting for Better Schools and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Bob, Ed.; Charney, Michael, Ed.

    This anthology examines exemplary practices of teachers' unions at the local and national level, presenting visions for the 21st century that involve teachers' unions in the fight to improve public schools and conditions of social justice throughout U.S. communities. Six sections feature 25 articles: (1) "Overview," including…

  17. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    future warfare. Van Creveld is an influential source in this study. Van Creveld sees recent changes in the world that are significant in historical ......is intended that this novel approach will inform and assist the analysis of, future conflicts where dirty fighting may well occur. v

  18. NASA helicopter helps fight brush fire at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA helicopter flies over fire-fighting equipment and personnel in order to drop its load of water on a wildfire at KSC. Before being extinguished, the fire burned about 20 acres at a site near gate 2C on Kennedy Parkway North (route 3).

  19. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  20. Neuromuscular responses to simulated brazilian jiu-jitsu fights.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-12-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last one (Post). Blood lactate (LA) was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post), but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post) were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05) at Post, both in the 1st min (10.4 ± 2.7 mmol L-1) and the 15th min (6.4 ± 2.5 mmol L-1) of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power) was observed.

  1. Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  2. Hermes vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    1984-10-01

    Projected mission profiles and computational models of the Hermes winged manned reentry vehicle are discussed. Launched into a low orbit with a crew of at most four by the Ariane 5 vehicle, Hermes will serve transportation, crew relief, safety, and freight carriage functions. It will have a nominal 300-500 km circular or 600-900 km heliosynchronous orbit, weigh from 13,500-16,700 kg, and return in hypersonic glide to a wheeled landing. The vehicle dimensions will be 15-18 m length, 6 m height at the tail fin, and a 10 m span. The L/D ratio will be 1.5-1.6, thereby furnishing a cross range of 2500 km. Hermes will have a Shuttle-type fuselage, carbon-carbon nose, and insulation on the extrados designed to keep the structure at 175 C or lower. The avionics will have 3-4 levels of redundance, each mission phase-dependent. Power will be supplied by three fuel cells and a bank of four Ag-Zn batteries. Hardware development is scheduled to begin in 1988.

  3. Operator’s Manual. Prototype Heavy Rescue/Fire Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    GREATER THAN RATE OF CABLE TRAVEL. 5. Activate winch through the micro-switch of the controller for powered cable-out operation. 6. Attach cable eye to...foreign object on the valve and it is not possible to blow out the foreign object by activating the deflating device, then the complete upper part of...speed is ad-3 , juted by the operator. Once one bag is de-if ,flated, then repeat operation for the second bag. " ..... NOTE ’ 4w...:, .BAG WILL

  4. Flammability Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials for the Composite Infantry Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    30 E-701 Baseline MTL-2 S2/Polyester* 70/30 Owens - Corning MTL-3 S2/Polyester* 70/30 American-Cyanamide MTL-4 Kevlar/Phenolic-PVBt 84/16 Russell C...3rporation MTL-5 S2/Phenolic 80/20 Owens - Corning ;Resin formulation isproprietary. Resin is 50/50 Phenolic-PVB. Organic polymers are one of the major...Dihydroanthracene 35 Diisopropenylphthalate 36 2-Phenyl naphthalene 12 Table 7. PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF MTL-2, OWENS - CORNING ; 9000C

  5. Human Factors Integration Requirements for Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs). Part 3: Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    longer engagement ranges. 1 MAGEE, l. E., DARVIll , D.J., SWEENEY, D.M. (1988). Human Factors in Tank Gunnery. Downsview, ON, Defence and Civil...reliability for evaluating workload certifiCBtion plans. Air fon::e emphasis - air crews. 2 DARVILL , D. J., SWEENEY, D.M. {1988). The Canadian Army...uisition and lon r en ement ra es. MAGEE, L. E., DARVILL , D.J., SWEENEY, D.M. (1988). Human Factors in Tank Gunnery. Downsview, ON, Defence and

  6. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    PubMed

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  7. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  8. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

    1999-01-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (< 15 minute) nap or coffee (about 150 mg caffeine), which are very effective particularly if taken together. Exercise is of little use. CONCLUSIONS: More education of employers and employees is needed about planning journeys, the dangers of driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.   PMID:10472301

  9. Onset of fights and mutual assessment in ant founding queens.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Kévin; Portugal, Felipe Ramon; Jeanson, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    In animals, the progress and outcome of contests can be influenced by an individual's own condition, their opponent's condition or a combination of the two. The use of chemical information to assess the quality of rivals has been underestimated despite its central role in the regulation of social interactions in many taxa. Here, we studied pairwise contests between founding queens of the ant Lasius niger to investigate whether the decision to engage in agonistic interactions relies on self-assessment or mutual assessment. Queens modulated their aggressive behaviours depending on both their own status and their opponent's status. We found no influence of lipid stores or size on the onset of fights. However, differences in cuticular chemical signatures linked to fertility status accurately predicted the probability of behaving aggressively in pairs. Our study thus suggests that ant queens could rely on mutual assessment via chemical cues to make informed decisions about fight initiation.

  10. Leveraging Primary Care in the Fight Against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jason L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the decline in youth smoking rates has stopped as the tobacco industry strives to successfully reclaim market areas where it has lost favor. The plateau in lung cancer incidence and stagnation in progress toward smoking abstinence illustrates the necessity for renewed efforts to fight tobacco use. Barriers to fighting tobacco use exist in both the clinical arena and within the general population, but can be overcome. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are uniquely poised to successfully treat nicotine dependence with strategic targeting of these barriers, improved training in smoking cessation techniques, and focused political efforts in tobacco control. Herein, this article describes the landscape of tobacco use in America and provides background, methodology, and resources for PCPs to help achieve the goals of Healthy People 2010 in reducing the illness, disability, and death that occur as a result of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:18172737

  11. One Team, One Fight: The Need for Security Assistance Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Summer 2012 97 One Team, One Fight: The Need for Security Assistance Reform Matthew L. Merighi and tiMothy a. waLton © 2012 Matthew L. Merighi ...existing security assistance apparatus by reforming export controls, updating Matthew Merighi is an executive officer working in the Office of the...Matthew L. Merighi and Timothy A. Walton 98 Parameters legislation, expanding financing programs, and developing a dedicated security assistance workforce

  12. One Team, One Fight: The Need for Security Assistance Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Summer 2012 97 One Team, One Fight: The Need for Security Assistance Reform Matthew L. Merighi and tiMothy a. waLton © 2012 Matthew L. Merighi ...existing security assistance apparatus by reforming export controls, updating Matthew Merighi is an executive officer working in the Office of the...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Matthew L. Merighi and Timothy A. Walton 98 Parameters legislation, expanding financing programs, and developing a dedicated

  13. Film and Motivation -- The ’Why We Fight’ Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-07

    motion picture director, made a series of seven films for the Army to tell the soldiers "Why We Fight". These were soldiers who had grown up between...Committee "sponsored books, lectures and through its Division of Films , motion pictures to arouse the public against Germany."&z In his complete...possible use of orientation films for indoctrination purposes. Colonel Schlosberg "agreed to try to find a qualified person from the motion picture

  14. Progress in public-private partnerships to fight neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Kenneth; Hanson, Christy

    2009-01-01

    In the global fight against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), public health partnerships involving donations of medicines by pharmaceutical companies are enabling access to treatment for millions of people worldwide. These partnerships collaborate with other disease programs and a range of key stakeholders to develop and improve programs to control and eliminate NTDs. Although progress is being made against NTDs, continued success depends on a policy environment that supports appropriate levels of engagement and collaboration from all participants.

  15. Fighting to Get Along: Doctrine and Interservice Rivalry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    fight. Second, the continued organizational tie that is required by keeping the joint TAC system in place fosters combined doctrinal thinking and...that the machine reacts to the environment through an internal feedback system and appears to make a rational thinking choice, i.e., constant speed...nuclear weapons via air and who would control those weapon systems . The distribution of scarce resources, in this case money, was seen as non

  16. Lethal fighting between honeybee queens and parasitic workers (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Moritz, Robin F A; Pflugfelder, Jochen; Crewe, Robin M

    2003-08-01

    Pheromonal signals associated with queen and worker policing prevent worker reproduction and have been identified as important factors for establishing harmony in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony. However, "anarchic workers", which can evade both mechanisms, have been detected at low frequency in several honeybee populations. Worker bees of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, also show this anarchistic trait but to an extreme degree. They can develop into so called "pseudoqueens", which release a pheromonal bouquet very similar to that of queens. They prime and release very similar reactions in sterile workers to those of true queens (e.g. suppress ovary activation; release retinue behavior). Here we show in an experimental bioassay that lethal fights between these parasitic workers and the queen (similar to queen-queen fights) occur, resulting in the death of either queen or worker. Although it is usually the queen that attacks the parasitic workers and kills many of them, in a few cases the workers succeeded in killing the queen. If this also occurs in a parasitized colony where the queen encounters many parasitic workers, she may eventually be killed in one of the repeated fights she engages in.

  17. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  18. Vehicle suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Mikina, S.J.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes a vehicle consisting of sprung and unsprung masses, the combination of struts and support springs for the weight of the sprung mass, an axis defined by pivots between sprung and unsprung masses, with a front pivot approximately midway between the wheels and near the vertical and horizontal planes through the front axles, with a rear pivot lying in an axis through the front pivot and in a plane through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, with the plane parallel to the centrifugal force vector through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, and with the rear pivot positioned approximately midway between the rear wheels, means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the front pivot to the front wheels and ground, and means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the rear pivot to the rear wheels and ground.

  19. Launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. B.

    The basic principles which determine launcher design and hence constrain the spacecraft payload are determined. Some key features of the principal launcher alternatives in Europe and the U.S., namely, the unmanned, expendable Ariane and the manned, substantially reusable, Space Shuttle, are outlined. The equations of motion of the rocket are specialized to the vertical plane, parallel and normal to the flight direction, and to the motion of the center of mass and the pitch rotation. A typical Ariane 2 flight profile for transfer into GTO is illustrated. Some representative mission requirements for spacecraft launches are reviewed. Launch vehicle burnout velocities for spacecraft emplacement are given. Geostationary orbit emplacement, orbital mission performance, and configuration interactions are discussed.

  20. Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MRI6180--03-8668 Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility...Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 604567N 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 61-8257-0-3...Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555-6100 14. ABSTRACT This report outlines the requirements for a flight deck fire fighting

  1. Vehicle/engine integration. [orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  2. [Philanthropy, government, and the fight against leprosy (1920-1945)].

    PubMed

    Santos, Vicente Saul Moreira Dos

    2011-12-01

    The 1920s creation of Sociedades de Assistência aos Lázaros e Defesa Contra a Lepra under Brazil's First Republic (1889-1930) represented a milestone in relations between assistance organizations and the government. Although these organizations were at first autonomous decision-makers, their guidelines changed after they established closer relations with the government, which enacted reforms in policies to fight leprosy following the 1930 creation of the Ministry of Education and Public Health, especially during the long tenure of Minister Gustavo Capanema (1934-1945).

  3. Advancing digital methods in the fight against communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Seaman, Vincent Y; Wenger, Jay; Moonen, Bruno; Magill, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Important advances are being made in the fight against communicable diseases by using new digital tools. While they can be a challenge to deploy at-scale, GPS-enabled smartphones, electronic dashboards and computer models have multiple benefits. They can facilitate program operations, lead to new insights about the disease transmission and support strategic planning. Today, tools such as these are used to vaccinate more children against polio in Nigeria, reduce the malaria burden in Zambia and help predict the spread of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  4. Airborne Law Enforcement Fighting Crime From The Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, James A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews the use of the air for the police in their operations to fight crime throughout the UK. There is a description of the job of the aircrew, the role and navigation systems and the aircraft used in daily operations. There is an examination of the use of both the helicopter and fixed wing aircraft concentrating on their suitability for police operations in which the weather and cost constraints are seen to be major factors to be considered in striking the balance to obtain the best effectiveness.

  5. Fighting in Thin Air: Operational Wilderness Medicine in High Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...code) 2011 Journal Article-Wilderness & Env. Medicine Fighting in Thin Air: Wilderness Medicine in High Asia G.W. Rodway, S.R. Muza Thermal and...R. Muza 508-233-4894 Reset This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non

  6. Controllability of Disturbed Reticle Tank Fire Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    response to updated re- quirements. For example, the M60Al was originally equipped with non-stabilized gun drives, to which gyro stabilization was added to...superelevation and deflection could be inserted automatically. Presently, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle is equipped with a high- quality gun stabilization system...That is, the plant is nearly a pure integrator, which is ideal for the gunner (1), with a high-frequency (relative to gunner responses ) resonance and

  7. The Genesis of Transformation: The Rise of the United States Army’s Modular Brigade Combat Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    build upon the core works and reinforce existing ideas or offer new thoughts that are relevant to the study at hand. Finally, James A. Russell’s...factors. D. THESIS OVERVIEW The remainder of this thesis is organized into four Chapters. The second Chapter utilizes a historical study to...that were based upon the M1 Abrams series tanks and M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicles. The four light divisions were exclusively light infantry

  8. Jaw morphology and fighting forces in stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Goyens, Jana; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter

    2016-09-15

    The jaws of different species of stag beetles show a large variety of shapes and sizes. The male jaws are used as weapons in fights, and they may exert a very forceful bite in some species. We investigated in 16 species whether and how the forcefulness of their bite is reflected in their jaw morphology. We found a large range of maximal muscle forces (1.8-33 N; factor of 18). Species investing in large bite muscles also have disproportionately large jaw volumes. They use this additional jaw volume to elongate their jaws, increasing their chances of winning in battles. The fact that this also decreases the mechanical advantage is largely compensated for by elongated in-levers. As a result, high muscle forces are correlated with elevated bite forces (0.27-7.6 N; factor of 28). Despite the large difference in the forcefulness of their bite, all investigated species experience similar Von Mises stresses in their jaws while biting (29-114 MPa; factor of 4.0; calculated with finite element simulations). Hence, stag beetles have successfully adapted their jaw anatomy according to their bite force in fights.

  9. Prozac impacts lateralization of aggression in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    HedayatiRad, Maryam; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Brown, Culum

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, preferentially use right-eye during the aggressive displays. However, administration of antidepressant drugs may disrupt eye-use preference in association with a reduction in aggression; a phenomena that has not been explored in fish. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of exposure to the antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, on lateralization in eye-use during aggressive displays in male Siamese fighting fish. Baseline aggression and lateralization in eye use of thirty fish were assessed toward live conspecifics, following which experimental subjects (n=15) were then exposed to fluoxetine (540ng/L) in a static renewal water system. Behavior was quantified again after 9 days of exposure. All of the subjects preferentially used the right-eye during aggressive responses before the exposure experiments. Fluoxetine exposed subjects showed a reduction in the time spent gill flaring as has previously been reported, indicative of a reduction in the level of aggression. Fluoxetine also had a significant effect on the lateralization in preferred eye-use while looking at their opponent. Fish exposed to fluoxetine switched from a preferential use of the right-eye during aggressive encounters prior to exposure to using their left-eye after exposure to fluoxetine. The results are discussed with regard to asymmetrical distribution of serotonin between the two brain hemispheres.

  10. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  11. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  12. Men, fire, and burns: Stories of fighting, healing, and emotions.

    PubMed

    Thakrar, Sulaye; Hunter, Tevya A; Medved, Maria I; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Brockmeier, Jens; Sareen, Jitender; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2015-12-01

    Burn recovery is a difficult process full of physical and psychological challenges. With increasing survival rates, there has been renewed interest in the psychological aspects of burn recovery. As men represent over 70% of all burn patients, it is particularly important to study how men experience and interpret this process. We interviewed a purposeful sample of ten adult male burn survivors from different age and cultural groups in the first 16 weeks of their recovery and asked them to discuss the problems they faced. Narrative analysis was used to interpret the interviews. In their narratives, the men tended to emphasize gains in their physical recovery; that is, they often used metaphors of "fighting" to demonstrate how committed they were to their healing. Further, they put less emphasis on the emotional aspects of their recovery. In our discussion, we compare these complex storylines to coping strategies identified in the literature and discuss why men may choose these strategies. Based on our findings we argue that it is important for health care providers to be aware of societal pressures which may influence burn survivors to minimize affective elements of burn recovery. Additionally, we encourage exploring and capitalizing on men's "fighting" stories during rehabilitation in order to foster an active role which men can take in their recovery.

  13. Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Catlin, D H; Fitch, K D; Ljungqvist, A

    2008-08-01

    The fight against doping in sports commenced as a result of the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games in 1960. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission (IOC-MC) which had the task of designing a strategy to combat the misuse of drugs in Olympic Sport. Some International Sport Federations (IF) and National Sports Federations followed suit, but progress was modest until the world's best male sprinter was found doped with anabolic steroids at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988. Further progress was made following the cessation of the cold war in 1989 and in 1999 public authorities around the world joined the Olympic Movement in a unique partnership by creating WADA--the 'World Anti-Doping Agency'. The troubled history of the anti-doping fight from the 1960s until today is reviewed. In particular, the development of detection methods for an ever increasing number of drugs that can be used to dope is described, as are the measures that have been taken to protect the health of the athletes, including those who may need banned substances for medical reasons.

  14. Fighting back against America's public health enemy number one.

    PubMed Central

    Spickard, W. A.; Dixon, G. L.; Sarver, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    Fighting Back is a comprehensive substance abuse program operating in 14 communities spread throughout the United States. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has committed more than $45 million over a 7-year period to plan and implement innovative, community-wide initiatives in Columbia, SC; Charlotte, NC; Kansas City, Mo; Little Rock, Ark; Northwest New Mexico; Milwaukee, Wis; New Haven, Conn; Newark, NJ; Oakland, Calif; San Antonio, Tex; Santa Barbara, Calif; Vallejo, Calif; Washington, DC; and Worcester, Mass. In this article the work in progress at the end of 18 months of a 5-year implementation program in each site is reported. A Fighting Back National Program Office operates from a base at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn. The senior staff of this office highlights the process that has unfolded to date, describes some of the sources of encouragement, and discusses some of the critical issues and sources of concern. A "Call to Action" on the part of the federal government is included. PMID:8069272

  15. Rumble: Prevalence and Correlates of Group Fighting among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Group fighting is portrayed as a piece of Americana among delinquent youth, but the behavior produces significant multifaceted negative consequences. The current study examines the heterogeneity and correlates of group fighting using national-level data. Method. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013 (n = 216,852), we examine links between group fighting and temperamental, parental, and academic factors as well as other externalizing behaviors (i.e., violence, crime, substance use). Results. The prevalence of group fighting in the United States is 14.8% with 11.33% reporting 1–2 group fights and 3.46% reporting 3+ group fights. A clear severity gradient in school functioning and academic performance, sensation seeking, parental disengagement, violence and delinquency, and substance use disorders is seen in the normative, episodic, and repeat offender groups. Conclusions. Youths who participate in 3+ group fights display the exceptionality and severity of other serious/chronic/habitual antisocial youth which suggests that group fighting should be considered a significant indicator of developing criminality. PMID:25945950

  16. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  17. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  18. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  19. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  20. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  1. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  2. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  4. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  6. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  7. Private Satisfactions and Public Disorders: "Fight Club," Patriarchy, and the Politics of Masculine Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…

  8. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  9. Fighting while Parasitized: Can Nematode Infections Affect the Outcome of Staged Combat in Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  10. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  11. Combining oncolytic virotherapy and cytotoxic therapies to fight cancer.

    PubMed

    Fillat, Cristina; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) are promising anti-cancer agents, capable of selectively replicating in tumour cells and killing them. Chemotherapy, on the other hand, remains the backbone of current cancer treatment, although it is limited by a narrow therapeutic index, significant toxicity, and frequent acquired resistance. There is an increasing body of evidence on a variety of chemotherapeutic agents that have been shown to be synergic with OV and result in increased response rates in preclinical studies. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the enhanced anti-tumour activity of such combination treatment. Moreover, it has been shown how prodrug- activating enzymes armed oncolytic viruses promote synergy with prodrugs. In the present review we summarise the current knowledge concerning the benefits of the combination of OV and cytotoxic drug treatment and discuss the translational opportunities such therapeutic synergies have in the fight against cancer.

  12. How to avoid having to run - hide - fight".

    PubMed

    Sawyer, James R

    2015-01-01

    "Zero incidents" is the goal every security planner should work to achieve. The tools to build a "zero incidents" environment involve: * Acknowledging that violence is preventable. * Providing optimum customer service to every visitor, patient, family member. They are all VIP'S. * A strong emphasis on documentation. * Honoring and responding to staff intuition. *A proactive threat response program-policy. * Teaching all staff the verbal/non-verbal warning signs of violence. * Proactively contacting individuals of concern, making direct contact. * Having a strong domestic violence response and support plan. Active Shooter and Code Silver planning should also involve the crucial component of violence prevention and "zero incidents" philosophy. By merging these two, security planners will achieve the best of all possible outcomes. They will teach staff how to run, hide and fight and at the same time build a culture and workforce that provides both maximum customer support and staff awareness.

  13. Exploiting structural biology in the fight against parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Modis, Yorgo

    2012-04-01

    Despite spectacular advances in structural biology over the past half-century, only approximately 2% of the structures in the Protein Data Bank are from eukaryotic parasites and less than 0.5% are from multicellular parasites. Even when only major human pathogens are considered, 3D structures of parasites are vastly underrepresented. Yet approximately one-third of the global burden of human disease comes from parasites. It is time to divert greater effort and resources in structural biology to benefit the fight against parasitic diseases. Using as leverage recent technological and methodological advances, a concerted effort to determine macromolecular structures from parasite pathogens would provide invaluable mechanistic insights on vital processes of the parasites and would suggest novel strategies for inhibiting infection.

  14. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish.

  15. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  16. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  17. “I Went to a Fight the Other Night and a Hockey Game Broke Out”

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmied, Nadav; Espindola, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The current study explored the relationship between fighting behavior and passage of time, across games and seasons, in an attempt to assess if violent behavior in hockey is impulsive or intentional. Hypothesis: Before engaging in fighting behavior, players assess the utility of their actions and thus will fight less when the game is on the line (third period) and when champions are crowned (postseason). Methods: An archival exploration utilizing open access databases from multiple Internet sources. Results: During the 2010-2011 National Hockey League (NHL) season, players were significantly less likely to be involved in a fight as the game was coming to a close than in its early stages. In addition, data from the past 10 NHL seasons showed that players were significantly more violent in preseason games than during the regular season. They were also least likely to be involved in a fight during the postseason. Conclusion: The converging evidence suggests that players take into account the penalties associated with fighting and are less likely to engage in violence when the stakes are high, such as at the end of a game or a season. This implies, in turn, that major acts of aggression in the league are more likely to be calculated rather than impulsive. The findings suggest that a more punitive system should diminish fighting behavior markedly. PMID:24427418

  18. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  19. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  20. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  1. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  2. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  3. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  4. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  5. Transformable descent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K. M.; Finchenko, V. S.; Aleksashkin, S. N.; Ostreshko, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents some types of planetary descent vehicles, the shape of which varies in different flight phases. The advantages of such vehicles over those with unchangeable form (from launch to landing) are discussed. It is shown that the use of transformable descent vehicles widens the scope of possible tasks to solve.

  6. The Amalgamation Controversy, 1917-1918: America’s Fight for Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    individuals, companies, battalions--into existing Frenc’ and British formations. General John J. Pershing bore the responsibility for America’s fight ...8217UIARCH REPORT TEE W G1 TION CMTRSY, 1917 - 1918: A WERICA’S FIGHT FOR INDEUPENCE0 N -i LIEUTENANT COLONEL MXWELL C. BAILEY DTIC 1988 fELECTE 198JAN...1918: NTiS CRA&I DT!C TAF E AMERICA’S FIGHT FOR INDEPEN’)KNCE U;:,’o,.,.d [3 By by t- t: .. ;’ I:o1 " Maxwell C. Bailey Dt t- Lieutenant Colonel

  7. Biochemical cost of a fight in fed and fasted Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical effects of threat displays and fights were determined in both fed and fasted animals. A week-long fast resulted in subtle behavioral modifications and a significant reduction in muscle glycogen. Threat displays had no effect on carcass composition. In the course of fighting, fed animals degraded large amounts of lipids, glycogen and amino acids, while fasted animals degraded only glycogen. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed to explain the difference between the biochemical effects of a fight in fed and starved animals.

  8. Vehicle/engine integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  9. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  10. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  11. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  12. Supercomputers Join the Fight against Cancer – U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-29

    The Department of Energy has some of the best supercomputers in the world. Now, they’re joining the fight against cancer. Learn about our new partnership with the National Cancer Institute and GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals.

  13. The male fight-flight response: a result of SRY regulation of catecholamines?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Harley, Vincent R

    2012-06-01

    The SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome and directs male development, may promote aggression and other traditionally male behavioural traits, resulting in the fight-or-flight reaction to stress.

  14. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  15. Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight Central simulator tower L-R: Dr Geoffrey Briggs; Jen Jasper (seated); Dr Jan Akins and Mr. Tony Gross, Ames

  16. The Mind-Body Connection - How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection How to Fight Stress and Ward Off ... the question, Dr. Sternberg suggests meditation to rest body and mind. "Evidence shows that meditation bolsters immune function by ...

  17. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... augmented to meet paragraph (a) of this section from local fire fighting assets. A 30-minute response time... route. The augmenting equipment and personnel must be available on arrival of the diverting airplane...

  18. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... augmented to meet paragraph (a) of this section from local fire fighting assets. A 30-minute response time... route. The augmenting equipment and personnel must be available on arrival of the diverting airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... augmented to meet paragraph (a) of this section from local fire fighting assets. A 30-minute response time... route. The augmenting equipment and personnel must be available on arrival of the diverting airplane...

  20. Florence Nightingale would have taken on the political fight, and so should we.

    PubMed

    Owen, Michael

    2016-05-11

    I agree with Mike Travis' comments (letters April 20) about the role and responsibilities of the trade union movement, and those of the RCN in caring for and fighting politically on behalf of nurses at all levels.

  1. If You Want to Fight Air Pollution, Go Plant a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakauer, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Describes the efforts of individuals, organizations, and cities to fight pollution by planting trees. Highlights the development and activities of the TreePeople organization, Global ReLeaf Project, National Arboretum, and other tree planting and research efforts. (MCO)

  2. Watsonville, Calif. students receive Presidents environmental education award for fighting to protect sea turtles worldwide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that the fifth grade class at Mount Madonna School in Watsonville, Calif. will receive the President's Environmental Youth Award for their work to fight environmental threats

  3. Fighting Fire with Fire: Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Fighting Fire with Fire : Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management Susmit Biswas?, Mohit Tiwari†, Timothy...Sherwood† Luke Theogarajan‡, Frederic T. Chong† Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA - 94550, USA? Department of Computer Science , UC...JUN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fighting Fire with Fire : Modeling the Datacenter

  4. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi Fred Pinkard, Thad Pratt, Donald Ward Tina Holmes, Julie Kelley, Landris T. Lee, George Sills...July 2007 Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi Fred Pinkard, Thad...real-world testing procedures for Rapid De- ployment Flood Wall (RDFW) and other promising alternative flood-fighting technologies. In response to

  5. Physical and Emotional Health Problems Experienced by Youth Engaged in Physical Fighting and Weapon Carrying

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126

  6. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sophie D; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  7. The Decision to Fight or Flee – Insights into Underlying Mechanism in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide, and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin, and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in phylogeny. PMID

  8. Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts.

  9. Bacteriophages as an alternative strategy for fighting biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Parasion, Sylwia; Kwiatek, Magdalena; Gryko, Romuald; Mizak, Lidia; Malm, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The ability of microbes to form biofilms is an important element of their pathogenicity, and biofilm formation is a serious challenge for today's medicine. Fighting the clinical complications associated with biofilm formation is very difficult and linked to a high risk of failure, especially in a time of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial species most commonly isolated from biofilms include coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. The frequent failure of antibiotic therapy led researchers to look for alternative methods and experiment with the use of antibacterial factors with a mechanism of action different from that of antibiotics. Experimental studies with bacteriophages and mixtures thereof, expressing lytic properties against numerous biofilm-forming bacterial species showed that bacteriophages may both prevent biofilm formation and contribute to eradication of biofilm bacteria. A specific role is played here by phage depolymerases, which facilitate the degradation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and thus the permeation of bacteriophages into deeper biofilm layers and lysis of the susceptible bacterial cells. Much hope is placed in genetic modifications of bacteriophages that would allow the equipping bacteriophages with the function of depolymerase synthesis. The use of phage cocktails prevents the development of phage-resistant bacteria.

  10. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  11. PVO / NGO initiatives, Africa. Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK) was founded in order to improve the effectiveness of existing AIDS services delivered to women in Kenya. Founded by both seropositive and seronegative women, WOFAK is unique in that it is the only AIDS support organization (ASO) in Kenya run by and for women. WOFAK contributes to the empowerment of HIV positive women and girls by assisting them in gaining control over their own health and serostatus, to live positively with the infection, and to protect their families and communities from becoming infected. WOFAK founders feel that existing ASOs address women's issues as only a small part of their programs and that most existing programs aimed at women focus on commercial sex workers. Whenever possible, WOFAK provides psychological and material support for women affected by HIV/AIDS. They conduct training in home-based care techniques and visit hospitalized members to offer counseling and support. WOFAK conducts HIV/AIDS education and outreach in schools, churches, commercial centers, and rural areas. All activities center around a network of positive women from all parts of society responding to the community and advocating for stronger responses by the government and other agencies providing HIV/AIDS prevention and care services. They stress the basic human rights of HIV positive women such as their right to marriage and reproduction, proper medical care, housing, and jobs. For more information, please contact Dorothy Odhiambo, WOFAK, PO Box 58428, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +1 254 2 217039; fax: +1 254 2 243164.

  12. Was Hawan Designed to Fight Anxiety-Scientific Evidences?

    PubMed

    Romana, R K; Sharma, A; Gupta, V; Kaur, R; Kumar, S; Bansal, P

    2017-01-06

    Anxiety is a psychiatric disorder with unknown neurobiology; however, neurotransmitters like gamma-amino butyric acid, norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) play crucial roles in mediating anxiety. Present drug modules pose dependence risk to the patient; hence, there is a great need to develop complementary therapies to fight this disorder. Aromatherapy has also been employed in ancient times for a number of mental disorders. Mahamrituanjay Mantra, Om triambkum yajamahe, sughandhim puushtivardhanam, urvarukmev vandhanaat, mrityu mokshay mamritaat!!!!, the part of veda enlightens that aroma gives rise to good health (sughandhim puushtivardhanam). Hawan is a religious practice recommended for mental peace. Hawan is a process in which special herbs are offered in the fire of medicinal woods ignited in a specially designed fire pit. Analysis of literature demonstrates that the components of Hawan are having a number of volatile oils that are specifically useful for prevention and treatment of anxiety through some mechanism of action. Due to high temperature of fire, the vapors of these oils from herbs enter into the central nervous system through nasal route. As per modern science and ancient texts on medicine, nasal drug delivery systems are the best for the diseases related to brain and head. The routine of performing Hawan might keep the threshold value of the therapeutic components in the body and help in preventing anxiety. In the present manuscript, authors highlight and integrate the modern and ancient concepts for treatment and prevention of anxiety through scientific evidences.

  13. Optimization of the resources management in fighting wildfires.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fernández, Susana; Martínez-Falero, Eugenio; Pérez-González, J Manuel

    2002-09-01

    Wildfires lead to important economic, social, and environmental losses, especially in areas of Mediterranean climate where they are of a high intensity and frequency. Over the past 30 years there has been a dramatic surge in the development and use of fire spread models. However, given the chaotic nature of environmental systems, it is very difficult to develop real-time fire-extinguishing models. This article proposes a method of optimizing the performance of wildfire fighting resources such that losses are kept to a minimum. The optimization procedure includes discrete simulation algorithms and Bayesian optimization methods for discrete and continuous problems (simulated annealing and Bayesian global optimization). Fast calculus algorithms are applied to provide optimization outcomes in short periods of time such that the predictions of the model and the real behavior of the fire, combat resources, and meteorological conditions are similar. In addition, adaptive algorithms take into account the chaotic behavior of wildfire so that the system can be updated with data corresponding to the real situation to obtain a new optimum solution. The application of this method to the Northwest Forest of Madrid (Spain) is also described. This application allowed us to check that it is a helpful tool in the decision-making process.

  14. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression in rats.

    PubMed

    Royalty, J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggressive behavior in rats were longitudinally assessed in the context of more conventionally applied physical and behavioral measures. Pregnant animals were treated with either 2 gm/kg/day ethanol or isocaloric sucrose over gestation Days 6-19. Reproduction and somatic variables included maternal weight over gestation, offspring weight over Days 1-90, and age at eye opening and incisor eruption. Behavioral variables consisted of negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination, activity, juvenile play-fighting, and postpubertal aggression. Ethanol offspring had lower birth weights, but there was no significant prenatal treatment effect on subsequent offspring weights or on any other reproductive or somatic variable. Both male and female ethanol-exposed offspring exhibited more play-fighting responses when paired with same-sex controls. Postpubertal aggression levels were assessed in males only. Ethanol-exposed offspring were more aggressive than controls and there was a significant positive correlation between play-fighting and postpubertal aggression ranks. No other behavioral measures discriminated between prenatal treatment groups and none were significantly correlated with either play-fighting or postpubertal aggression rank. The results are consistent with the position that juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression are subserved by common substrates. They also are consistent with predictions derived from the hypothesis concerning a response-inhibition deficit as an effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on behavior.

  15. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  16. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  17. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  18. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  19. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  20. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  1. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  2. Absolute Navigation Performance of the Orion Exploration Fight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Holt, Greg; Gay, Robert; D'Souza, Christopher; Sud, Jastesh

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to stress the system by placing the un-crewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs UDU factorization. The performance of the navigation system during flight is presented to substantiate the design.

  3. STS-41 crewmembers participate in fire fighting exercises at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers and STS-35 backup payload specialist Kenneth Nordsieck, lined up along two fire hoses, approach JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. From left to right are Commander Richard N. Richards, Mission Specialist (MS) William M. Shepherd, MS Bruce E. Melnick, Nordsieck, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, and MS Thomas D. Akers. Cabana and Akers await signal to open hose nozzles.

  4. Development and psychometric investigation of an inventory to assess fight, flight, and freeze tendencies: the fight, flight, freeze questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Maack, Danielle J; Buchanan, Erin; Young, John

    2015-01-01

    Fear is a psychological construct inherent in assessment of and reaction to threat. Its expression has been associated with individual differences in temperament, personality, and behavioral inhibition. Defining and subsequently assessing these individual differences in fear as a trait-like variable, however, have been largely neglected by researchers. Although there are well-established measures of fear, these primarily assess response to phobic stimuli rather than a reaction tendency to acute fear. As such, the goals of the present studies were to create, pilot, and revise a scale to assess the general construct of trait-like response to fear as it relates to underlying individual differences. Following guidelines for scale development, outlined by Haynes, Richard, and Kubany (1995 [Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment, 7, 238-247]) results of the current investigation provide strong, initial support for the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of a new measure of trait-like fear: the Fight, Flight, Freeze questionnaire.

  5. Fighting Crime by Fighting Misconceptions and Blind Spots in Policy Theories: An Evidence-Based Evaluation of Interventions and Assumed Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Noije, Lonneke; Wittebrood, Karin

    2010-01-01

    How effective are policy interventions to fight crime and how valid is the policy theory that underlies them? This is the twofold research question addressed in this article, which presents an evidence-based evaluation of Dutch social safety policy. By bridging the gap between actual effects and assumed effects, this study seeks to make fuller use…

  6. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  7. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  8. Fight or flight: the ethics of emergency physician disaster response.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Heine, Carlton E; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Moskop, John C; Baruch, Jay; Aswegan, Andrew L

    2008-04-01

    Most disaster plans depend on using emergency physicians, nurses, emergency department support staff, and out-of-hospital personnel to maintain the health care system's front line during crises that involve personal risk to themselves or their families. Planners automatically assume that emergency health care workers will respond. However, we need to ask: Should they, and will they, work rather than flee? The answer involves basic moral and personal issues. This article identifies and examines the factors that influence health care workers' decisions in these situations. After reviewing physicians' response to past disasters and epidemics, we evaluate how much danger they actually faced. Next, we examine guidelines from medical professional organizations about physicians' duty to provide care despite personal risks, although we acknowledge that individuals will interpret and apply professional expectations and norms according to their own situation and values. The article goes on to articulate moral arguments for a duty to treat during disasters and social crises, as well as moral reasons that may limit or override such a duty. How fear influences behavior is examined, as are the institutional and social measures that can be taken to control fear and to encourage health professionals to provide treatment in crisis situations. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of effective risk communication in enabling health care professionals and the public to make informed and defensible decisions during disasters. We conclude that the decision to stay or leave will ultimately depend on individuals' risk assessment and their value systems. Preparations for the next pandemic or disaster should include policies that encourage emergency physicians, who are inevitably among those at highest risk, to "stay and fight."

  9. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  10. B-Cell-Mediated Strategies to Fight Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of “tolerant” vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft

  11. Fighting for water in the West. United States.

    PubMed

    Hinchman, S

    1993-01-01

    The US West has more and better engineered dams, reservoirs, canals, pipelines, and water treatment plants than have ever existed in history. People in this region, however, continually worry about a water shortage, because of the West is desert. The giant public works program brings water where it is needed, resulting in the West being the fastest growing region this century. The people are overdrafting aquifers. The rivers and streams are drying up. For example, the Colorado river draining 20% of the West, but it not longer reaches the sea because its water is diverted to urban and agricultural water projects. The West is also experiencing erosion and desertification, loss of wetlands and riparian habitat and wildlife, water pollution, crop failures, and drought and water shortages. Irrigation of marginal lands brings million of tons of salt into the river systems. Bureau of Reclamation water projects are contaminating surrounding areas. Not enough water exists in the West to sustain the current pace of development. Farmers remove enough water from the Ogallala aquifer each year that its level falls 4-6 feet each year, but nature restores only a level of 0.5 inches. A 6-year drought in California has resulted in forced strict water rationing in Los Angeles and San Diego. A wave of new immigrants forces the West to learn either to use less water, to redistribute existing supplies, or to block further population growth. Denver, Colorado, has installed water meters and forces residents to install efficient toilets and shower heads, to replace lawns with artificial grass, and to implement billing systems that discourage excessive water use. Other areas are also starting conservation efforts. Cities, farmers, Indian tribes, the US Forest Service, and environmental groups are fighting over water rights, increasing the price of water. Endangered fish, loss of wetlands and riparian habitat, erosion of river banks, and water pollution are factors limiting economic growth

  12. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  13. Individual aggressiveness in the crab Chasmagnathus: Influence in fight outcome and modulation by serotonin and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Pedetta, Silvia; Kaczer, Laura; Maldonado, Héctor

    2010-11-02

    In a previous work we found that size-matched Chasmagnathus crabs establish winner-loser relationships that were stable over successive encounters but no evidence of escalation was revealed through fights. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that size-matched fights between these crabs would be resolved according to the contestants' level of aggressiveness. Moreover, we aim at analysing the proximate roots of aggression, addressing the influence of the biogenic amines serotonin (5HT) and octopamine (OA) in crab's agonistic behaviour. To achieve these purposes, the following experiments were carried out. First, we performed successive fight encounters between the same opponents, varying the number of encounters and the interval between them, to assess the stability and progression of the winner-loser relationship. Then, we analysed dominance relationships in groups of three crabs, evaluating the emergence of linearity. Thirdly, we examined the effects of 5HT and OA injections over the fight dynamics and its result. Our findings show that contest outcome is persistent even through four encounters separated by 24h, but a comparison between encounters does not reveal any saving in fight time or increase in the opponent disparity. Within a group of crabs, a rank-order of dominance is revealed which is reflected in their fight dynamics. Interestingly, these results would not be due to winner or loser effects, suggesting that fight outcome could be mainly explained as resulting from differences in the level of aggressiveness of each opponent. Moreover, this individual aggressiveness can be modulated in opposite directions by the biogenic amines 5HT and OA, being increased by 5HT and decreased by OA.

  14. A non-social and isolate rearing condition induces an irreversible shift toward continued fights in the male fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tamako; Ichikawa, Yoko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2004-07-01

    Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources.

  15. Fighting and assessment in male cichlid fish: the effects of asymmetries in gonadal state and body size.

    PubMed

    Neat; Huntingford; Beveridge

    1998-04-01

    In fights between animals over limited resources, the larger contestant often wins. Game theoretical models of animal fighting predict that relative body size is assessed during the fight and thus determines fight duration and intensity. In addition, if the contestants differ in the value they place on the disputed resource, this can also influence the outcome, duration and intensity of the fight. We studied territorial fighting in a cichlid fish, Tilapia zillii, in relation to relative body size and gonad weight. Relative gonad weight was a much stronger predictor of fight outcome than relative body size, even when body weight asymmetries were as large as 30%. This suggested that males with large gonads were fighting harder to defend their territory, perhaps because the value of a territory correlates with the gonadal state of the individual. A detailed analysis of mouth wrestling observed during fighting suggested that relative body size is assessed. However, contestants smaller than their opponent often continued to fight in spite of their size disadvantage. Weight disadvantaged winners appeared to fight more fiercely as suggested by a negative correlation between weight asymmetry and the proportion of bites inflicted by the winner. During escalated fighting, winners and losers differed consistently with regard to a behaviour termed mouth locking. Although neither biting nor persistence in mouth locking was related to gonad weight, we propose that the fish may have been assessing asymmetries unrelated to relative body size and possibly more related to levels of cost and the motivation to persist. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  18. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  19. Saturn IB Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart depicts the various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  20. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  1. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  2. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  3. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  4. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    the path of the vehicle is difficult to conu·ol which may lead to more aborted test u·ials than using driver-conu·olled steer inputs. Using a driver...reduces both the time required to prepare the vehicle and the probability of aborted u·ials. This allows more attempts to be made, but test results

  5. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  6. Affordable thermal imaging systems for the UK light-armored vehicle fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the planned upgrade of the UK Light Armoured Vehicle fleet, focussing specifically on the introduction of Thermal Imaging and Tactical Navigation systems which meet the requirement to conduct 24 hour operations and enhance the situational awareness of the crew. The main bulk of the paper will concentrate on the Battle Group Thermal Imaging (BGTI) system(s) selected by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to be installed on the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and Scimitar Close Recce vehicle. In particular the paper will describe the Gunners Sight, the integrated Commanders Crew Station, the Tactical Navigation sub-system and the interfacing of the Thales Optronics BGTI system to the General Dynamics Bowman Radio and Battlefield Management System (BMS). Throughout the paper, the Author will make reference to the need to offer affordable solutions that ensure the total cost to the UK MoD is kept within their budget.

  7. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  8. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  9. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  10. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Background Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05)). Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45); OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81); OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81); and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72), respectively). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98)). Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use) were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81) for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73) for females). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99)). Conclusion Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past 12 months

  12. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  13. Pushing through evolution? Incidence and fight records of left-oriented fighters in professional boxing history.

    PubMed

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ratings of professional boxing from 1924 to 2012. Unexpectedly, left-oriented boxers were overrepresented in no more than 7 of the 89 years considered, their percentages varied up to 30% and increased over the entire period, and frequencies varied substantially between weight divisions. In support of the fighting hypothesis, lose-win ratios indicated larger fighting strength in left- compared to right-oriented boxers, which, however, was not reflected in different proportions of wins and losses by knockout. Our findings are partly consistent with an assumed left-oriented fighters' advantage in combat sports. Such advantage could be explained by negative frequency-dependent selection mechanisms; however, our study also revealed potential limits of the fighting hypothesis such that alternative explanations cannot be fully excluded. We propose that interference by factors not related to performance could also limit the suitability of data from elite sporting competition for testing evolutionary models of human handedness.

  14. Winning Fights Induces Hyperaggression via the Action of the Biogenic Amine Octopamine in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates. PMID:22216137

  15. Have You Seen Any Good Physics Fights Recently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Hugh

    2007-04-01

    What is a Physics Fight? A round-robin physics debate between teams of high school students that comes at the end of a year-long research program for the students and their teachers. The International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT) is composed of physics students and their teachers who investigate interesting but broadly structured questions, both theoretically and experimentally, and develop detailed oral presentations of their work. Each summer the International Organizing Committee of the IYPT selects seventeen questions, which are distributed to teachers and students throughout the world. The teacher-student groups spend nearly a year working on solutions to these questions, and then come together in July at the IYPT to present and defend their work and critique that of their colleagues from other countries. This learning model is close to the actual process of science: 1) start with an interesting question; 2) make the question suitable for investigation; 3) search the literature to find out what has already been done; 4) develop the theory as far as the group can take it; 5) design, construct, and operate an experiment to examine the theoretical predictions; 6) prepare a report of the work; 7) submit it for peer review; and 8) defend the results. The instructional value of this approach to teaching and learning science is clear. But one of the largest benefits is to the teachers of these students, who for the most part have not had the opportunity to participate in anything like real research before and who come away from this experience with increased confidence in their understanding of the subject and their ability to teach it. We believe that doing research makes better teachers and better students. The IYPT movement was born in Moscow in the 1970s, but is relatively new to the US, our first team having been sent in 1999. Currently about 25 nations send teams to the IYPT each year. The agent for the IYPT in the US is the United States Association for

  16. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  17. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  18. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  19. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  1. A Computer Model for Evaluating the Effects on Fighting Vehicle Crewmembers of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Is. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse ede If neceseay id Identify by block number) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Computer Program Carboxyhemoglobin ...several researchers, which predicts the instantaneous amount of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of a person based upon the amount of carbon monoxide...developed from an empirical equation (derived from reference I and detailed in reference 3) which predicts the amount of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in

  2. EPA honors Sonoma County for protecting air quality, fighting climate change with one of nations largest hybrid vehicle fleets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is honoring Sonoma County Fleet Operations and six other projects across the country for their work on clean air and climate initiatives. The 2015 Clean Air Excellence Awards recogn

  3. The Marine Air Ground Task Force Expeditionary Family (MAGTF) of Fighting Vehicles (MEFFV) - Assault Variant Design: Recommendations for Urban Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    contemporary problems. Merely supplying the basic need for food is a struggle as Oliver Argenti , an urban food specialist with the United Nation’s Food and...An_Urbanizing_World.htm#intro>, accessed 4 January 2003. 17 Brockerhoff, np. 18 Olivio Argenti , “Feeding an Increasingly Urban World,” Food and...2003. 19 Argenti , np. 10 “squatters” reside in urban slums with no potable water supply and no adequate sewage, spreading disease amongst them

  4. A WebGIS-based command control system for forest fire fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianyu; Ming, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Haitao

    2006-10-01

    Forest is a finite resource and fire prevention is crucial work. However, once a forest fire or accident occurs, timely and effective fire-fighting is the only necessary measure. The aim of this research is to build a computerized command control system based on WEBGIS to direct fire-fighting. Firstly, this paper introduces the total technique flow and functional modules of the system. Secondly, this paper analyses the key techniques for building the system, and they are data obtaining, data organizing & management, architecture of WebGIS and sharing & interoperation technique. In the end, this paper demonstrates the on line martial symbol editing function to show the running result of system. The practical application of this system showed that it played very important role in the forest fire fighting work. In addition, this paper proposes some strategic recommendations for the further development of the system.

  5. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  6. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  7. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  8. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  9. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  10. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  11. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  12. Light Duty Vehicle Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a fact sheet on how the Final Endangerment Finding will allow EPA to finalize the first greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles as part of the joint rulemaking with the Department of Transportation.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Program Planning

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program’s strategic goal is to develop sustainable, cost-competitive technologies to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, increase fuel efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the Nation's energy security.

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    DOEpatents

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Pheromonal control of aggressive display in siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Colyer, S W; Jenkins, C

    1976-02-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish displayed and respirated from the surface more frequently in water containing secretions collected from non-displaying male conspecifics than they did in clean water. Secretions collected from males given the opportunity to display to a mirror for 16, 30, or 45 min. did not affect display activity. However, secretions collected from males allowed to display to a mirror for 16 min. produced an increase in respiration rates. Secretions collected from males which had been stressed by electric shock resulted in decrements in aggressive display. Taken together, results of these experiments suggest that male Siamese fighting fish secrete substances which affect mirror-induced aggression and respiration rates.

  18. You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault.

    PubMed

    Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  19. We can fight smog without breaking the bank

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.

    1994-10-03

    Despite increased regulation and public interest, effective air pollution control remains ellusive. One of the primary air pollution problems is ozone-based smog, which afflicts an increasing number of metropolitan areas. At present, ozone levels in 93 cities violate existing federal regulations for safe air. These problems come at a time when there is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that these federal standards need to be revised downward. In the northeastern US, advocates of smog reduction are calling for the forced introduction of cleaner vehicles, including electric cars. However, these measures aimed at reducing VOC emissions may prove too costly to implement effectively. Emphasis should, instead, be placed on reducing the emission of nitrogen oxides.

  20. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  1. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    roll , pitch , and yaw information. We assume the vehicle dynamics are slow, and as such, the coupling between the inclinometers and platform...the vehicle has a nonzero roll or pitch angle, Σu has dimension 3. For this condition, the unobservable subspace is similar to a single beam failure...position is defined in local tangent plane coordinates, where x aligns with north, y aligns with east, and z is down. Euler attitude angles are roll (φ

  2. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  3. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  4. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  5. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  6. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment... impacts. 523 Vehicle classification. 525 Exemptions from average fuel economy standards. 526 Petitions...

  7. Exploring the Social-Ecological Determinants of Physical Fighting in U.S. Schools: What about Youth in Immigrant Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J.; Peguero, Anthony A.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio; Lee, Na Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing presence of immigrant families in the US, little is known about physical fighting in school among youth from those families. Objective: The present study examines the social-ecological determinants of school physical fighting among youth in immigrant families. Implications for practice are also discussed. Method:…

  8. The "Industrial Worker" and Its Rhetoric: Working Class Identification in the San Diego Free Speech Fight of 1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jerilyn

    A study examined the news coverage given by the "Industrial Worker" to the San Diego free speech fight of 1912, the last of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union's free speech fights on the West Coast. The "Worker," a publication of the IWW, devoted columns of coverage to that conflict in the form of reports, letters,…

  9. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  10. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  11. High-Volume Airborne Fluids Handling Technologies to Fight Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Mark; Cox, Timothy; Hale, Cliff; Hatton, Rick

    2010-01-01

    specific wildfire situation. The system was manufactured by Jordan Air of Central Point, OR, and was installed by Victorville Aerospace in Victorville, CA. It can deliver 12,000 gallons (45.4 kL) of retardant in as little as eight seconds. The aircraft can deliver a partial load of retardant and make multiple drops on the same flight, or the entire load can be rapidly delivered in one pass if required for maximum coverage. The Evergreen 747 uses internal tankage and a pressurized delivery system to enable volume and coverage levels that also meet USFS requirements, but enables computer control of flow for desired precision. This system was designed and built by Adaptive Aerospace of Tehachapi, CA and can deliver about 20,000 gallons (75.7 kL) of retardant in approximately ten seconds. The 747 can also make multiple independent drops, or deliver the entire load at once. NASA found that both of these VLAT aircraft are compatible with the wildfire suppression mission when used to supplement other aerial retardant delivery platforms. The major recommendations for deployment that resulted from this study relate to terrain clearance, the type of terrain in the drop area, availability of qualified lead planes to guide the VLAT approach to the drop area, and low-altitude maneuvering limitations. NASA s analysis suggests that with the appropriate flight procedures, these aircraft will provide a powerful set of tools to fight wildfires.

  12. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  13. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  14. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop... Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Transactions on April 19-20... presented in August 2012 during the annual Connected Vehicle Safety public meeting and via other...

  15. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

  16. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  17. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  18. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  19. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  20. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  1. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435 Section 109.435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire...

  2. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435 Section 109.435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire...

  3. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435 Section 109.435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire...

  4. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435 Section 109.435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire...

  5. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435 Section 109.435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire...

  6. It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes Beta-lactamase enzymes are well studied because of their tremendous impact on medicine. Their prominent role is in resistance to beta-lactam (four membered lactam ring) antibiotics including the first and most famous fungally d...

  7. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    PubMed

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-12-23

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success.

  8. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male–male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male–male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success. PMID:21715397

  9. Cage-Fighting Bees: Can Aggressive Competition Increase Pollination Efficacy for an Oligolectic Native Bee?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollination efficacy of the oligolectic bee Ptilothrix bombiformis was measured as the number of pollen grains delivered to virgin Hibiscus stigmas. Such specialized bee foragers are often assumed to be highly efficient pollinators. Intriguingly, however, we discovered females fight over host blooms...

  10. Educational Targeting in the Fight against Poverty: Limits, Omissions and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina

    2008-01-01

    Educational targeting has become one of the hegemonic mechanisms in the fight against poverty. Both international organisms and developing countries support targeting as one of the best strategies in order to simultaneously guarantee poverty reduction and economic growth, and consequently to tackle the challenges generated by globalisation. The…

  11. The "Fighting Sioux" Conflict: Lessons on Social Justice for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amy; Rice, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Conflict over the University of North Dakota's (UND) "Fighting Sioux" logo and nickname has been protracted and bitter, lasting over 40 years. This article presents four explanations for UND's status as one of the last universities to maintain a Native American nickname and logo: the dynamics of racism, the power of booster culture,…

  12. A stereotaxic atlas for the telencephalon of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Marino-Neto, J; Sabbatini, R M

    1988-01-01

    1. A stereotaxic technique for electrode positioning in the telencephalic nuclei of the Siamese Fighting fish (Betta splendens) is described. 2. The forebrain atlas was based on paraffin-embedded, in situ-sectioned, Nissl-stained material. Brain measurements were corrected for tissue shrinkage due to histological procedures. The atlas and methods have already been tested and have shown good accuracy and reproducibility.

  13. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) Operating on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) DEEPWATER HORIZON, in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, with loss of...

  14. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire... and Flag Operations § 121.106 ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (a) Except as... available at each airport listed as an ETOPS Alternate Airport in a dispatch or flight release. (1)...

  15. U.S. EPA Honors California Department of Water Resources for Helping Fight Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is honoring the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) with a 2016 Climate Leadership Award for its innovation in helping fight climate change. DWR-one of just three awardees in California-recei

  16. Blue Bay: A Tribal Approach to Fighting Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Our Way of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    The best means for fighting alcohol abuse in a Native American community is one that has been developed by the community itself. The Blue Bay Healing Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana) is an example of two tribes taking responsibility for alcoholism and its control. In designing and…

  17. Hey! Bankers! Leave Those Kids Alone: The Fight to Save Islington Green School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The author traces the history of the campaign to stop Islington Green School being closed and turned into an academy specialising in business and financial services. Although the campaign, after a number of successes now looks as if it might fail in its immediate objective, the author argues that the battle was still worth fighting because of the…

  18. Action at the Grassroots: Fighting Poverty and Environmental Decline. Worldwatch Paper 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Alan B.

    There are many forces of environmental and economic decline that endanger our communities and planet. These have caused a global threat which is very complex. The pressure to feed increasing numbers of people helps cause high rates of topsoil loss which results in decreased agricultural productivity. As poorer nations attempt to fight these…

  19. A Behavior Change Program To De-Escalate Fighting in Intermediate Grades of an Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sthair, Vincent L.

    A plan to de-escalate fighting behaviors at an inner-city elementary school was implemented. It is believed that factors contributing to the problem were: low socio-economic status; a lack of parental supervision at home; a lack of parental involvement at school; a high level of criminal activity surrounding the schools; overcrowded class areas;…

  20. Do territorial butterflies show a macroecological fighting pattern in response to environmental stability?

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Paulo Enrique Cardoso; Medina, Anderson Matos; Mendoza-Cuenca, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The territorial defense of mating sites by males should be favored when female monopolization is possible. Such monopolization should occur in species in which females emerge asynchronously, since males may have time to copulate with one female before the arrival of other. However, regions with smaller reproductive windows should promote higher synchronicity of female emergence, generating a predictable macroecological pattern associated to the rewards from territorial defense. In this study we evaluated the hypothesis that territorial male butterflies should invest more in fighting in species that occur in areas with stable climatic conditions that should present longer reproductive windows. We compiled studies reporting mean butterfly fighting times, mean trait differences among winners and losers and local Köppen climatic classification (a surrogate for climatic stability). We found that males from butterfly species located in areas with stable climatic conditions fight for longer times. However, although winners were stronger than intruders only in areas with intermediate climatic conditions, there was a marked variation among winner-loser comparisons in species in areas with stable climatic conditions. We conclude that males from butterfly species that occur in areas with stable climatic regimes invest more in fighting due to the higher payoffs accrued with territorial defense, but that such investment does not change the effect of trait asymmetries in settling territorial conflicts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Special Issue:Neotropical Behaviour.

  1. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  2. The Use Value of "Fight Club" in Teaching Theories of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching theories and methods for the academic study of religion poses certain challenges, especially when first-year students are the primary targeted audience. In the following note from the classroom, the author describes a model for successfully employing the film "Fight Club" as a case study for exploring some of the theoretical concepts of…

  3. $156 million budget increase to fight HIV/AIDS in African American & other minority communities.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    A series of initiatives was established to invest $156 million in efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in minority populations, where AIDS is still a leading cause of death among men and women between 25 and 44 years of age. The initiatives will target specific communities and includes technical assistance and increased access to care. Specific goals of the initiatives are discussed.

  4. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  5. Date Fighting Experiences among College Students: Are They Associated with Other Health-Risk Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Robert; Champion, Heather; Wolfson, Mark; Omli, Morrow; McCoy, Thomas; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Wagoner, Kim; Mitra, Ananda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the clustering of health-risk behaviors among college students who reported date fight involvement. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey to a stratified random sample of 3,920 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. Results: Among men, 5.6% reported date fight…

  6. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  7. The Menominee Struggle: A Tribe Fights to Restore Its Federal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary

    1973-01-01

    Describes the fight of the Menominees of Wisconsin, with intense Indian support across the country, against termination--a policy which attempted to force Indian assimilation; the Menominee restoration bill is seen as a major test of whether the political system can correct abuses of Indian rights. (Author/JM)

  8. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  9. Giving Women the Vote: Using Primary Source Documents to Teach about the Fight for Women's Suffrage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students use primary sources to learn about the organizing strategies used in the fight for women's suffrage. These sources will provide insights into the past and help students develop appreciation for the hardships suffragists endured. Includes objectives, procedures, and suggestions for activities. (LS)

  10. Making Socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the Fight for Knowledge and Power, 1855-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book,…

  11. Conflict, Provocation and Fights among Boys in a South African High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlall, Vijay; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Boys are commonly associated with disruptive behaviour and physical fighting at school. Explanations for this behaviour range from naturalistic "boys will be boys" approaches to analyses which focus on the social construction of masculinity and emphasise the gendered nature of boys' behaviour. Whichever view holds sway, it is often…

  12. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes, Small Airplanes, and Rotorcraft AGENCY... the required specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire...

  13. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  14. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  15. Fighting Domestic and International Fraud in the Admissions and Registrar's Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Ann M.; Devlin, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The education sector is no stranger to fraud, unfortunately. This article provides best practice guidance in recognizing and dealing with fraud, with emphasis on domestic and international academic credential fraud. It includes practical approaches to academic document review and verification. Success in fighting fraud requires becoming informed,…

  16. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  17. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  18. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  19. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  20. Assessment of fight outcome is needed to activate socially driven transcriptional changes in the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui F; Simões, José M; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Catarina R; Becker, Jorg D; Lopes, João S

    2016-02-02

    Group living animals must be able to express different behavior profiles depending on their social status. Therefore, the same genotype may translate into different behavioral phenotypes through socially driven differential gene expression. However, how social information is translated into a neurogenomic response and what are the specific cues in a social interaction that signal a change in social status are questions that have remained unanswered. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that the switch between status-specific neurogenomic states relies on the assessment of fight outcome rather than just on self- or opponent-only assessment of fighting ability. For this purpose, we manipulated the perception of fight outcome in male zebrafish and measured its impact on the brain transcriptome using a zebrafish whole genome gene chip. Males fought either a real opponent, and a winner and a loser were identified, or their own image on a mirror, in which case, despite expressing aggressive behavior, males did not experience either a victory or a defeat. Massive changes in the brain transcriptome were observed in real opponent fighters, with losers displaying both a higher number of differentially expressed genes and of coexpressed gene modules than winners. In contrast, mirror fighters expressed a neurogenomic state similar to that of noninteracting fish. The genes that responded to fight outcome included immediate early genes and genes involved in neuroplasticity and epigenetic modifications. These results indicate that, even in cognitively simple organisms such as zebrafish, neurogenomic responses underlying changes in social status rely on mutual assessment of fighting ability.

  1. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  2. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  3. Smart Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

    2010-11-01

    An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

  4. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  5. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  6. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

  7. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  8. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  10. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  11. Vehicle brake testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Samuel S; Hodgson, Jeffrey W

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  12. A Glimpse into Urban Middle Schools on Probation for “Persistently Dangerous” Status: Identifying Malleable Predictors of Fighting

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vanya C.; Bradshaw, Cathrine P.; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state boards of education to identify schools that are unsafe. Schools that are identified by measures such as suspension and expulsion rates are subsequently labeled “persistently dangerous.” To our knowledge there is no published research that attempts to characterize fighting behavior among youth who may attend schools designated as “persistently dangerous.” Two hundred and thirteen sixth grade African American boys and girls attending two urban middle schools on probation for “persistently dangerous” status were examined to investigate differences in demographic characteristics of gender and age and predictor factors of non-parental adult mentorship, parental acceptance of fighting behavior, and peer fighting. These analyses suggest a relationship between the number of peers who fight, youth who believed their parents endorse fighting, and youth without non parental adult mentorship were more likely to fight. This study also indicates that regardless of school status there are modifiable predictors associated with early adolescent fighting. PMID:20300444

  13. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other’s edits over the period 2001–2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other’s edits and these sterile “fights” may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots’ interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively “dumb” bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles. PMID:28231323

  14. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    SciTech Connect

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  15. Mini-trucks: Importing Used Motor Vehicles as Nonroad Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet addresses EPA's revised regulations that affect the importation of vehicles that have been converted to nonroad use but were originally built and used as motor vehicles. (EPA Publication # EPA-420-F-09-014)

  16. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  17. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  18. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  19. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  20. Vehicle tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

  1. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  2. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-31

    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  3. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  4. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  5. Vehicle fuel system

    DOEpatents

    Risse, John T.; Taggart, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A vehicle fuel system comprising a plurality of tanks, each tank having a feed and a return conduit extending into a lower portion thereof, the several feed conduits joined to form one supply conduit feeding fuel to a supply pump and using means, unused fuel being returned via a return conduit which branches off to the several return conduits.

  6. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  7. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  8. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  9. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  10. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  11. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  12. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  13. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  16. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  17. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  18. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  19. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  20. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  1. Then & Now: Research Pays Off for All Americans / The Fight against Infectious Killers in the Developing World

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Fight against Infectious Killers in the Developing World Public Health Enemy # 1: Lower Respiratory Infections Deaths ... Worldwide : 2 million every year; 2 billion of world's 6.5 billion people are infected, with 8 ...

  2. Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization.

  3. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S E; Klein, L C; Lewis, B P; Gruenewald, T L; Gurung, R A; Updegraff, J A

    2000-07-01

    The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress.

  4. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  5. Investigating Actuation Force Fight with Asynchronous and Synchronous Redundancy Management Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin; Schweiker, Kevin; Dutertre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Within distributed fault-tolerant systems the term force-fight is colloquially used to describe the level of command disagreement present at redundant actuation interfaces. This report details an investigation of force-fight using three distributed system case-study architectures. Each case study architecture is abstracted and formally modeled using the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) tool chain from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). We use the formal SAL models to produce k-induction based proofs of a bounded actuation agreement property. We also present a mathematically derived bound of redundant actuation agreement for sine-wave stimulus. The report documents our experiences and lessons learned developing the formal models and the associated proofs.

  6. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  7. Stabilizing Wheels For Rover Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed articulated, normally-four-wheeled vehicle holds extra pair of wheels in reserve. Deployed to lengthen wheelbase on slopes, thereby making vehicle more stable, and to aid vehicle in negotiating ledge or to right vehicle if turned upside down. Extra wheels are drive wheels mounted on arms so they pivot on axis of forward drive wheels. Both extra wheels and arms driven by chains, hydraulic motors, or electric motors. Concept promises to make remotely controlled vehicles more stable and maneuverable in such applications as firefighting, handling hazardous materials, and carrying out operations in dangerous locations.

  8. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Donald

    An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

  9. Fault Tolerance for Fight-Through: A Basis for Strategic Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fault Tolerance for Fight -Through: A Basis for Strategic Survival 5a... RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std

  10. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    PubMed

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics.

  11. An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and ‘spiteful acts’ and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing

  12. Exercise: A Good Way to Fight Aging and Smoking | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Learn how to start an exercise routine that can help you feel and look younger AND stay quit! Health benefits of exercising No matter how old you are, regular physical activity can help you look younger and stay more fit than people who aren't active. Regular exercise can also be good medicine in your fight to stay off cigarettes. You will sleep better, be less likely to gain weight, and have more energy. Physical activity also helps to:

  13. Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq A Monograph by Major...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions. searching existing data...Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  14. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  15. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  16. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  17. 40 CFR 1066.415 - Vehicle operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle operation. 1066.415 Section... VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test § 1066.415 Vehicle operation. This section describes how to test a conventionally configured vehicle (vehicles...

  18. Methane-Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid methane is beginning to become an energy alternative to expensive oil as a power source for automotive vehicles. Methane is the principal component of natural gas, costs less than half as much as gasoline, and its emissions are a lot cleaner than from gasoline or diesel engines. Beech Aircraft Corporation's Boulder Division has designed and is producing a system for converting cars and trucks to liquid methane operation. Liquid methane (LM) is a cryogenic fuel which must be stored at a temperature of 260 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The LM system includes an 18 gallon fuel tank in the trunk and simple "under the hood" carburetor conversion equipment. Optional twin-fuel system allows operator to use either LM or gasoline fuel. Boulder Division has started deliveries for 25 vehicle conversions and is furnishing a liquid methane refueling station. Beech is providing instruction for Northwest Natural Gas, for conversion of methane to liquid state.

  19. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  1. The concept of cellular "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress.

    PubMed

    Goligorsky, M S

    2001-04-01

    As animals respond to environmental stress with a set of default reactions described as the "fight-or-flight" response, so do epithelial and endothelial cells when they are confronting stressors in their microenvironment. This review will summarize a growing body of data suggesting the existence of a set of stereotypical cellular reactions to stress, provide some examples of diseases that are characterized by excessive flight reactions, describe the cellular mechanisms whereby the fight-or-flight reaction is accomplished, as well as cellular mechanisms triggering either fight or flight. It is proposed that cell-matrix adhesion is a sensitive indicator of the severity of stress. This indicator is interfaced with several default programs for cellular survival or death, thus dictating the fate of the cell. Some diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the concept, presently used and potentially useful, are outlined. The essential feature of this concept is its ability to categorize cellular events in terms of either type of default reaction, predict the details of each, and potentially exploit them clinically.

  2. Entrapment and arrested fight and flight in depression: an exploration using focus groups.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean

    2003-06-01

    The fight/flight system has long been recognized to be a basic evolved defence system. However, recent interest has focused on the consequences of arousing these action tendencies but blocking their execution-that is arresting them. Previous research has shown that depressed people can have strong feelings of anger (fight) and desires to run away (flight), but these 'fight/flight' defences can become blocked, inhibited, and arrested, which increase stress. This study used three clinical focus groups and one of psychiatric nurses to explore depressed people's own ideas of entrapment and arrested anger. Participants felt that arrested escape (entrapments) and arrested anger were important aspects of the experience of depression. Depressed participants clarified distinctions between internal entrapment (feeling trapped in a state of depression), feeling trapped in a subordinate role, and external entrapment (feeling trapped in relationships or life circumstances). Participants also clarified key reasons for arrested anger. Nurses had similar perspectives on the reasons for entrapment in depression but also saw fear of change and opportunities as important sources of entrapment.

  3. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Selection in species with aggressive social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidability (fighting ability or resource-holding potential). The ability to accurately assess formidability in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we report tests supporting the hypothesis that the human cognitive architecture includes mechanisms that assess fighting ability—mechanisms that focus on correlates of upper-body strength. Across diverse samples of targets that included US college students, Bolivian horticulturalists and Andean pastoralists, subjects in the US were able to accurately estimate the physical strength of male targets from photos of their bodies and faces. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that subjects were extracting cues of strength that were largely independent of height, weight and age, and that corresponded most strongly to objective measures of upper-body strength—even when the face was all that was available for inspection. Estimates of women's strength were less accurate, but still significant. These studies are the first empirical demonstration that, for humans, judgements of strength and judgements of fighting ability not only track each other, but accurately track actual upper-body strength. PMID:18945661

  4. Data Association and Bullet Tracking Algorithms for the Fight Sight Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Breitfeller, E; Roberts, R

    2005-10-07

    Previous LLNL investigators developed a bullet and projectile tracking system over a decade ago. Renewed interest in the technology has spawned research that culminated in a live-fire experiment, called Fight Sight, in September 2005. The experiment was more complex than previous LLNL bullet tracking experiments in that it included multiple shooters with simultaneous fire, new sensor-shooter geometries, large amounts of optical clutter, and greatly increased sensor-shooter distances. This presentation describes the data association and tracking algorithms for the Fight Sight experiment. Image processing applied to the imagery yields a sequence of bullet features which are input to a data association routine. The data association routine matches features with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. The Kalman filter is also used to back-track bullets to their point of origin, thereby revealing the location of the shooter. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. In addition to describing the data association and tracking algorithms, several examples from the Fight Sight experiment are also presented.

  5. Functional response and population dynamics for fighting predator, based on activity distribution.

    PubMed

    Garay, József; Varga, Zoltán; Gámez, Manuel; Cabello, Tomás

    2015-03-07

    The classical Holling type II functional response, describing the per capita predation as a function of prey density, was modified by Beddington and de Angelis to include interference of predators that increases with predator density and decreases the number of killed prey. In the present paper we further generalize the Beddington-de Angelis functional response, considering that all predator activities (searching and handling prey, fight and recovery) have time duration, the probabilities of predator activities depend on the encounter probabilities, and hence on the prey and predator abundance, too. Under these conditions, the aim of the study is to introduce a functional response for fighting the predator and to analyse the corresponding dynamics, when predator-predator-prey encounters also occur. From this general approach, the Holling type functional responses can also be obtained as particular cases. In terms of the activity distribution, we give biologically interpretable sufficient conditions for stable coexistence. We consider two-individual (predator-prey) and three-individual (predator-predator-prey) encounters. In the three-individual encounter model there is a relatively higher fighting rate and a lower killing rate. Using numerical simulation, we surprisingly found that when the intrinsic prey growth rate and the conversion rate are small enough, the equilibrium predator abundance is higher in the three-individual encounter case. The above means that, when the equilibrium abundance of the predator is small, coexistence appears first in the three-individual encounter model.

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  7. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    herein as winglets , are supported by a strut attached to the vehicle. The angle of attack of each winglet is controlled by a winglet actuator. The... winglet assembly may be extended into or retracted from the water by means of a spring-loaded actuated mount, which pivots the strut supporting the... winglet . When fully retracted, the winglet assembly is contained completely within the cavity. [0014] The segmented ring wing is controlled by one or more

  8. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  9. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  10. Experiences with Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation "NASA Experience with Launch Vehicles" is a compilation of Mr. Dumbacher's career experiences with the Space Shuttle Program, the Delta - Clipper Experimental flight test project, the X-33 demonstrator project, and recent experiences with the Orbital Spaceplane Program agd the current NASA effort on Exploration Launch Systems. Mr. Dumbacher will discuss his personal experiences and provide lessons learned from each program. The accounts provided by Mr. Dumbacher are his own and do not necessarily represent the official NASA position.

  11. The Cargo Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, K. H.

    1992-03-01

    NASA's Cargo Transfer Vehicle is a key element of the National Launch System currently under definition by a joint USAF and NASA development program. The CTV reference mission and configuration are described. Key mission and system requirements are analyzed and summarized including CTV electrical power and energy, main engine thrust, RCS configurations. Methods of control system validation using full 6DoF simulations are presented.

  12. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  13. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  14. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  15. Launch vehicle selection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  16. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  17. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  18. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  19. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers.

  20. Laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.