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Sample records for brain surface electric

  1. Power-Law Scaling in the Brain Surface Electric Potential

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Sorensen, Larry B.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; den Nijs, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have identified broadband phenomena in the electric potentials produced by the brain. We report the finding of power-law scaling in these signals using subdural electrocorticographic recordings from the surface of human cortex. The power spectral density (PSD) of the electric potential has the power-law form from 80 to 500 Hz. This scaling index, , is conserved across subjects, area in the cortex, and local neural activity levels. The shape of the PSD does not change with increases in local cortical activity, but the amplitude, , increases. We observe a “knee” in the spectra at , implying the existence of a characteristic time scale . Below , we explore two-power-law forms of the PSD, and demonstrate that there are activity-related fluctuations in the amplitude of a power-law process lying beneath the rhythms. Finally, we illustrate through simulation how, small-scale, simplified neuronal models could lead to these power-law observations. This suggests a new paradigm of non-oscillatory “asynchronous,” scale-free, changes in cortical potentials, corresponding to changes in mean population-averaged firing rate, to complement the prevalent “synchronous” rhythm-based paradigm. PMID:20019800

  2. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  3. Visualizing Simulated Electrical Fields from Electroencephalography and Transcranial Electric Brain Stimulation: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R.; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-01-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

  4. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  5. Surface visualization of electromagnetic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Badea, Alexandra; Kostopoulos, George K; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2003-08-15

    Advances in hardware and software have made possible the reconstruction of brain activity from non-invasive electrophysiological measurements over a large part of the brain. The appreciation of the information content in the data is enhanced when relevant anatomical detail is also available for visualization. Different neuroscientific questions give rise to different requirements for optimal superposition of structure and function. Most available software deal with scalar measures of activity, especially hemodynamic changes. In contrast, the electrophysiological observables are generated by electrical activity, which depends on the synchrony of neuronal assemblies and the geometry of the local cortical surface. We describe methods for segmentation and visualization of spatio-temporal brain activity, which allow the interplay of geometry and scalar as well as vector properties of the current density directly in the representations. The utility of these methods is demonstrated through displays of tomographic reconstructions of early sensory processing in the somatosensory and visual modality extracted from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The activation course characteristic to a specific area could be observed as current density or statistical maps independently and/or contrasted to the activity in other areas or the whole brain. MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations were simultaneously visualized. Integrating and visualizing complementary functional data into a single environment helps evaluating analysis and understanding structure/function relationships in normal and diseased brain.

  6. Electrically driven surface plasmon nanosources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Wang, Tao; Le Moal, Eric; Dujardin, Gérald

    2015-03-01

    Electrical nanosources of surface plasmons will be an integral part of any future plasmonic circuits. Three different types of such nanosources (based on inelastic electron tunneling, high energy electron bombardment, and the electrical injection of a semiconductor device) are briefly described here. An example of a fundamental experiment using an electrical nanosource consisting of the tunnel junction formed between a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a metallic sample is given. In this experiment, the temporal coherence of the broadband STM-plasmon source is probed using a variant of Young's double slit experiment, and the coherence time of the broadband source is estimated to be about 5-10 fs.

  7. Complex networks in brain electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, C.; Ruffini, G.; Marco-Pallarés, J.; Fuentemilla, L.; Grau, C.

    2007-08-01

    This letter reports a method to extract a functional network of the human brain from electroencephalogram measurements. A network analysis was performed on the resultant network and the statistics of the cluster coefficient, node degree, path length, and physical distance of the links, were studied. Even given the low electrode count of the experimental data the method was able to extract networks with network parameters that clearly depend on the type of stimulus presented to the subject. This type of analysis opens a door to studying the cerebral networks underlying brain electrical activity, and links the fields of complex networks and cognitive neuroscience.

  8. Deep Brain Electrical Stimulation in Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luisa L.

    2008-11-01

    The deep brain electrical stimulation has been used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, depression and epilepsy. Studies carried out in human brain indicate that the application of high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz in limbic structures of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy abolished clinical seizures and significantly decreased the number of interictal spikes at focus. The anticonvulsant effects of HFS seem to be more effective in patients with less severe epilepsy, an effect associated with a high GABA tissue content and a low rate of cell loss. In addition, experiments using models of epilepsy indicate that HFS (pulses of 60 μs width at 130 Hz at subthreshold current intensity) of specific brain areas avoids the acquisition of generalized seizures and enhances the postictal seizure suppression. HFS is also able to modify the status epilepticus. It is concluded that the effects of HFS may be a good strategy to reduce or avoid the epileptic activity.

  9. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  10. Electric field distribution of electron emitter surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, M.; Takenobu, S.; Ohmae, N.; Umeno, M.

    1987-03-01

    The electric field distribution of a tungsten field emitter surface and a LaB6 thermionic emitter surface has been studied. The computer simulation of electric field distribution on the emitter surface was carried out with a charge simulation method. The electric field distribution of the LaB6 thermionic emitter was experimentally evaluated by the Schottky plot. Two independent equations are necessary for obtaining local electric field and work function; the Fowler-Nordheim equation and the equation of total energy distribution of emitted electron being used to evaluate the electric field distribution of the tungsten field emitter. The experimental results agreed with the computer simulation.

  11. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  12. Broadband transverse electric surface wave in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhtary, M. Shoufie; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-08-01

    Transverse electric (TE) surface wave in silicine is theoretically investigated. The TE surface wave in silicene is found to exhibit better characteristics compared with that in graphene, in terms of a broader frequency range and more confinement to the surface which originate from the buckled structure of silicene. We found that even undoped silicene can support the TE surface wave. We expect the similar characteristics of the TE surface wave in other two-dimensional materials that have a slightly buckled honeycomb lattice.

  13. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization Using Riemann Surface Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yalin; Lui, Lok Ming; Gu, Xianfeng; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2011-01-01

    In medical imaging, parameterized 3-D surface models are useful for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on Riemann surface structure, which uses a special curvilinear net structure (conformal net) to partition the surface into a set of patches that can each be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable (their solutions tend to be smooth functions and the boundary conditions of the Dirichlet problem can be enforced). Conformal parameterization also helps transform partial differential equations (PDEs) that may be defined on 3-D brain surface manifolds to modified PDEs on a two-dimensional parameter domain. Since the Jacobian matrix of a conformal parameterization is diagonal, the modified PDE on the parameter domain is readily solved. To illustrate our techniques, we computed parameterizations for several types of anatomical surfaces in 3-D magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. For surfaces that are topologically homeomorphic to each other and have similar geometrical structures, we show that the parameterization results are consistent and the subdivided surfaces can be matched to each other. Finally, we present an automatic sulcal landmark location algorithm by solving PDEs on cortical surfaces. The landmark detection results are used as constraints for building conformal maps between surfaces that also match explicitly defined landmarks. PMID:17679336

  14. Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films Containing Gold Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, Maggie L.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide films exhibiting high thermo-oxidative stability and including electrically conductive surface layers containing gold made by casting process. Many variations of basic process conditions, ingredients, and sequence of operations possible, and not all resulting versions of process yield electrically conductive films. Gold-containing layer formed on film surface during cure. These metallic gold-containing polyimides used in film and coating applications requiring electrical conductivity, high reflectivity, exceptional thermal stability, and/or mechanical integrity. They also find commercial potential in areas ranging from thin films for satellite antennas to decorative coatings and packaging.

  15. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Papademetris, Xenophon; Tucker, Don M.

    2016-01-01

    BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM) or finite element model (FEM) created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG) measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa). BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages. PMID:27293419

  16. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Papademetris, Xenophon; Tucker, Don M

    2016-01-01

    BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM) or finite element model (FEM) created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG) measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa). BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages. PMID:27293419

  17. Electrically Responsive Surfaces: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Stimuli-responsive surfaces have sparked considerable interest in recent years, especially in view of their biomimetic nature and widespread biomedical applications. Significant efforts are continuously being directed at developing functional surfaces exhibiting specific property changes triggered by variations in electrical potential, temperature, pH and concentration, irradiation with light, or exposure to a magnetic field. In this respect, electrical stimulus offers several attractive features, including a high level of spatial and temporal controllability, rapid and reverse inducement, and noninvasiveness. In this Account, we discuss how surfaces can be designed and methodologies developed to produce electrically switchable systems, based on research by our groups. We aim to provide fundamental mechanistic and structural features of these dynamic systems, while highlighting their capabilities and potential applications. We begin by briefly describing the current state-of-the-art in integrating electroactive species on surfaces to control the immobilization of diverse biological entities. This premise leads us to portray our electrically switchable surfaces, capable of controlling nonspecific and specific biological interactions by exploiting molecular motions of surface-bound electroswitchable molecules. We demonstrate that our self-assembled monolayer-based electrically switchable surfaces can modulate the interactions of surfaces with proteins, mammalian and bacterial cells. We emphasize how these systems are ubiquitous in both switching biomolecular interactions in highly complex biological conditions while still offering antifouling properties. We also introduce how novel characterization techniques, such as surface sensitive vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, can be used for probing the electrically switchable molecular surfaces in situ. SFG spectroscopy is a technique that not only allowed determining the structural

  18. Imaging fast electrical activity in the brain with electrical impedance tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aristovich, Kirill Y.; Packham, Brett C.; Koo, Hwan; Santos, Gustavo Sato dos; McEvoy, Andy; Holder, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of neuronal depolarization in the brain is a major goal in neuroscience, but no technique currently exists that could image neural activity over milliseconds throughout the whole brain. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging medical imaging technique which can produce tomographic images of impedance changes with non-invasive surface electrodes. We report EIT imaging of impedance changes in rat somatosensory cerebral cortex with a resolution of 2 ms and < 200 μm during evoked potentials using epicortical arrays with 30 electrodes. Images were validated with local field potential recordings and current source-sink density analysis. Our results demonstrate that EIT can image neural activity in a volume 7 × 5 × 2 mm in somatosensory cerebral cortex with reduced invasiveness, greater resolution and imaging volume than other methods. Modeling indicates similar resolutions are feasible throughout the entire brain so this technique, uniquely, has the potential to image functional connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures. PMID:26348559

  19. Near-isometric flattening of brain surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Schwartz, Eric L

    2010-06-01

    Flattened representations of brain surfaces are often used to visualize and analyze spatial patterns of structural organization and functional activity. Here, we present a set of rigorous criteria and accompanying test cases with which to evaluate flattening algorithms that attempt to preserve shortest-path distances on the original surface. We also introduce a novel flattening algorithm that is the first to satisfy all of these criteria and demonstrate its ability to produce accurate flat maps of human and macaque visual cortex. Using this algorithm, we have recently obtained results showing a remarkable, unexpected degree of consistency in the shape and topographic structure of visual cortical areas within humans and macaques, as well as between these two species.

  20. Electric Arc and Electrochemical Surface Texturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Snyder, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface texturing of conductive materials can readily be accomplished by means of a moving electric arc which produces a plasma from the environmental gases as well as from the vaporized substrate and arc electrode materials. As the arc is forced to move across the substrate surface, a condensate from the plasma re-deposits an extremely rough surface which is intimately mixed and attached to the substrate material. The arc textured surfaces produce greatly enhanced thermal emittance and hold potential for use as high temperature radiator surfaces in space, as well as in systems which use radiative heat dissipation such as computer assisted tomography (CAT) scan systems. Electrochemical texturing of titanium alloys can be accomplished by using sodium chloride solutions along with ultrasonic agitation to produce a random distribution of craters on the surface. The crater size and density can be controlled to produce surface craters appropriately sized for direct bone in-growth of orthopaedic implants. Electric arc texturing and electrochemical texturing techniques, surface properties and potential applications will be presented.

  1. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  2. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

  3. Electrical transport properties of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kwonjae

    The understanding and utilization of electronic transport phenomena in low-dimensional, quantum-confined structures is of enormous scientific and technological interest. We have studied the electrical transport properties of systems that are quantum confined in one dimension but periodic in the other two dimensions, namely surfaces and ultrathin film materials. The electrical conductance of atomically clean, reconstructed silicon surfaces and interfaces was measured as a function of temperature in ultrahigh vacuum using the classical four-point probe technique. We employed Silicon on Insulator (SOI) technology to enhance the surface sensitivity of the four-point probe measurements. High-quality ohmic contacts were fabricated using ion-implantation. The Si(100)2 x 1 surface reconstruction consists of a two-dimensional, anti-ferromagnetic c(4 x 2) array of buckled silicon dimers. The surface undergoes a c(4 x 2) → 2 x 1 order-disorder transition near T = 200 K. Above 200 K, dimers fluctuate rapidly and the long-range c(4 x 2) ordering is destroyed. The conductance of this two-dimensional system has a temperature-dependence that is characteristic of a metal. The surface conductance appears closely correlated with the order parameter of the low-temperature c(4 x 2) structure. Thermally activated flip-flop motion of the Si dimers thus appears to be the dominant scattering mechanism. Recent high-resolution photoemission experiments indicate that the Si(111)7 x 7 surface reconstruction is a two-dimensional, correlated metal. The surface electrical conductivity decreases with increasing temperature, thus confirming metallic transport. However, conductivity measurements on ultrathin SOI indicate insulating behavior. The origin of this discrepancy is not understood and requires further investigation of the sheet conductance as a function of the SOI layer thickness. The Ga/Si(112) interface consists of a self-assembled, mesoscopic array of atomic Ga wires on a high-index Si

  4. Electrical surface potential of pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Zoya; Rodenstein, Mathias; Döhner, Jana; Eng, Lukas M; Amrein, Matthias

    2006-11-21

    Pulmonary surfactant is a mixed lipid protein substance of defined composition that self-assembles at the air-lung interface into a molecular film and thus reduces the interfacial tension to close to zero. A very low surface tension is required for maintaining the alveolar structure. The pulmonary surfactant film is also the first barrier for airborne particles entering the lung upon breathing. We explored by frequency modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy (FM-KPFM) the structure and local electrical surface potential of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) films. BLES is a clinically used surfactant replacement and here served as a realistic model surfactant system. The films were distinguished by a pattern of molecular monolayer areas, separated by patches of lipid bilayer stacks. The stacks were at positive electrical potential with respect to the surrounding monolayer areas. We propose a particular molecular arrangement of the lipids and proteins in the film to explain the topographic and surface potential maps. We also discuss how this locally variable surface potential may influence the retention of charged or polar airborne particles in the lung.

  5. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  6. Submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli evoke electrical brain responses.

    PubMed

    Sperdin, Holger F; Spierer, Lucas; Becker, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Landis, Theodor

    2015-04-01

    Subliminal perception is strongly associated to the processing of meaningful or emotional information and has mostly been studied using visual masking. In this study, we used high density 256-channel EEG coupled with an liquid crystal display (LCD) tachistoscope to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of the brain response to visual checkerboard stimuli (Experiment 1) or blank stimuli (Experiment 2) presented without a mask for 1 ms (visible), 500 µs (partially visible), and 250 µs (subliminal) by applying time-wise, assumption-free nonparametric randomization statistics on the strength and on the topography of high-density scalp-recorded electric field. Stimulus visibility was assessed in a third separate behavioral experiment. Results revealed that unmasked checkerboards presented subliminally for 250 µs evoked weak but detectable visual evoked potential (VEP) responses. When the checkerboards were replaced by blank stimuli, there was no evidence for the presence of an evoked response anymore. Furthermore, the checkerboard VEPs were modulated topographically between 243 and 296 ms post-stimulus onset as a function of stimulus duration, indicative of the engagement of distinct configuration of active brain networks. A distributed electrical source analysis localized this modulation within the right superior parietal lobule near the precuneus. These results show the presence of a brain response to submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli independently of their emotional saliency or meaningfulness and opens an avenue for new investigations of subliminal stimulation without using visual masking. PMID:25487054

  7. Surface Laplacian of central scalp electrical signals is insensitive to muscle contamination.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Lewis, Trent W; Powers, David M W; Whitham, Emma W; Willoughby, John O; Pope, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of surface Laplacian processing on gross and persistent electromyographic (EMG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in electrical scalp recordings. We made scalp recordings during passive and active tasks, on awake subjects in the absence and in the presence of complete neuromuscular blockade. Three scalp surface Laplacian estimators were compared to left ear and common average reference (CAR). Contamination was quantified by comparing power after paralysis (brain signal, B) with power before paralysis (brain plus muscle signal, B+M). Brain:Muscle (B:M) ratios for the methods were calculated using B and differences in power after paralysis to represent muscle (M). There were very small power differences after paralysis up to 600 Hz using surface Laplacian transforms (B:M > 6 above 30 Hz in central scalp leads). Scalp surface Laplacian transforms reduce muscle power in central and pericentral leads to less than one sixth of the brain signal, two to three times better signal detection than CAR. Scalp surface Laplacian transformations provide robust estimates for detecting high-frequency (gamma) activity, for assessing electrophysiological correlates of disease, and also for providing a measure of brain electrical activity for use as a standard in the development of brain/muscle signal separation methods.

  8. Electrical Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, R. V. A.

    2009-02-01

    A surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is an electromagnetic wave propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material. The two-dimensional confinement of SPPs and the tunability of their dispersion enable optical functionality that cannot be achieved with regular dielectrics. Several novel concepts for sensing and opto-electronic integration based on SPPs have been proposed. In nearly all applications, as well as experiments based on SPPs, far-field excitation of SPPs is used, leading to bulky device designs. This thesis presents an electrically excitable source for SPPs that can be integrated in small, chip-size devices to enable the full application potential of SPPs. The device is based on a dielectric/metal geometry in which silicon quantum dots are placed in the near-field of the SPP mode. The quantum dots are electrically excited and decay by the generation of SPPs. Silicon quantum dots in silica are made by a magnetron sputtering technique, followed by annealing. From photoluminescence spectra as well as lifetime measurements we conclude that well-passivated Si quantum dots with quantum confined luminescence around 800 nm can be made. An electrical injection geometry is presented and electroluminescence is observed around 650 nm under a bias of 15-30 V. Strong bleaching of the quantum dot luminescence is observed under 0.5-20 keV electron beam irradiation, which has a potential consequence for the use of electron beam lithography in nanofabrication of structures with Si quantum dots. We describe the design and the fabrication of an electrically excitable plasmon source based on an insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) geometry. The coupling of quantum dots to the SPP mode was studied theoretically. For quantum dots spaced 20-200 nm away from the metal surface, more than 50% of the decay is into SPPs. An IMI SPP geometry for electrical excitation was fabricated using gold and silica doped with Si quantum dots as dielectric material. An IMI SPP source

  9. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H

    2004-09-01

    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy. PMID:15324724

  10. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H

    2004-09-01

    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy.

  11. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who in the 1830 s and 1840 s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd's concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in nerve fibres (neurons in later terminology), was confirmed a century later by the Nobel Prize-winning work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who demonstrated the ionic basis of neuro-transmission, involving the same ions which had had been discovered by Faraday's mentor, Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829).

  12. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who in the 1830 s and 1840 s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd's concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in nerve fibres (neurons in later terminology), was confirmed a century later by the Nobel Prize-winning work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who demonstrated the ionic basis of neuro-transmission, involving the same ions which had had been discovered by Faraday's mentor, Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). PMID:17885273

  13. Surface electrical properties experiment, part 1. [for measuring lunar surface electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupfer, W. S. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    The design evolution, hardware development, and production history of the surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment are discussed. The SEP transmitter and receiver were designed to be used on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission. The equipment was used to measure lunar surface electrical properties over traverses totalling more than 8 kilometers, for a duration of more than 100 minutes. A comprehensive outline of the techniques, is given along with a simplified detailed breakdown of equipment description and function to outline the principles of operation. A history of the design evolution with trade-off criteria and emphasis on changes caused by decisions reached in solving problems inherent in a fast-paced development program are presented from the viewpoint of overall design concept and in detail for each item of deliverable hardware. There is a brief account of lunar operations.

  14. Measurement of small mechanical vibrations of brain tissue exposed to extremely-low-frequency electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Ali, J.S.; Peoples, J.F.; Joines, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposure cell is a section of X-band waveguide that was modified by the addition of a center conductor to form a small TEM cell within the waveguide structure. The ELF signal is applied to the center conductor of the TEM cell. The applied ELF electric field generates an electrostrictive force on the surface of the brain tissue. This force causes the tissue to vibrate at a frequency equal to twice the frequency of the applied sinusoidal signal. An X-band signal is fed through the waveguide, scattered by the vibrating sample, and detected by a phrase-sensitive receiver. Using a time-averaging spectrum analyzer, a vibration sensitivity of approximately 0.2 nmpp can be achieved. The amplitude of the brain tissue vibrational frequencies below 50 Hz; between 50 and 200 Hz resonant phenomena were observed; and above 200 Hz the amplitude fall-off is rapid.

  15. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  16. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri; Ohmori, Harunori

    2015-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  17. Lunar electric fields, surface potential and associated plasma sheaths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Ibrahim, M.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of studies of the electric-field environment of the moon. Surface electric potentials are reported for the dayside and terminator regions, electron and ion densities in the plasma sheath adjacent to each surface-potential regime are evaluated, and the corresponding Debye lengths are estimated. The electric fields, which are approximated by the surface potential over the Debye length, are shown to be at least three orders of magnitude higher than the pervasive solar-wind electric field and to be confined to within a few tens of meters of the lunar surface.

  18. Electrical stunning and exsanguination decrease the extracellular volume in the broiler brain as studied with brain impendance recordings.

    PubMed

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Pieterse, C; Korf, J

    2000-07-01

    Electrical stunning in the process of slaughtering poultry is used to induce unconsciousness and immobilize the animal for easier processing. Unconsciousness is a function of brain damage. Brain damage has been studied with brain impedance recordings under ischemic conditions. This experiment studies brain impedance as a response to a general epileptiform insult caused by electrical stunning and ischemia caused by exsanguination. Brain impedance was recorded in 10 broiler chickens for each of three killing methods: whole body electrical stunning, which induces cardiac arrest; head only electrical stunning followed by exsanguination; and exsanguination without stunning. Brain impedance was converted into relative extracellular volume (ECV) values. Results showed that, immediately after electrical stunning, the ECV decreased 5.5% from base ECV. With exsanguination only, the ECV decreased from base ECV only after 4 min after neck cutting. The ECV decrease after 10 min did not differ between treatments. With a time of 228 s to reach one-half of the ECV decrease found at 10 min, electrical stunning resulted in a much faster change in ECV than exsanguination only (373 s). Within the head only stunning group, six animals showed a response similar to that found with whole body stunning; the other four animals responded similarly to the animals that were exsanguinated only. It was concluded that brain impedance recordings used with electrical stunning reflect brain damage. This damage was both epileptic and ischemic in nature. Whole body stunning induced immediate brain damage, suggesting that an adequate stun was delivered. The dual response found with head only stunning might indicate that this stunning method does not always produce an adequate stun. PMID:10901211

  19. Electric fields of motor and frontal tDCS in a standard brain space: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mikkonen, Marko; Koyama, Soichiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-08-15

    The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard brain space. Personalized anatomically-accurate models of 62 subjects were constructed from T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The finite-element method was used to computationally estimate the individual electric fields, which were registered to the standard space using surface based registration. Motor cortical and frontal tDCS were modelled for 16 electrode montages. For each electrode montage, the group-level electric fields had a consistent strength and direction in several brain regions, which could also be located at some distance from the electrodes. In other regions, the electric fields were more variable, and thus more likely to produce variable effects in each individual. Both the anode and cathode locations affected the group-level electric fields, both directly under the electrodes and elsewhere. For motor cortical tDCS, the electric fields could be controlled at the group level by moving the electrodes. However, for frontal tDCS, the group-level electric fields were more variable, and the electrode locations had only minor effects on the group average fields. Our results reveal the electric fields and their variability at the group level in the standard brain space, providing insights into the mechanisms of tDCS for plasticity induction. The data are useful for planning, analysing and interpreting tDCS studies. PMID:27188218

  20. Combining multi-atlas segmentation with brain surface estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yuankai; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M.; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Whole brain segmentation (with comprehensive cortical and subcortical labels) and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. The two tasks are typically conducted independently, however, which leads to spatial inconsistencies and hinders further integrated cortical analyses. To obtain self-consistent whole brain segmentations and surfaces, FreeSurfer segregates the subcortical and cortical segmentations before and after the cortical surface reconstruction. However, this "segmentation to surface to parcellation" strategy has shown limitation in various situations. In this work, we propose a novel "multi-atlas segmentation to surface" method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. To our knowledge, this is the first work that achieves the reliability of state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation and labeling methods together with accurate and consistent cortical surface reconstruction. Compared with previous methods, MaCRUISE has three features: (1) MaCRUISE obtains 132 cortical/subcortical labels simultaneously from a single multi-atlas segmentation before reconstructing volume consistent surfaces; (2) Fuzzy tissue memberships are combined with multi-atlas segmentations to address partial volume effects; (3) MaCRUISE reconstructs topologically consistent cortical surfaces by using the sulci locations from multi-atlas segmentation. Two data sets, one consisting of five subjects with expertly traced landmarks and the other consisting of 100 volumes from elderly subjects are used for validation. Compared with CRUISE, MaCRUISE achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentation and cortical reconstruction without compromising on surface accuracy. MaCRUISE is comparably accurate to FreeSurfer while achieving greater robustness across an elderly population.

  1. Interaction between electrical modulation of the brain and pharmacotherapy to control pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    In spite of the high success rate of many surgical procedures for pharmacoresistant epilepsy, a substantial number of patients do not become seizure-free. Different strategies for electrical modulation of the brain such as Deep Brain Stimulation, Vagal Nerve Stimulation and Transcraneal Magnetic Stimulation have gained considerable interest in the last decade as alternative therapies for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Research into the mechanism of action of the strategies for electrical modulation of the brain suggests a crucial role of different molecules and channels such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, calcium channels, sodium channels as well as extracellular potassium. Electrical modulation of the brain may reduce the overexpression of P-glycoprotein, a drug efflux transporter that reduces the absorption of antiepileptic drugs. Electrical modulation of the brain induces long-term effects associated with beneficial consequences on clinical symptoms observed during the postictal state. In addition, electrical modulation of the brain might also promote the neurogenesis in subjects with pharmacoresistant epilepsy in whom this process is decreased. Targeting the regulatory pathways in charge of the effects of electrical modulation of the brain is discussed as a means to improve its efficacy. Electrical modulation of the brain combined with pharmacotherapy may represent an innovative approach to avoid epileptogenesis, reduce seizure activity, induce beneficial effects during the postictal state, diminish the amount of antiepileptic drugs, and improve alertness, memory and mood in pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  2. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  3. Electrical conductivity changes during irreversible electroporation treatment of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo A; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V

    2011-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive technique to kill tumors and other undesirable tissue in a non-thermal manner. During an IRE treatment, a series of short and intense electric pulses are delivered to the region of interest to destabilize the cell membranes in the tissue and achieve spontaneous cell death. The alteration of the cellular membrane results in a dramatic increase in electrical conductivity during IRE as in other electroporation-based-therapies. In this study, we performed the planning and execution of an IRE brain cancer treatment using MRI reconstructions of the tumor and a multichannel array that served as a stereotactic fiducial and electrode guide. Using the tumor reconstructions within our numerical simulations, we developed equations relating the increase in tumor conductivity to calculated currents and volumes of tumor treated with IRE. We also correlated the experimental current measured during the procedure to an increase in tumor conductivity ranging between 3.42-3.67 times the baseline conductivity, confirming the physical phenomenon that has been detected in other tissues undergoing similar electroporation-based treatments. PMID:22254416

  4. Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness.

    PubMed

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Beltagy, Abdelrahman; Picard, Fabienne

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie consciousness are not fully understood. We describe a region in the human brain where electrical stimulation reproducibly disrupted consciousness. A 54-year-old woman with intractable epilepsy underwent depth electrode implantation and electrical stimulation mapping. The electrode whose stimulation disrupted consciousness was between the left claustrum and anterior-dorsal insula. Stimulation of electrodes within 5mm did not affect consciousness. We studied the interdependencies among depth recording signals as a function of time by nonlinear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient) during stimulations that altered consciousness and stimulations of the same electrode at lower current intensities that were asymptomatic. Stimulation of the claustral electrode reproducibly resulted in a complete arrest of volitional behavior, unresponsiveness, and amnesia without negative motor symptoms or mere aphasia. The disruption of consciousness did not outlast the stimulation and occurred without any epileptiform discharges. We found a significant increase in correlation for interactions affecting medial parietal and posterior frontal channels during stimulations that disrupted consciousness compared with those that did not. Our findings suggest that the left claustrum/anterior insula is an important part of a network that subserves consciousness and that disruption of consciousness is related to increased EEG signal synchrony within frontal-parietal networks.

  5. Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness.

    PubMed

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Beltagy, Abdelrahman; Picard, Fabienne

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie consciousness are not fully understood. We describe a region in the human brain where electrical stimulation reproducibly disrupted consciousness. A 54-year-old woman with intractable epilepsy underwent depth electrode implantation and electrical stimulation mapping. The electrode whose stimulation disrupted consciousness was between the left claustrum and anterior-dorsal insula. Stimulation of electrodes within 5mm did not affect consciousness. We studied the interdependencies among depth recording signals as a function of time by nonlinear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient) during stimulations that altered consciousness and stimulations of the same electrode at lower current intensities that were asymptomatic. Stimulation of the claustral electrode reproducibly resulted in a complete arrest of volitional behavior, unresponsiveness, and amnesia without negative motor symptoms or mere aphasia. The disruption of consciousness did not outlast the stimulation and occurred without any epileptiform discharges. We found a significant increase in correlation for interactions affecting medial parietal and posterior frontal channels during stimulations that disrupted consciousness compared with those that did not. Our findings suggest that the left claustrum/anterior insula is an important part of a network that subserves consciousness and that disruption of consciousness is related to increased EEG signal synchrony within frontal-parietal networks. PMID:24967698

  6. Combining Multi-atlas Segmentation with Brain Surface Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M.; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    Whole brain segmentation (with comprehensive cortical and subcortical labels) and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. The two tasks are typically conducted independently, however, which leads to spatial inconsistencies and hinders further integrated cortical analyses. To obtain self-consistent whole brain segmentations and surfaces, FreeSurfer segregates the subcortical and cortical segmentations before and after the cortical surface reconstruction. However, this “segmentation to surface to parcellation” strategy has shown limitations in various situations. In this work, we propose a novel “multi-atlas segmentation to surface” method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. To our knowledge, this is the first work that achieves the reliability of state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation and labeling methods together with accurate and consistent cortical surface reconstruction. Compared with previous methods, MaCRUISE has three features: (1) MaCRUISE obtains 132 cortical/subcortical labels simultaneously from a single multi-atlas segmentation before reconstructing volume consistent surfaces; (2) Fuzzy tissue memberships are combined with multi-atlas segmentations to address partial volume effects; (3) MaCRUISE reconstructs topologically consistent cortical surfaces by using the sulci locations from multi-atlas segmentation. Two data sets, one consisting of five subjects with expertly traced landmarks and the other consisting of 100 volumes from elderly subjects are used for validation. Compared with CRUISE, MaCRUISE achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentation and cortical reconstruction without compromising on surface accuracy. MaCRUISE is comparably accurate to FreeSurfer while achieving greater robustness across an elderly

  7. In vivo assessment of human brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Cossio, Eliana G; Birbaumer, Niels; Robinson, Stephen E; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2013-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect pattern formation of cell assemblies' activity, which is often disturbed in neurological and psychiatric diseases like depression, schizophrenia and stroke. In the neurobiological analysis and treatment of these conditions, transcranial electric currents applied to the brain proved beneficial. However, the direct effects of these currents on brain oscillations have remained an enigma because of the inability to record them simultaneously. Here we report a novel strategy that resolves this problem. We describe accurate reconstructed localization of dipolar sources and changes of brain oscillatory activity associated with motor actions in primary cortical brain regions undergoing transcranial electric stimulation. This new method allows for the first time direct measurement of the effects of non-invasive electrical brain stimulation on brain oscillatory activity and behavior. PMID:23787780

  8. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  9. BRAIN SURFACE CONFORMAL PARAMETERIZATION WITH THE RICCI FLOW

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yalin; Gu, Xianfeng; Chan, Tony F.; Thompson, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    In medical imaging, parameterized 3D surface models are of great interest for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. By solving the Yamabe equation with the Ricci flow method, we can conformally parameterize a brain surface via a mapping to a multi-hole disk. The resulting parameterizations do not have any singularities and are intrinsic and stable. To illustrate the technique, we computed parameterizations of cortical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain. We also show the parameterization results are consistent with constraints imposed on the mappings of selected landmark curves, and the resulting surfaces can be matched to each other using constrained harmonic maps. Unlike previous planar conformal parameterization methods, our algorithm does not introduce any singularity points. PMID:21926017

  10. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  11. Brain segmentation and the generation of cortical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M.; Cui, J.; Doolittle, K.; Joshi, S.; Van Essen, D.; Wang, L.; Miller, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes methods for white matter segmentation in brain images and the generation of cortical surfaces from the segmentations. We have developed a system that allows a user to start with a brain volume, obtained by modalities such as MRI or cryosection, and constructs a complete digital representation of the cortical surface. The methodology consists of three basic components: local parametric modeling and Bayesian segmentation; surface generation and local quadratic coordinate fitting; and surface editing. Segmentations are computed by parametrically fitting known density functions to the histogram of the image using the expectation maximization algorithm [DLR77]. The parametric fits are obtained locally rather than globally over the whole volume to overcome local variations in gray levels. To represent the boundary of the gray and white matter we use triangulated meshes generated using isosurface generation algorithms [GH95]. A complete system of local parametric quadratic charts [JWM+95] is superimposed on the triangulated graph to facilitate smoothing and geodesic curve tracking. Algorithms for surface editing include extraction of the largest closed surface. Results for several macaque brains are presented comparing automated and hand surface generation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Seeing surfaces: The brain's vision of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Heiko; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Mingolla, Ennio

    2007-09-01

    Surfaces of environmental objects are the key to understanding the visual experience of primates. Surfaces create structure in patterns of light available for sampling by visual systems, and delineate potential interactions that an animal can have with its environment, such as approaching goals, avoiding obstacles, grasping an object, or identifying members of a social group. Recent progress in modeling the perception of visual surfaces highlights the importance of feedforward and feedback connections in visual neural networks that segregate and group visual input into coherent regions related to corresponding surfaces in the visual world. Rich non-linear network dynamics in the brain underlie surface perception, including the detection, regularization, and grouping of visual boundaries between surfaces, the determination of “ownership” of a boundary by a closer surface that partially occludes a background, and the apprehension of a surface's visual quality, such as color or texture. Recent modeling efforts on these fronts are reviewed.

  13. Electric currents and fields induced in cells in the human brain by radiation from hand-held cellular telephones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    2000-01-01

    After a review of recent work on the interaction of electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones with the human head, the structural and radiating properties of two common types of transceivers are determined. These include the impedance and current amplitude distribution of the antennas. The tangential electric field maintained by the antennas on the adjacent surface of the head is next determined. From this, the electric field propagating through the skull into the brain is analyzed and, from it, the electric field in spherical and long cylindrical cells is determined. It ranges from 27 to 13.5 V/m in the first 3 cm inside the skull. Of interest is the fact that the induced field in the interior of all cells, regardless of their shape, is the same as the incident field in the brain. It is hoped that biomedical scientists will review these results and determine possible biological effects.

  14. Eye movements and brain electric potentials during reading.

    PubMed

    Kliegl, Reinhold; Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Jacobs, Arthur M; Sommer, Werner

    2012-03-01

    The development of theories and computational models of reading requires an understanding of processing constraints, in particular of timelines related to word recognition and oculomotor control. Timelines of word recognition are usually determined with event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded under conditions of serial visual presentation (SVP) of words; timelines of oculomotor control are derived from parameters of eye movements (EMs) during natural reading. We describe two strategies to integrate these approaches. One is to collect ERPs and EMs in separate SVP and natural reading experiments for the same experimental material (but different subjects). The other strategy is to co-register EMs and ERPs during natural reading from the same subjects. Both strategies yield data that allow us to determine how lexical properties influence ERPs (e.g., the N400 component) and EMs (e.g., fixation durations) across neighboring words. We review our recent research on the effects of frequency and predictability of words on both EM and ERP measures with reference to current models of eye-movement control during reading. Results are in support of the proposition that lexical access is distributed across several fixations and across brain-electric potentials measured on neighboring words.

  15. Charged layer with undulated surface: configuration of electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Hwa

    2010-06-15

    A charged layer with undulated surface exists commonly in natural entities (for example the biological membrane layer and the surface of charged colloid) and in artificial fabrications (for example the peripheral surface of ion-exchange membrane pores). When the micro- or nano-scale charged layer systems are concerned, the effect of undulation of charged layer surface on the electrical phenomenon may become great significant. In this work, using the perturbation method, the significance of undulated surface on a charged layer in the electrical phenomenon is investigated. Under assumptions that the undulation amplitude is small and that the Debye-Huckel approximation is applicable, the electrical potential field in three regions is solved simultaneously. Based on the analytical results it is found that, if compared with that in condition of flat surface, the undulation of charged layer surface decreases/increases the magnitude of electrical potential field near the wave crest/trough, due to the curvature of undulated surface. In addition, the surface potential on the undulated surface shows a wavelike distribution. The analytical results also show that, the significance of undulated surface is determined by the physical parameters, including the geometry of undulated surface, the amplitude and the period of undulation, and the fixed charge density in charged layer.

  16. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  17. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  18. Surface electrical properties experiment, part 1. [flown on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Annan, A. P.; Redman, J. D.; Rossiter, J. R.; Rylaarsdam, J. A.; Watts, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The work is reported which was performed on the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment Data Acquisition System. Areas discussed include: data handling and processing, installation and external signal application, operation of the equipment, and digital output. Detailed circuit descriptions are included.

  19. A surface misfit inversion method for brain deformation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenghong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Hartov, Alexander; Roberts, David W.

    2007-03-01

    Biomechanical models of brain deformation are useful tools for estimating the shift that occurs during neurosurgical interventions. Incorporation of intra-operative data into the biomechanical model improves the accuracy of the registration between the patient and the image volume. The representer method to solve the adjoint equations (AEM) for data assimilation has been developed. In order to improve the computational efficiency and to process more intraoperative data, we modified the adjoint equation method by changing the way in which intraoperative data is applied. The current formulation is developed around a point-based data-model misfit. Surface based data-model misfit could be a more robust and computationally efficient technique. Our approach is to express the surface misfit as the volume between the measured surface and model predicted surface. An iterative method is used to solve the adjoint equations. The surface misfit criterion is tested in a cortical distension clinical case and compared to the results generated with the prior point-based methodology solved either iteratively or with the representer algorithm. The results show that solving the adjoint equations with an iterative method improves computational efficiency dramatically over the representer approach and that reformulating the minimization criterion in terms of a surface description is even more efficient. Applying intra-operative data in the form of a surface misfit is computationally very efficient and appears promising with respect to its accuracy in estimating brain deformation.

  20. Atmospheric reactions on electrically charged surfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Leon F

    2013-07-14

    It is proposed that tropospheric NO2 at concentrations in the parts-per-billion range can be efficiently converted to HONO in a dust storm, by a process that is initiated by electron capture by NO2 from a negatively-charged dust particle. The electron capture is visualized as a harpoon-type process that does not require the NO2 to be adsorbed on the particle. The resulting electronically excited [NO2(-)]* ion reacts with water to form an HONO molecule plus an OH(-)·(H2O)n cluster ion. It is suggested that analogous processes can occur on other atmospheric aerosol particles with both positive and negative charges, with other molecules of high electron affinity such as SO2, and also, because the earth's surface is effectively the negative plate of a planet-sized capacitor, at the surfaces of terrestrial solids, lakes and oceans. PMID:23689618

  1. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under

  2. Dense arrays of micro-needles for recording and electrical stimulation of neural activity in acute brain slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, D. E.; Beggs, J. M.; Dabrowski, W.; Hottowy, P.; Kenney, C. J.; Sher, A.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. This paper describes the design, microfabrication, electrical characterization and biological evaluation of a high-density micro-needle array. The array records from and electrically stimulates individual neurons simultaneously in acute slices of brain tissue. Approach. Acute slices, arguably the closest in-vitro model of the brain, have a damaged surface layer. Since electrophysiological recording methods rely heavily on electrode-cell proximity, this layer significantly attenuates the signal amplitude making the use of traditional planar electrodes unsuitable. To penetrate into the tissue, bypassing the tissue surface, and to record and stimulate neural activity in the healthy interior volume of the slice, an array of 61 micro-needles was fabricated. Main results. This device is shown to record extracellular action potentials from individual neurons in acute cortical slices with a signal to noise ratio of up to ˜15:1. Electrical stimulation of individual neurons is achieved with stimulation thresholds of 1.1-2.9 µA. Significance. The novelty of this system is the combination of close needle spacing (60 µm), needle heights of up to 250 µm and small (5-10 µm diameter) electrodes allowing the recording of single unit activity. The array is coupled to a custom-designed readout system forming a powerful electrophysiological tool that permits two-way electrode-cell communication with populations of neurons in acute brain slices.

  3. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  4. Transverse electric surface mode in atomically thin Boron-Nitride.

    PubMed

    Merano, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The spatial confinement and the propagation length of surface waves in a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are analyzed in terms of its surface susceptibility and its surface conductivity. Based on the values of these macroscopic parameters, extracted from experimental observations, it is confirmed that graphene supports a transverse magnetic nonradiating surface mode in the ultraviolet spectral region while a single-layer hexagonal Boron-Nitride is predicted to support a transverse electric nonradiating surface mode in the visible spectrum. This last mode, at a vacuum wavelength of 633 nm, has a spatial confinement of 15 μm and an intensity-propagation distance greater than 2 cm.

  5. Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles Using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Yan, Dandan; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced non-invasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (CDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high spatial resolution images of electrical conductivity, by avoiding solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this paper, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head and brain tissues. Our work suggests MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. PMID:18799394

  6. Electrically-tunable surface deformation of a soft elastomer.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Clarke, David R

    2016-04-01

    The flat surface of a thin elastomer on a conducting substrate can be deformed by applying an electric field to a percolating network of metallic nanowires randomly dispersed over the surface. The magnitude of the field-induced surface undulations increases with the applied field and can locally be several times the diameter of the nanowires. Optical imaging indicates that the effect is reversible and the surface flatness is recovered when the electric field is removed. It is found that it is the field-induced changes in the surface morphology rather than the nanowires themselves that strongly scatter light. The optical effects could be exploited in functional devices including tunable privacy windows, displays, and camouflage. There is also the potential for tuning the adhesion of elastomers to other materials. PMID:26959839

  7. Solar Electric Power System Analyses for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Kohout, Lisa L.

    1999-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any architecture supporting human surface exploration of Mars. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design and detailed analysis of solar electric power system using photovoltaics and regenerative fuel cells to provide surface power on Mars. System performance, mass and deployed area predictions are discussed along with the myriad environmental factors and trade study results that helped to guide system design choices. Based on this work, we have developed a credible solar electric power option that satisfies the surface power requirements of a human Mars mission. The power system option described in this paper has a mass of approximately 10 metric tons, a approximately 5000-sq m deployable photovoltaic array using thin film solar cell technology.

  8. Surface electric properties of emulsions of apolar reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Baichenko, A.A.; Baran, A.A.

    1986-09-01

    This article presents the results of studies of surface electric properties of kerosene and AAR-2 (apolar aromatized reagent) emulsons in water, which can be used in coal slime flotation, in presence of various salts and high-molecular flocculants. The data obtained were compared with the effect of electrolytes on the surface electric properties of a model emulsion of heptane in water stabilized by sodium hapthenate. The studies indicate that similarity of changes in the electrokinetic properties of various emulsions in presence of electrolytes and flocculants.

  9. A combined voxel and surface based method for topology correction of brain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gris, Florence; Favreau, Jean-Marie; Acosta, Oscar; Barra, Vincent; Salvado, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Brain surfaces provide a reliable representation for cortical mapping. The construction of correct surfaces from magnetic resonance images (MRI) segmentation is a challenging task, especially when genus zero surfaces are required for further processing such as parameterization, partial inflation and registration. The generation of such surfaces has been approached either by correcting a binary image as part of the segmentation pipeline or by modifying the mesh representing the surface. During this task, the preservation of the structure may be compromised because of the convoluted nature of the brain and noisy/imperfect segmentations. In this paper, we propose a combined, voxel and surfacebased, topology correction method which preserves the structure of the brain while yielding genus zero surfaces. The topology of the binary segmentation is first corrected using a set of topology preserving operators applied sequentially. This results in a white matter/gray matter binary set with correct sulci delineation, homotopic to a filled sphere. Using the corrected segmentation, a marching cubes mesh is then generated and the tunnels and handles resulting from the meshing are finally removed with an algorithm based on the detection of nonseparating loops. The approach was validated using 20 young individuals MRI from the OASIS database, acquired at two different time-points. Reproducibility and robustness were evaluated using global and local criteria such as surface area, curvature and point to point distance. Results demonstrated the method capability to produce genus zero meshes while preserving geometry, two fundamental properties for reliable and accurate cortical mapping and further clinical studies.

  10. Electric-field-enhanced condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-12-23

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. However, after the droplets jump away from the surface, the existence of the vapor flow toward the condensing surface increases the drag on the jumping droplets, which can lead to complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. This effect limits the possible heat transfer enhancement because larger droplets form upon droplet return to the surface, which impedes heat transfer until they can be either removed by jumping again or finally shedding via gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) surfaces, we show that this vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ≈ 30 μm at moderate heat fluxes (q″ > 2 W/cm(2)). Subsequently, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced condensation, whereby an externally applied electric field prevents jumping droplet return. This concept leverages our recent insight that these droplets gain a net positive charge due to charge separation of the electric double layer at the hydrophobic coating. As a result, with scalable superhydrophobic CuO surfaces, we experimentally demonstrated a 50% higher overall condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to that on a jumping-droplet surface with no applied field for low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also offers avenues for improving the performance of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces as well as thermal diodes.

  11. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre O; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Radar-absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials, however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate active surfaces that enable electrical control of reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode, which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we report large-area adaptive radar-absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages <5 V. Using the developed surfaces, we demonstrate various device architectures including pixelated and curved surfaces. Our results provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems in microwave frequencies. PMID:25791719

  12. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre O; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-03-20

    Radar-absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials, however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate active surfaces that enable electrical control of reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode, which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we report large-area adaptive radar-absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages <5 V. Using the developed surfaces, we demonstrate various device architectures including pixelated and curved surfaces. Our results provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems in microwave frequencies.

  13. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre O.; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-03-01

    Radar-absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials, however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate active surfaces that enable electrical control of reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode, which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we report large-area adaptive radar-absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages <5 V. Using the developed surfaces, we demonstrate various device architectures including pixelated and curved surfaces. Our results provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems in microwave frequencies.

  14. Electric field of streamers propagating along dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trienekens, Dirk; Nijdam, Sander; Kroesen, Gerrit; Christen, Thomas; Ebert, Ute

    2015-09-01

    In electric power devices for high voltage, the interface between solid and gaseous insulation is usually the most critical part with respect to electric discharges that may lead to breakdown. For a better understanding of the underlying fundamental physics of these discharges, we investigate the streamer propagation along dielectric surfaces, with focus on the streamer electric fields and surface charges deposited on the dielectric material. In particular, we constructed a setup that enables us to study the electric field of the streamer in situ. A positive high voltage pulse is generated using a push-pull switch and supplied to a needle close to a birefringent BSO (Bismuth Silicon Oxide) crystal, along which the streamers can then propagate. Using a power LED and polarizing optics, we are able to visualize via the Pockels effect the electric field caused by the discharge. With this, we are able to quantitatively study streamer electric fields with good temporal and spatial resolution, and can estimate lifetimes of the deposited charges.

  15. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The choice of an antenna for a subsurface radio sounding experiment is discussed. The radiation properties of the antennas as placed on the surface of the medium is examined. The objective of the lunar surface electrical properties experiment is described. A numerical analysis of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of a subsurface domain is developed. The application of electromagnetic field measurements between one or more transmitting antennas and a roving receiving station is explained.

  16. Surface and Electrical Properties of Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilkaya, S. S.; Okutan, M.; Içelli, O.; Yalçın, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste (ECTW) sample of the impedance spectroscopy investigation for electrical modulus and conductivity are presented. Electrical properties via temperature and frequency dependent impedance spectroscopy were investigated. Real and imaginary parts of electrical modulus were measured at various frequencies and a related Cole-Cole plot was acquired as well. The surface resistivity of the ECTW was measured by the four-point probe measurement technique, yielding a relatively high surface resistivity. As a result of this study, an effective building shielding material, which is a cost effective alternative, is proposed. The activation energy values were calculated from the Arrhenius plots at different frequencies. The transition region in this plot may be attributed to activation of ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.

  17. Enhanced osteoblast response to electrical discharge machining surface.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fukunaga; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the surface characteristics and biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). EDM surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and contact angle measurements. MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, attachment and proliferation, as well as analysis of osteoblastic gene expressions, on machined surfaces and EDM surfaces were also evaluated. EDM surfaces exhibited high super hydrophilicity, due to high surface energy. XPS and XRD revealed that a passive oxide layer with certain developing thickness onto. EDM surfaces promoted cell attachment, but restrained proliferation. Counted cell numbers increased significantly on the machined surfaces as compared to the EDM surfaces. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher relative mRNA expression levels of osteoblastic genes (ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, Osterix) in cells cultured on the EDM surfaces as compared to cells cultured on the machined surfaces.

  18. Enhanced osteoblast response to electrical discharge machining surface.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fukunaga; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the surface characteristics and biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). EDM surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and contact angle measurements. MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, attachment and proliferation, as well as analysis of osteoblastic gene expressions, on machined surfaces and EDM surfaces were also evaluated. EDM surfaces exhibited high super hydrophilicity, due to high surface energy. XPS and XRD revealed that a passive oxide layer with certain developing thickness onto. EDM surfaces promoted cell attachment, but restrained proliferation. Counted cell numbers increased significantly on the machined surfaces as compared to the EDM surfaces. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher relative mRNA expression levels of osteoblastic genes (ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, Osterix) in cells cultured on the EDM surfaces as compared to cells cultured on the machined surfaces. PMID:22447066

  19. [Changes in the brain spontaneous bioelectrical activity during transcranial electrical and electromagnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Sharova, E V; Mel'nikov, A V; Novikova, M R; Kulikov, M A; Grechenko, T N; Shekhter, E D; Zaslavskiĭ, A Iu

    2006-01-01

    In order to study systemic brain reactions on transcranial electrical or electromagnetic medical stimulation and specify the neurophysiological criteria of its efficiency, comparative clinical and experimental examination was performed with the analysis of spontaneous bioelectric activity and behavioral or clinical parameters. We examined 6 patients with prolonged posttraumatic unconsciousness states treated with electrical stimulation and 17 intact Wistar rats subjected to electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. The effect of the transcranial stimulation was shown to depend on the initial level of the intercentral interactions of brain bioelectrical activity, estimated by the EEG coherence. Hypersynchronization of biopotentials as the main element of the brain reactivity can be the most useful for the rehabilitation of patients with cerebral pathology in cases of initially lowered level of the intercentral interactions in the absence of pathologically strengthened functional connections.

  20. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose. PMID:27591145

  1. Electrical Properties of the Venus Surface from Bistatic Radar Observations

    PubMed

    Pettengill; Ford; Simpson

    1996-06-14

    A bistatic radar experiment in 1994, involving reception on Earth of a specularly reflected, linearly polarized 13-centimeter-wavelength signal transmitted from the Magellan spacecraft in orbit around Venus, has established that the surface materials viewed at low and intermediate altitudes on Venus have a relative dielectric permittivity of 4.0 ± 0.5. However, bistatic results for the Maxwell Montes highlands imply an electrically lossy surface with an imaginary dielectric permittivity of -i 100 ± 50, probably associated with a specific conductivity of about 13 mhos per meter. Candidates for highlands surface composition include ferroelectrics, a thin frost of elemental tellurium, or a plating of magnetite or pyrites.

  2. The electrical conductivity and surface conduction of consolidated rock cores.

    PubMed

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Alajmi, Abdullah F

    2007-05-15

    A fully computerized high-pressure and high-temperature core holder device is simultaneously used to determine the electrical conductivity, zeta potential, and surface conductivity of consolidated rock cores in aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The total electrical conductivity of rock cores was determined by coupling streaming current and potential measurements. This shows that neglecting the surface conductivity Ksigma is crucial to converting the streaming potential into zeta potentials. It is observed that plots of the core total conductivity as a function of the electrolyte conductivity KL exhibit two behaviors. At low ionic strength, the core conductivity clearly depends on the contribution of surface conductivity behind the slip plane, whereas at higher ionic strength, the magnitude of the surface conductivity becomes negligible. The electrical conductivity of rock cores was found to be in good agreement with the O'Brien theory and the Briggs method. The contribution of the stagnant layer to the surface conductivity in nonaqueous systems has been shown to be significant. This shows that the stagnant layer displays significantly different behavior in different nonaqueous systems, depending on the core porosity and the double-layer overlap. The results indicate that the application of electrokinetics in petroleum reservoirs can provide important insights into reservoir fluid flow characterization.

  3. Invasive and transcranial photoacoustic imaging of the vascular response to brain electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Yao, Junjie; Hu, Song; Li, Li; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Advances in the brain functional imaging greatly facilitated the understanding of neurovascular coupling. For monitoring of the microvascular response to the brain electrical stimulation in vivo we used optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) through the cranial openings as well as transcranially. Both types of the vascular response, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, were clearly observed with good spatial and temporal resolution. Obtained results confirm one of the primary points of the neurovascular coupling theory that blood vessels could present vasoconstriction or vasodilatation in response to electrical stimulation, depending on the balance between inhibition and excitation of the different parts of the elements of the neurovascular coupling system.

  4. Predicting the electric field distribution in the brain for the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro C; Mekonnen, Abeye; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    The use of alternating electric fields has been recently proposed for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. In order to predict the electric field distribution in the brain during the application of such tumor treating fields (TTF), we constructed a realistic head model from MRI data and placed transducer arrays on the scalp to mimic an FDA-approved medical device. Values for the tissue dielectric properties were taken from the literature; values for the device parameters were obtained from the manufacturer. The finite element method was used to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain. We also included a 'virtual lesion' in the model to simulate the presence of an idealized tumor. The calculated electric field in the brain varied mostly between 0.5 and 2.0 V cm( - 1) and exceeded 1.0 V cm( - 1) in 60% of the total brain volume. Regions of local field enhancement occurred near interfaces between tissues with different conductivities wherever the electric field was perpendicular to those interfaces. These increases were strongest near the ventricles but were also present outside the tumor's necrotic core and in some parts of the gray matter-white matter interface. The electric field values predicted in this model brain are in reasonably good agreement with those that have been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The electric field distribution is highly non-uniform and depends on tissue geometry and dielectric properties. This could explain some of the variability in treatment outcomes. The proposed modeling framework could be used to better understand the physical basis of TTF efficacy through retrospective analysis and to improve TTF treatment planning.

  5. Predicting the electric field distribution in the brain for the treatment of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Pedro C.; Mekonnen, Abeye; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J.

    2014-08-01

    The use of alternating electric fields has been recently proposed for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. In order to predict the electric field distribution in the brain during the application of such tumor treating fields (TTF), we constructed a realistic head model from MRI data and placed transducer arrays on the scalp to mimic an FDA-approved medical device. Values for the tissue dielectric properties were taken from the literature; values for the device parameters were obtained from the manufacturer. The finite element method was used to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain. We also included a ‘virtual lesion’ in the model to simulate the presence of an idealized tumor. The calculated electric field in the brain varied mostly between 0.5 and 2.0 V cm - 1 and exceeded 1.0 V cm - 1 in 60% of the total brain volume. Regions of local field enhancement occurred near interfaces between tissues with different conductivities wherever the electric field was perpendicular to those interfaces. These increases were strongest near the ventricles but were also present outside the tumor’s necrotic core and in some parts of the gray matter-white matter interface. The electric field values predicted in this model brain are in reasonably good agreement with those that have been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The electric field distribution is highly non-uniform and depends on tissue geometry and dielectric properties. This could explain some of the variability in treatment outcomes. The proposed modeling framework could be used to better understand the physical basis of TTF efficacy through retrospective analysis and to improve TTF treatment planning.

  6. Durable Microstructured Surfaces: Combining Electrical Conductivity with Superoleophobicity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zihe; Wang, Tianchang; Sun, Shaofan; Zhao, Boxin

    2016-01-27

    In this study, electrically conductive and superoleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been fabricated through embedding Ag flakes (SFs) and Ag nanowires (SNWs) into microstructures of the trichloroperfluorooctylsilane (FDTS)-blended PDMS elastomer. Microstructured PDMS surfaces became conductive at the percolation surface coverage of 3.0 × 10(-2) mg/mm(2) for SFs; the highest conductivity was 1.12 × 10(5) S/m at the SFs surface coverage of 6.0 × 10(-2) mg/mm(2). A significant improvement of the conductivity (increased 3 times at the SNWs fraction of 11%) was achieved by using SNWs to replace some SFs because of the conductive pathways from the formed SNWs networks and its connections with SFs. These conductive fillers bonded strongly with microstructured FDTS-blended PDMS and retained surface properties under the sliding preload of 8.0 N. Stretching tests indicated that the resistance increased with the increasing strains and returned to its original state when the strain was released, showing highly stretchable and reversible electrical properties. Compared with SFs embedded surfaces, the resistances of SFs/SNWs embedded surfaces were less dependent on the strain because of bridging effect of SNWs. The superoleophobicity was achieved by the synergetic effect of surface modification through blending FDTS and the microstructures transferred from sand papers. The research findings demonstrate a simple approach to make the insulating elastomer to have the desired surface oleophobicity and electrical conductivity and help meet the needs for the development of conductive devices with microstructures and multifunctional properties.

  7. Transverse electric surface mode in atomically thin Boron-Nitride.

    PubMed

    Merano, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The spatial confinement and the propagation length of surface waves in a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are analyzed in terms of its surface susceptibility and its surface conductivity. Based on the values of these macroscopic parameters, extracted from experimental observations, it is confirmed that graphene supports a transverse magnetic nonradiating surface mode in the ultraviolet spectral region while a single-layer hexagonal Boron-Nitride is predicted to support a transverse electric nonradiating surface mode in the visible spectrum. This last mode, at a vacuum wavelength of 633 nm, has a spatial confinement of 15 μm and an intensity-propagation distance greater than 2 cm. PMID:27244441

  8. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre Ozan; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-03-01

    Radar absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems which require adaptive surfaces operating in microwave frequencies. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate a new class of active surfaces which enables unprecedented ability to control reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves by electrical means. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we fabricated large area adaptive radar absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages less than 5 V. These electrically switchable radar absorbing surfaces provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems and adaptive cloaking in microwave frequencies, which cannot be realized by conventional materials.

  9. Manganese-enhanced MR imaging of brain activation evoked by noxious peripheral electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeounghoon; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Chulhyun; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Cheong, Chaejoon; Sohn, Jin-Hun; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2016-02-01

    As imaging technology develops, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has furthered our understanding of brain function by clarifying the anatomical structure and generating functional imaging data related to information processing in pain conditions. Recent studies have reported that manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides valuable information about the functions of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify specific brain regions activated during noxious electric stimulation using high-resolution MEMRI. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: naïve, sham electrical stimulation, and noxious electric stimulation. Under urethane with α-chloralose mixture anesthesia, a catheter was placed in the external carotid artery to administrate 20% mannitol and manganese chloride (25mM MnCl2). Noxious electric stimulation (2Hz, 10V) was applied to the hind paw with a needle electrode. Stimulation-induced neuronal activation was detected using 4.7-T MRI. In response to noxious electrical stimulation, remarkable Mn(2+)-enhanced signals were observed in the agranular insular cortex, auditory cortex, primary somatosensory cortex of the hind limb, and granular and dysgranular insular cortex, which correspond to sensory tactile electric stimulus to the hindpaws. These results indicate that the combination of MEMRI with activity-induced Mn(2+)-dependent contrast can delineate functional areas in the rat brain.

  10. Manganese-enhanced MR imaging of brain activation evoked by noxious peripheral electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeounghoon; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Chulhyun; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Cheong, Chaejoon; Sohn, Jin-Hun; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2016-02-01

    As imaging technology develops, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has furthered our understanding of brain function by clarifying the anatomical structure and generating functional imaging data related to information processing in pain conditions. Recent studies have reported that manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides valuable information about the functions of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify specific brain regions activated during noxious electric stimulation using high-resolution MEMRI. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: naïve, sham electrical stimulation, and noxious electric stimulation. Under urethane with α-chloralose mixture anesthesia, a catheter was placed in the external carotid artery to administrate 20% mannitol and manganese chloride (25mM MnCl2). Noxious electric stimulation (2Hz, 10V) was applied to the hind paw with a needle electrode. Stimulation-induced neuronal activation was detected using 4.7-T MRI. In response to noxious electrical stimulation, remarkable Mn(2+)-enhanced signals were observed in the agranular insular cortex, auditory cortex, primary somatosensory cortex of the hind limb, and granular and dysgranular insular cortex, which correspond to sensory tactile electric stimulus to the hindpaws. These results indicate that the combination of MEMRI with activity-induced Mn(2+)-dependent contrast can delineate functional areas in the rat brain. PMID:26733299

  11. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the -90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system. PMID:26902953

  12. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the -90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  13. Surface Breakdown Characteristics of Silicone Oil for Electric Power Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Junichi; Nakajima, Akitoshi; Miyahara, Hideyuki; Takuma, Tadasu; Okabe, Shigemitu; Kohtoh, Masanori; Yanabu, Satoru

    This paper describes the surface breakdown characteristics of the silicone oil which has the possibility of the application to innovative switchgear as an insulating medium. At the first step, we have experimentally studied on the impulse breakdown characteristics of the configuration with a triple-junction where a solid insulator is in contact with the electrode. The test configurations consist of solid material (Nomex and pressboard) and liquid insulation oil (silicone and mineral oil). We have discussed the experimental results based on the maximal electric field at a triple-junction. As the second step, we have studied the configuration which may improve the surface breakdown characteristics by lowering the electric field near the triple-junction.

  14. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the ‑90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  15. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-02-23

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the -90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  16. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the −90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system. PMID:26902953

  17. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Richard P.; Lott, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors.

  18. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  19. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  20. Surface structuring of particle laden drops using electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommersnes, P.; Fossum, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Emulsion drops readily adsorb particles at their surfaces, which may lead to a fluid or solid layer encapsulating the drop, known as an armored drop. In this review, we discuss how electric fields can be used to manipulate colloidal surface structures, by dielectrophoretic or electro-hydrodynamic mechanisms and we also compare this to related phenomena in lipid bilayer vesicles. The phenomena discussed are important for a wide range of uses of particle laden drops, including emulsion stabilization, Janus or patchy mesocapsule-, scaffold- or other materials-production.

  1. Polarization of electric-field noise near metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Philipp; Gorman, Dylan J.; Daniilidis, Nikos; Häffner, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Electric-field noise in proximity to metallic surfaces is a poorly understood phenomenon that appears in different areas of physics. Trapped ion quantum information processors are particularly susceptible to this noise, leading to motional decoherence, which ultimately limits the fidelity of quantum operations. On the other hand, trapped ions present an ideal tool to study this effect, opening new possibilities in surface science. In this work we analyze and measure the polarization of the noise field in a microfabricated ion trap for various noise sources. We find that technical noise sources and noise emanating directly from the surface give rise to different degrees of polarization, which allows us to differentiate between the two noise sources. Based on this we demonstrate a method to infer the magnitude of surface noise in the presence of technical noise.

  2. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  3. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  4. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  5. Introductory overview of research instruments for recording the electrical activity of neurons in the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garell, P. C.; Granner, M. A.; Noh, M. D.; Howard, M. A.; Volkov, I. O.; Gillies, G. T.

    1998-12-01

    Scientific advancement is often spurred by the development of new instruments for investigation. Over the last several decades, many new instruments have been produced to further our understanding of the physiology of the human brain. We present a partial overview of some of these instruments, paying particular attention to those which record the electrical activity of the human brain. We preface the review with a brief primer on neuroanatomy and physiology, followed by a discussion of the latest types of apparatus used to investigate various properties of the central nervous system. A special focus is on microelectrode investigations that employ both intracellular and extracellular methods of recording the electrical activity of single neurons; another is on the modern electroencephalographic, electrocorticographic, and magnetoencephalographic methods used to study the spontaneous and evoked field potentials of the brain. Some examples of clinical applications are included, where appropriate.

  6. [An electric T test topographic map study of the brain in uremia].

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Li, Q S

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports the results of statistical mapping on cerebral electric power abnormal distributions in 35 cases of uremia, using cerebral electrical T test topographical map method. The results indicated that the abnormal wide distribution of cerebro-electric activity of uremia was significant (P less than 0.01). The power density of slow wave markedly increased in the right parietal region. The power density of alpha wave obviously decreased in the right parietal side. This study clearly showed that the brain lesions have both the generality of diffuse damage and the particularity of focal damage. A region was seriously invaded by the lesion. The brain lesions have metabolic and toxic encephalopathic features.

  7. [The changes of basal brain electric activity in patients with epilepsy after callosotomy].

    PubMed

    Beĭn, B N; Dravert, N E; Tatarenko, S A

    2008-01-01

    Short-term and long-term outcomes of basal brain activity were estimated in 20 epileptic patients with a medical history of callosotomy. Patients with malignant courses selected for callosotomy retained the high capacity of cerebral electric activity after surgery. In spite of limitations of bilateral synchronized irradiation of electric discharges in the brain, patients had the high power of cerebral electric genesis. A clinical study revealed the decrease of the number of seizures and their severity in patients who underwent the surgery. Thus, callosotomy plays only a palliative role in epileptic processes. Of primary importance is individual selection of anti-epileptic drugs to support cell mechanisms of epilepsy and improvement of treatment outcomes.

  8. Electrical Properties of the Venus Surface from Bistatic Radar Observations

    PubMed

    Pettengill; Ford; Simpson

    1996-06-14

    A bistatic radar experiment in 1994, involving reception on Earth of a specularly reflected, linearly polarized 13-centimeter-wavelength signal transmitted from the Magellan spacecraft in orbit around Venus, has established that the surface materials viewed at low and intermediate altitudes on Venus have a relative dielectric permittivity of 4.0 ± 0.5. However, bistatic results for the Maxwell Montes highlands imply an electrically lossy surface with an imaginary dielectric permittivity of -i 100 ± 50, probably associated with a specific conductivity of about 13 mhos per meter. Candidates for highlands surface composition include ferroelectrics, a thin frost of elemental tellurium, or a plating of magnetite or pyrites. PMID:8662473

  9. Changes in brain electrical activity during extended continuous word recognition.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Hagenbeek, Rogier E; Stam, Cornelis J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Barkhof, Frederik

    2005-07-01

    Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) participated in an EEG study with an extended continuous recognition memory task, in which each of 30 words was randomly shown 10 times and subjects were required to make old vs. new decisions. Both event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and induced band power (IBP) were investigated. We hypothesized that repeated presentations affect recollection rather than familiarity. For the 300- to 500-ms time window, an 'old/new' ERP effect was found for the first vs. second word presentations. The correct recognition of an 'old' word was associated with a more positive waveform than the correct identification of a new word. The old/new effect was most pronounced at and around the midline parietal electrode position. For the 500- to 800-ms time window, a linear repetition effect was found for multiple word repetitions. Correct recognition after an increasing number of repetitions was associated with increasing positivity. The multiple repetitions effect was most pronounced at the midline central (Cz) and fronto-central (FCz) electrode positions and reflects a graded recollection process: the stronger the memory trace grows, the more positive the ERP in the 500- to 800-ms time window. The ERP results support a dual-processing model, with familiarity being discernable from a more graded recollection state that depends on memory strengths. For IBP, we found 'old/new' effects for the lower-2 alpha, theta, and delta bands, with higher bandpower during 'old' words. The lower-2 alpha 'old/new' effect most probably reflects attentional processes, whereas the theta and delta effects reflect encoding and retrieval processes. Upon repeated word presentations, the magnitude of induced delta power in the 375- to 750-ms time window diminished linearly. Correlation analysis suggests that decreased delta power is moderately associated with faster decision speed and higher accuracy.

  10. Annotation: What Electrical Brain Activity Tells Us about Brain Function that Other Techniques Cannot Tell Us--A Child Psychiatric Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Monitoring brain processes in real time requires genuine subsecond resolution to follow the typical timing and frequency of neural events. Non-invasive recordings of electric (EEG/ERP) and magnetic (MEG) fields provide this time resolution. They directly measure neural activations associated with a wide variety of brain states and…

  11. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. W.; Baker, R. H.; Johnson, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a conceptual design of the flight hardware for the surface electrical properties experiment (SEP), the definition of requests for proposals, the analysis of proposals submitted by prospective flight hardware subcontractors, and recommendations for the flight configuration to be implemented are discussed. Initial efforts were made to assess the electromagnetic environment of the SEP experiment. An EMI receiver and tri-loop antenna were constructed and tests of opportunity were performed with a lunar roving vehicle (LRV). Initial analyses were made of data from these tests with support from this contract, analyses which were continued in depth under the hardware contract.

  12. Electrical bending actuation of gold-films with nanotextured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, K. W.; Gao, P.; Martin, C. R.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2015-01-01

    An actuating material system comprising a gold-film with nanotextured surface was fabricated. Using electroless gold plating onto a substrate of porous anodized aluminum oxide, a thin film of gold with a high density of short gold nanofibers on its surface was made. When one end of such a film was connected to an ion generator, bending was achieved upon electrical charging in air. Experiments showed that the free end of an 8 mm film could be displaced by more than 1.6 mm with a bending strain of 0.08%. In contrast with other types of thin-film artificial muscle materials, the present Au-film did not require any electrolyte to function. With the relatively easy fabrication method, this nanotextured film shows promising actuation behavior in air.

  13. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands. PMID:24523356

  14. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands.

  15. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  16. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P.; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  17. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-09-08

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

  18. Visual performance and the ocular surface in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, Glenn C; Lemke, Sonne; Glynn-Milley, Catherine; Zumhagen, Lars; Cockerham, Kimberly P

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of neurotrauma is reviewed and an original study investigating the prevalence of dry eye disease in a sample of veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is presented. Fifty-three veterans with TBI were evaluated by history of injury, past ocular history, and medication use. Ocular Disease Surface Index (OSDI), ocular examination, cranial nerve evaluation, tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular surface staining and tear production testing were performed. A matched comparison group underwent similar testing. TBI causes were blast (44) or non-blast (9). TBI subjects scored significantly worse on the OSDI (P<.001), and ocular surface staining by Oxford scale (P<.001) than non-TBI subjects. Scores for tear film breakup (P=.6), basal tear production less than 3 mm (P=.13), and tear osmolarity greater than 314 mOsm/L (P=.15) were all higher in TBI subjects; significantly more TBI subjects had at least one abnormal dry eye measure than comparisons (P<.001). The OSDI related to presence of dry eye symptoms (P<.01). These effects were present in both blast and non-blast TBI. Seventy percent of TBI subjects were taking at least one medication in the following classes: antidepressant, atypical antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, or h1-antihistamine. There was no association between any medication class and the OSDI or dry eye measures. Reduced corneal sensation in 21 TBI subjects was not associated with OSDI, tear production, or TFBUT, but did correlate with reduced tear osmolarity (P=.05). History of refractive surgery, previous contact lens wear, facial nerve weakness, or meibomian gland dysfunction was not associated with DED. In summary, we found a higher prevalence of DED in subjects with TBI, both subjectively and objectively. This effect is unrelated to medication use, and it may persist for months to years. We recommend that patients with TBI from any cause be evaluated for DED using a battery of standard testing methods described in

  19. Methodological Dimensions of Transcranial Brain Stimulation with the Electrical Current in Human

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Maryam; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial current stimulation (TCS) is a neuromodulation method in which the patient is exposed to a mild electric current (direct or alternating) at 1-2 mA, resulting in an increase or a decrease in the brain excitability. This modification in neural activities can be used as a method for functional human brain mapping with causal inferences. This method might also facilitate the treatments of many neuropsychiatric disorders based on its inexpensive, simple, safe, noninvasive, painless, semi-focal excitatory and inhibitory effects. Given this, a comparison amongst different brain stimulation modalities has been made to determine the potential advantages of the TCS method. In addition, considerable methodological details on using TCS in basic and clinical neuroscience studies in human subjects have been introduced. Technical characteristics of TCS devices and their related accessories with regard to safety concerns have also been well articulated. Finally, some TCS application opportunities have been emphasized, including its potential use in the near future. PMID:25337348

  20. Gravity- and strain-induced electric fields outside metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Opat, G. I.

    1992-05-01

    The gravity-induced electric field outside a metal object supported against gravity is predominantly due to its differential compression which arises in supporting its own weight. This Dessler-Michel-Rorschach-Trammell (DMRT) field, as it has come to be known, is expected to be proportional to the strain derivative of the work function of the surface. We report the results of an experiment designed to produce this effect with mechanically applied strain rather than with gravity. In essence, we have measured the strain-induced contact-potential variation between a metal surface of known strain gradient and an unstrained capacitive probe. We describe useful solutions to the problems faced in such an experiment, which were not adequately addressed by earlier workers. A knowledge of the DMRT field is of considerable importance to experiments designed to compare the gravitational acceleration of charged particles and antiparticles inside a metallic shield. Past experiments with electrons yielded results contrary to the then-expected DMRT field. We review and partially extend the theoretical background by drawing on later results based on the jellium model of metal surfaces. Our results for Cu and Au surfaces are consistent with jellium-based calculations which imply a DMRT field that is about an order of magnitude smaller and of opposite sign to the early estimates.

  1. Characteristics of electrically induced locomotion in rat in vitro brain stem-spinal cord preparation.

    PubMed

    Atsuta, Y; Garcia-Rill, E; Skinner, R D

    1990-09-01

    1. Electrical stimulation of two brain stem regions in the decerebrate neonatal rat brain--the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and the medioventral medulla (MED)--were found to elicit rhythmic limb movements in the hind-limb-attached, in vitro, brain stem-spinal cord preparation. 2. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis revealed locomotion similar to that observed during stepping in the adult rat. The step-cycle frequency could be increased by application of higher-amplitude currents; but, unlike the adult, alternation could not be driven to a gallop. 3. Threshold currents for inducing locomotion were significantly lower for stimulation of the MED compared with the MLR. Brain stem transections carried out at midpontine levels demonstrated that the presence of the MLR was not required for the expression of MED-stimulation-induced effects. 4. Substitution of the standard artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) by magnesium-free aCSF did not affect interlimb relationships and resulted in a significant decrease of the threshold currents for inducing locomotion. 5. Fixation of the limbs during electrical stimulation of brain stem sites altered the amplitude and duration of the EMG patterns, but the basic rhythm and timing of each muscle contraction during the step cycle was not affected. 6. These studies suggest that, although peripheral afferent modulation is evident in the neonatal locomotor control system, descending projections from brain stem-locomotor regions appear capable of modulating the activity of spinal pattern generators as early as the day of birth. However, there may be ceiling to the maximal frequency of stepping possible at this early age, perhaps suggesting a later-developing mechanism for galloping.

  2. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

    2015-04-01

    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training.

  3. Preliminary study of Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis based on brain electrical signals using wireless EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, N.; Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, W. P.

    2016-03-01

    This research aims to study brain's electrical signals recorded using EEG as a basis for the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The subjects consisted of patients with AD, and normal subjects are used as the control. Brain signals are recorded for 3 minutes in a relaxed condition and with eyes closed. The data is processed using power spectral analysis, brain mapping and chaos test to observe the level of complexity of EEG's data. The results show a shift in the power spectral in the low frequency band (delta and theta) in AD patients. The increase of delta and theta occurs in lobus frontal area and lobus parietal respectively. However, there is a decrease of alpha activity in AD patients where in the case of normal subjects with relaxed condition, brain alpha wave dominates the posterior area. This is confirmed by the results of brain mapping. While the results of chaos analysis show that the average value of MMLE is lower in AD patients than in normal subjects. The level of chaos associated with neural complexity in AD patients with lower neural complexity is due to neuronal damage caused by the beta amyloid plaques and tau protein in neurons.

  4. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Walters, R J; van Loon, R V A; Brunets, I; Schmitz, J; Polman, A

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100 nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology.

  5. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; van Loon, R. V. A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, J.; Polman, A.

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology.

  6. The Morphological and Molecular Changes of Brain Cells Exposed to Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Methods: Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. Results: In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. Conclusion: We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. PMID:25522422

  7. Repeated electrical stimulation of reward-related brain regions affects cocaine but not "natural" reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino; Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shalev, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Cooper, Ayelet; Zangen, Abraham

    2007-12-19

    Drug addiction is associated with long-lasting neuronal adaptations including alterations in dopamine and glutamate receptors in the brain reward system. Treatment strategies for cocaine addiction and especially the prevention of craving and relapse are limited, and their effectiveness is still questionable. We hypothesized that repeated stimulation of the brain reward system can induce localized neuronal adaptations that may either potentiate or reduce addictive behaviors. The present study was designed to test how repeated interference with the brain reward system using localized electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or the prefrontal cortex (PFC) affects cocaine addiction-associated behaviors and some of the neuronal adaptations induced by repeated exposure to cocaine. Repeated high-frequency stimulation in either site influenced cocaine, but not sucrose reward-related behaviors. Stimulation of the LH reduced cue-induced seeking behavior, whereas stimulation of the PFC reduced both cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation for its consumption. The behavioral findings were accompanied by glutamate receptor subtype alterations in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, both key structures of the reward system. It is therefore suggested that repeated electrical stimulation of the PFC can become a novel strategy for treating addiction. PMID:18094257

  8. Wavelet entropy: a new tool for analysis of short duration brain electrical signals.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Blanco, S; Yordanova, J; Kolev, V; Figliola, A; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2001-01-30

    Since traditional electrical brain signal analysis is mostly qualitative, the development of new quantitative methods is crucial for restricting the subjectivity in the study of brain signals. These methods are particularly fruitful when they are strongly correlated with intuitive physical concepts that allow a better understanding of brain dynamics. Here, new method based on orthogonal discrete wavelet transform (ODWT) is applied. It takes as a basic element the ODWT of the EEG signal, and defines the relative wavelet energy, the wavelet entropy (WE) and the relative wavelet entropy (RWE). The relative wavelet energy provides information about the relative energy associated with different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The WE carries information about the degree of order/disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response, and the RWE measures the degree of similarity between different segments of the signal. In addition, the time evolution of the WE is calculated to give information about the dynamics in the EEG records. Within this framework, the major objective of the present work was to characterize in a quantitative way functional dynamics of order/disorder microstates in short duration EEG signals. For that aim, spontaneous EEG signals under different physiological conditions were analyzed. Further, specific quantifiers were derived to characterize how stimulus affects electrical events in terms of frequency synchronization (tuning) in the event related potentials.

  9. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  10. Effect of Electrical Stimulation of the Suprahyoid Muscles in Brain-Injured Patients with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won; Song, Young Jin; You, Dae Sang; Kim, Sang Jun; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the suprahyoid muscle is effective compared to that of the infrahyoid muscle in brain-injured patients with dysphagia. A total of 132 patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, or brain tumor in 2 university hospitals were allocated to 2 groups: those who received electrical stimulation therapy (EST) on the suprahyoid muscles (SM group, n = 66) and those who received EST with one pair of electrodes on the suprahyoid muscle and the other pair on the infrahyoid muscle (SI group, n = 66). Patients received 11.2 ± 3.4 sessions of electrical stimulation in the SM group and 11.9 ± 3.4 sessions in the SI group. The functional dysphagia scale (FDS), swallow function score (SFS), supraglottic penetration, and subglottic aspiration were measured using videofluoroscopic swallowing study. FDS scores decreased from 42.0 ± 19.1 to 32.3 ± 17.8 in the SM group and from 44.8 ± 17.4 to 32.9 ± 18.8 in the SI group by per-protocol (PP) analysis, and those decreased from 41.2 ± 20.9 to 34.5 ± 20.3 in the SM group and from 44.3 ± 19.1 to 35.7 ± 20.5 in the SI group by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, after electrical stimulation (p < 0.001 for each). SFSs increased from 3.3 ± 1.8 to 4.2 ± 1.6 in the SM group and from 2.8 ± 1.8 to 4.0 ± 1.8 in the SI group by PP analysis, and those increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 to 3.9 ± 1.6 in the SM group and from 2.8 ± 1.9 to 3.6 ± 2.0 in the SI group by ITT analysis, after electrical stimulation (p < 0.001, respectively). However, changes in FDS scores, SFSs, penetration, and aspiration were comparable between the SM and the SI groups. The results suggest that both SM and SI therapies induced similar improvements in swallowing function in brain-injured patients.

  11. Mechanism of surface modification in the plasma-surface interaction in electrical arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, H.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Costelle, L.; Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.; Toerklep, A.; Arnau-Izquierdo, G.; Descoeudres, A.; Calatroni, S.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2010-05-01

    Electrical sparks and arcs are plasma discharges that carry large currents and can strongly modify surfaces. This damage usually comes in the form of micrometer-sized craters and frozen-in liquid on the surface. Using a combination of experiments, plasma and atomistic simulation tools, we now show that the observed formation of deep craters and liquidlike features during sparking in vacuum is explained by the impacts of energetic ions, accelerated under the given conditions in the plasma sheath to kiloelectron volt energies, on surfaces. The flux in arcs is so high that in combination with kiloelectron volt energies it produces multiple overlapping heat spikes, which can lead to cratering even in materials such as Cu, where a single heat spike normally does not.

  12. Influence of air ions on brain activity induced by electrical stimulation in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivereau, J. M.; Lambert, J. F.; Truong-Ngoc, A.

    1981-03-01

    The brain induced activity was studied in 18 rats wearing chronically skull implanted electrodes. The stimulating factor was various electrical stimulations of the mesencephalic reticular activating formation, given during the slow wave state of sleep. The results of 300 stimulations were measured by amplitude and frequency changes in the EEG simultaneously recorded. Animals previously exposed to positive air ions (3 weeks 80,000 ions/ml) exhibited lowered excitability of the reticulocortical system. Significantly higher stimulations were necessary to induce arousal. Negative air ions induced more intricate effects: brain excitability was lowered when tested with weak stimulations, but normal when evaluated with medium high level stimilations. Sleep seems first more stable but as stimulation increases, arousal is soon as effective as in controls. These results are in agreement with others findings in behavioral fields and partly explains them.

  13. Sub-millimeter resolution electrical conductivity images of brain tissues using magnetic resonance-based electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Tong In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyun Bum; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kwon, Oh In

    2015-07-13

    Recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) of in vivo animal and human subjects enabled the imaging of electromagnetic properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, on tissue structure and function with a few millimeter pixel size. At those resolutions, the conductivity contrast might be sufficient to distinguish different tissue type for certain applications. Since the precise measurement of electrical conductivity under the tissue levels can provide alternative information in a wide range of biomedical applications, it is necessary to develop high-resolution MREIT technique to enhance its availability. In this study, we provide the experimental evaluation of sub-millimeter resolution conductivity imaging method using a 3T MR scanner combined with a multi-echo MR pulse sequence, multi-channel RF coil, and phase optimization method. From the phantom and animal imaging results, sub-millimeter resolution exhibited similar signal-to-noise ratio of MR magnitude and noise levels in magnetic flux density comparing to the existing millimeter resolution. The reconstructed conductivity images at sub-millimeter resolution can distinguish different brain tissues with a pixel size as small as 350 μm.

  14. Sub-millimeter resolution electrical conductivity images of brain tissues using magnetic resonance-based electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyun Bum; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-07-01

    Recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) of in vivo animal and human subjects enabled the imaging of electromagnetic properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, on tissue structure and function with a few millimeter pixel size. At those resolutions, the conductivity contrast might be sufficient to distinguish different tissue type for certain applications. Since the precise measurement of electrical conductivity under the tissue levels can provide alternative information in a wide range of biomedical applications, it is necessary to develop high-resolution MREIT technique to enhance its availability. In this study, we provide the experimental evaluation of sub-millimeter resolution conductivity imaging method using a 3T MR scanner combined with a multi-echo MR pulse sequence, multi-channel RF coil, and phase optimization method. From the phantom and animal imaging results, sub-millimeter resolution exhibited similar signal-to-noise ratio of MR magnitude and noise levels in magnetic flux density comparing to the existing millimeter resolution. The reconstructed conductivity images at sub-millimeter resolution can distinguish different brain tissues with a pixel size as small as 350 μm.

  15. Endogenous and exogenous electric fields as modifiers of brain activity: rational design of noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Flavio

    2014-03-01

    Synchronized neuronal activity in the cortex generates weak electric fields that are routinely measured in humans and animal models by electroencephalography and local field potential recordings. Traditionally, these endogenous electric fields have been considered to be an epiphenomenon of brain activity. Recent work has demonstrated that active cortical networks are surprisingly susceptible to weak perturbations of the membrane voltage of a large number of neurons by electric fields. Simultaneously, noninvasive brain stimulation with weak, exogenous electric fields (transcranial current stimulation, TCS) has undergone a renaissance due to the broad scope of its possible applications in modulating brain activity for cognitive enhancement and treatment of brain disorders. This review aims to interface the recent developments in the study of both endogenous and exogenous electric fields, with a particular focus on rhythmic stimulation for the modulation of cortical oscillations. The main goal is to provide a starting point for the use of rational design for the development of novel mechanism-based TCS therapeutics based on transcranial alternating current stimulation, for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses.

  16. [Methods of brain stimulation based on weak electric current--future tool for the clinician?].

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Tuukka; Lehto, Soili M

    2016-01-01

    Methods of brain stimulation based on a weak electric current are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques. They include transcranial direct current, alternating current and random noise stimulation. These methods modify the membrane potential of neurons without triggering the action potential, and have been successfully utilized to influence cognition and regulation of emotions in healthy experimental subjects. In clinical studies, indications of the efficacy of these techniques have been obtained in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, memory disorders and pain as well as in stroke rehabilitation. It is hoped that these techniques will become established as part of the care and rehabilitation of psychiatric and neurologic patients in the future.

  17. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio

  18. Using electrical resistivity imaging to understand surface coal mine hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.; Greer, B. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Zipper, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology of disturbed lands is important given the increasing human footprint on earth. Surface coal mining has caused significant land-use change in central Appalachia in the past few decades. The mining process breaks up overburden rock above coal seams, and then replaces that material at the mine location and in adjacent unmined valleys (valley fills). The freshly exposed rock surfaces undergo weathering which often alters water quality and ultimately aquatic communities in effluent streams. One of the most common water quality effects is increased total dissolved solids (TDS), which is usually measured via its surrogate, specific conductance (SC). The SC of valley fill effluent is a function of fill construction methods, materials, and age. Yet hydrologic studies that relate these variables to water quality are sparse due to the difficulty of implementing traditional hydrologic measurements in fill material. We tested the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor subsurface geologic patterns and hydrologic flow paths in a test-case valley fill. We paired ERI with artificial rainfall experiments to track infiltrated water as it moved through the valley fill material. Results indicate that ERI can be used to identify the subsurface geologic structure and track advancing wetting fronts or preferential flow paths. We observed that the upper portion of the fill profile contains significant fines, while the deeper profile is primarily composed of large rocks and void spaces. The artificial rainfall experiments revealed that water ponded on the surface of compacted areas until it reached preferential flow paths, where it infiltrated quickly and deeply. We observed water moving from the surface down to >10 m depth within 75 minutes. In sum, vertical and lateral preferential flow paths were evident at both shallow (through compacted layers) and deep (among boulders) locations. Such extensive preferential flow suggests that a

  19. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  20. Segmentation of the brain from 3D MRI using a hierarchical active surface template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, John W.; Merickel, Michael B.; Ortega, James M.; Goble, John C.; Brookeman, James R.; Kassell, Neal F.

    1994-05-01

    The accurate segmentation of the brain from three-dimensional medical imagery is important as the basis for visualization, morphometry, surgical planning and intraoperative navigation. The complex and variable nature of brain anatomy makes recognition of the brain boundaries a difficult problem and frustrates segmentation schemes based solely on local image features. We have developed a deformable surface model of the brain as a mechanism for utilizing a priori anatomical knowledge in the segmentation process. The active surface template uses an energy minimization scheme to find a globally consistent surface configuration given a set of potentially ambiguous image features. Solution of the entire 3D problem at once produces superior results to those achieved using a slice by slice approach. We have achieved good results with MR image volumes of both normal and abnormal subjects. Evaluation of the segmentation results has been performed using cadaver studies.

  1. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Electrical activity of the brain: Mechanisms and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osovets, S. M.; Ginzburg, D. A.; Gurfinkel', V. S.; Zenkov, L. P.; Latash, L. P.; Malkin, V. B.; Mel'nichuk, P. V.; Pasternak, E. B.

    1983-09-01

    Physical analogies are used to develop ideas on the origin of spontaneous oscillations in the electrical activity of the human brain and on the variation in these oscillations that accompany changes of state and of type of activity. A possible functional role of such oscillations in the overall activity of the brain and mechanisms responsible for certain pathologies of brain activity are examined. Existing phenomenology and current hypotheses are used as a basis for suggesting that: 1) spontaneous rhythms on the electroencephalogram (EEG) are due to the interaction between a finite number of autogenerators (pacemakers) formed by the neuronal populations of thalamic nuclei and functional units in the cortex that exhibit the properties of a passive oscillatory loop; 2) because of its well-defined nonlinearity, the interaction between thalamic autogenerators of different natural frequency leads to the generation of a great variety of observed EEG patterns that accompany different types of brain activity (including responses to external disturbances), all of which is a consequence of recent advances in the theory of nonlinear oscillations that have led to the discovery of "strange attractors"; 3) the subdivision in the brain of the pulsed flow of information into "specific" and "nonspecific", where the latter has a modifying influence on interactions between thalamic pacemakers and on the appearance of special multiperiodic patterns that are characteristic for different events, leads to a distributed fixation of long-term memory traces when the nonspecific and specific flows converge on a neuron memory substrate, and these traces can be read by a single characteristic multiperiodic pattern; and 4) the mechanism responsible for the appearance of paroxysmal discharges in certain specific types of epilepsy and the associated characteristic EEG phenomena (including frequency division) ensues from pathologically modified interaction between thalamic pacemakers and

  2. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  3. Imaging artifacts induced by electrical stimulation during conventional fMRI of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Andrea; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhishek; Lafon, Belen; Dechent, Peter; Parra, Lucas C.; Paulus, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activation during transcranial electrical stimulation is used to provide insight into the mechanisms of neuromodulation and targeting of particular brain structures. However, the passage of current through the body may interfere with the concurrent detection of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, which is sensitive to local magnetic fields. To test whether these currents can affect concurrent fMRI recordings we performed conventional gradient echo-planar imaging (EPI) during transcranial direct current (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS) on two post-mortem subjects. TDCS induced signals in both superficial and deep structures. The signal was specific to the electrode montage, with the strongest signal near cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and scalp. The direction of change relative to non-stimulation reversed with tDCS stimulation polarity. For tACS there was no net effect of the MRI signal. High-resolution individualized modeling of current flow and induced static magnetic fields suggested a strong coincidence of the change EPI signal with regions of large current density and magnetic fields. These initial results indicate that: 1) fMRI studies of tDCS must consider this potentially confounding interference from current flow and 2) conventional MRI imaging protocols can be potentially used to measure current flow during transcranial electrical stimulation. The optimization of current measurement and artifact correction techniques, including consideration of the underlying physics, remains to be addressed. PMID:23099102

  4. The electrical excitability of the brain: toward the emergence of an experiment.

    PubMed

    Hagner, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In 1870, Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch performed experiments on dogs by which they were able to produce movement through electrical stimulation of specific parts of the cerebral cortex. Contemporaries regarded the experiment as a milestone in the controversially discussed issue of cerebral localization of functions even though this experiment came as a surprise to the community of experimental physiologists who had rejected localization for several decades after the antiphrenological work of the physiologist Pierre Flourens. In this article, I will argue that the context in which this experiment emerged was not so much the French localization debate of the 1860s but rather practical demands in clinical medicine, notably in electrotherapy. At the time of the experiment, Hitzig worked as a medical practitioner in Berlin and was interested in an anatomical and physiological explanation of the specific symptoms of one of his patients. The unpredictable outcome of this interest was the discovery of the electrical excitability of the cortex. Whereas experimental physiologists dominated the discussion on cerebral localization in Germany before 1870, the situation shifted after the publication of Fritsch and Hitzig's paper. Concrete medical necessities forced the discussion about localization and it was mainly due to the authority of clinical physicians that the localization of mental qualities in the brain became a cornerstone of brain research.

  5. An equivalent current source model and laplacian weighted minimum norm current estimates of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Yao, D; Lian, Jie; Wu, D

    2002-04-01

    We have developed a method for estimating the three-dimensional distribution of equivalent current sources inside the brain from scalp potentials. Laplacian weighted minimum norm algorithm has been used in the present study to estimate the inverse solutions. A three-concentric-sphere inhomogeneous head model was used to represent the head volume conductor. A closed-form solution of the electrical potential over the scalp and inside the brain due to a point current source was developed for the three-concentric-sphere inhomogeneous head model. Computer simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed equivalent current source imaging. Assuming source configurations as either multiple dipoles or point current sources/sinks, in computer simulations we used our method to reconstruct these sources, and compared with the equivalent dipole source imaging. Human experimental studies were also conducted and the equivalent current source imaging was performed on the visual evoked potential data. These results highlight the advantages of the equivalent current source imaging and suggest that it may become an alternative approach to imaging spatially distributed current sources-sinks in the brain and other organ systems.

  6. A Device for Long-Term Perfusion, Imaging, and Electrical Interfacing of Brain Tissue In vitro.

    PubMed

    Killian, Nathaniel J; Vernekar, Varadraj N; Potter, Steve M; Vukasinovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Distributed microelectrode array (MEA) recordings from consistent, viable, ≥500 μm thick tissue preparations over time periods from days to weeks may aid in studying a wide range of problems in neurobiology that require in vivo-like organotypic morphology. Existing tools for electrically interfacing with organotypic slices do not address necrosis that inevitably occurs within thick slices with limited diffusion of nutrients and gas, and limited removal of waste. We developed an integrated device that enables long-term maintenance of thick, functionally active, brain tissue models using interstitial perfusion and distributed recordings from thick sections of explanted tissue on a perforated multi-electrode array. This novel device allows for automated culturing, in situ imaging, and extracellular multi-electrode interfacing with brain slices, 3-D cell cultures, and potentially other tissue culture models. The device is economical, easy to assemble, and integrable with standard electrophysiology tools. We found that convective perfusion through the culture thickness provided a functional benefit to the preparations as firing rates were generally higher in perfused cultures compared to their respective unperfused controls. This work is a step toward the development of integrated tools for days-long experiments with more consistent, healthier, thicker, and functionally more active tissue cultures with built-in distributed electrophysiological recording and stimulation functionality. The results may be useful for the study of normal processes, pathological conditions, and drug screening strategies currently hindered by the limitations of acute (a few hours long) brain slice preparations. PMID:27065793

  7. A Device for Long-Term Perfusion, Imaging, and Electrical Interfacing of Brain Tissue In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Nathaniel J.; Vernekar, Varadraj N.; Potter, Steve M.; Vukasinovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Distributed microelectrode array (MEA) recordings from consistent, viable, ≥500 μm thick tissue preparations over time periods from days to weeks may aid in studying a wide range of problems in neurobiology that require in vivo-like organotypic morphology. Existing tools for electrically interfacing with organotypic slices do not address necrosis that inevitably occurs within thick slices with limited diffusion of nutrients and gas, and limited removal of waste. We developed an integrated device that enables long-term maintenance of thick, functionally active, brain tissue models using interstitial perfusion and distributed recordings from thick sections of explanted tissue on a perforated multi-electrode array. This novel device allows for automated culturing, in situ imaging, and extracellular multi-electrode interfacing with brain slices, 3-D cell cultures, and potentially other tissue culture models. The device is economical, easy to assemble, and integrable with standard electrophysiology tools. We found that convective perfusion through the culture thickness provided a functional benefit to the preparations as firing rates were generally higher in perfused cultures compared to their respective unperfused controls. This work is a step toward the development of integrated tools for days-long experiments with more consistent, healthier, thicker, and functionally more active tissue cultures with built-in distributed electrophysiological recording and stimulation functionality. The results may be useful for the study of normal processes, pathological conditions, and drug screening strategies currently hindered by the limitations of acute (a few hours long) brain slice preparations. PMID:27065793

  8. Surface area and cortical thickness descriptors reveal different attributes of the structural human brain networks.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Diaz, Gretel; Melie-García, Lester; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Hernández-González, Gertrudis; Valdés-Urrutia, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Recently, a related morphometry-based connection concept has been introduced using local mean cortical thickness and volume to study the underlying complex architecture of the brain networks. In this article, the surface area is employed as a morphometric descriptor to study the concurrent changes between brain structures and to build binarized connectivity graphs. The statistical similarity in surface area between pair of regions was measured by computing the partial correlation coefficient across 186 normal subjects of the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project. We demonstrated that connectivity matrices obtained follow a small-world behavior for two different parcellations of the brain gray matter. The properties of the connectivity matrices were compared to the matrices obtained using the mean cortical thickness for the same cortical parcellations. The topology of the cortical thickness and surface area networks were statistically different, demonstrating that both capture distinct properties of the interaction or different aspects of the same interaction (mechanical, anatomical, chemical, etc.) between brain structures. This finding could be explained by the fact that each descriptor is driven by distinct cellular mechanisms as result of a distinct genetic origin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that surface area is used to study the morphological connectivity of brain networks. PMID:20083210

  9. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity. PMID:25146589

  10. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity.

  11. Core networks for visual-concrete and abstract thought content: a brain electric microstate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Strik, Werner K; Koenig, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Commonality of activation of spontaneously forming and stimulus-induced mental representations is an often made but rarely tested assumption in neuroscience. In a conjunction analysis of two earlier studies, brain electric activity during visual-concrete and abstract thoughts was studied. The conditions were: in study 1, spontaneous stimulus-independent thinking (post-hoc, visual imagery or abstract thought were identified); in study 2, reading of single nouns ranking high or low on a visual imagery scale. In both studies, subjects' tasks were similar: when prompted, they had to recall the last thought (study 1) or the last word (study 2). In both studies, subjects had no instruction to classify or to visually imagine their thoughts, and accordingly were not aware of the studies' aim. Brain electric data were analyzed into functional topographic brain images (using LORETA) of the last microstate before the prompt (study 1) and of the word-type discriminating event-related microstate after word onset (study 2). Conjunction analysis across the two studies yielded commonality of activation of core networks for abstract thought content in left anterior superior regions, and for visual-concrete thought content in right temporal-posterior inferior regions. The results suggest that two different core networks are automatedly activated when abstract or visual-concrete information, respectively, enters working memory, without a subject task or instruction about the two classes of information, and regardless of internal or external origin, and of input modality. These core machineries of working memory thus are invariant to source or modality of input when treating the two types of information.

  12. Coupling of surface energy with electric potential makes superhydrophobic surfaces corrosion-resistant.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-10-14

    We study the correlation of wetting properties and corrosion rates on hydrophobized cast iron. Samples of different surface roughnesses (abraded by sandpaper) are studied without coating and with two types of hydrophobic coatings (stearic acid and a liquid repelling spray). The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis are measured using a goniometer while corrosion rates are measured by a potentiodynamic polarization test. The data show a decrease in corrosion current density and an increase in corrosion potential after superhydrophobization. A similar trend is also found in the recent literature data. We conclude that a decrease in the corrosion rate can be attributed to the changing open circuit potential of a coated surface and increased surface area making the non-homogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) state possible. We interpret these results in light of the idea that the inherent surface energy is coupled with the electric potential in accordance with the Lippmann law of electrowetting and Le Châtelier's principle and, therefore, hydrophobization leads to a decrease in the corrosion potential. This approach can be used for novel anti-corrosive coatings. PMID:26344151

  13. Spectroscopy study of the dynamics of the transencephalic electrical impedance in the perinatal brain during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Fernando; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Olsson, Torsten; Kjellmer, Ingemar; Flisberg, Anders; Bågenholm, Ralph

    2005-10-01

    Hypoxia/ischaemia is the most common cause of brain damage in neonates. Thousands of newborn children suffer from perinatal asphyxia every year. The cells go through a response mechanism during hypoxia/ischaemia, to maintain the cellular viability and, as a response to the hypoxic/ischaemic insult, the composition and the structure of the cellular environment are altered. The alterations in the ionic concentration of the intra- and extracellular and the consequent cytotoxic oedema, cell swelling, modify the electrical properties of the constituted tissue. The changes produced can be easily measured using electrical impedance instrumentation. In this paper, we report the results from an impedance spectroscopy study on the effects of the hypoxia on the perinatal brain. The transencephalic impedance, both resistance and reactance, was measured in newborn piglets using the four-electrode method in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 750 kHz and the experimental results were compared with numerical results from a simulation of a suspension of cells during cell swelling. The experimental results make clear the frequency dependence of the bioelectrical impedance, confirm that the variation of resistance is more sensitive at low than at high frequencies and show that the reactance changes substantially during hypoxia. The resemblance between the experimental and numerical results proves the validity of modelling tissue as a suspension of cells and confirms the importance of the cellular oedema process in the alterations of the electrical properties of biological tissue. The study of the effects of hypoxia/ischaemia in the bioelectrical properties of tissue may lead to the development of useful clinical tools based on the application of bioelectrical impedance technology.

  14. Mapping the distance between the brain and the inner surface of the skull and their global asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Marc; Combès, Benoît; Roberts, Neil; Braga, José; Prima, Sylvain

    2011-03-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to describe i) the pattern of pointwise distances between the human brain (pial surface) and the inner surface of the skull (endocast) and ii) the pattern of pointwise bilateral asymmetries of these two structures. We use a database of MR images to segment meshes representing the outer surface of the brain and the endocast. We propose automated computational techniques to assess the endocast-to-brain distances and endocast-and-brain asymmetries, based on a simplified yet accurate representation of the brain surface, that we call the brain hull. We compute two meshes representing the mean endocast and the mean brain hull to assess the two patterns in a population of normal controls. The results show i) a pattern of endocast-to-brain distances which are symmetrically distributed with respect to the mid-sagittal plane and ii) a pattern of global endocast and brain hull asymmetries which are consistent with the well-known Yakovlevian torque. Our study is a first step to validate the endocranial surface as a surrogate for the brain in fossil studies, where a key question is to elucidate the evolutionary origins of the brain torque. It also offers some insights into the normal configuration of the brain/skull interface, which could be useful in medical imaging studies (e.g. understanding atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases or modeling the brain shift in neurosurgery).

  15. Electrical stimulation of the human brain: perceptual and behavioral phenomena reported in the old and new literature.

    PubMed

    Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan; Parvizi, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the subjective experiential phenomena and behavioral changes that are caused by electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex or subcortical nuclei in awake and conscious human subjects. Our comprehensive review contains a detailed summary of the data obtained from electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in humans in the last 100 years. Findings from the EBS studies may provide an additional layer of information about the neural correlates of cognition and behavior in healthy human subjects, or the neuroanatomy of illusions and hallucinations in patients with psychosis and the brain symptomatogenic zones in patients with epilepsy. We discuss some fundamental concepts, issues, and remaining questions that have defined the field of EBS, and review the current state of knowledge about the mechanism of action of EBS suggesting that the modulation of activity within a localized, but distributed, neuroanatomical network might explain the perceptual and behavioral phenomena that are reported during focal electrical stimulation of the human brain. PMID:20577584

  16. Transient currents generated by electrical discharges. [on satellite surfaces in ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.; Shaw, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the electromagnetic coupling between electrical discharges and floating conducting surfaces are derived. Electrical discharges can occur on satellite surfaces during energetic electron injection events associated with magnetospheric substorms. The theory presented here can be used to study interference to electronic circuits that may be caused by such discharges. The expressions derived in this paper are consistent with laboratory calibrations of an electrical pulse counter that has detected such discharges on a geostationary satellite.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of brain morphometry based on MRI-derived surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Gregory J.; Teng, Xia; Schoenemann, P. T.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1998-07-01

    Quantification of brain structure is important for evaluating changes in brain size with growth and aging and for characterizing neurodegeneration disorders. Previous quantification efforts using ex vivo techniques suffered considerable error due to shrinkage of the cerebrum after extraction from the skull, deformation of slices during sectioning, and numerous other factors. In vivo imaging studies of brain anatomy avoid these problems and allow repetitive studies following progression of brain structure changes due to disease or natural processes. We have developed a methodology for obtaining triangular mesh models of the cortical surface from MRI brain datasets. The cortex is segmented from nonbrain tissue using a 2D region-growing technique combined with occasional manual edits. Once segmented, thresholding and image morphological operations (erosions and openings) are used to expose the regions between adjacent surfaces in deep cortical folds. A 2D region- following procedure is then used to find a set of contours outlining the cortical boundary on each slice. The contours on all slices are tiled together to form a closed triangular mesh model approximating the cortical surface. This model can be used for calculation of cortical surface area and volume, as well as other parameters of interest. Except for the initial segmentation of the cortex from the skull, the technique is automatic and requires only modest computation time on modern workstations. Though the use of image data avoids many of the pitfalls of ex vivo and sectioning techniques, our MRI-based technique is still vulnerable to errors that may impact the accuracy of estimated brain structure parameters. Potential inaccuracies include segmentation errors due to incorrect thresholding, missed deep sulcal surfaces, falsely segmented holes due to image noise and surface tiling artifacts. The focus of this paper is the characterization of these errors and how they affect measurements of cortical surface

  18. Surface-Based Parameters of Brain Imaging in Male Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sungjin; Lee, Sang-Gu; Lee, Jeonghwan; Shin, Chul-Jin; Son, Jeong-Woo; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The structural alteration of brain shown in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) can originate from both alcohol effects and genetic or developmental processes. We compared surface-based parameters of patients with AUD with healthy controls to prove the applicability of surface-based morphometry with head size correction and to determine the areas that were sensitive to brain alteration related to AUD. Methods Twenty-six abstinent male patients with AUD (alcohol group, mean abstinence=13.2 months) and twenty-eight age-matched healthy participants (control group) were recruited from an inpatient mental hospital and community. All participants underwent a 3T MRI scan. Surface-based parameters were determined by using FreeSurfer. Results Every surface-based parameter of the alcohol group was lower than the corresponding control group parameter. There were large group differences in the whole brain, grey and white matter volume, and the differences were more prominent after head size correction. Significant group differences were shown in cortical thicknesses in entire brain regions, especially in parietal, temporal and frontal areas. There were no significant group differences in surface areas, but group difference trends in surface areas of the frontal and parietal cortices were shown after head size correction. Conclusion Most of the surface-based parameters in alcohol group were altered because of incomplete recovery from chronic alcohol exposure and possibly genetic or developmental factors underlying the risk of AUD. Surface-based morphometry with controlling for head size is useful in comparing the volumetric parameters and the surface area to a lesser extent in alcohol-related brain alteration. PMID:27757129

  19. Droplet condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with enhanced dewetting under a tangential AC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinzhu; Li, Jian; Li, Licheng; Huang, Zhengyong; Wang, Feipeng; Wei, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    In this Letter, the dewetting behavior of superhydrophobic condensing surfaces under a tangential AC electric field is reported. The surface coverage of condensed droplets only exhibits a negligible increase with time. The jumping frequency of droplets is enhanced. The AC electric field motivates the dynamic transition of droplets from stretch to recoil, resulting in the counterforce propelling droplet jumping. The considerable horizontal component of jumping velocity facilitates droplet departure from superhydrophobic surfaces. Both the amplitude and frequency of AC voltage are important factors for droplet departure and dewetting effect. Thereby, the tangential electric field provides a unique and easily implementable approach to enhance droplet removal from superhydrophobic condensing surfaces.

  20. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work. PMID:27545649

  1. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  2. Dynamic spatiotemporal brain analyses using high-performance electrical neuroimaging, Part II: A step-by-step tutorial.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-12-30

    Our recently published analytic toolbox (Cacioppo et al., 2014), running under MATLAB environment and Brainstorm, offered a theoretical framework and set of validation studies for the automatic detection of event-related changes in the global pattern and global field power of electrical brain activity. Here, we provide a step-by-step tutorial of this toolbox along with a detailed description of analytical plans (aka the Chicago Electrical Neuroimaging Analytics, CENA) for the statistical analysis of brain microstate configuration and global field power in within and between-subject designs. Available CENA functions include: (1) a difference wave function; (2) a high-performance microsegmentation suite (HPMS), which consists of three specific analytic tools: (i) a root mean square error (RMSE) metric for identifying stable states and transition states across discrete event-related brain microstates; (ii) a similarity metric based on cosine distance in n dimensional sensor space to determine whether template maps for successive brain microstates differ in configuration of brain activity, and (iii) global field power (GFP) metrics for identifying changes in the overall level of activation of the brain; (3) a bootstrapping function for assessing the extent to which the solutions identified in the HPMS are robust (reliable, generalizable) and for empirically deriving additional experimental hypotheses; and (4) step-by-step procedures for performing a priori contrasts for data analysis. CENA is freely available for brain data spatiotemporal analyses at https://hpenlaboratory.uchicago.edu/page/cena, with sample data, user tutorial videos, and documentation.

  3. Dynamic spatiotemporal brain analyses using high-performance electrical neuroimaging, Part II: A step-by-step tutorial.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-12-30

    Our recently published analytic toolbox (Cacioppo et al., 2014), running under MATLAB environment and Brainstorm, offered a theoretical framework and set of validation studies for the automatic detection of event-related changes in the global pattern and global field power of electrical brain activity. Here, we provide a step-by-step tutorial of this toolbox along with a detailed description of analytical plans (aka the Chicago Electrical Neuroimaging Analytics, CENA) for the statistical analysis of brain microstate configuration and global field power in within and between-subject designs. Available CENA functions include: (1) a difference wave function; (2) a high-performance microsegmentation suite (HPMS), which consists of three specific analytic tools: (i) a root mean square error (RMSE) metric for identifying stable states and transition states across discrete event-related brain microstates; (ii) a similarity metric based on cosine distance in n dimensional sensor space to determine whether template maps for successive brain microstates differ in configuration of brain activity, and (iii) global field power (GFP) metrics for identifying changes in the overall level of activation of the brain; (3) a bootstrapping function for assessing the extent to which the solutions identified in the HPMS are robust (reliable, generalizable) and for empirically deriving additional experimental hypotheses; and (4) step-by-step procedures for performing a priori contrasts for data analysis. CENA is freely available for brain data spatiotemporal analyses at https://hpenlaboratory.uchicago.edu/page/cena, with sample data, user tutorial videos, and documentation. PMID:26363189

  4. Control of Water Droplets on Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces by Static Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Koji; Nakajima, Akira; Murata, Yuji; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the control of water droplets on super-hydrophobic surfaces using a static electric field. The electric field required for droplet motion was decreased as the droplet size or the height from which the droplets were released increased. The Coulomb force of the electric charge provided to the water from the solid surface was the dominant driving force for the movement of the water droplet. In contrast, the contribution of dielectrophoretic force to the movement of the droplet was less than 10% that of the Coulomb force. The electric field required for droplet motion was not strongly influenced by the water conductivity. A film with a low sliding angle required a smaller electric field for droplet motion. Decreases in the sliding resistance had a greater effect than decreases in charge. Our experiments demonstrated that the use of a super-hydrophobic surface is advantageous for the control of water droplets by a small electric field.

  5. Electrical stimulation of the brain and the development of cortical visual prostheses: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip M; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in neural engineering, bionics and the brain-computer interface. These milestones have been underpinned by staggering advances in micro-electronics, computing, and wireless technology in the last three decades. Several cortically-based visual prosthetic devices are currently being developed, but pioneering advances with early implants were achieved by Brindley followed by Dobelle in the 1960s and 1970s. We have reviewed these discoveries within the historical context of the medical uses of electricity including attempts to cure blindness, the discovery of the visual cortex, and opportunities for cortex stimulation experiments during neurosurgery. Further advances were made possible with improvements in electrode design, greater understanding of cortical electrophysiology and miniaturisation of electronic components. Human trials of a new generation of prototype cortical visual prostheses for the blind are imminent. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hold Item.

  6. Functional asymmetry between the left and right human fusiform gyrus explored through electrical brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-03-01

    The ventral temporal cortex (VTC) contains several areas with selective responses to words, numbers, faces, and objects as demonstrated by numerous human and primate imaging and electrophysiological studies. Our recent work using electrocorticography (ECoG) confirmed the presence of face-selective neuronal populations in the human fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left or right hemisphere. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) disrupted the conscious perception of faces only when it was delivered in the right, but not left, FG. In contrast to our previous findings, here we report both negative and positive EBS effects in right and left FG, respectively. The presence of right hemisphere language dominance in the first, and strong left-handedness and poor language processing performance in the second case, provide indirect clues about the functional architecture of the human VTC in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in language processing and handedness.

  7. Electrical stimulation of the brain and the development of cortical visual prostheses: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip M; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in neural engineering, bionics and the brain-computer interface. These milestones have been underpinned by staggering advances in micro-electronics, computing, and wireless technology in the last three decades. Several cortically-based visual prosthetic devices are currently being developed, but pioneering advances with early implants were achieved by Brindley followed by Dobelle in the 1960s and 1970s. We have reviewed these discoveries within the historical context of the medical uses of electricity including attempts to cure blindness, the discovery of the visual cortex, and opportunities for cortex stimulation experiments during neurosurgery. Further advances were made possible with improvements in electrode design, greater understanding of cortical electrophysiology and miniaturisation of electronic components. Human trials of a new generation of prototype cortical visual prostheses for the blind are imminent. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hold Item. PMID:26348986

  8. Effect of direct electric current on the cell surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qishi; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xihui; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The change in cell surface properties in the presence of electric currents is of critical concern when the potential to manipulate bacterial movement with electric fields is evaluated. In this study, the effects of different direct electric currents on the cell surface properties involved in bacterial adhesion were investigated by using a mixed phenol-degrading bacterial culture in the exponential growth phase. The traits investigated were surface hydrophobicity (measured by adherence to n-octane), net surface electrostatic charge (determined by measurement of the zeta potential), and the cell surface shape and polymers (determined by scanning electron microscope analysis). The results showed that a lower current (less than 20 mA) induced no significant changes in the surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria, that an electric current of 20 mA could increase the surface hydrophobicity and flatten the cell shape, and that a higher current (40 mA) could increase the surface extracellular substances and the net negative surface electrostatic charge. The results also revealed that the electric current effects on cell hydrophobicity varied with the suspending medium. We suggest that an electric current greater than 20 mA is not suitable for use in manipulation of the movement of the phenol-degrading bacteria, although such a current might favor the electrophoretic movement of the bacterial species.

  9. Effect of Direct Electric Current on the Cell Surface Properties of Phenol-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qishi; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xihui; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The change in cell surface properties in the presence of electric currents is of critical concern when the potential to manipulate bacterial movement with electric fields is evaluated. In this study, the effects of different direct electric currents on the cell surface properties involved in bacterial adhesion were investigated by using a mixed phenol-degrading bacterial culture in the exponential growth phase. The traits investigated were surface hydrophobicity (measured by adherence to n-octane), net surface electrostatic charge (determined by measurement of the zeta potential), and the cell surface shape and polymers (determined by scanning electron microscope analysis). The results showed that a lower current (less than 20 mA) induced no significant changes in the surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria, that an electric current of 20 mA could increase the surface hydrophobicity and flatten the cell shape, and that a higher current (40 mA) could increase the surface extracellular substances and the net negative surface electrostatic charge. The results also revealed that the electric current effects on cell hydrophobicity varied with the suspending medium. We suggest that an electric current greater than 20 mA is not suitable for use in manipulation of the movement of the phenol-degrading bacteria, although such a current might favor the electrophoretic movement of the bacterial species. PMID:15640217

  10. Duration of Coherence Intervals in Electrical Brain Activity in Perceptual Organization

    PubMed Central

    Gepshtein, Sergei; Gong, Pulin; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between visual experience and temporal intervals of synchronized brain activity. Using high-density scalp electroencephalography, we examined how synchronized activity depends on visual stimulus information and on individual observer sensitivity. In a perceptual grouping task, we varied the ambiguity of visual stimuli and estimated observer sensitivity to this variation. We found that durations of synchronized activity in the beta frequency band were associated with both stimulus ambiguity and sensitivity: the lower the stimulus ambiguity and the higher individual observer sensitivity the longer were the episodes of synchronized activity. Durations of synchronized activity intervals followed an extreme value distribution, indicating that they were limited by the slowest mechanism among the multiple neural mechanisms engaged in the perceptual task. Because the degree of stimulus ambiguity is (inversely) related to the amount of stimulus information, the durations of synchronous episodes reflect the amount of stimulus information processed in the task. We therefore interpreted our results as evidence that the alternating episodes of desynchronized and synchronized electrical brain activity reflect, respectively, the processing of information within local regions and the transfer of information across regions. PMID:19596712

  11. Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses.

    PubMed

    Näätänen, R; Lehtokoski, A; Lennes, M; Cheour, M; Huotilainen, M; Iivonen, A; Vainio, M; Alku, P; Ilmoniemi, R J; Luuk, A; Allik, J; Sinkkonen, J; Alho, K

    1997-01-30

    There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents of such speech specificity postulate the existence of language-dependent memory traces, which are activated in the processing of speech but not when equally complex, acoustic non-speech stimuli are processed. Here we report the existence of these traces in the human brain. We presented to Finnish subjects the Finnish phoneme prototype /e/ as the frequent stimulus, and other Finnish phoneme prototypes or a non-prototype (the Estonian prototype /õ/) as the infrequent stimulus. We found that the brain's automatic change-detection response, reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN), was enhanced when the infrequent, deviant stimulus was a prototype (the Finnish /ö/) relative to when it was a non-prototype (the Estonian /õ/). These phonemic traces, revealed by MMN, are language-specific, as /õ/ caused enhancement of MMN in Estonians. Whole-head magnetic recordings located the source of this native-language, phoneme-related response enhancement, and thus the language-specific memory traces, in the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere. PMID:9009189

  12. Mapping brain electric micro-states in dyslexic children during reading.

    PubMed

    Brandeis, D; Vitacco, D; Steinhausen, H C

    1994-01-01

    An important issue in current research on dyslexia is to what extent the reading deficits of dyslexic children are related to processing deficits at the sensory-visual level, at the cognitive-linguistic level or at both levels. Event-related potential mapping distinguishes the split-second processing stages during reading as brief brain-electric micro-states and can address this issue directly. Previously, conventional studies have yielded inconsistent patterns of event-related potential differences between dyslexic and control children, but most of these discrepancies could result from the widely differing methodologies. We used event-related potential mapping during silent reading of correct and incorrect sentence endings to examine the neurophysiology of sensory and cognitive processes in dyslexic and control children (n = 12/group). Selected findings from spatio-temporal analyses of map strength (global field power), map latency and map topography measured in three dimensions are presented. Both sensory-visual processes in a P110 micro-state and cognitive-linguistic processes in an early N400 micro-state were affected in dyslexic children, and processing delays, as well as qualitatively different patterns of neural activation, were found. Our findings also indicated that the use of specific cognitive tasks and of appropriate spatio-temporal analyses of event-related map series are critical factors for successful identification of specific processing deficits in brain mapping studies.

  13. Gender difference in electrical brain activity during presentation of various film excerpts with different emotional content.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Wedekind, W; Keplinger, I

    2003-05-30

    Electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using socalled charge mode (Laplacian estimates) during the exposure with short video film excerpts of 7 min duration. Eighty subjects (50% male and female) watched 5 different film excerpts (disney, animal, comedy, erotic and sex scenes) separated by 3 min pause. Comparison to a reference period of 7 min without video exposure revealed strong decreases in alpha and beta power starting from the electrode position T6 (right temporal) and spread to other brain areas with stronger attentional stimuli e.g. during the erotic and sex films. Highly statistically significant differences were observed between male and female in temporal areas, who in general developed stronger decreases than males. Females on the other hand produced significant increases in fronto-central delta and theta power which could be interpreted as expression of higher appreciation, whereas the decreases in alpha power in general are understood as signs of higher attention. The data are further proof that recording the computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology. PMID:12844473

  14. Language selection in bilinguals: a spatio-temporal analysis of electric brain activity.

    PubMed

    Khateb, Asaid; Abutalebi, Jubin; Michel, Christoph M; Pegna, Alan J; Lee-Jahnke, Hannelore; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2007-09-01

    Language selection refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to communicate in one language or the other and to switch between languages depending on the listener. Previous studies suggested that various brain areas might be involved in this process. However, the question remains whether language selection is achieved through a language-specific mechanism or through a general cognitive control process. To address this question, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by language selection and task selection processes during image naming. ERPs were collected from bilingual subjects while tested in two different contexts: a monolingual task selection context (TSc) where a post-stimulus cue instructed subjects either to name the image or generate a corresponding verb in their first language (L1), and a bilingual language selection context (LSc) where the cue indicated to name the image either in the first or the second language. By comparing the ERPs induced by the same L1 naming as a function of context, we assumed that if the selection processes varied across contexts, then electric brain responses should differ rapidly after the cue presentation. Our analysis indicated that the first ERP differences accounting for the diverging processes involved appeared between approximately 220 and 300 ms after the cue. The estimation by source localisation of brain regions accounting for these differences pointed to an increased activation during LSc in the left middle frontal-precentral gyri, supramarginal and angular gyri. Our results suggest that language selection is achieved through a neural network involving areas implicated in both general cognitive processes and language processing.

  15. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Bum; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2016-06-01

    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  16. Universal scaling for the spin-electricity conversion on surface states of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K. T.; Shiomi, Y.; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi; Saitoh, E.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated spin-electricity conversion on surface states of bulk-insulating topological insulator (TI) materials using a spin-pumping technique. The sample structure is Ni-Fe ∣Cu ∣TI trilayers, in which magnetic proximity effects on the TI surfaces are negligibly small owing to the inserted Cu layer. Voltage signals produced by the spin-electricity conversion are clearly observed and are enhanced with decreasing temperature, in line with the dominant surface transport at lower temperatures. The efficiency of the spin-electricity conversion is greater for TI samples with a higher resistivity of bulk states and longer mean free path of surface states, consistent with the surface spin-electricity conversion.

  17. Transcranial Electrical Currents to Probe EEG Brain Rhythms and Memory Consolidation during Sleep in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Lisa; Kirov, Roumen; Brade, Julian; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previously the application of a weak electric anodal current oscillating with a frequency of the sleep slow oscillation (∼0.75 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) sleep boosted endogenous slow oscillation activity and enhanced sleep-associated memory consolidation. The slow oscillations occurring during NonREM sleep and theta oscillations present during REM sleep have been considered of critical relevance for memory formation. Here transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) oscillating at 5 Hz, i.e., within the theta frequency range (theta-tDCS) is applied during NonREM and REM sleep. Theta-tDCS during NonREM sleep produced a global decrease in slow oscillatory activity conjoint with a local reduction of frontal slow EEG spindle power (8–12 Hz) and a decrement in consolidation of declarative memory, underlining the relevance of these cortical oscillations for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In contrast, during REM sleep theta-tDCS appears to increase global gamma (25–45 Hz) activity, indicating a clear brain state-dependency of theta-tDCS. More generally, results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies. PMID:21340034

  18. Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers Exhibit Differences in Frontal Brain Electrical Activity during the Expression of Negative Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined electrical brain activity during negative and positive emotion expression in infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Found that, compared with infants of nondepressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers exhibited increased EEG activation in the frontal but not parietal region when expressing negative emotions. There were no…

  19. Sources of Variability in Working Memory in Early Childhood: A Consideration of Age, Temperament, Language, and Brain Electrical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC) in 3 1/2-, 4-, and 4 1/2-year-olds and how these differences were associated with differences in regulatory aspects of temperament, language comprehension, and brain electrical activity. A series of cognitive control tasks was administered to measure…

  20. Imaging of molecular surface dynamics in brain slices using single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Biermann, B; Sokoll, S; Klueva, J; Missler, M; Wiegert, J S; Sibarita, J-B; Heine, M

    2014-01-01

    Organization of signalling molecules in biological membranes is crucial for cellular communication. Many receptors, ion channels and cell adhesion molecules are associated with proteins important for their trafficking, surface localization or function. These complexes are embedded in a lipid environment of varying composition. Binding affinities and stoichiometry of such complexes were so far experimentally accessible only in isolated systems or monolayers of cell culture. Visualization of molecular dynamics within signalling complexes and their correlation to specialized membrane compartments demand high temporal and spatial resolution and has been difficult to demonstrate in complex tissue like brain slices. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of single-particle tracking (SPT) in organotypic brain slices to measure molecular dynamics of lipids and transmembrane proteins in correlation to synaptic membrane compartments. This method will provide important information about the dynamics and organization of surface molecules in the complex environment of neuronal networks within brain slices. PMID:24429796

  1. Imaging of molecular surface dynamics in brain slices using single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Biermann, B.; Sokoll, S.; Klueva, J.; Missler, M.; Wiegert, J. S.; Sibarita, J. -B.; Heine, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organization of signalling molecules in biological membranes is crucial for cellular communication. Many receptors, ion channels and cell adhesion molecules are associated with proteins important for their trafficking, surface localization or function. These complexes are embedded in a lipid environment of varying composition. Binding affinities and stoichiometry of such complexes were so far experimentally accessible only in isolated systems or monolayers of cell culture. Visualization of molecular dynamics within signalling complexes and their correlation to specialized membrane compartments demand high temporal and spatial resolution and has been difficult to demonstrate in complex tissue like brain slices. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of single-particle tracking (SPT) in organotypic brain slices to measure molecular dynamics of lipids and transmembrane proteins in correlation to synaptic membrane compartments. This method will provide important information about the dynamics and organization of surface molecules in the complex environment of neuronal networks within brain slices. PMID:24429796

  2. Reconstruction of micron resolution mouse brain surface from large-scale imaging dataset using resampling-based variational model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingwei; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Hang; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-08-06

    Brain surface profile is essential for brain studies, including registration, segmentation of brain structure and drawing neuronal circuits. Recent advances in high-throughput imaging techniques enable imaging whole mouse brain at micron spatial resolution and provide a basis for more fine quantitative studies in neuroscience. However, reconstructing micron resolution brain surface from newly produced neuronal dataset still faces challenges. Most current methods apply global analysis, which are neither applicable to a large imaging dataset nor to a brain surface with an inhomogeneous signal intensity. Here, we proposed a resampling-based variational model for this purpose. In this model, the movement directions of the initial boundary elements are fixed, the final positions of the initial boundary elements that form the brain surface are determined by the local signal intensity. These features assure an effective reconstruction of the brain surface from a new brain dataset. Compared with conventional typical methods, such as level set based method and active contour method, our method significantly increases the recall and precision rates above 97% and is approximately hundreds-fold faster. We demonstrated a fast reconstruction at micron level of the whole brain surface from a large dataset of hundreds of GB in size within 6 hours.

  3. Electrically modulated dynamic spreading of drops on soft surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Ranabir; Daga, Ashish; DasGupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-07-01

    The intricate interaction between the deformability of a substrate and the dynamic spreading of a liquid drop on the same, under the application of an electrical voltage, has remained far from being well understood. Here, we demonstrate that electrospreading dynamics on soft substrates is dictated by the combined interplay of electrocapillarity, the wetting line friction, and the viscoelastic energy dissipation at the contact line. Our results reveal that during such electro-elastocapillarity mediated spreading of a sessile drop, the contact radius evolution exhibits a universal power-law in a substrate elasticity based non-dimensional time, with an electrical voltage dependent spreading exponent. Simultaneously, the macroscopic dynamic contact angle variation follows a general power-law in the contact line velocity, normalized by elasticity dependent characteristic velocity scale. These findings will be beneficial for comprehending droplet spreading dynamics stemming from the combination of electrically modulated spreading and "soft wetting." Hence, our results are likely to provide the foundation for the development of a plethora of applications involving droplet manipulations by exploiting the interplay between electrically triggered spreading and substrate-compliance over interfacial scales.

  4. Effects of brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation on brain activation in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, EunJung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Park, Dae-Sung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to determine the effects of brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) on brain activation in patients with stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were randomized to in a BCI-FES group (n=5) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (n=5). [Methods] Patients in the BCI-FES group received ankle dorsiflexion training with FES for 30 minutes per day, 5 times under the brain-computer interface-based program. The FES group received ankle dorsiflexion training with FES for the same amount of time. [Results] The BCI-FES group demonstrated significant differences in the frontopolar regions 1 and 2 attention indexes, and frontopolar 1 activation index. The FES group demonstrated no significant differences. There were significant differences in the frontopolar 1 region activation index between the two groups after the interventions. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that BCI-FES training may be more effective in stimulating brain activation than only FES training in patients recovering from stroke. PMID:25931680

  5. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  6. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

  7. Regional contraction of brain surface area involves three large-scale networks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Mallikarjun, Pavan; Joseph, Verghese; White, Thomas P; Liddle, Peter F

    2011-07-01

    In schizophrenia, morphological changes in the cerebral cortex have been primarily investigated using volumetric or cortical thickness measurements. In healthy subjects, as the brain size increases, the surface area expands disproportionately when compared to the scaling of cortical thickness. In this structural MRI study, we investigated the changes in brain surface area in schizophrenia by constructing relative areal contraction/expansion maps showing group differences in surface area using Freesurfer software in 57 patients and 41 controls. We observed relative areal contraction affecting Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and Salience Network, in addition to other regions in schizophrenia. We confirmed the surface area reduction across these three large-scale brain networks by undertaking further region-of-interest analysis of surface area. We also observed a significant hemispheric asymmetry in the surface area changes, with the left hemisphere showing a greater reduction in the areal contraction maps. Our findings suggest that a fundamental disturbance in cortical expansion is likely in individuals who develop schizophrenia. PMID:21497489

  8. Electric-Field-Induced Nanoscale Surface Patterning in Mexylaminotriazine-Functionalized Molecular Glass Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hirohito; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Lebel, Olivier; Sabat, Ribal Georges

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale surface patterns were observed in thin films of mexylaminotriazine-functionalized glasses containing polar groups upon the application of an electric field at temperatures over their glass transition temperatures (Tg). This phenomenon occurred due to the surface deformation process initiated by external electric field instabilities on the films. The minimal surface deformation temperature (Tdewet) relative to Tg was found to increase as a function of the polarity of the substituents and the surface pattern roughness was observed to increase linearly with temperature for a fixed electric field and exposure time. Reversal of the electrical field polarity and the use of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates did not significantly change the surface deformation behavior of the films, which is due to the deposition of charges at the free interface. The application of a mask between the electric field electrodes allowed to selectively pattern areas that are exposed. Furthermore, it was observed that this surface deformation behavior was reversible, since heating the films to a temperature above Tg in the absence of an electric field caused the erasure of all surface patterns. PMID:27186805

  9. Electric and magnetic fields of the brain computed by way of a discrete systems analytical approach: theory and validation.

    PubMed

    van Rotterdam, A

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the stationary volume conduction phenomena in the brain, namely the electric and magnetic fields can be described in discrete terms. The volume conductor is sampled in space by introducing a sampling distance corresponding to the uncertainty in the measurements. In this way, a three-dimensional lattice is needed with equidistantly spaced nodes. The electric and magnetic properties of such a lattice are assumed to be equivalent to that of brain and other tissues. The electric and magnetic potential fields are calculated for each node as the output of a linear feedback system which has the impressed currents as the input. By way of the feedback loop the reflection phenomena at the boundaries between media of different conductivity can be taken into account. This discrete formalism has been implemented in a software system. To demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this system a number of analytically tractable problem in volume conduction has been evaluated. PMID:3689838

  10. Electrical characterization of surface passivation in III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Gregory; Lapierre, Ray; Baugh, Jonathan

    III-V nanowires are promising for implementing many useful technologies including optical sensing and quantum information processing. However, most native nanowires have a significant density of surface states, which cause electron accumulation at the surface and make the optoelectronic characteristics very sensitive to surface conditions and variable from device to device. To achieve optimum device performance it is imperative to decrease the density of these defects, since they are responsible for charge noise (e.g. random telegraph noise) and decreased carrier mobility. Here we report on experimental results from low temperature transport studies of a series of InAs nanowire field effect transistors, each fabricated with a different surface passivation technique. The different surface treatments include combinations of chemical passivation, growth of a thermal oxide, and deposition of a high-k dielectric to determine the optimum process for passivating the surface states. To better quantify the density of surface states, we also study the axial field magnetoconductance of short-channel nanowire transistors, and show how the results can be used to estimate the degree of surface band-bending.

  11. Classification of atmospheric discharges according to patterns of the near-surface electric field disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Hripsime; Chilingarian, Ashot

    2016-04-01

    Registration of near surface electric field associated with thunderstorms and lightning are performed 24 h daily and 12 months yearly in three different locations of the Aragats Space Environmental Center. Such measurements have been used previously to understand charge distribution in the thundercloud. "Stormy" patterns of disturbances of the near surface electric field are attributed to different types of atmospheric discharges: negative or positive, intracloud or cloud to ground. In the presented report we discuss the patterns of the lightning occurrences as measured by the network of the electric mills located on the earth's surface, differences of positive and negative flashes and shapes of the recovery curves using data from a stormy day on Aragats - May 23, 2015. Our observations show that after- lightning near surface electric field recovery curves besides exponential shape sometimes has a form of power law or linear dependence. Positive discharges are stronger and have shorter duration comparing with negative ones.

  12. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  13. Separation of the tumor and brain surface by "water jet" in cases of meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Toth, S; Vajda, J; Pasztor, E; Toth, Z

    1987-01-01

    In the surgery of meningiomas one of the most delicate problems is the separation of the tumor from the brain surface. The authors generally recommend microsurgery to preserve the brain surface anatomically and functionally. For this purpose we have developed a new surgical technique according to our concepts of tissue care. After excavating the tumor from inside the tumor brain surface was separated by repeated "water jets" into the tumor arachnoideal space. The "water jet" was produced by an ordinary bulb syringe. The front pressure of the jets was 300-1000 mm of water and the side pressure 100-300 mm of water. In the tumor-arachnoideal space the spreading water (phys. NaCl) separates the brain from the tumor with utmost care. We operated on 55 meningiomas of different types with the "water jet" technique. The immediate results were anatomically excellent. Intraoperative and postoperative acute and late edemas appeared only in a few cases. The functions of the nearby brain were generally preserved. The surgery was uneventful when the tumor surface was smooth and the tumor was spherical. When the tumor surface was uneven, one part of the tumor extended under the dura as a thin layer or the tumor was multilobulated with expanded vessels between the lobules, more microseparation was necessary. We compared the results of the "water jet" technique with the results of the "pre-water jet" series. The surgery with the "water jet" technique was much shorter and its results were better than those of microsurgery alone. PMID:3668608

  14. Coupling between Surface Plasmon Resonance and electric current in Au stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Miguel Angel; Serrano, Aida; de La Venta, Jose

    2009-03-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is the most outstanding feature of noble metal films. SPR consists on a collective oscillation of the conduction electrons when excited optically in the appropriate geometrical and energy conditions. The electrical current passing trough the metal film involves also the movement of conduction electrons. Thus, coupling effects are expected between SPR and electrical resistivity. A modification of the SPR when a electrical current passes through the film, could allow the modulation of an optical signal by a electrical one. Similarly, when the film is illuminated at the SPR conditions, the oscillation of the conduction electrons and local heating can induce an enhancement of the electric resistivity that can be used to translate an optical signal into a electric one. Those effects could be useful in the development of new fast optoelectronic transducers. We present here results on Au stripes illuminated to induce the SPR while electric currents flow with different orientation with respect to the light polarization

  15. Investigation of surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-05-20

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid-liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid-liquid interfaces. PMID:25923410

  16. Investigation of surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-05-20

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid-liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid-liquid interfaces.

  17. Investigation of surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-05-01

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid-liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid-liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid-liquid interfaces.

  18. Graphene transverse electric surface plasmon detection using nonreciprocity modal discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamanara, Nima; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    We present a magnetically biased graphene-ferrite structure discriminating the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) plasmonic modes of graphene. In this structure, the graphene TM plasmons interact reciprocally with the structure. In contrast, the graphene TE plasmons exhibit nonreciprocity. This nonreciprocity is manifested in unidirectional TE propagation in a frequency band close to the interband threshold frequency. The proposed structure provides a unique platform for the experimental demonstration of the unusual existence of the TE plasmonic mode in graphene.

  19. Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin

    1993-01-01

    To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it appears that variations of ionospheric potential, that can be measured at a single location, may be able to supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. The observations presented enable a prediction that a 1 percent increase in global surface temperatures may result in a 20 percent increase in ionospheric potential.

  20. Electric field of atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging upon a surface and electrical properties of the jet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, Ana; Guaitella, Olivier; Garcia Caurel, Enric; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-09-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging upon a dielectric surface. The results were obtained using Pockels technique, on a BSO crystal. The electric field is a function of the gas flow and the area over which the discharge spreads on the dielectric surface. A coaxial configuration of the plasma jet was used, driven by 30 kHz sine voltage, in He flowing at 100-900 SCCM. In this geometry we found 2 modes of operation, a low-power mode stable at one plasma bullet emitted per period and the unstable high-power mode featuring additional micro-discharges. In addition to the electric field measured in the low-power mode, electrical characterization of the jet source will be presented, together with the manner in which properties of the setup can influence the jet and vice versa. The distinction will be made between the plasma jet in room atmosphere and the plasma jet interacting with a dielectric surface.

  1. Adsorption of lysozyme on base metal surfaces in the presence of an external electric potential.

    PubMed

    Ei Ei, Htwe; Nakama, Yuhi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-11-01

    The impact of external electric potential on the adsorption of a protein to base metal surfaces was examined. Hen egg white lysozyme (LSZ) and six types of base metal plates (stainless steel SUS316L (St), Ti, Ta, Zr, Cr, or Ni) were used as the protein and adsorption surface, respectively. LSZ was allowed to adsorb on the surface under different conditions (surface potential, pH, electrolyte type and concentration, surface material), which was monitored using an ellipsometer. LSZ adsorption was minimized in the potential range above a certain threshold and, in the surface potential range below the threshold, decreasing the surface potential increased the amount of protein adsorbed. The threshold potential for LSZ adsorption was shifted toward a positive value with increasing pH and was lower for Ta and Zr than for the others. A divalent anion salt (K2SO4) as an electrolyte exhibited the adsorption of LSZ in the positive potential range while a monovalent salt (KCl) did not. A comprehensive consideration of the obtained results suggests that two modes of interactions, namely the electric force by an external electric field and electrostatic interactions with ionized surface hydroxyl groups, act on the LSZ molecules and determine the extent of suppression of LSZ adsorption. All these findings appear to support the view that a base metal surface can be controlled for the affinity to a protein by manipulating the surface electric potential as has been reported on some electrode materials. PMID:27478958

  2. Adsorption of lysozyme on base metal surfaces in the presence of an external electric potential.

    PubMed

    Ei Ei, Htwe; Nakama, Yuhi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-11-01

    The impact of external electric potential on the adsorption of a protein to base metal surfaces was examined. Hen egg white lysozyme (LSZ) and six types of base metal plates (stainless steel SUS316L (St), Ti, Ta, Zr, Cr, or Ni) were used as the protein and adsorption surface, respectively. LSZ was allowed to adsorb on the surface under different conditions (surface potential, pH, electrolyte type and concentration, surface material), which was monitored using an ellipsometer. LSZ adsorption was minimized in the potential range above a certain threshold and, in the surface potential range below the threshold, decreasing the surface potential increased the amount of protein adsorbed. The threshold potential for LSZ adsorption was shifted toward a positive value with increasing pH and was lower for Ta and Zr than for the others. A divalent anion salt (K2SO4) as an electrolyte exhibited the adsorption of LSZ in the positive potential range while a monovalent salt (KCl) did not. A comprehensive consideration of the obtained results suggests that two modes of interactions, namely the electric force by an external electric field and electrostatic interactions with ionized surface hydroxyl groups, act on the LSZ molecules and determine the extent of suppression of LSZ adsorption. All these findings appear to support the view that a base metal surface can be controlled for the affinity to a protein by manipulating the surface electric potential as has been reported on some electrode materials.

  3. Brain potentials evoked by intraepidermal electrical stimuli reflect the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. C.; O'Neill, J.; Dickenson, A. H.; Iannetti, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS), the increased sensitivity of the central nervous system to somatosensory inputs, accounts for secondary hyperalgesia, a typical sign of several painful clinical conditions. Brain potentials elicited by mechanical punctate stimulation using flat-tip probes can provide neural correlates of CS, but their signal-to-noise ratio is limited by poor synchronization of the afferent nociceptive input. Additionally, mechanical punctate stimulation does not activate nociceptors exclusively. In contrast, low-intensity intraepidermal electrical stimulation (IES) allows selective activation of type II Aδ-mechano-heat nociceptors (II-AMHs) and elicits reproducible brain potentials. However, it is unclear whether hyperalgesia from IES occurs and coexists with secondary mechanical punctate hyperalgesia, and whether the magnitude of the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses evoked by IES within the hyperalgesic area is increased. To address these questions, we explored the modulation of the psychophysical and EEG responses to IES by intraepidermal injection of capsaicin in healthy human subjects. We obtained three main results. First, the intensity of the sensation elicited by IES was significantly increased in participants who developed robust mechanical punctate hyperalgesia after capsaicin injection (i.e., responders), indicating that hyperalgesia from IES coexists with punctate mechanical hyperalgesia. Second, the N2 peak magnitude of the EEG responses elicited by IES was significantly increased after the intraepidermal injection of capsaicin in responders only. Third, a receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the N2 peak amplitude is clearly predictive of the presence of CS. These findings suggest that the EEG responses elicited by IES reflect secondary hyperalgesia and therefore represent an objective correlate of CS. PMID:27098022

  4. Brain potentials evoked by intraepidermal electrical stimuli reflect the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, M; Lee, M C; O'Neill, J; Dickenson, A H; Iannetti, G D

    2016-08-01

    Central sensitization (CS), the increased sensitivity of the central nervous system to somatosensory inputs, accounts for secondary hyperalgesia, a typical sign of several painful clinical conditions. Brain potentials elicited by mechanical punctate stimulation using flat-tip probes can provide neural correlates of CS, but their signal-to-noise ratio is limited by poor synchronization of the afferent nociceptive input. Additionally, mechanical punctate stimulation does not activate nociceptors exclusively. In contrast, low-intensity intraepidermal electrical stimulation (IES) allows selective activation of type II Aδ-mechano-heat nociceptors (II-AMHs) and elicits reproducible brain potentials. However, it is unclear whether hyperalgesia from IES occurs and coexists with secondary mechanical punctate hyperalgesia, and whether the magnitude of the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses evoked by IES within the hyperalgesic area is increased. To address these questions, we explored the modulation of the psychophysical and EEG responses to IES by intraepidermal injection of capsaicin in healthy human subjects. We obtained three main results. First, the intensity of the sensation elicited by IES was significantly increased in participants who developed robust mechanical punctate hyperalgesia after capsaicin injection (i.e., responders), indicating that hyperalgesia from IES coexists with punctate mechanical hyperalgesia. Second, the N2 peak magnitude of the EEG responses elicited by IES was significantly increased after the intraepidermal injection of capsaicin in responders only. Third, a receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the N2 peak amplitude is clearly predictive of the presence of CS. These findings suggest that the EEG responses elicited by IES reflect secondary hyperalgesia and therefore represent an objective correlate of CS.

  5. Novel neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for treatment of dysphagia after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Kurasawa, Miho; Setoguchi, Haruka; Noma, Tomokazu; Takenaka, Keita; Soeda, Akina; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a novel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to the effects of conventional treatment in patients with dysphagia after brain injury. In total, 26 patients were non-randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 14). The experimental group received NMES intervention followed by conventional treatment, including thermaltactile stimulation with intensive repetition of a dry-swallow task. The control group received conventional treatment without NMES. NMES at a fixed pulse duration of 50 μs and a frequency of 50 Hz was delivered over the skin areas above the motor point of the target muscles, i.e., the bilateral geniohyoid, mylohyoid/anterior belly of the digastric, and thyrohyoid muscles, using a high-voltage pulsed-current device. The two groups received 40-min treatments once a day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks. Outcome, assessed before and 8 weeks after treatment, was evaluated with regard to the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS), the anterior and superior displacement of the hyoid bone and larynx, and the functional oral intake scale. Both groups exhibited improvement, but the experimental group exhibited more significant improvement in the displacement of the hyoid bone and larynx, VDS-total score, and VDS-pharyngeal score than the control group did. The results suggest that NMES combined with conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment alone in patients with dysphagia following treatment for brain injury. Further investigations are necessary to examine the effects of NMES in patients with more varied types of diseases. PMID:24670314

  6. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-01

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m-1. However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m-1, and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an estimate of

  7. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-01

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m(-1). However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m(-1), and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an

  8. Surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres: An AFM-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; D'Haese, Cécile; Nysten, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) electrical modes were used to study the surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres. The surface electrical conductivity was studied by current sensing AFM and I-V spectroscopy. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to measure the surface contact potential. The oxide film, known as passivation layer, covering the fibre surface gives rise to the observation of an apparently semiconducting behaviour. The passivation layer generally exhibits a p-type semiconducting behaviour, which is attributed to the predominant formation of chromium oxide on the surface of the stainless steel fibres. At the nanoscale, different behaviours are observed from points to points, which may be attributed to local variations of the chemical composition and/or thickness of the passivation layer. I-V curves are well fitted with an electron tunnelling model, indicating that electron tunnelling may be the predominant mechanism for electron transport.

  9. Electrically induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Beier; Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Regulating the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for their application in traumatic nerve injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and demyelination disease in both central and peripheral nervous systems. The present study investigated the possibility of using electrical stimulation (ES) to activate SCs to release BDNF. We found that short-term ES was capable of promoting BDNF production from SCs, and the maximal BDNF release was achieved by ES at 6 V (3 Hz, 30 min). We further examined the involvement of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) in the ES-induced BDNF production in SCs by pharmacological studies. We found that the ES-induced BDNF release required calcium influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores, including inositol triphosphate-sensitive stores and caffeine/ryanodine-sensitive stores. In addition, calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were found to play important roles in the ES-induced BDNF release from SCs. In conclusion, ES is capable of activating SCs to secrete BDNF, which requires the involvement of calcium influx through T-type VGCC and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores. In addition, activation of CaMK IV, MAPK, and CREB were also involved in the ES-induced BDNF release. The findings indicate that ES can improve the neurotrophic ability in SCs and raise the possibility of developing electrically stimulated SCs as a source of cell therapy for nerve injury in both peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:24753179

  10. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  11. Magellan: electrical and physical properties of venus' surface.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G L; Ford, P G; Campbell, D B; Elachi, C; Pettengill, G H; Simpson, R A

    1991-04-12

    Magellan probes Venus' surface by 12.6-cm-wavelength vertical and oblique radar scattering and measures microwave thermal emission. Emissivity and root-meansquare slope maps between 330 degrees and 30 degrees E and 90 degrees N and 80 degrees S are dissimilar, although some local features are exceptions. Inferred surface emissivities typically are approximately 0.85, but vary from approximately 0.35 at Maxwell to approximately 0.95 northeast of Gula Mons and other locations. Lowest emissivities appear in topographically high areas; this relation suggests that a phase change or differences in chemical weathering occur at about 6055-kilometer radius. Initial results indicate that there are significant variations in the surface scattering function.

  12. Magellan - Electrical and physical properties of Venus' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Ford, P. G.; Campbell, D. B.; Elachi, C.; Pettengill, G. H.; Simpson, R. A.

    1991-04-01

    Magellan probes Venus'surface by 12.6-cm-wavelength vertical and oblique radar scattering and measures microwave thermal emission. Emissivity and root-mean-square slope maps between 330 deg and 30 deg E and 90 deg N and 80 deg S are dissimilar, although some local features are exceptions. Inferred surface emissivities typically are 0.85, but vary from 0.35 at Maxwell to 0.95 northeast of Gula Mons and other locations. Lowest emissivities appear in topographically high areas; this relation suggests that a phase change or differences in chemical weathering occur at about 6055-kilometer radius. Initial results indicate that there are significant variations in the surface scattering function.

  13. Optical and electrical mappings of surface plasmon cavity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fan; Merlo, Juan M.; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly expanding field, founded in physics but now with a growing number of applications in biology (biosensing), nanophotonics, photovoltaics, optical engineering and advanced information technology. Appearing as charge density oscillations along a metal surface, excited by electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light), plasmons can propagate as surface plasmon polaritons, or can be confined as standing waves along an appropriately-prepared surface. Here, we review the latter manifestation, both their origins and the manners in which they are detected, the latter dominated by near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM/SNOM). We include discussion of the "plasmonic halo" effect recently observed by the authors, wherein cavity-confined plasmons are able to modulate optical transmission through step-gap nanostructures, yielding a novel form of color (wavelength) selection.

  14. Visualization of brain surface features using registered partially segmented MRI scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Loyd M.; Brinkley, James F.

    1995-04-01

    Intraoperative brain mapping of cortical language sites has generated a need for accurate visualization of the cortical surface with its associated arteries and veins. We describe a technique for registering multiple magnetic resonance imaging studies, segmenting those studies, and visualizing the combined vessels and cortical surface. The patient receives three pre-operative MRI scans corresponding to the three tissue types to be visualized. The studies are read into three volumes in the visualization software and voxel size information is then used to interpolate each of the volumes producing cubic voxels. The volumes are then cropped and translated interactively to be the exact same dimension and orientation. A region growing algorithm is applied to the most homogeneous volume (usually the vein data) to produce a mask which approximates the cortical region. A morphological dilation is performed on the mask expanding it to include features on or near the cortical surface. The mask is applied to the cortical surface, artery, and vein volumes, and they then become the green, red, and blue channels of a composite RGB volume. The resulting volume is selectively weighted and input to a ray-tracing algorithm which produces the final image. This technique provides neurosurgeons with an image containing the landmarks necessary to record intraoperative brain mapping data. Example results are presented which show that the generated cortical surface, including surface veins and arteries, corresponds closely to intraoperative photographs of the exposed cortical surface taken at the time of surgery. When combined with an image database and integrated into an interactive program this technique allows neurosurgeons to obtain accurate 3-D stimulation maps of functional areas on the brain surface.

  15. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J.; Mateos-Pérez, J.M.; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26702424

  16. Surface electrical conductivity of single crystal spinel in cesium vapor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, P.; Ing, J.L.

    1995-04-02

    The operation of a thermionic fuel element (TFE) requires the maintenance of good electrical resistance between the anode and cathode, and between the electrodes and the TFE body. A program of research was established as part of the TOPAZ International Program (TIP) with the purpose of investigating the degradation of TFE electrical insulators. The major emphasis of this research has been on the interactions of oxide ceramics with cesium (Cs) vapor, and the resurfacing decrease of surface resistivity. Previous work has studied the surface electrical conductivity of sapphire exposed to Cs. In this report the authors describe the results of an experimental investigation of the surface electrical conductivity of single crystal magnesium aluminate spinel at temperatures ranging from 573K to 923K, in the presence of cesium vapor at pressures up to 1 Torr. The interest in spinel has arisen in view of its apparent resistance to radiation damage.

  17. Clinical usefulness of brain-computer interface-controlled functional electrical stimulation for improving brain activity in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Evaluating the effect of brain-computer interface (BCI)-based functional electrical stimulation (FES) training on brain activity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) was the aim of this study. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomized into a BCI-FES group (n=9) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) control group (n=9). Subjects in the BCI-FES group received wrist and hand extension training with FES for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week for 6 weeks under the BCI-based program. The FES group received wrist and hand extension training with FES for the same amount of time. Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) and middle beta waves (M-beta) were measured in frontopolar regions 1 and 2 (Fp1, Fp2) to determine the effects of BCI-FES training. [Results] Significant improvements in the SMR and M-beta of Fp1 and Fp2 were seen in the BCI-FES group. In contrast, significant improvement was only seen in the SMR and M-beta of Fp2 in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that BCI-controlled FES training may be helpful in improving brain activity in patients with cerebral palsy and may be applied as effectively as traditional FES training. PMID:27799677

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaugh, Daniel L.; Salzwedel, Andrew; van den Berge, Nathalie; Gao, Wei; Stuber, Garret D.; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons. NAc-DBS directly modulated neural activity within prefrontal cortex and a large number of subcortical limbic areas (e.g., amygdala, lateral hypothalamus), and influenced functional connectivity among sensorimotor, executive, and limbic networks. The pattern and extent of circuit modulation measured by evoked-fMRI was relatively insensitive to DBS frequency. Optogenetic stimulation of NAc cell bodies induced a positive fMRI signal in the NAc, but no other detectable downstream responses, indicating that therapeutic NAc-DBS might exert its effect through antidromic stimulation. Our study provides a comprehensive mapping of circuit and network-level neuromodulation by NAc-DBS, which should facilitate our developing understanding of its therapeutic mechanisms of action.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Daniel L.; Salzwedel, Andrew; Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Gao, Wei; Stuber, Garret D.; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons. NAc-DBS directly modulated neural activity within prefrontal cortex and a large number of subcortical limbic areas (e.g., amygdala, lateral hypothalamus), and influenced functional connectivity among sensorimotor, executive, and limbic networks. The pattern and extent of circuit modulation measured by evoked-fMRI was relatively insensitive to DBS frequency. Optogenetic stimulation of NAc cell bodies induced a positive fMRI signal in the NAc, but no other detectable downstream responses, indicating that therapeutic NAc-DBS might exert its effect through antidromic stimulation. Our study provides a comprehensive mapping of circuit and network-level neuromodulation by NAc-DBS, which should facilitate our developing understanding of its therapeutic mechanisms of action. PMID:27601003

  20. Brain electrical activity changes in treatment refractory schizophrenics after olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cerdán, Luis F; Guevara, Miguel A; Sanz, Araceli; Amezcua, Claudia; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify brain electrical activity changes generated by olanzapine (OLZ) in treatment refractory schizophrenics (TRS). 14 paranoid TRS (31.5+/-8.39 years old) were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of OLZ treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated by means of total BPRS and PANSS scores. Resting EEG was recorded in the pre (under typical neuroleptics) and post (under OLZ) sessions. A good response to OLZ was observed in 57% of TRS. A significant reduction in positive and negative symptoms scales of PANSS was found. Absolute power of theta1, theta2, alpha1 bands increased after treatment, while beta2 power showed a decrease. Intrahemispheric correlation increased between different zones of the frontal areas and between frontal and posterior areas, while interhemispheric correlation decreased in theta2. EEG changes were more evident in those patients who had a better response to OLZ. OLZ showed to be effective in TRS, improving psychiatric symptoms and increasing activity synchronization between different areas within each hemisphere that may indicate a functional reorganization, particularly in good responders.

  1. Dynamic variation in pleasure in children predicts nonlinear change in lateral frontal brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Light, Sharee N; Coan, James A; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H Hill; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture second-by-second changes in ongoing emotion until now. The relationship between pleasure and second-by-second lateral frontal activity was examined with the use of hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 128 children ages 6-10 years. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded during "pop-out toy," a standardized task that elicits pleasure. The task consisted of 3 epochs: an anticipation period sandwiched between 2 play periods. The amount of pleasure expressed during the task predicted the pattern of nonlinear change in lateral frontal activity. Children who expressed increasing amounts of pleasure during the task exhibited increasing left lateral frontal activity during the task, whereas children who expressed contentment exhibited increasing right/decreasing left activity. These findings indicate that task-dependent changes in pleasure relate to dynamic, nonlinear changes in lateral frontal activity as the task unfolds. PMID:19271836

  2. [The changes in the brain's electrical activity in children with cerebral palsy during the complex rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, T A; Gorbunov, F E; Dement'eva, E V; Volkova, E A; Novikova, E E

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five children, aged from 3 to 7 years, with the diagnosis "spastic diplegia cerebral palsy" were treated. Patients were stratified into three groups: group I (n=36) received three courses of microcurrent therapy (MENS) in addition to standard treatment; group II (n=38) received three courses of MENS in the combination with two treatment courses with the nootropic drug cortexin; children of group III (n=31) received standard therapy using massage and gymnastics. MENS was carried out in courses, including 15 sessions each, using the apparatus "MEKS". Cortexin was introduced intramuscular in dosage 10 mg, the treatment course consisted of 10 injections. To the end of the rehabilitation program, positive changes were found: 50% patients of group I, 66% patients of group II and 16% patients of group III could perform complex instructions and acquired skills in modeling and recognition of geometric forms. Positive changes in the brain's electrical activity were found in 75% of children in group I, in 82% of children in group II and in 64% of children in group III.

  3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Daniel L; Salzwedel, Andrew; Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Gao, Wei; Stuber, Garret D; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons. NAc-DBS directly modulated neural activity within prefrontal cortex and a large number of subcortical limbic areas (e.g., amygdala, lateral hypothalamus), and influenced functional connectivity among sensorimotor, executive, and limbic networks. The pattern and extent of circuit modulation measured by evoked-fMRI was relatively insensitive to DBS frequency. Optogenetic stimulation of NAc cell bodies induced a positive fMRI signal in the NAc, but no other detectable downstream responses, indicating that therapeutic NAc-DBS might exert its effect through antidromic stimulation. Our study provides a comprehensive mapping of circuit and network-level neuromodulation by NAc-DBS, which should facilitate our developing understanding of its therapeutic mechanisms of action.

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Daniel L; Salzwedel, Andrew; Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Gao, Wei; Stuber, Garret D; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons. NAc-DBS directly modulated neural activity within prefrontal cortex and a large number of subcortical limbic areas (e.g., amygdala, lateral hypothalamus), and influenced functional connectivity among sensorimotor, executive, and limbic networks. The pattern and extent of circuit modulation measured by evoked-fMRI was relatively insensitive to DBS frequency. Optogenetic stimulation of NAc cell bodies induced a positive fMRI signal in the NAc, but no other detectable downstream responses, indicating that therapeutic NAc-DBS might exert its effect through antidromic stimulation. Our study provides a comprehensive mapping of circuit and network-level neuromodulation by NAc-DBS, which should facilitate our developing understanding of its therapeutic mechanisms of action. PMID:27601003

  5. Surface coil spectroscopic imaging: Time and spatial evolution of lactate production following fluid percussion brain injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Y.; Sanada, T.; Pitts, L.H.; Chang, L.H.; Nishimura, M.C.; Weinstein, P.R.; Litt, L.; James, T.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Detailed temporal and spatial distributions of lactate production are presented for graded fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat. A one-dimensional proton spin-echo spectroscopic imaging (1D SESI) technique, performed with a surface coil, is presented and evaluated. This technique, which represents a practical compromise, provides spatially localized proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) brain spectra from a series of small voxels (less than 0.15 cm3) in less than 10 min, thus enabling both spatial and temporal monitoring of lactate production. These high-resolution lactate maps are correlated with hyperintense regions observed in T2-weighted images taken 10 h after impact, which, in turn, correlate with histology. The data demonstrate that, following severe trauma there is delayed production and propagation of lactate to regions of the brain that are remote from the trauma site. The extent of lactate production depends on the severity of impact. More significantly, the data show that following severe trauma, local lactate concentrations exceed 15 mumol/g, the concentration that has been claimed as the threshold for brain injury. Therefore high lactate levels cannot be ruled out a priori as a possible factor in brain injury following severe head trauma.

  6. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  11. Analyzing the tradeoff between electrical complexity and accuracy in patient-specific computational models of deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Bryan; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an adjunctive therapy that is effective in treating movement disorders and shows promise for treating psychiatric disorders. Computational models of DBS have begun to be utilized as tools to optimize the therapy. Despite advancements in the anatomical accuracy of these models, there is still uncertainty as to what level of electrical complexity is adequate for modeling the electric field in the brain and the subsequent neural response to the stimulation. Approach. We used magnetic resonance images to create an image-based computational model of subthalamic DBS. The complexity of the volume conductor model was increased by incrementally including heterogeneity, anisotropy, and dielectric dispersion in the electrical properties of the brain. We quantified changes in the load of the electrode, the electric potential distribution, and stimulation thresholds of descending corticofugal (DCF) axon models. Main results. Incorporation of heterogeneity altered the electric potentials and subsequent stimulation thresholds, but to a lesser degree than incorporation of anisotropy. Additionally, the results were sensitive to the choice of method for defining anisotropy, with stimulation thresholds of DCF axons changing by as much as 190%. Typical approaches for defining anisotropy underestimate the expected load of the stimulation electrode, which led to underestimation of the extent of stimulation. More accurate predictions of the electrode load were achieved with alternative approaches for defining anisotropy. The effects of dielectric dispersion were small compared to the effects of heterogeneity and anisotropy. Significance. The results of this study help delineate the level of detail that is required to accurately model electric fields generated by DBS electrodes.

  12. Surface wetting and bubble dynamics of dielectric fluids boiling in high electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep; Love, Christopher; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Varanasi, Kripa

    2014-11-01

    We present results of an experimental study on the effect of high electric fields on the nature of bubble formation and departure in nucleate pool boiling of dielectric fluids. Despite some past studies looking at the application of electric fields to enhance boiling performance, the exact mechanism of interaction of these fields with the fluid/surface is not well understood. In this study, we employed high-speed optical and infrared (IR) imaging to observe changes in wetting behavior of the fluid on the solid surface and the mode of bubble formation and departure under applied electric fields. The experimental results point towards a liquid film stabilization effect of the applied electric field on the boiling surface. Both the bubble departure size and surface dry spot dynamics is visibly altered under the effect of the electric field. These effects can be attributed to the development of surface charges on the bubble microlayer adjacent to the liquid-vapor contact line, which affect the liquid receding and surface rewetting mechanisms. Funding for this project is provided by Chevron Corp.

  13. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  14. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  15. Electrical properties of polyimides containing a near-surface deposit of silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Films containing a surface or near-surface deposit of palladium, gold or copper metal as well as tin, cobalt, copper, or lithium oxides have been prepared by dissolving appropriate metal salts into poly(amide-acid)/N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions and curing the solvent cast films to temperatures up to 300 C. This preparation technique has been extended to evaluate the thermal, spectroscopic, and electrical characteristics of condensation polyimide films modified with silver nitrate. A near-surface deposit of metallic silver results but the reflective surface has high electrical resistivity (sheet resistivity) due to a polymer coating or overlayer above the metal. Details pertaining to the silver nitrate modified condensation polyimides are presented. Also, the applicability of the structural model and electrical model previously proposed for the cobalt oxide system are assessed.

  16. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied. Infiltration was monitored by means of image analysis of two-dimensional array resistivity generated by a Syscal Kid Switch resistivity system (Griffiths et al., 1990). The data was inverted with the computer program RES2DINV (Loke, 2004). The agricultural soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silt loam (BgA). The natural site was located in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The soils there are classified as Schoharie silty clay loam. The electrical images of the three sites were compared against established soil properties, including particle size distribution, available water capacity, and soluble salts (from the literature), as well as against site-specific soil samples and penetrometer data, which were collected along with the geophysical measurements. This research evaluates the potential of acquiring high resolution, non-destructive measurements of infiltration in the uppermost 1.5 meter of the vadose zone. The results demonstrate that resistivity differences can detect infiltration in soils typical of the north-eastern United States. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water content in the upper 1.5 meters (relevant to agriculture) of the subsurface can be monitored successfully and non-destructively with ERI. The sensitivity of the method is higher in subsurface environments that demonstrate high overall apparent resistivity values (e.g. high sand content). Under conditions of increased soil heterogeneity, instead of the formation of a continuous

  17. From stereogram to surface: how the brain sees the world in depth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    When we look at a scene, how do we consciously see surfaces infused with lightness and color at the correct depths? Random-Dot Stereograms (RDS) probe how binocular disparity between the two eyes can generate such conscious surface percepts. Dense RDS do so despite the fact that they include multiple false binocular matches. Sparse stereograms do so even across large contrast-free regions with no binocular matches. Stereograms that define occluding and occluded surfaces lead to surface percepts wherein partially occluded textured surfaces are completed behind occluding textured surfaces at a spatial scale much larger than that of the texture elements themselves. Earlier models suggest how the brain detects binocular disparity, but not how RDS generate conscious percepts of 3D surfaces. This article proposes a neural network model that predicts how the layered circuits of visual cortex generate these 3D surface percepts using interactions between visual boundary and surface representations that obey complementary computational rules. The model clarifies how interactions between layers 4, 3B and 2/3A in V1 and V2 contribute to stereopsis, and proposes how 3D perceptual grouping laws in V2 interact with 3D surface filling-in operations in V1, V2 and V4 to generate 3D surface percepts in which figures are separated from their backgrounds. The model explanations of 3D surface percepts raised by various RDS are demonstrated by computer simulations. The model hereby unifies the explanation of data about stereopsis and data about 3D figure-ground separation and completion of partially occluded object surfaces. It shows how these model mechanisms convert the complementary rules for boundary and surface formation into consistent visual percepts of 3D surfaces.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance biomolecular recognition nanosystem: influence of the interfacial electrical potential.

    PubMed

    Lopatynskyi, Andrii; Guiver, Michael; Chegel, Volodymyr

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the response of a surface plasmon resonance nanosystem designed according to Kretschmann geometry on the application of an external electric potential to the gold-electrolyte interface is well described by the proposed mathematical model, which takes into account the geometric surface imperfection and dependence of optical constants of the surface layer of gold film and capacitance of the electrical double layer on applied voltage. This model allows the appropriate correction for results of electrochemical surface plasmon resonance measurements. The dependence of a value of biomolecules adsorption in a surface plasmon resonance nanosystem on applied electric potential is shown for the first time. It is found that a shift of surface plasmon resonance angular position (Δθ(SPR)) and a change of capacitance of electrical double layer on the surface of gold (ΔC(dl)) for the adsorption of proteins under applied voltage are related to the nonlinear dependence Δθ(SPR) = (a + b x ΔC(dl))(-1). This phenomenon can be exploited in biochemical analysis to monitor the interaction of biomolecules, enhance response of biosensors, block unwanted adsorption, etc.

  19. Electrostatic-elastoplastic simulations of copper surface under high electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadin, V.; Pohjonen, A.; Aabloo, A.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2014-10-01

    Maximizing the performance of modern linear accelerators working with high gradient electromagnetic fields depends to a large extent on ability to control breakdown rates near metal surfaces in the accelerating structures. Nanoscale voids, presumably forming in the surface layers of metals during the technological processing, can be responsible for the onset of the growth of a surface protrusion. We use finite element simulations to study the evolution of annealed copper, single crystal copper and stainless steel surfaces that contain a void under high electric fields. We use a fully coupled electrostatic-elastoplastic model in the steady state. Gradually increasing the value of an external electric field, we analyze the relationship of surface failure and depth of the void for the chosen materials with different elastoplastic properties. According to our results, the stainless steel and single crystal copper surfaces demonstrate the formation of well-defined protrusions, when the external electric field reaches a certain critical value. Among the three materials, annealed copper surface starts yielding at the lowest electric fields due to the lowest Young's modulus and yield stress. However, it produces the smallest protrusions due to a significant strain hardening characteristic for this material.

  20. An ISO-surface folding analysis method applied to premature neonatal brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Carranza, Claudia E.; Rousseau, Francois; Iordanova, Bistra; Glenn, Orit; Vigneron, Daniel; Barkovich, James; Studholme, Colin

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe the application of folding measures to tracking in vivo cortical brain development in premature neonatal brain anatomy. The outer gray matter and the gray-white matter interface surfaces were extracted from semi-interactively segmented high-resolution T1 MRI data. Nine curvature- and geometric descriptor-based folding measures were applied to six premature infants, aged 28-37 weeks, using a direct voxelwise iso-surface representation. We have shown that using such an approach it is feasible to extract meaningful surfaces of adequate quality from typical clinically acquired neonatal MRI data. We have shown that most of the folding measures, including a new proposed measure, are sensitive to changes in age and therefore applicable in developing a model that tracks development in premature infants. For the first time gyrification measures have been computed on the gray-white matter interface and on cases whose age is representative of a period of intense brain development.

  1. Knowledge-based deformable surface model with application to segmentation of brain structures in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanei, Amir; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Elisevich, Kost; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based deformable surface for segmentation of medical images. This work has been done in the context of segmentation of hippocampus from brain MRI, due to its challenge and clinical importance. The model has a polyhedral discrete structure and is initialized automatically by analyzing brain MRI sliced by slice, and finding few landmark features at each slice using an expert system. The expert system decides on the presence of the hippocampus and its general location in each slice. The landmarks found are connected together by a triangulation method, to generate a closed initial surface. The surface deforms under defined internal and external force terms thereafter, to generate an accurate and reproducible boundary for the hippocampus. The anterior and posterior (AP) limits of the hippocampus is estimated by automatic analysis of the location of brain stem, and some of the features extracted in the initialization process. These data are combined together with a priori knowledge using Bayes method to estimate a probability density function (pdf) for the length of the structure in sagittal direction. The hippocampus AP limits are found by optimizing this pdf. The model is tested on real clinical data and the results show very good model performance.

  2. Study of surface charge density on solid/liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid/liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid/liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a DC bias voltage across the plates, an AC electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage difference between the plates as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid/liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS program in Korea.

  3. Exposure to static electric fields leads to changes in biogenic amine levels in the brains of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Newland, Philip L.; Al Ghamdi, Mesfer S.; Sharkh, Suleiman; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Jackson, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic static electric fields are commonly found in the environment and can have both beneficial and harmful effects on many animals. Here, we asked how the fruitfly responds to these fields and what the consequences of exposure are on the levels of biogenic amines in the brain. When given a choice in a Y-tube bioassay Drosophila avoided electric fields, and the greater the field strength the more likely Drosophila were to avoid it. By comparing wild-type flies, flies with wings surgically removed and vestigial winged flies we found that the presence of intact wings was necessary to produce avoidance behaviour. We also show that Coulomb forces produced by electric fields physically lift excised wings, with the smaller wings of males being raised by lower field strengths than larger female wings. An analysis of neurochemical changes in the brains showed that a suite of changes in biogenic amine levels occurs following chronic exposure. Taken together we conclude that physical movements of the wings are used by Drosophila in generating avoidance behaviour and are accompanied by changes in the levels of amines in the brain, which in turn impact on behaviour. PMID:26224706

  4. Effects of mixed discrete surface charges on the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Felipe

    2012-08-01

    Adsorption of surface coions and charge reversal are induced at the electrical double layer of a wall charged with positive and negative surface sites next to an electrolyte solution. While for the considered surface charge density these effects are found over a wide range of conditions, they are not observed for the typically employed surface models in equivalent conditions. Important consequences in electrophoresis experiments for different colloids with equal effective surface charge density are foreseen. This study is carried out by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  6. Wave tilt sounding of multilayered structures. [for probing of stratified planetary surface electrical properties and thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warne, L.; Jaggard, D. L.; Elachi, C.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between the wave tilt and the electrical parameters of a multilayered structure is investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on the inverse problem associated with the sounding planetary surfaces. An inversion technique, based on multifrequency wave tilt, is proposed and demonstrated with several computer models. It is determined that there is close agreement between the electrical parameters used in the models and those in the inversion values.

  7. The Hydrogen Abstraction from A Diamond(111) Surface in A Uniform Electric Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Kang, Jeung Ku.; Musgrave, Charles B.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Bond breaking in a strong electric field is shown to arise from a crossing of the ionic and covalent asymptotes. The specific example of hydrogen abstraction from a diamond(111) surface is studied using a cluster model. The addition of nearby atoms in both the parallel and perpendicular direction to the electric field are found to have an effect. It is also shown that the barrier is not only related to the position of the ionic and covalent asymptotes.

  8. Modulating protein behaviors on responsive surface by external electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yun; Pan, Yufang; Zhang, Rong; Liang, Ying; Li, Zhanchao

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the modulation of protein behaviors on the electrically responsive zwitterionic phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayers (PC-SAMs). Results show that PC-SAMs could sensitively respond to the applied electric fields and exhibit three states with different charge distributions, namely both the negatively charged phosphate groups and the positively charged choline groups are exposed to the solution in the absence of electric fields (state 1), phosphate groups exposed in the presence of positive electric fields (state 2), and choline groups exposed in the presence of negative electric fields (state 3). Under state 1, the adsorption of Cyt c on the PC-SAM is reversible and the orientations of Cyt c are randomly distributed. Under state 2, the adsorption of Cyt c is enhanced due to the electrostatic attractions between the exposed phosphate groups and the positively charged protein; when adsorbed on the PC-SAMs, Cyt c tends to adopt the orientation with the heme plane perpendicular to the surface plane, and the percentage of this orientation increases as the field strength rises up. Under state 3, the adsorption of Cyt c is retarded because of the electrostatic repulsions between the exposed choline groups and the protein; however, if the gaps between PC chains are large enough, Cyt c could insert into the PC-SAM and access the phosphate groups after overcoming a slight energy barrier. Under three states, the basic backbone structures of Cyt c are well kept within the simulation time since the conformation of Cyt c is mainly affected by the surface-generated electric fields, whose strengths are modulated by the external electric fields and are not strong enough to deform protein. The results indicate the possibility of regulating protein behaviors, including promoting or retarding protein adsorption and regulating protein orientations, on responsive surfaces by applying electric fields on the surfaces without

  9. Electrical and Surface Morphology of Polyvinylchloride Composites Filled with Aluminum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dolly; Kishore, Sangeeta; Singh, N. L.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the electrical and surface morphology of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites filled with different concentration of aluminum powder varying from 0 to 40 wt.% have been prepared by solution costing method. The electrical conductivity of these composites were investigated in the frequency range 100 Hz-10 MHz at room temperature. The conductivity of the composites system exhibited a strong frequency dependence particularly in the vicinity of percolation threshold (20 wt.%). It was observed that the electrical conductivity gradually increased with filler concentration and frequency and explained in terms of hopping conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of the composites obeys universal power law (i.e. σ = Afn), where, n is power exponent. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs indicate the agglomeration of aluminum particles dispersed within the PVC at the higher aluminum concentration, yielding a conductive path through the composites. It is also corroborated with electrical conductivity result.

  10. Electrical methods of controlling bacterial adhesion and biofilm on device surfaces.

    PubMed

    Freebairn, David; Linton, David; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Jones, David S; Gilmore, Brendan F; Gorman, Sean P

    2013-01-01

    This review will summarize the significant body of research within the field of electrical methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms. We examine the progress from early work using current to kill bacteria in static fluids to more realistic treatment scenarios such as flow-through systems designed to imitate the human urinary tract. Additionally, the electrical enhancement of biocide and antibiotic efficacy will be examined alongside recent innovations including the biological applications of acoustic energy systems to prevent bacterial surface adherence. Particular attention will be paid to the electrical engineering aspects of previous work, such as electrode composition, quantitative electrical parameters and the conductive medium used. Scrutiny of published systems from an electrical engineering perspective will help to facilitate improved understanding of the methods, devices and mechanisms that have been effective in controlling bacteria, as well as providing insights and strategies to improve the performance of such systems and develop the next generation of antimicrobial bioelectric materials. PMID:23278226

  11. Range, Magnitude, and Ultrafast Dynamics of Electric Fields at the Hydrated DNA Surface.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Torsten; Guchhait, Biswajit; Liu, Yingliang; Fingerhut, Benjamin P; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2016-08-18

    Range and magnitude of electric fields at biomolecular interfaces and their fluctuations in a time window down to the subpicosecond regime have remained controversial, calling for electric-field mapping in space and time. Here, we trace fluctuating electric fields at the surface of native salmon DNA via their interactions with backbone vibrations in a wide range of hydration levels by building the water shell layer by layer. Femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and ab initio based theory establish water molecules in the first two layers as the predominant source of interfacial electric fields, which fluctuate on a 300 fs time scale with an amplitude of 25 MV/cm due to thermally excited water motions. The observed subnanometer range of these electric interactions is decisive for biochemical structure and function. PMID:27468144

  12. Surface oxidation effect on the electrical behaviour of Bi2Te2Se nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Pascal; Reusch, Frieder B; Mashhadi, Soudabeh S; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2016-07-15

    Charge transport in topological insulators is notably influenced by moisture and air in the surrounding environment. At present, however, little is known about the detailed composition of the oxidized surface and its impact on the electrical characteristics of these materials. Here, we investigate the surface oxide formation on the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se (BTS) and how this affects its electrical behavior. While ambient exposure of BTS nanoplatelets predominantly creates surface hydroxyl groups, oxygen plasma treatment yields a compact, few-nanometer thick surface oxide layer. The plasma causes p-type doping, accompanied by a decrease of the effective platelet thickness, the interplay of which is manifested in a resistance maximum as a function of plasma treatment time. It is furthermore demonstrated that the structural integrity of the plasma-derived surface oxide is sufficient to enable its use as a gate insulator layer in combination with a top gate.

  13. Surface oxidation effect on the electrical behaviour of Bi2Te2Se nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Pascal; Reusch, Frieder B; Mashhadi, Soudabeh S; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2016-07-15

    Charge transport in topological insulators is notably influenced by moisture and air in the surrounding environment. At present, however, little is known about the detailed composition of the oxidized surface and its impact on the electrical characteristics of these materials. Here, we investigate the surface oxide formation on the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se (BTS) and how this affects its electrical behavior. While ambient exposure of BTS nanoplatelets predominantly creates surface hydroxyl groups, oxygen plasma treatment yields a compact, few-nanometer thick surface oxide layer. The plasma causes p-type doping, accompanied by a decrease of the effective platelet thickness, the interplay of which is manifested in a resistance maximum as a function of plasma treatment time. It is furthermore demonstrated that the structural integrity of the plasma-derived surface oxide is sufficient to enable its use as a gate insulator layer in combination with a top gate. PMID:27257792

  14. Surface oxidation effect on the electrical behaviour of Bi2Te2Se nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Pascal; Reusch, Frieder B.; Mashhadi, Soudabeh S.; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Charge transport in topological insulators is notably influenced by moisture and air in the surrounding environment. At present, however, little is known about the detailed composition of the oxidized surface and its impact on the electrical characteristics of these materials. Here, we investigate the surface oxide formation on the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se (BTS) and how this affects its electrical behavior. While ambient exposure of BTS nanoplatelets predominantly creates surface hydroxyl groups, oxygen plasma treatment yields a compact, few-nanometer thick surface oxide layer. The plasma causes p-type doping, accompanied by a decrease of the effective platelet thickness, the interplay of which is manifested in a resistance maximum as a function of plasma treatment time. It is furthermore demonstrated that the structural integrity of the plasma-derived surface oxide is sufficient to enable its use as a gate insulator layer in combination with a top gate.

  15. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  16. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) between the PT and FT groups. Further, spatially localized clusters with inward and outward deformation were found to be associated with lower gestational age. The results from this study present a shape analysis method for pediatric MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  17. Nanoscale Roughness and Morphology Affect the IsoElectric Point of Titania Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Francesca; Vyas, Varun; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2) surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs) of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces. PMID:23874708

  18. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Alfano, Marco; Yang, Yang; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  19. Surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for brain targeting of Bacoside-A.

    PubMed

    Jose, S; Sowmya, S; Cinu, T A; Aleykutty, N A; Thomas, S; Souto, E B

    2014-10-15

    The present paper focuses on the development and in vitro/in vivo characterization of nanoparticles composed of poly-(D,L)-Lactide-co-Glycolide (PLGA) loading Bacoside-A, as a new approach for the brain delivery of the neuroprotective drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Alzheimer Disease). Bacoside-A-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared via o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Surface of the nanoparticles were modified by coating with polysorbate 80 to facilitate the crossing of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the processing parameters (i.e. sonication time, the concentration of polymer (PLGA) and surfactant (polysorbate 80), and drug-polymer ratio) were optimized with the aim to achieve a high production yield. Brain targeting potential of the nanoparticles was evaluated by in vivo studies using Wistar albino rats. The nanoparticles produced by optimal formulation were within the nanosized range (70-200 nm) with relatively low polydispersity index (0.391 ± 1.2). The encapsulation efficiency of Bacoside-A in PLGA nanoparticles was 57.11 ± 7.11%, with a drug loading capacity of 20.5 ± 1.98%. SEM images showed the spherical shape of the PLGA nanoparticles, whereas their low crystallinity was demonstrated by X-ray studies, which also confirmed no chemical interactions between the drug and polymer molecules. The in vitro release of Bacoside-A from the PLGA nanoparticles followed a sustained release pattern with a maximum release of up to 83.04 ± 2.55% in 48 h. When compared to pure drug solution (2.56 ± 1.23 μg/g tissue), in vivo study demonstrated higher brain concentration of Bacoside-A (23.94 ± 1.74 μg/g tissue) suggesting a significant role of surface coated nanoparticles on brain targeting. The results indicate the potential of surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of Bacoside-A to the brain.

  20. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-14

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO{sub 2} (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  1. Electrochemical patterning of the surface of insulators with electrically conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X.Y.; Ding, Y.; Bottomley, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    The great potential of {pi}-conjugated polymers, especially polyacetylene, polyarylenes, and poly(arylenevinylene)s, as components in optical displays, sensors, rechargeable batteries, electromagnetic interference shielding, and microelectronics is well recognized. This paper presents a protocol for patterning the surface of insulators with electrically conductive polymers. The pattern is formed on a gold electrode surface via electro-oxidation of heteroarene monomers. An adhesion layer is used to bond the surface of the conducting polymer pattern to the surface of an insulator. The pattern is then developed by etching away the gold. The approach is illustrated with polypyrrole and is applicable to a wide range of substituted polyheteroarenes and insulating substrates.

  2. Probing the effect of surface chemistry on the electrical properties of ultrathin gold nanowire sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisner, Alexandre; Heggen, Marc; Mayer, Dirk; Simon, Ulrich; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Mourzina, Yulia

    2014-04-01

    Ultrathin metal nanowires are ultimately analytical tools that can be used to survey the interfacial properties of the functional groups of organic molecules immobilized on nanoelectrodes. The high ratio of surface to bulk atoms makes such ultrathin nanowires extremely electrically sensitive to adsorbates and their charge and/or polarity, although little is known about the nature of surface chemistry interactions on metallic ultrathin nanowires. Here we report the first studies about the effect of functional groups of short-chain alkanethiol molecules on the electrical resistance of ultrathin gold nanowires. We fabricated ultrathin nanowire electrical sensors based on chemiresistors using conventional microfabrication techniques, so that the contact areas were passivated to leave only the surface of the nanowires exposed to the environment. By immobilizing alkanethiol molecules with head groups such as -CH3, -NH2 and -COOH on gold nanowires, we examined how the charge proximity due to protonation/deprotonation of the functional groups affects the resistance of the sensors. Electrical measurements in air and in water only indicate that beyond the gold-sulfur moiety interactions, the interfacial charge due to the acid-base chemistry of the functional groups of the molecules has a significant impact on the electrical resistance of the wires. Our data demonstrate that the degree of dissociation of the corresponding functional groups plays a major role in enhancing the surface-sensitive resistivity of the nanowires. These results stress the importance of recognizing the effect of protonation/deprotonation of the surface chemistry on the resulting electrical sensitivity of ultrathin metal nanowires and the applicability of such sensors for studying interfacial properties using electrodes of comparable size to the electrochemical double layer.Ultrathin metal nanowires are ultimately analytical tools that can be used to survey the interfacial properties of the functional

  3. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on

  4. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease.

  5. Differentiation of healthy brain tissue and tumors using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer; Altaş, Murat; Kahraman, Mehmet; Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Culha, Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique for characterization of biological samples. SERS spectra from healthy brain tissue and tumors are obtained by sudden freezing of tissue in liquid nitrogen and crashing and mixing it with a concentrated silver colloidal suspension. The acquired spectra from tissues show significant spectral differences that can be used to identify whether it is from a healthy region or tumor. The most significant change on SERS spectra from the healthy/peripheral brain tissue to tumor is the increase of the ratio of the peaks at around 723 to 655 cm(-1). In addition, the spectral changes indicate that the protein content in tumors increases compared to the peripheral/healthy tissue as observed with tumor invasion. The preliminary results show that SERS spectra can be used for a quick diagnosis due to the simplicity of the sample preparation and the speed of the spectral acquisition. PMID:19843358

  6. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25701281

  7. Probing the effect of surface chemistry on the electrical properties of ultrathin gold nanowire sensors.

    PubMed

    Kisner, Alexandre; Heggen, Marc; Mayer, Dirk; Simon, Ulrich; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Mourzina, Yulia

    2014-05-21

    Ultrathin metal nanowires are ultimately analytical tools that can be used to survey the interfacial properties of the functional groups of organic molecules immobilized on nanoelectrodes. The high ratio of surface to bulk atoms makes such ultrathin nanowires extremely electrically sensitive to adsorbates and their charge and/or polarity, although little is known about the nature of surface chemistry interactions on metallic ultrathin nanowires. Here we report the first studies about the effect of functional groups of short-chain alkanethiol molecules on the electrical resistance of ultrathin gold nanowires. We fabricated ultrathin nanowire electrical sensors based on chemiresistors using conventional microfabrication techniques, so that the contact areas were passivated to leave only the surface of the nanowires exposed to the environment. By immobilizing alkanethiol molecules with head groups such as -CH3, -NH2 and -COOH on gold nanowires, we examined how the charge proximity due to protonation/deprotonation of the functional groups affects the resistance of the sensors. Electrical measurements in air and in water only indicate that beyond the gold-sulfur moiety interactions, the interfacial charge due to the acid-base chemistry of the functional groups of the molecules has a significant impact on the electrical resistance of the wires. Our data demonstrate that the degree of dissociation of the corresponding functional groups plays a major role in enhancing the surface-sensitive resistivity of the nanowires. These results stress the importance of recognizing the effect of protonation/deprotonation of the surface chemistry on the resulting electrical sensitivity of ultrathin metal nanowires and the applicability of such sensors for studying interfacial properties using electrodes of comparable size to the electrochemical double layer.

  8. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, M.; Le Mogne, Th.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Rauwel, G.; Criquelion, J.; De Barros, M. I.; Cêtre, J. C.; Martin, J. M.

    2005-02-01

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed.

  9. A one-dimensional model of the atmospheric electric field near the Venusian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzur, I.; Levin, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for the development of an electric field below the Venus cloud layer, assuming an absence of cloud-to-ground lightning. The ion-bearing medium is considered as a collision dominated, partially ionized gas. Ion production by cosmic rays is accompanied by a sink of recombining positive and negative ions. The net diffusion of ions to the surface was examined, and modeled as resulting from differences between the ion diffusivities and electrical activity within the clouds. Calculations were made of the conduction and diffusion currents profiles, positive and negative ion densities, and the net space charge. Higher positive ion diffusivity was found to enhance the surface positive charge, producing an electric field which depended on the boundary layer mixing. Charge separation in the clouds also produces an electric field. Assuming a fair weather conduction current similar to earth leads to an electric field of 5 kV/sq m at the surface, with continuity to a few kilometers altitude.

  10. The effect of layers in imaging brain function using electrical impedance tomograghy.

    PubMed

    Liston, A D; Bayford, R H; Holder, D S

    2004-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has promise for imaging brain function with rings of scalp electrodes, but hitherto human images have been collected and reconstructed using a simple algorithm in which the head was modelled as a homogeneous sphere. The purpose of this work was to assess the improvement in image quality which could be achieved by adding layers to represent the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), skull and scalp in the forward model employed by the reconstruction algorithm. Solutions to the forward model were produced analytically and using the linear finite element method (FEM). This was undertaken for computer simulated data when a spherical conductivity change of 10%, radius 5 mm, was moved through 29 positions within a head modelled as four concentric spheres of radius 80-92 mm in order to verify the accuracy of the linear FEM by comparison with the analytical method. Test data were also recorded in a 93.5 mm, spherical, saline-filled tank in which the skull was simulated by a hollow sphere of plaster of Paris, 5 mm thick and a 20 x 20 mm right-cylindrical Perspex object, a 100% conductivity decrease, was moved through 39 positions. The best images were achieved by reconstruction with a four- or three-shell analytical model, giving a spatial accuracy of 5.8 +/- 2.2 mm for computer simulated or 14.0 +/- 5.8 mm for tank data. Mean FWHM was 57 mm and 91 mm in the XY-plane and along the z-axis, respectively. Reconstruction with a homogeneous analytical model gave localization errors greater by about 50-300%, but a reduction in FWHM of about 5% of the image diameter. Unexpectedly, reconstruction with FEM models gave poorer results similar to the analytical homogeneous case. This confirms that addition of shells to the forward model improves image quality as expected with an analytical model for reconstruction, but that the FEM method employed, which used a medium mesh and a linear element computation, requires improvement in order to yield the expected

  11. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. The demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems. PMID:25623295

  12. Nanoscale Lubrication of Ionic Surfaces Controlled via a Strong Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-01

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. The demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems. PMID:25623295

  13. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.

  14. Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Rydberg atoms may enable hybrid systems that combine the benefits of gas-phase atoms with those of solid-state devices. However, these hybrid systems will require atoms to be located near a heterogeneous surface with exposed metal electrodes and dielectric insulators, which are sources of uncontrollable and unwanted electric fields. With this motivation, we have measured the electric fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms. We have also developed a technique for reducing the influence of dc and low-frequency electric fields on Rydberg atom transitions, while retaining their sensitivity to high-frequency resonant fields. Work performed in collaboration with J. D. Carter, L. A. Jones, and O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.

  15. The application of surface electrical and shallow geothermic methods in monitoring network design.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are a variety of surface geophysical methods that are routinely used in geologic investigations. The three broad applications of these methods to evaluate the impact of waste disposal on shallow groundwater flow systems are: 1) evaluation of proposed waste disposal sites; 2) monitoring of site performance; and 3) investigation of contaminant migration at existing sites. Electrical and shallow geothermic are two surface geophysical methods that have application to waste disposal investigations. Of the electrical methods, electrical resistivity has the greatest application with a variety of techniques available. The distribution of temperature in shallow geologic materials (shallow geothermics) may define characteristics of shallow groundwater flow systems including zones of recharge and discharge and lithologic variation in the shallow geologic materials.-from Authors

  16. DC electrical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of various condensation polyimides containing surface cobalt oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Boggess, R. K.; Horning, L. S.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Doping polyimides with cobalt ion causes the room temperature direct current electrical resistivity to decrease relative to the polymer alone, the reduction being most pronounced for the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides. At a constant electrical field, resistivity for the volume, air-side and glass-side modes decreases yet further with an increase in temperature as expected for semiconductors and insulators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides is predominantly Co3O4. The bulk resistivity of the air-side and activation energy of conduction for this surface are comparable to high purity sintered Co3O4. Charging characteristics at room temperature indicate a substantial polymer matrix contribution to both the glass-side and volume mode measurements but a negligible contribution to the air-side electrical properties. Volume electrical resistivity for similar additive levels is reduced by increasing the molecular flexibility of the host polymer.

  17. Engineering support activities for the Apollo 17 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubley, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the engineering support activities which were required to ensure fulfillment of objectives specified for the Apollo 17 SEP (Surface Electrical Properties) Experiment. Attention is given to procedural steps involving verification of hardware acceptability to the astronauts, computer simulation of the experiment hardware, field trials, receiver antenna pattern measurements, and the qualification test program.

  18. Electrical impedance of mouse brain cortex in vitro from 4.7 kHz to 2.0 MHz.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M T; Elbohouty, M; Voss, L J; Steyn-Ross, D A

    2014-02-01

    The electrical impedance of samples of mouse brain cortex has been measured between 4.7 kHz and 2.0 MHz. Brain slices of thickness 400 μm were prepared from two mice. Each slice was placed in either normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid or magnesium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid; the latter induces seizure-like electrical behaviour. A total of 74 samples of cortex of approximate size 2 mm × 2 mm were then cut from these slices. Each sample in turn was placed between two flat Ag/AgCl electrodes and electrical impedance measured with an Agilent E4980A four-point impedance monitor. The measurements showed two regions of significant dispersion. Circuits based on the Cole-Cole and Fricke models, consisting of inductive, nonlinear capacitive and resistive elements were used to model the behaviour. Distributions of values for each circuit element have been determined for the samples prepared in seizing and non-seizing conditions. Few differences were found between the values of circuit elements between the seizing and non-seizing groups.

  19. The Effect of Variation in Permittivity of Different Tissues on Induced Electric Field in the Brain during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadimani, Ravi; Porzig, Konstantin; Crowther, Lawrence; Brauer, Hartmut; Toepfer, Hannes; Jiles, David; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University Team; Department of Advanced Electromagnetics, Ilmenau University of Technology Team

    2013-03-01

    Estimation of electric field in the brain during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) requires knowledge of the electric property of brain tissue. Grey and white matters have unusually high relative permittivities of ~ 106 at low frequencies. However, relative permittivity of cerebrospinal fluid is ~ 102. With such a variation it is necessary to consider the effect of boundaries. A model consisting of 2 hemispheres was used in the model with the properties of one hemisphere kept constant at σ1 = 0.1Sm-1 and ɛr 1 = 10 while the properties of the second hemisphere were changed kept at σ2 = 0.1Sm-1 to 2Sm-1 and ɛr 2 = 102 to 105. A 70 mm diameter double coil was used as the source of the magnetic field. The amplitude of the current in the coil was 5488 A at a frequency of 2.9 kHz. The results show that the electric field, E induced during magnetic stimulation is independent of the relative permittivity, ɛr and varies with the conductivity. Thus the variation in E, calculated with homogeneous and heterogeneous head models was due to variation in conductivity of the tissues and not due to variation in permittivities.

  20. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had been fixed for over 20years with ethanol-formalin-acetic acid were stimulated with either 1-Hz, 7-Hz, 10-Hz, 20-Hz, or 30-Hz, sine-wave, square-wave, or pulsed currents while needle-recorded quantitative electroencephalographic responses were obtained. Differential responses occurred only within the right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The right hippocampus displayed frequency-independent increases in gamma power relative to the left hemispheric homologue. The parahippocampal region responded exclusively to 7-Hz pulsed currents with wideband (8-30Hz) power. These profiles are consistent with dynamic connections associated with memory and consciousness and may partially explain the interactions resultant of pulse type and hemisphere for experiential elicitations during the golden age of surgical stimulations. The results also indicate that there may be an essential "hardwiring" within the human brain that is maintained for decades when it is fixed appropriately.

  1. Electric breakdowns of the "plasma capacitors" occurs on insulation coating of the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homin, Taras; Korsun, Anatolii

    High electric fields and currents are occurred in the spacecrafts plasma environment by onboard electric generators. Thus the high voltage solar array (SA) of the American segment of International Space Station (ISS) generates potential 160 V. Its negative pole is shorted to the frames of all the ISS segments. There is electric current between the SA and the frame through the plasma environment, i.e. electric discharge occurs. As a result a potential drop exists between the frames of all the ISS segments and the environmental plasma [1], which is cathode drop potential varphi _{c} defined. When ISS orbiting, the φc varies greatly in the range 0-100 V. A large area of the ISS frames and SA surface is coated with a thin dielectric film. Because of cathode drop potential the frame surfaces accumulate ion charges and the SA surfaces accumulate electron charges. These surfaces become plasma capacitors, which accumulate much charge and energy. Micrometeorite impacts or buildup of potential drop in excess of breakdown threshold varphi_{b} (varphi _{c} > varphi _{b} = 60 V) may cause breakdowns of these capacitors. Following a breakdown, the charge collected at the surfaces disperses and transforms into a layer of dense plasma [2]. This plasma environment of the spacecraft produces great pulsed electric fields E at the frame surfaces as well as heavy currents between construction elements which in turn induce great magnetic fields H. Therefore the conductive frame and the environmental plasma is plasma inductors. We have calculated that the densities of these pulsing and high-frequency fields E and H generated in the plasma environment of the spacecraft may exceed values hazardous to human. Besides, these fields must induce large electromagnetic impulses in the space-suit and in the power supply and control circuits of onboard systems. During astronaut’s space-suit activity, these fields will penetrate the space-suit and the human body with possible hazardous effects

  2. Cortical Surface-Based Construction of Individual Structural Network with Application to Early Brain Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yu; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of anatomical covariance for cortex morphology in individual subjects plays an important role in the study of human brains. However, the approaches for constructing individual structural networks have not been well developed yet. Existing methods based on patch-wise image intensity similarity suffer from several major drawbacks, i.e., 1) violation of cortical topological properties, 2) sensitivity to intensity heterogeneity, and 3) influence by patch size heterogeneity. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a novel cortical surface-based method for constructing individual structural networks. Specifically, our method first maps the cortical surfaces onto a standard spherical surface atlas and then uniformly samples vertices on the spherical surface as the nodes of the networks. The similarity between any two nodes is computed based on the biologically-meaningful cortical attributes (e.g., cortical thickness) in the spherical neighborhood of their sampled vertices. The connection between any two nodes is established only if the similarity is larger than a user-specified threshold. Through leveraging spherical cortical surface patches, our method generates biologically-meaningful individual networks that are comparable across ages and subjects. The proposed method has been applied to construct cortical-thickness networks for 73 healthy infants, with each infant having two MRI scans at 0 and 1 year of age. The constructed networks during the two ages were compared using various network metrics, such as degree, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, small world property, global efficiency, and local efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can effectively construct individual structural networks and reveal meaningful patterns in early brain development. PMID:27169140

  3. Surface plasmon-mediated energy transfer of electrically-pumped excitons

    DOEpatents

    An, Kwang Hyup; Shtein, Max; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-08-25

    An electrically pumped light emitting device emits a light when powered by a power source. The light emitting device includes a first electrode, a second electrode including an outer surface, and at least one active organic semiconductor disposed between the first and second electrodes. The device also includes a dye adjacent the outer surface of the second electrode such that the second electrode is disposed between the dye and the active organic semiconductor. A voltage applied by the power source across the first and second electrodes causes energy to couple from decaying dipoles into surface plasmon polariton modes, which then evanescently couple to the dye to cause the light to be emitted.

  4. Current Status of Research on Providing Sight to the Blind by Electrical Stimulation of the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobelle, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a prosthesis that connects a television camera and associated circuitry to the visual centers of the brain to restore a limited amount of visual sensation to totally blind persons. (Author/MH)

  5. Local electric field and configuration of CO molecules adsorbed on a nanostructured surface with nanocones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Rong-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Jing

    2009-09-01

    Based on the nanostructured surface model that the (platinum, Pt) nanocones grow out symmetrically from a plane substrate, the local electric field near the conical nanoparticle surface is computed and discussed. On the basis of these results, the adsorbed CO molecules are modelled as dipoles, and three kinds of interactions, i.e. interactions between dipoles and local electric field, between dipoles and dipoles, as well as between dipoles and nanostructured substrate, are taken into account. The spatial configuration of CO molecules adsorbed on the nanocone surface is then given by Monte-Carlo simulation. Our results show that the CO molecules adsorbed on the nanocone surface cause local agglomeration under the action of an external electric field, and this agglomeration becomes more compact with decreasing conical angle, which results in a stronger interaction among molecules. These results serve as a basis for explaining abnormal phenomena such as the abnormal infrared effect (AIRE), which was found when CO molecules were adsorbed on the nanostructured transit ion-metal surface.

  6. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byungsu; Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Heeyoung; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  7. An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chu, Ting-Yu; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Chang, Kai-Han; Chiu, Ya-Ping

    2012-12-01

    An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) resulting from the orientations of liquid crystal molecules is investigated. By modification of Cassie's model and the measurement based on the Chibowski's film pressure model (E. Chibowski, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 103, 149 (2003)), the surface free energy of LCPCF is electrically switchable from 36×10-3J/ m2 to 51×10-3J/ m2 while the average tilt angle of LC molecules changes from 0° to 32° with the applied pulsed voltage. The switchable surface free energy of LCPCF can help us to design biosensors and photonics devices, such as electro-optical switches, blood sensors, and sperm testers.

  8. Core-shell nanowire based electrical surface fastener used for room-temperature electronic packaging bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Ju, Yang; Hosoi, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    With the ongoing miniaturization in electronic packaging, the traditional solders suffer from severe performance degradation. In addition, the high temperature required in the traditional solder reflow process may damage electronic elements. Therefore, there is an increasing urgent need for a new kind of nontoxic solder that can afford good mechanical stress and electrical contact at low temperature. This paper presents a method of fabricating nanowire surface fastener for the application of microelectronic packaging bonding at room temperature. This surface fastener consists of copper core and polystyrene shell nanowire arrays. It showed an adhesive strength of ˜24 N/cm2 and an electrical resistance of ˜0.41 × 10-2 Ω·cm2. This kind of nanowire surface fastener may enable the exploration of wide range applications, involving assembly of components in the electronic packaging.

  9. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qinghe; Liu, Hongtao; Chen, Tianchi; Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on carbon steel substrate under appropriate process; the contact angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be up to 152 ± 0.5°, and the sliding angle is 1-2°; its anti-corrosion property, anti-icing performance and the friction property all show an excellent level. This method provides the possibility of industrialization of superhydrophobic surface based on iron substrate as it can prepare massive superhydrophobic surface quickly.

  10. Large apparent electric size of solid-state nanopores due to spatially extended surface conduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongyeop; Joly, Laurent; Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-08-01

    Ion transport through nanopores drilled in thin membranes is central to numerous applications, including biosensing and ion selective membranes. This paper reports experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical predictions demonstrating an unexpectedly large ionic conduction in solid-state nanopores, taking its origin in anomalous entrance effects. In contrast to naive expectations based on analogies with electric circuits, the surface conductance inside the nanopore is shown to perturb the three-dimensional electric current streamlines far outside the nanopore in order to meet charge conservation at the pore entrance. This unexpected contribution to the ionic conductance can be interpreted in terms of an apparent electric size of the solid-state nanopore, which is much larger than its geometric counterpart whenever the number of charges carried by the nanopore surface exceeds its bulk counterpart. This apparent electric size, which can reach hundreds of nanometers, can have a major impact on the electrical detection of translocation events through nanopores, as well as for ionic transport in biological nanopores.

  11. Rational design of surface/interface chemistry for quantitative in vivo monitoring of brain chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meining; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-04-17

    To understand the molecular basis of brain functions, researchers would like to be able to quantitatively monitor the levels of neurochemicals in the extracellular fluid in vivo. However, the chemical and physiological complexity of the central nervous system (CNS) presents challenges for the development of these analytical methods. This Account describes the rational design and careful construction of electrodes and nanoparticles with specific surface/interface chemistry for quantitative in vivo monitoring of brain chemistry. We used the redox nature of neurochemicals at the electrode/electrolyte interface to establish a basis for monitoring specific neurochemicals. Carbon nanotubes provide an electrode/electrolyte interface for the selective oxidation of ascorbate, and we have developed both in vivo voltammetry and an online electrochemical detecting system for continuously monitoring this molecule in the CNS. Although Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are involved in a number of neurochemical signaling processes, they are still difficult to detect in the CNS. These divalent cations can enhance electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an electrode modified with toluidine blue O. We used this property to develop online electrochemical detection systems for simultaneous measurements of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and for continuous selective monitoring of Mg(2+) in the CNS. We have also harnessed biological schemes for neurosensing in the brain to design other monitoring systems. By taking advantage of the distinct reaction properties of dopamine (DA), we have developed a nonoxidative mechanism for DA sensing and a system that can potentially be used for continuously sensing of DA release. Using "artificial peroxidase" (Prussian blue) to replace a natural peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase, HRP), our online system can simultaneously detect basal levels of glucose and lactate. By substituting oxidases with dehydrogenases, we have used enzyme-based biosensing schemes to develop a physiologically

  12. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, P.; Morganti, N.; Saccone, G.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field.

  13. SU-E-J-171: Surface Imaging Based Intrafraction Motion Assessments for Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiant, D; Vanderstraeten, C; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Terrell, J; Sintay, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify and characterize intrafraction motion for whole brain radiotherapy treatments in open face masks using 3D surface imaging. Methods: Fifteen whole brain patients were monitored with 3D surface imaging over a total of 202 monitoring sessions. Mean translations and rotations were calculated over each minute, each session, and over all sessions combined. The percentage of each session that the root mean square (RMS) of the linear translations were outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm were determined for each patient. Correlations between mean translations per minute and time and between standard deviation per minute and time were evaluated using Pearson's r value. Results: The mean RMS translation averaged over all patients was 1.45 mm +/− 1.52 mm. The patients spent an average of 18%, 10%, 6%, and 3% of the monitoring time outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm RMS tolerances, respectively. The RMS values averaged over all patients were 1.31 mm +/− 0.98 mm, 1.52 +/- 1.04, and 1.30 mm +/− 0.71 mm over the 1th, 5th, and 10th minutes of monitoring, respectively. Neither, the RMS values (p = 0.15) or the standard deviations of the RMS values (p = 0.16) showed significant correlations with time. Conclusion: The patients were positioned within 2 mm of isocenter, which was the initial set-up tolerance, for the majority of their treatments. The average position changed by < 0.3 mm over 10 minutes of monitoring. Short term movements, reflected by the standard deviations, where on the order of 1 mm. This immobilization system provides adequate immobilization over a course of treatment for whole brain radiotherapy. This system may also be suitable for head and neck or stereotactic radiosurgery treatments as well.

  14. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M; McBride, D I; Sorahan, T; Paddle, G M; van Tongeren, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risks of mortality from brain cancer are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. METHODS: A total of 112 cases of primary brain cancer (1972-91) were identified from a cohort of 84,018 male and female employees of the (then) Central Electricity Generating Board and its privatised successor companies. Individual cumulative occupational exposures to magnetic fields were estimated by linking available computerised job history data with magnetic field measurements collected over 675 person-workshifts. Estimated exposure histories of the case workers were compared with those of 654 control workers drawn from the cohort (nested case-control study), by means of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: For exposure assessments based on arithmetic means, the risk of mortality from brain cancer for subjects with an estimated cumulative exposure to magnetic fields of 5.4-13.4 microT.y v subjects with lower exposures (0.0-5.3 microT.y) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60 to 1.80). The corresponding relative risk in subjects with higher exposures (> or = 13.5 microT.y) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.69). There was no indication of a positive trend for cumulative exposure and risk of mortality from brain cancer either when the analysis used exposure assessments based on geometric means or when the analysis was restricted to exposures received within five years of the case diagnosis (or corresponding period for controls). CONCLUSIONS: Although the exposure categorisation was based solely on recent observations, the study findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of brain cancer is associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:9072027

  15. Dynamical interaction effects on an electric dipole moving parallel to a flat solid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Villo-Perez, Isidro; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Arista, Nestor R.

    2005-05-15

    The interaction experienced by a fast electric dipole moving parallel and close to a flat solid surface is studied using the dielectric formalism. Analytical expressions for the force acting on the dipole, for random and for particular orientations, are obtained. Several features related to the dynamical effects on the induced forces are discussed, and numerical values are obtained for the different cases. The calculated energy loss of the electric dipole provides useful estimations which could be of interest for small-angle scattering experiments using polar molecules.

  16. Influence of an electric field on near-surface processes in laser processing of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, S V; Ivanov, A Yu

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that by varying the external electric field with different polarity from 0 to 10{sup 6} V m{sup -1} in the course of laser processing with the mean radiation flux density {approx}10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2} the change in the evolution features of the plasma torch at the surface of some metals (Cu, Al, Sn, Pb) at early stages is quantitative rather than qualitative. At the same time the characteristic size of the target material droplets, carried out from the irradiated zone, becomes essentially (by several times) smaller as the amplitude of the external electric field strength grows, independently of its polarity. (laser technologies)

  17. Formation of electronic junctions on molecularly modified surfaces by lift-and-float electrical contacts.

    PubMed

    Ikram, I Mohamed; Rabinal, M K; Kalasad, M N; Mulimani, B G

    2009-03-01

    Here, we report a simple method of forming electrical contacts on soft surfaces of organic monolayers and organically capped nanoparticles. It is based on the lift of predefined contacts of silver paste on a water surface and their pickup and float on a soft surface by capillary force. Three different surfaces of silicon--hydrogen terminated, covalently bonded organic molecules, and a thin film of organically capped CdSe nanoparticles--were used to constitute electronic junctions by lift and float of individual contacts. Charge transport measurements clearly demonstrate that these junctions are free from shorting and wrinkling of the top contact and damage of molecular films. Hence, the method is simple, effective, nondestructive, and economical to form electronic junctions on molecular surfaces.

  18. A Study of the Electrical Properties and Mineralogy of the Surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John A.

    1998-01-01

    This final report contains a listing of published papers and abstracts which address the electrical properties and minerology of the surface of Venus. The topics of these papers include: Subduction on the margins of coronae on Venus: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements; The weathering process on Venus takes 2-3 hundred million years: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity signatures at coronae; SO2 and CH4 levels in the Venusian atmosphere, measured by Pioneer Venus: Caused by plinian-style volcanic activity at Maat Mons?; Magellan reveals Venus; Recent volcanic activity on Venus: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity signatures; Occurrences of low-emissivity surface material at low altitudes on Venus: A window to the past; Must the Venus surface material contain hematite?; Rock weathering on the surface of Venus; and Comment on "The Rate of Pyrite Decomposition on the Surface of Venus."

  19. Regional differences in the electrically stimulated release of endogenous and radioactive adenosine and purine derivatives from rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Pedata, F; Pazzagli, M; Tilli, S; Pepeu, G

    1990-10-01

    The release of both radioactive and endogenous purines was investigated in rat brain cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices at rest and following stimulation with electrical fields. Purines were labelled by incubating the slices with 3H-adenine. The purine efflux at rest and that evoked by electrical stimulation (10 Hz. 5 min) was analyzed by HPLC with ultraviolet absorbance detection. Both radioactive and endogenous purines in the effluent consisted mainly of hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine and adenosine. No qualitative differences in the composition of the released purines were found in the three areas investigated. Electrical stimulation evoked a net increase in both radioactive and endogenous purine release. However the increase in 3H-adenosine following electrical stimulation was twice as large as that of endogenous adenosine. The electrically evoked release of both radioactive and endogenous purines was greatest in hippocampal slices and progressively smaller in cortical and striatal slices. In the three areas the addition of 0.5 microM tetrodotoxin to the superfusing Krebs solution brought about a similar (83-100%) reduction in evoked 3H-purine and endogenous purine release. Superfusion of the slices with calcium-free Krebs solution containing 0.5 mM EGTA reduced evoked release of 3H-purines by 58-60% and that of endogenous purine components by 54-89%. The results demonstrate similar characteristics for both radioactive and endogenous purine release but indicate that the most recently synthetized adenosine is the most readily available for release. The features of the electrically evoked purine release support a neuronal origin of adenosine and derivatives and are consistent with the hypothesis of discrete regional differences in adenosine neuromodulation. PMID:2255336

  20. Surface-Controlled Properties of Myosin Studied by Electric Field Modulation.

    PubMed

    van Zalinge, Harm; Ramsey, Laurence C; Aveyard, Jenny; Persson, Malin; Mansson, Alf; Nicolau, Dan V

    2015-08-01

    The efficiency of dynamic nanodevices using surface-immobilized protein molecular motors, which have been proposed for diagnostics, drug discovery, and biocomputation, critically depends on the ability to precisely control the motion of motor-propelled, individual cytoskeletal filaments transporting cargo to designated locations. The efficiency of these devices also critically depends on the proper function of the propelling motors, which is controlled by their interaction with the surfaces they are immobilized on. Here we use a microfluidic device to study how the motion of the motile elements, i.e., actin filaments propelled by heavy mero-myosin (HMM) motor fragments immobilized on various surfaces, is altered by the application of electrical loads generated by an external electric field with strengths ranging from 0 to 8 kVm(-1). Because the motility is intimately linked to the function of surface-immobilized motors, the study also showed how the adsorption properties of HMM on various surfaces, such as nitrocellulose (NC), trimethylclorosilane (TMCS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA), and poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), can be characterized using an external field. It was found that at an electric field of 5 kVm(-1) the force exerted on the filaments is sufficient to overcome the frictionlike resistive force of the inactive motors. It was also found that the effect of assisting electric fields on the relative increase in the sliding velocity was markedly higher for the TMCS-derivatized surface than for all other polymer-based surfaces. An explanation of this behavior, based on the molecular rigidity of the TMCS-on-glass surfaces as opposed to the flexibility of the polymer-based ones, is considered. To this end, the proposed microfluidic device could be used to select appropriate surfaces for future lab-on-a-chip applications as illustrated here for the almost ideal TMCS surface. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can

  1. Surface morphological response of crystalline solids to mechanical stresses and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    Surface morphological evolution under the action of external fields is a fascinating topic that has attracted considerable attention within the surface science community over the past two decades. In addition to the interest in a fundamental understanding of field-induced nonlinear response and stability of surface morphology, the problem has been technologically significant in various engineering applications such as microelectronics and nanofabrication. In this report, we review theoretical progress in modeling the surface morphological response of stressed elastic solids under conditions that promote surface diffusion and of electrically conducting solids under surface electromigration conditions. A self-consistent model of surface transport and morphological evolution is presented that has provided the basis for the theoretical and computational work that is reviewed. According to this model, the surface morphological response of electrically conducting elastic solids to the simultaneous action of mechanical stresses and electric fields is analyzed. Emphasis is placed on metallic surfaces, including surfaces of voids in metallic thin films. Surfaces of stressed elastic solids are known to undergo morphological instabilities, such as the Asaro-Tiller or Grinfeld (ATG) instability that leads to emanation of crack-like features from the surface and their fast propagation into the bulk of the solid material. This instability is analyzed theoretically, simulated numerically, and compared with experimental measurements. The surface morphological evolution of electrically conducting, single-crystalline, stressed elastic solids under surface electromigration conditions is also examined. We demonstrate that, through surface electromigration, a properly applied and sufficiently strong electric field can stabilize the surface morphology of the stressed solid against both crack-like ATG instabilities and newly discovered secondary rippling instabilities; the effects of

  2. Surface morphological response of crystalline solids to mechanical stresses and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    Surface morphological evolution under the action of external fields is a fascinating topic that has attracted considerable attention within the surface science community over the past two decades. In addition to the interest in a fundamental understanding of field-induced nonlinear response and stability of surface morphology, the problem has been technologically significant in various engineering applications such as microelectronics and nanofabrication. In this report, we review theoretical progress in modeling the surface morphological response of stressed elastic solids under conditions that promote surface diffusion and of electrically conducting solids under surface electromigration conditions. A self-consistent model of surface transport and morphological evolution is presented that has provided the basis for the theoretical and computational work that is reviewed. According to this model, the surface morphological response of electrically conducting elastic solids to the simultaneous action of mechanical stresses and electric fields is analyzed. Emphasis is placed on metallic surfaces, including surfaces of voids in metallic thin films.Surfaces of stressed elastic solids are known to undergo morphological instabilities, such as the Asaro-Tiller or Grinfeld (ATG) instability that leads to emanation of crack-like features from the surface and their fast propagation into the bulk of the solid material. This instability is analyzed theoretically, simulated numerically, and compared with experimental measurements. The surface morphological evolution of electrically conducting, single-crystalline, stressed elastic solids under surface electromigration conditions is also examined. We demonstrate that, through surface electromigration, a properly applied and sufficiently strong electric field can stabilize the surface morphology of the stressed solid against both crack-like ATG instabilities and newly discovered secondary rippling instabilities; the effects of

  3. Electrically elicited blink reflex and early acoustic evoked potentials in circumscribed and diffuse brain stem lesions.

    PubMed

    Klug, N; Csécsei, G

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper, the function of the brain stem in patients with brain stem lesions of various aetiology is investigated with electrophysiological methods. The clinical observations are supplemented by experimental investigations on cats, in which the blink reflex and the early acoustic evoked potentials were registered during the acute elevation of intracranial pressure. The findings in patients with circumscribed space-occupying lesions in the posterior fossa document that the registration of the BR and the BAEP have a functional diagnostic significance above and beyond the neurological and radiological investigation. In the case of the cerebellar space occupations, specific alterations could not be observed. On the contrary, the alterations of BR and BAEP indicate a general disturbance of brain stem function, possibly as a result of a general increase of intracranial pressure. In cerebellopontine angle tumours, both BR and BAEP showed specific alterations which were usually asymmetrical. The BR changes ipsilateral to the tumour are of major topodiagnostic significance, whereas the alterations of the contralateral potential are especially informative in the registration of BAEP. The alterations of BR and BAEP also allow an appraisal of the localization and extent of the lesion in primary space occupations in the brain stem: A pathological R1 indicates a pontine lesion, whereas pathological R2 responses are found in medullary and in oral pontine and mesencephalic lesions. In contrast to cerebellopontine angle tumours, the BAEP tends to show symmetrical alterations in primary brain stem lesions. The prolongations of interpeak latencies correspond to the brain stem segment concerned, and the same also applies to pathological amplitude reduction and deformations of individual potentials. In patients with localized brain stem damage, the reflex pathway of R2 is discussed on the basis of the BR findings. In contrast to the view held up to now that only structures

  4. Electrical and Surface Properties of InAs/InSb Nanowires Cleaned by Atomic Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Webb, James L; Knutsson, Johan; Hjort, Martin; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Dick, Kimberly A; Timm, Rainer; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-08-12

    We present a study of InAs/InSb heterostructured nanowires by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and in-vacuum electrical measurements. Starting with pristine nanowires covered only by the native oxide formed through exposure to ambient air, we investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen cleaning on the surface chemistry and electrical performance. We find that clean and unreconstructed nanowire surfaces can be obtained simultaneously for both InSb and InAs by heating to 380 ± 20 °C under an H2 pressure 2 × 10(-6) mbar. Through electrical measurement of individual nanowires, we observe an increase in conductivity of 2 orders of magnitude by atomic hydrogen cleaning, which we relate through theoretical simulation to the contact-nanowire junction and nanowire surface Fermi level pinning. Our study demonstrates the significant potential of atomic hydrogen cleaning regarding device fabrication when high quality contacts or complete control of the surface structure is required. As hydrogen cleaning has recently been shown to work for many different types of III-V nanowires, our findings should be applicable far beyond the present materials system.

  5. Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

  6. Electric field effects in transition metal oxides, their surfaces and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Modern computational tools such as density functional theory and its merger with dynamical mean field theory are nowadays inevitable for the modeling and understanding of oxides, their heterostructures and surfaces. In this talk, I will concentrate on the impact of electric fields, how they affect the physical properties and how to make use of them. Substantial internal electric fields are created at polar surfaces, and even for an isopolar-interface the electronic reconstruction can lead to a charge transfer and hence a dipole field. Such internal fields can be employed to efficiently separate electrons and holes in a oxide solar cell. Even if the polar dipole field is compensated by a surface reconstruction, a local surface potential remains, and makes SrTiO3 (110) the arguably simplest 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG). External electric fields, on the other hand, can trigger ``gigantic'' responses, since correlated oxides are prone to small perturbations. For example, a field effect Mott transistor can be realized in a few layers of SrVO3 with ideal on-off (metal-insulator) switching properties; and interfacing a ferroelectric, BaTiO3, plus a 2DEG with large spin-orbit coupling, BaOsO3, allows for a giant switchable Rashba effect. Support by the ERC through Grant Agreement No. 306447 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the near real-time diagnosis of brain trauma in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, D. P.; Motamedi, Massoud; Chen, Jefferson; Cote, Gerard L.

    2000-05-01

    The detection of sever brain trauma remains difficult when employing traditional methods in part due to the pathophysiological complexity of the condition. Current brain trauma detection includes schemes that require bulky, expensive equipment to deduce regional cerebral blood flow. These methods are difficult to use in conjunction with patients requiring ongoing intensive care and constant monitoring. Our previous studies have shown that surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver colloids has the ability to measure physiological concentrations of in vivo brain analytes linked to brain trauma using short scan times. More recently, after implementing a damage model for ischemia in rats, an ex vivo analysis of brain microdialysis samples shows a correlation between SERS spectral features and the occurrence and location of known localized ischaemia. A near real-time measurement system could provide relevant clinical information in anticipation of surgical or pharmaceutical interventions for severely head injured patients.

  9. Event related brain electrical and magnetic activity: toward predicting on-job performance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G W

    1983-01-01

    Personnel assessment has depended on paper and pencil tests. These tests are able to predict academic performance fairly well, but have been criticized for their ineffectiveness in predicting on-job performance. Research on brain function which emphasizes "process" rather than "content" variables, may be able to predict on-job performance better than traditional tests. Relationships have been found between event related brain potentials (ERPs) and performance in fighter aircraft and on a sonar simulator, as well as enlistees promotions and attrition. Research has suggested that ERP records are better able to discriminate and classify performance groups than paper-and-pencil test scores. Biomagnetic data are described from heart and brain. These data suggest increased sensitivity to individual differences, and may offer greater opportunity for improving prediction of on-job performance, than ERP records or paper-and-pencil tests.

  10. Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of AISI D2 Die Steel Machined Using Electrical Discharge Surface Grinding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Rajesh; Kumar, Harmesh; Singh, Shankar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to establish optimum machining conditions for EDSG of AISI D2 die steel through an experimental investigation using Taguchi Methodology. To achieve combined grinding and electrical discharge machining, metal matrix composite electrodes (Cu-SiCp) were processed through powder metallurgy route. A rotary spindle attachment was developed to perform the EDSG experimental runs on EDM machine. Relationships were developed between various input parameters such as peak current, speed, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, abrasive particle size, and abrasive particle concentration, and output characteristics such as material removal rate and surface roughness. The optimized parameters were further validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  11. Electric field imaging of a high impedance surface for GNSS array decoupling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Daniel; Issac, François; Martel, Cédric; Capet, Nicolas; Sokoloff, Jérôme; Pascal, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    An original method of characterization of high impedance surfaces (HIS) is presented to exhibit electric field patterns. The electric field frames are obtained through a resistive film located in the near field domain of the HIS. The film heating is recorded using an infrared camera and gives after post-processing electric field magnitude profiles. We applied this technique to a HIS specially tuned for reducing mutual coupling in a global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) array designed for the E5 Galileo band. The mushroom-like HIS, designed and realized with the help of simulation, is located near the ground plane of a micro-strip line which allows S parameter characterization. Present measurement enables near field characterization and field structure analysis, and is therefore a complement to usual analysis. Moreover, the technique shows the very special field structure, including sub-lambda details, created by the HIS and more generally by metamaterial structures.

  12. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation.

  13. Multimodal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Sensor Device for Imaging of Fluorescence and Electrical Potential in Deep Brain of Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Ayato; Minami, Hiroki; Mitani, Masahiro; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Tamura, Hideki; Hatanaka, Yumiko; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ohta, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor device for observing neural activities in the deep brain of a mouse. The CMOS sensor includes an image sensor, electrodes, and a light-emitting diode (LED). The image sensor was designed to be operated using only four inputs/outputs (I/Os) to reduce the number of connecting wires. The electrodes were placed on the pixel array of the sensor. Windows were opened in the electrode over the photodiodes to enable the fluorescence to be imaged using the pixels under the electrodes. An LED was mounted on the chip. The sensor chip was shaped like a shank to facilitate smooth insertion into the brain tissue. The entire device was coated with a parylene layer to make it biocompatible. The experimental results showed that the green fluorescent beads on the pixel array were successfully imaged using the LED on the chip as a light source. In a brain phantom, the change in the electrical potential was successfully sensed by the electrode, and green fluorescent beads were simultaneously imaged using the pixels under the electrode. We also demonstrated that the CMOS sensor device could successfully operate in the hippocampal area of an anesthetized mouse.

  14. Controlling growth and electrical connectivity of neuronal cells patterned on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; White, James; Staii, Cristian

    2012-02-01

    In the developing brain biochemical and geometrical cues are an essential source of information used by neurons when wiring up the nervous system. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms by which various guidance factors control the path that growing axons/dendrites follow to reach their targets and form functional electrical connections remains qualitative. A current limitation for the study of neural network formation is the ability to precisely control the growth and interconnectivity of small numbers of neurons. Here we present a combined Atomic Force Microscopy - Fluorescence Spectroscopy approach for patterning neurons on 2-dimensional substrates and precisely controlling their location, growth and interconnectivity. We demonstrate that this approach allows one to: a) form simple neuronal circuits in well-controlled geometries; b) guide the formation of functional synapses between neurons, and c) measure the electrical activity of small groups of neurons. We also discuss the implications of these results for our current understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the development of electrical connections between neurons.

  15. Electric field-directed fibroblast locomotion involves cell surface molecular reorganization and is calcium independent

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Directional cellular locomotion is thought to involve localized intracellular calcium changes and the lateral transport of cell surface molecules. We have examined the roles of both calcium and cell surface glycoprotein redistribution in the directional migration of two murine fibroblastic cell lines, NIH 3T3 and SV101. These cell types exhibit persistent, cathode directed motility when exposed to direct current electric fields. Using time lapse phase contrast microscopy and image analysis, we have determined that electric field-directed locomotion in each cell type is a calcium independent process. Both exhibit cathode directed motility in the absence of extracellular calcium, and electric fields cause no detectable elevations or gradients of cytosolic free calcium. We find evidence suggesting that galvanotaxis in these cells involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins. Electric fields cause the lateral migration of plasma membrane concanavalin A receptors toward the cathode in both NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts. Exposure of directionally migrating cells to Con A inhibits the normal change of cell direction following a reversal of electric field polarity. Additionally, when cells are plated on Con A- coated substrata so that Con A receptors mediate cell-substratum adhesion, cathode-directed locomotion and a cathodal accumulation of Con A receptors are observed. Immunofluorescent labeling of the fibronectin receptor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suggests the recruitment of integrins from large clusters to form a more diffuse distribution toward the cathode in field-treated cells. Our results indicate that the mechanism of electric field directed locomotion in NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins involved in cell-substratum adhesion. PMID:7929557

  16. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, N. Jeni; Panneerselvam, C.; Anil Kumar, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses on the variations of the atmospheric vertical electric field measured at sub-auroral station Maitri (70∘75'S, 11∘75'E), and polar station Vostok (78.5∘S, 107∘E) during the geomagnetic disturbances on 25-26 January 2006. Diurnal variation of surface electric field measured at Maitri shows a similar variation with worldwide thunderstorm activity, whereas the departure of the field is observed during disturbed periods. This part of the field corresponds to the magnetospheric/ionospheric (an additional generator in the polar regions) voltage generators. Solar wind parameters and planetary indices represent the temporal variation of the disturbances, and digital fluxgate magnetometer variation continuously monitored to trace the auroral movement at Maitri. We have observed that the electrojet movement leaves its signature on vertical and horizontal components of the DFM in addition; the study infers the position of auroral current wedge with respect to Maitri. To exhibit the auroral oval, OVATION model is obtained with the aid of DMSP satellite and UV measurements. It is noted that the Maitri is almost within the auroral oval during the periods of disturbances. To examine the simultaneous changes in the vertical electric field associated with this magnetic disturbance, the dawn-dusk potential is studied for every UT hours; the potential was obtained from Weimer model and SuperDARN radar. The comparison reveals the plausible situation for the superposition of dawn-dusk potential on surface electric field over Maitri. This observation also shows that the superposition may not be consistent with the phase of the electrojet. Comparison of surface electric field at Maitri and Vostok shows that the parallel variation exhibits with each other, but during the period of geomagnetic disturbances, the influence is not much discerned at Vostok.

  17. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  18. Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E

    2016-05-01

    The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization.

  19. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE SURFACE MODIFICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL POLYPROPYLENE FUMARATE SCAFFOLDS

    PubMed Central

    Runge, M. Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping technique were surface modified by solution deposition of electrically conductive polypyrrole coatings with or without hydroxyapatite. Scaffolds were electrically conductive with resistivity as low as 2Ω. Scaffold characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis shows both polypyrrole and hydroxyapatite are present. Cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed using human fetal osteoblast cells. These studies show that surface modification using hydroxyapatite improved cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts onto the PPF scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker for osteogenic differentiation of cell to mature osteoblasts was analyzed. Our data reveal that osteoblasts maintained their phenotype on PPF scaffolds with and without coatings. Thus, these scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for our future in vivo studies. PMID:22051167

  20. The influence of surface functionalisation on the electrical properties and thermal stability of nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Joseph O.; Li, Pei; Chaudhary, Aysha; Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Detonation nanodiamond (ND) has recently emerged as a useful new class of diamond material. However, to date there has been little investigation of the electrical properties of this material. Due to the nanoscale dimensions, the surface functionalisation of the individual ND is of particular importance to the characteristics of ND films. Here, hydrogen and oxygen termination of ND, verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are shown to strongly influence the electronic properties of NDs. Hydrogen terminated ND exhibiting a far greater resilience to thermal decomposition when compared to the oxygen terminated NDs. Moreover, H-NDs also displayed so-called "surface conductivity," a property displayed by hydrogen-terminated bulk diamond films, whilst O-NDs display properties high resistivity. These results indicate that under the correct conditions ND layers can display similar electrical properties to "bulk" diamond thin films.

  1. The influence of surface functionalisation on the electrical properties and thermal stability of nanodiamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Joseph O; Li, Pei; Chaudhary, Aysha; Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.

    2014-10-07

    Detonation nanodiamond (ND) has recently emerged as a useful new class of diamond material. However, to date there has been little investigation of the electrical properties of this material. Due to the nanoscale dimensions, the surface functionalisation of the individual ND is of particular importance to the characteristics of ND films. Here, hydrogen and oxygen termination of ND, verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are shown to strongly influence the electronic properties of NDs. Hydrogen terminated ND exhibiting a far greater resilience to thermal decomposition when compared to the oxygen terminated NDs. Moreover, H-NDs also displayed so-called “surface conductivity,” a property displayed by hydrogen-terminated bulk diamond films, whilst O-NDs display properties high resistivity. These results indicate that under the correct conditions ND layers can display similar electrical properties to “bulk” diamond thin films.

  2. Electrical resistivity imaging in transmission between surface and underground tunnel for fault characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Boyle, A.; Grychtol, B.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.; Adler, A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrical resistivity images supply information on sub-surface structures and are classically performed to characterize faults geometry. Here we use the presence of a tunnel intersecting a regional fault to inject electrical currents between surface and the tunnel to improve the image resolution at depth. We apply an original methodology for defining the inversion parametrization based on pilot points to better deal with the heterogeneous sounding of the medium. An increased region of high spatial resolution is shown by analysis of point spread functions as well as inversion of synthetics. Such evaluations highlight the advantages of using transmission measurements by transferring a few electrodes from the main profile to increase the sounding depth. Based on the resulting image we propose a revised structure for the medium surrounding the Cernon fault supported by geological observations and muon flux measurements.

  3. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Yuki; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Akiyama, Hidenori; Lukes, Petr; Akiyama, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports physical characteristics of water surface discharges. Discharges were produced by metal needle-to-water surface geometry, with the needle electrode driven by 47 kV (FWHM) positive voltage pulses of 2 µs duration. Propagation of discharges along the water surface was confined between glass plates with 2 mm separation. This allowed generation of highly reproducible 634 mm-long plasma filaments. Experiments were performed using different atmospheres: air, N2, and O2, each at atmospheric pressure. Time- and spatially-resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that early spectra of discharges in air and nitrogen atmospheres were dominated by N2 2nd positive system. N2 radiation disappeared after approx. 150 ns, replaced by emissions from atomic hydrogen. Spectra of discharges in O2 atmosphere were dominated by emissions from atomic oxygen. Time- and spatially-resolved emission spectra were used to determine temperatures in plasma. Atomic hydrogen emissions showed excitation temperature of discharges in air to be about 2  ×  104 K. Electron number densities determined by Stark broadening of the hydrogen H β line reached a maximum value of ~1018 cm-3 just after plasma initiation. Electron number densities and temperatures depended only slightly on distance from needle electrode, indicating formation of high conductivity leader channels. Direct observation of discharges by high speed camera showed that the average leader head propagation speed was 412 km · s-1, which is substantially higher value than that observed in experiments with shorter streamers driven by lower voltages.

  4. Surface electrical properties experiment. Part 2: Theory of radio-frequency interferometry in geophysical subsurface probing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Tsang, L.

    1974-01-01

    The radiation fields due to a horizontal electric dipole laid on the surface of a stratified medium were calculated using a geometrical optics approximation, a modal approach, and direct numerical integration. The solutions were obtained from the reflection coefficient formulation and written in integral forms. The calculated interference patterns are compared in terms of the usefulness of the methods used to obtain them. Scattering effects are also discussed and all numerical results for anisotropic and isotropic cases are presented.

  5. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  6. Surface hardening alloy VT6 of electric explosion and by electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Yu. F.; Kobzareva, T. Yu. Gromov, V. E. E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru Soskova, N. A. E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru Budovskikh, E. A. E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Raikov, S. V.

    2014-11-14

    The aim is to study the phase composition, structure and properties of the surface layer of the VT6 titanium alloy, subjected to combined treatment, consisting of alloying by the plasma of an electric explosion of a graphite fiber with a charge of the SiC powder and subsequent exposure by a high-intense electron beam. As a result of such treatment, a multiphase surface layer with a submicron and nanosize structure forms with the microhardness manifold exceeding its value in the sample volume are presented.

  7. The electric field and surface charges far and close to the battery for the transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandes, J. A.; Nogueira, G. T.

    2016-03-01

    We consider two long resistive straight parallel wires carrying opposite constant currents and calculate the potential and electric field everywhere in space and the surface charge densities along the wires. The problem is solved through Laplace’s equation in bi-cylinder coordinates, far from the battery. We compare these calculations with previous known results that used different methods. We also calculate the numerical solution for the case in which the battery is present, and show the equipotentials and surface charges close to the battery.

  8. Approximate local magnetic-to-electric surface operators for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    El Bouajaji, M.

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose new local and accurate approximate magnetic-to-electric surface boundary operators for the three-dimensional time-harmonic Maxwell's equations. After their construction where their accuracy is improved through a regularization process, a localization of these operators and a full finite element approximation is introduced. Next, their numerical efficiency and accuracy is investigated in detail for different scatterers when these operators are used in the extreme situation of On-Surface Radiation Conditions methods.

  9. Surface, electrical and mechanical modifications of PMMA after implantation with laser produced iron plasma ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Qazi Salman; Bashir, Shazia; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Mahmood, Khaliq; Akram, Mahreen; Khalid, Ayesha; Yaseen, Nazish; Arshad, Atiqa

    2016-07-01

    Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) was employed as an ion source for the modifications in surface, electrical and mechanical properties of poly methyl (methacrylate) PMMA. For this purpose Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 6 ns, 10 Hz) at a fluence of 12.7 J/cm2 was employed to generate Fe plasma. The fluence and energy measurements of laser produced Fe plasma ions were carried out by employing Thomson Parabola Technique in the presence of magnetic field strength of 0.5 T, using CR-39 as Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). It has been observed that ion fluence ejecting from ablated plasma was maximum at an angle of 5° with respect to the normal to the Fe target surface. PMMA substrates were irradiated with Fe ions of constant energy of 0.85 MeV at various ion fluences ranging from 3.8 × 106 ions/cm2 to 1.8 × 108 ions/cm2 controlled by varying laser pulses from 3000 to 7000. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were utilized for the analysis of surface features of irradiated PMMA. Results depicted the formation of chain scission, crosslinking, dendrites and star like structures. To explore the electrical behavior, four probe method was employed. The electrical conductivity of ion irradiated PMMA was increased with increasing ion fluence. The surface hardness was measured by shore D hardness tester and results showed the monotonous increment in surface hardness with increasing ion fluence. The increasing trend of surface hardness and electrical conductivity with increasing Fe ion fluence has been well correlated with the surface morphology of ion implanted PMMA. The temperature rise of PMMA surface due to Fe ion irradiation is evaluated analytically and comes out to be in the range of 1.72 × 104 to 1.82 × 104 K. The values of total Linear Energy Transfer (LET) or stopping power of 0.8 MeV Fe ions in PMMA is 61.8 eV/Å and their range is 1.34 μm evaluated by SRIM simulation.

  10. Electrical Charging Hazards Originating from the Surface (ECHOS): Understanding the Martian Electro-Meteorological Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Marshall, J. R.; Delory, G. T.; Kolecki, J. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Kaiser, M. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Zent, A. P.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the NASA/Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise selected a number of payloads to fly to the Martian surface in an 03 opportunity (prior to the MPL loss). Part of a proposed experiment, ECHOS, was selected to specifically understand the electrical charging hazards from tribocharged dust in the ambient atmosphere, in dust devils, and in larger storms. It is expected that Martian dust storms become tribocharged much like terrestrial dust devils which can possess almost a million elementary charges per cubic centimeter. The ECHOS package features a set of instruments for measuring electric effects: a radio to detect AC electric fields radiating from discharges in the storm,a DC electric field system for sensing electrostatic fields from concentrations of charged dust grains, and a lander electrometer chain for determining the induced potential on its body and MAV (Mars Ascent Vehicle) during the passages of a charged dust storm. Given that electricity is a systemic process originating from wind-blown dust, we also proposed to correlate the electrical measurements with fundamental fluid/meteorological observations, including wind velocity and vorticity, temperature, and pressure. Triboelectricity will also affect local chemistry, and chemical-sensing devices were also considered a feature of the package. The primary HEDS objectives of the ECHOS sensing suite is to discover and monitor the natural electrical hazards associated with dust devils and storms, and determine their enviro-effectiveness on human systems. However, ECHOS also has a strong footprint in the overarching science objectives of the Mars Surveyor Program.

  11. Optical and electrical characterization of surface passivated GaAs nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun Yung; Yao, Maoqing; Chang, Chia-Chi; Dapkus, P. Daniel; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2014-02-01

    GaAs nanostructures are used in different optoelectronic applications including solar cells, LEDs and fast electronics. Although GaAs shows outstanding optical properties, it suffers from surface states and consequently high surface recombination velocity. The surface depletion effects lead to semi-insulating behaviors in GaAs devices. Passivation of GaAs nanostructures (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) lead to surface stability and improvement in optoelectronic properties. We provide a systematic study to compare the optical and electrical improvement after passivation (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) of GaAs nanostructure including nanowires and nanosheets. Both room temperature and low temperature photoluminescent (PL) spectra indicate increase in optical activity of GaAs nanostructures after passivation. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements reveal the diffusion length of carries in different GaAs nanostructures.

  12. Relation Between Lightning Activity of Summer and Winter Thunderclouds and Surface Electric Field Variation, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michimoto, K.; Shimura, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    In winter, active convective clouds frequently form along the coastline of the Hokuriku district, in association with strong advection of Siberian air masses over the Sea of Japan. On the other hand, in summer, many thunderclouds form in the Kanto region in the afternoon every day. Summer and winter thunderclouds were investigated by field works, operation of the C- and X-band weather radars and a car-borne fieldmill. The investigation found a very close relation between the temporal variation of 3-dimensional radar echo and surface electric field magnitude detected by a car-borne fieldmill in the case of summer thunderclouds and winter convective clouds or thunderclouds. The study probed the close relation among radar echoes, quantity of thunderclouds and surface electric field magnitude in the summer and winter seasons. We think that summer thundercloud activity can basically be equated with winter thundercloud lightning activity, except that the magnitude of surface electric field under summer thunderclouds in the case of the Kanto region cannot be equated with that under winter thunderclouds in the case of the Hokuriku district in winter.

  13. Brain MR image segmentation using local and global intensity fitting active contours/surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunming; Sun, Quansen; Xia, Deshen; Kao, Chiu-Yen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved region-based active contour/surface model for 2D/3D brain MR image segmentation. Our model combines the advantages of both local and global intensity information, which enable the model to cope with intensity inhomogeneity. We define an energy functional with a local intensity fitting term and an auxiliary global intensity fitting term. In the associated curve evolution, the motion of the contour is driven by a local intensity fitting force and a global intensity fitting force, induced by the local and global terms in the proposed energy functional, respectively. The influence of these two forces on the curve evolution is complementary. When the contour is close to object boundaries, the local intensity fitting force became dominant, which attracts the contour toward object boundaries and finally stops the contour there. The global intensity fitting force is dominant when the contour is far away from object boundaries, and it allows more flexible initialization of contours by using global image information. The proposed model has been applied to both 2D and 3D brain MR image segmentation with promising results.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of human joint force, surface electromyograms, and functional MRI-measured brain activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Z; Dai, T H; Elster, T H; Sahgal, V; Brown, R W; Yue, G H

    2000-08-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used in studying human brain function given its non-invasive feature and good spatial resolution. However, difficulties in acquiring data from peripheral (e.g. information from muscle) during fMRI studies of motor function hinder interpretation of fMRI data and designing more sophisticated investigations. Here we describe a system that was designed to concurrently measure handgrip force, surface electromyograms (EMG) of finger flexor and extensor muscles, and fMRI of human brain. The system included a pressure transducer built in a hydraulic environment, a heavily shielded EMG recording element, and a visual feedback structure for online monitoring of force and/or EMG signal, by the subject positioned in the scanner during an fMRI experiment. System evaluation and subsequent fMRI motor function studies have indicated that by using this system, high quality force and EMG signals can be recorded without sacrificing the quality of the fMRI data. PMID:10967361

  15. Mid-sagittal plane and mid-sagittal surface optimization in brain MRI using a local symmetry measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Mikkel B.; Skoglund, Karl; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes methods for automatic localization of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and mid-sagittal surface (MSS). The data used is a subset of the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study consisting of three-dimensional magnetic resonance brain data from 62 elderly subjects (age 66 to 84 years). Traditionally, the mid-sagittal plane is localized by global measures. However, this approach fails when the partitioning plane between the brain hemispheres does not coincide with the symmetry plane of the head. We instead propose to use a sparse set of profiles in the plane normal direction and maximize the local symmetry around these using a general-purpose optimizer. The plane is parameterized by azimuth and elevation angles along with the distance to the origin in the normal direction. This approach leads to solutions confirmed as the optimal MSP in 98 percent of the subjects. Despite the name, the mid-sagittal plane is not always planar, but a curved surface resulting in poor partitioning of the brain hemispheres. To account for this, this paper also investigates an optimization strategy which fits a thin-plate spline surface to the brain data using a robust least median of squares estimator. Albeit computationally more expensive, mid-sagittal surface fitting demonstrated convincingly better partitioning of curved brains into cerebral hemispheres.

  16. Decreased aperture surface energy enhances electrical, mechanical, and temporal stability of suspended lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Leonard K.; Baker, Christopher A.; Agasid, Mark T.; Ma, Lin; Aspinwall, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of next-generation transmembrane protein-based biosensors relies heavily on the use of black lipid membranes (BLMs); however, electrical, mechanical, and temporal instability of BLMs pose a limiting challenge to biosensor development. In this work, micron-sized glass apertures were modified with silanes of different chain length and fluorine composition, including 3-cyanopropyldimethychlorosilane (CPDCS), ethyldimethylchlorosilane (EDCS), n-octyldimethylchlorosilane (ODCS), (tridecafluoro 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrahydrooctyl)dimethylchlorosilane (PFDCS) or (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)dimethylchlorosilane (PFDDCS) to explore the effect of substrate surface energy on BLM stability. Low energy silane-modified surfaces promoted enhanced lipid-substrate interactions that facilitate the formation of low-leakage, stable BLMs. The surface energies of silane-modified substrates were 30 ± 3, 16 ± 1, 14 ± 2, 11 ± 1 and 7.1 ± 2 mJ m−2 for CDCS, EDCS, ODCS, PFDCS and PFDDCS, respectively. Decreased surface energy directly correlated to improved electrical, mechanical, and temporal BLM stability. Amphiphobic perfluorinated surface modifiers yielded superior performance compared to traditional hydrocarbon modifiers in terms of stability and BLM formation, with only marginal effects on BLM membrane permeability. Leakage currents obtained for PFDCS and PFDDCS BLMs were elevated only 10-30%, though PFDDCS modification yielded > 5-fold increase in electrical stability as indicated by breakdown voltage (> 2000 mV vs. 418 ± 73 mV), and > 25-fold increase in mechanical stability as indicated by air-water transfers (> 50 vs. 2 ± 0.2) when compared to previously reported CPDCS modification. Importantly, the dramatically improved membrane stabilities were achieved with no deleterious effects on reconstituted ion channel function as evidenced by α-hemolysin activity. Thus, this approach provides a simple, low cost and broadly applicable alternative for BLM

  17. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  18. Current directions in non-invasive low intensity electric brain stimulation for depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human brain to improve depressive symptoms is increasingly finding its way in clinical settings as a viable form of somatic treatment. Following successful modulation of neural excitability with subsequent antidepressant effects, neural polarization by administrating weak direct currents to the scalp has gained renewed interest. A new wave of basic and clinical studies seems to underscore the potential therapeutic value of direct current stimulation in the treatment of depression. Issues concerning the lack of mechanistic insights into the workings of modifying brain function through neural polarization and how this process translates to its antidepressant properties calls for additional research. The range of its clinical applicability has yet to be established.

  19. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels. PMID:27503725

  20. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels.

  1. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  2. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lim, L W; Prickaerts, J; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Temel, Y

    2015-03-31

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN.

  3. Electrical Brain Responses to an Auditory Illusion and the Impact of Musical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Christos I.; Pereda, Ernesto; Lindsen, Job P.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two sinusoidal tones, one to each ear, with a slight frequency mismatch yields an auditory illusion of a beating frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones; this is known as binaural beat (BB). The effect of brief BB stimulation on scalp EEG is not conclusively demonstrated. Further, no studies have examined the impact of musical training associated with BB stimulation, yet musicians' brains are often associated with enhanced auditory processing. In this study, we analysed EEG brain responses from two groups, musicians and non-musicians, when stimulated by short presentation (1 min) of binaural beats with beat frequency varying from 1 Hz to 48 Hz. We focused our analysis on alpha and gamma band EEG signals, and they were analysed in terms of spectral power, and functional connectivity as measured by two phase synchrony based measures, phase locking value and phase lag index. Finally, these measures were used to characterize the degree of centrality, segregation and integration of the functional brain network. We found that beat frequencies belonging to alpha band produced the most significant steady-state responses across groups. Further, processing of low frequency (delta, theta, alpha) binaural beats had significant impact on cortical network patterns in the alpha band oscillations. Altogether these results provide a neurophysiological account of cortical responses to BB stimulation at varying frequencies, and demonstrate a modulation of cortico-cortical connectivity in musicians' brains, and further suggest a kind of neuronal entrainment of a linear and nonlinear relationship to the beating frequencies. PMID:26065708

  4. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lim, L W; Prickaerts, J; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Temel, Y

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN. PMID:25826110

  5. Modulation of Biointeractions by Electrically Switchable Oligopeptide Surfaces: Structural Requirements and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Chun L; Wang, Xingyong; Lashkor, Minhaj; Cantini, Eleonora; Rawson, Frankie J; Iqbal, Parvez; Preece, Jon A; Ma, Jing; Mendes, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of switchable surfaces is of paramount importance for the development of controllable and tailor-made surface materials. Herein, electrically switchable mixed self-assembled monolayers based on oligopeptides have been investigated in order to elucidate their conformational mechanism and structural requirements for the regulation of biomolecular interactions between proteins and ligands appended to the end of surface tethered oligopeptides. The interaction of the neutravidin protein to a surface appended biotin ligand was chosen as a model system. All the considerable experimental data, taken together with detailed computational work, support a switching mechanism in which biomolecular interactions are controlled by conformational changes between fully extended (“ON” state) and collapsed (“OFF” state) oligopeptide conformer structures. In the fully extended conformation, the biotin appended to the oligopeptide is largely free from steric factors allowing it to efficiently bind to the neutravidin from solution. While under a collapsed conformation, the ligand presented at the surface is partially embedded in the second component of the mixed SAM, and thus sterically shielded and inaccessible for neutravidin binding. Steric hindrances aroused from the neighboring surface-confined oligopeptide chains exert a great influence over the conformational behaviour of the oligopeptides, and as a consequence, over the switching efficiency. Our results also highlight the role of oligopeptide length in controlling binding switching efficiency. This study lays the foundation for designing and constructing dynamic surface materials with novel biological functions and capabilities, enabling their utilization in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:25793154

  6. Atomistic and molecular effects in electric double layers at high surface charges

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan; Mani, Ali

    2015-06-16

    Here, the Poisson–Boltzmann theory for electrolytes near a charged surface is known to be invalid due to unaccounted physics associated with high ion concentration regimes. In order to investigate this regime, fluids density functional theory (f-DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to determine electric surface potential as a function of surface charge. Based on these detailed computations, for electrolytes with nonpolar solvent, the surface potential is shown to depend quadratically on the surface charge in the high charge limit. We demonstrate that modified Poisson–Boltzmann theories can model this limit if they are augmented with atomic packing densities provided by MD. However, when the solvent is a highly polar molecule water an intermediate regime is identified in which a constant capacitance is realized. Simulation results demonstrate the mechanism underlying this regime, and for the salt water system studied here, it persists throughout the range of physically realistic surface charge densities so the potential’s quadratic surface charge dependence is not obtained.

  7. Atomistic and molecular effects in electric double layers at high surface charges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan; Mani, Ali

    2015-06-16

    Here, the Poisson–Boltzmann theory for electrolytes near a charged surface is known to be invalid due to unaccounted physics associated with high ion concentration regimes. In order to investigate this regime, fluids density functional theory (f-DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to determine electric surface potential as a function of surface charge. Based on these detailed computations, for electrolytes with nonpolar solvent, the surface potential is shown to depend quadratically on the surface charge in the high charge limit. We demonstrate that modified Poisson–Boltzmann theories can model this limit if they are augmented with atomic packing densities providedmore » by MD. However, when the solvent is a highly polar molecule water an intermediate regime is identified in which a constant capacitance is realized. Simulation results demonstrate the mechanism underlying this regime, and for the salt water system studied here, it persists throughout the range of physically realistic surface charge densities so the potential’s quadratic surface charge dependence is not obtained.« less

  8. Electrical injection to contactless near-surface InGaN quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Riuttanen, L. Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.; Kivisaari, P.; Oksanen, J.

    2015-08-03

    Charge injection to the prevailing and emerging light-emitting devices is almost exclusively based on the double heterojunction (DHJ) structures that have remained essentially unchanged for decades. In this letter, we report the excitation of a near surface indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum well (QW) by bipolar carrier diffusion from a nearby electrically excited pn-homojunction. The demonstrated near surface QW emitter is covered only by a 10 nm GaN capping leaving the light-emitting mesa perfectly free of metals, other contact, or current spreading structures. The presented proof-of-principle structure, operating approximately with a quantum efficiency of one fifth of a conventional single QW reference structure, provides conclusive evidence of the feasibility of using diffusion injection to excite near surface light-emitting structures needed, e.g., for developing light emitters or photo-voltaic devices based on nanoplasmonics or free-standing nanowires. In contrast to the existing DHJ solutions or optical pumping, our approach allows exciting nanostructures without the need of forming a DHJ, absorbing layers or even electrical contacts on the device surface.

  9. Surface roughness and electrical resistivity of high-purity zinc irradiated with nanosecond visible laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, M. Z.; Ali, Dilawar; Tanveer, M. Usman; Naseem, S.

    2014-06-01

    Six specimens of 99.995% pure zinc in the form of strips (15 mm × 8 mm × 0.5 mm) were irradiated with Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, E = 50 mJ, τ = 6 ns, repetition rate = 10 Hz) in vacuum ∼10-3 Torr. The specimens were irradiated with 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 laser shots; the laser fluence and laser intensity at the irradiation spot were 4.24 J/cm2 and 7.07 × 108 W/cm2, respectively. Surface morphology of laser irradiated specimens was examined by both optical and scanning electron microscopes. Crater area as well as heat affected area were measured by optical microscope using Motic software. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination revealed different features, e.g., wavelike structures, ridges, dips, micro cones, cavities, nano and micro size droplets, as well as solid flakes, etc., on the surface. These features are a result of splashing, hydrodynamic and exfoliational sputtering. Average surface roughness was measured from SEM micrographs using Nanotec software WSxM 5.0 develop 1.1. The electrical resistivity was determined by four-point probe technique. It is observed that average surface roughness and electrical resistivity vary with the number of laser shots in an identical manner, and are therefore found to be directly related to each other.

  10. Electric field modulation of the motility of actin filaments on myosin-functionalised surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, L. C.; Aveyard, J.; van Zalinge, H.; Persson, M.; Mânsson, A.; Nicolau, D. V.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the difference in electrically guided acto-myosin motility on two surfaces. Rabbit skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) was absorbed onto surfaces coated with Nitrocellulose (NC) and Poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA). A modified in vitro motility assay with sealed chambers for the insertion of electrodes allowed an electrical field to be applied across the flow cell. On all surfaces a small increase in velocity and general guidance of the actin filaments towards the positive electrode is seen at field strengths in the range of ~3000 - 4000Vm-1. A large increase in velocity was observed at ~5000Vm-1 and a significant change in the velocity of the actin filaments present in field strengths higher than this. NC supported the highest percentage of motile filaments and at a field of 8000Vm-1 reached ~66%. PBMA however supported the least percentage of motile filaments and irregular motility was observed even at higher fields where guidance was expected to be strong. The change in velocity in the range of fields tested varied significantly on the surfaces with NC displaying a 46% increase from 0 to 8000Vm-1 whereas on PBMA this value was just 37%.

  11. Remote Sensing of Surface Electric Potential on the Moon: A New Technique Using ENAs for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

    2013-09-01

    Electric potential at lunar surface provides essential information for understanding fundamental science and environment of the Moon, which directly impacts on future lunar exploration. Here we present a new technique of remote sensing of surface electric potential at the Moon [4]. The technique relies on the energy spectra of the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) backscattered from the Moon. We applied this technique to the existing dataset of ENAs, and created the first 2-D image of the electric potential distribution near a magnetic anomaly. The result revealed that the magnetized area provides a preferable landing site of the Moon, while strong surface potential exists.

  12. Changes in the structure of the surface layer of metal materials upon friction and electric current loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    Dependences of the electric conductivity of a contact and wear intensity of metal materials on the electric current density in sliding friction are obtained. It is established that alloying of the material basis leads to faster damage of the friction surface. The presence of about 40 аt.% oxygen in the surface layer is detected by the Auger spectrometry method. It is demonstrated by the x-ray diffraction method that FeO formed in the surface layer leads to an increase in the electric conductivity of the contact.

  13. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken; Ogata, Masayoshi

    2011-01-17

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

  14. Simplified fabrication of back surface electric field silicon cells and novel characteristics of such cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the characteristics and behavior of 10 ohm-cm silicon cells having abnormally high open-circuit voltages was made. The cells studied were made by a new, highly simplified, contact fabrication process which creates both a contact and a thin electric field region at the cell back surface without the need for phosphorus layer removal. These cells had open-circuit voltages of about 0.58 V and their performance as a function of thickness, temperature, and 1 MeV electron irradiation is detailed. The study showed that 10 ohm-cm back-surface-field cells can have the high initial efficiencies and desirable temperature behavior of low resistivity cells. Thin back-surface-field cells were made and showed, in addition, much greater radiation damage resistance. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  15. Simplified fabrication of back surface electric field silicon cells and novel characteristics of such cells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the characteristics and behavior of 10 ohm-cm silicon cells having abnormally high open-circuit voltages was made. The cells studied were made by a new, highly simplified, contact fabrication process which creates both a contact and a thin electric field region at the cell back surface without the need for phosphorus layer removal. These cells had open-circuit voltages of about 0.58 V and their performance as a function of thickness, temperature, and 1 MeV electron irradiation is detailed. The study showed that 10 ohm-cm back-surface-field cells can have the high initial efficiencies and desirable temperature behavior of low resistivity cells. Thin back-surface-field cells were made and showed, in addition, much greater radiation damage resistance. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  16. Surface acoustic wave diagnosis of vacancy orbital with electric quadrupoles in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Mitsumoto, K.; Akatsu, M.; Baba, S.; Okabe, K.; Takasu, R.; Nemoto, Y.; Yamada-Kaneta, H.; Furumura, Y.; Saito, H.; Kashima, K.; Saito, Y.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate ultrasonic diagnosis of vacancies in boron-doped silicon wafers currently used in device manufacturing. The low-temperature softening of elastic constants measured by surface acoustic waves (SAW) as well as bulk ultrasonic waves is caused by a coupling of elastic strains to electric quadrupoles of the vacancy orbital in silicon wafers. Using interdigital transducers with a comb gap of 2.5 μm on a piezoelectric ZnO film deposited on the (001) surface of the wafer, we observed the softening of 1.9×10-4 in relative amount of the elastic constant Cs below 2 K down to 23 mK. Taking account of the strong quadrupole-strain interaction, we deduced a small vacancy concentration 3.1×1012 cm-3 in the surface layer of the wafer within a penetration depth 3.5 μm of the SAW.

  17. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  18. An electrically-driven GaAs nanowire surface plasmon source.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengyu; Colombo, Carlo; Huang, Kevin C Y; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygård, Jesper; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Brongersma, Mark L

    2012-09-12

    Over the past decade, the properties of plasmonic waveguides have extensively been studied as key elements in important applications that include biosensors, optical communication systems, quantum plasmonics, plasmonic logic, and quantum-cascade lasers. Whereas their guiding properties are by now fairly well-understood, practical implementation in chipscale systems is hampered by the lack of convenient electrical excitation schemes. Recently, a variety of surface plasmon lasers have been realized, but they have not yet been waveguide-coupled. Planar incoherent plasmonic sources have recently been coupled to plasmonic guides but routing of plasmonic signals requires coupling to linear waveguides. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of electrically driven GaAs nanowire light sources integrated with plasmonic nanostrip waveguides with a physical cross-section of 0.08λ(2). The excitation and waveguiding of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) is experimentally demonstrated and analyzed with the help of full-field electromagnetic simulations. Splitting and routing of the electrically generated SPP signals around 90° bends are also shown. The realization of integrated plasmon sources greatly increases the applicability range of plasmonic waveguides and routing elements.

  19. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip andmore » salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.« less

  20. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore » fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  1. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-01

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  2. Electrical stimulation therapies for CNS disorders and pain are mediated by competition between different neuronal networks in the brain.

    PubMed

    Faingold, Carl L

    2008-11-01

    treatment of unanesthetized animals with antagonists (bicuculline or strychnine) of inhibitory neurotransmitter (GABA or glycine) receptors can cause CMR neurons to become consistently responsive to external inputs (e.g., peripheral nerve, sensory, or electrical stimuli in the brain) to which these neurons did not previously respond. Conversely, agents that enhance GABA-mediated inhibition (e.g., barbiturates and benzodiazepines) or antagonize glutamate-mediated excitation (e.g., ketamine) can cause CMR neurons to become unresponsive to inputs to which they responded previously. The responses of CMR neurons exhibit extensive short-term and long-term plasticity, which permits them to participate to a variable degree in many networks. Short-term plasticity subserves termination of disease symptoms, while long-term plasticity in CMR regions subserves symptom prevention. This network interaction hypothesis has value for future research in CNS disease mechanisms and also for identifying therapeutic targets in specific brain networks for more selective stimulation and pharmacological therapies.

  3. Intraoperative and postoperative electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses in nucleus cochlear implant users: implications for the fitting process.

    PubMed

    Brown, C J; Abbas, P J; Fryauf-Bertschy, H; Kelsay, D; Gantz, B J

    1994-04-01

    Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABR) were measured in 12 adults and 14 children with the Nucleus cochlear implant. Measures were made both intraoperatively and several months following surgery. EABR thresholds were consistently greater than clinically determined measures of behavioral threshold (T-level) but less than maximum comfort levels (C-level). When the data were pooled across subjects and different stimulating electrodes, EABR thresholds were strongly correlated with both T- and C-levels. In subjects where both intraoperative and postimplant EABR measures were obtained, intraoperative EABR thresholds were consistently higher than postimplant thresholds. The electrophysiologic data have been incorporated into a practical procedure for programming the implant in young children.

  4. Brain-computer interface driven functional electrical stimulation system for overground walking in spinal cord injury participant.

    PubMed

    King, Christine E; Wang, Po T; McCrimmon, Colin M; Chou, Cathy C Y; Do, An H; Nenadic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The current treatment for ambulation after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to substitute the lost behavior with a wheelchair; however, this can result in many co-morbidities. Thus, novel solutions for the restoration of walking, such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) devices, have been sought. This study reports on the first electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI-FES system for overground walking, and its performance assessment in an individual with paraplegia due to SCI. The results revealed that the participant was able to purposefully operate the system continuously in real time. If tested in a larger population of SCI individuals, this system may pave the way for the restoration of overground walking after SCI.

  5. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  6. Electrical activity of the Hartmann layers relative to surface viscous shearing in an annular magnetohydrodynamic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    As a first step towards two-phase magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), this paper addresses an original analytical coupling between surface rheology, e.g., a gradually oxidizing liquid metal surface, ruled by the Boussinesq number Bo, and a supporting annular MHD flow, ruled by the Hartmann number Ha, in the general layout of a classical annular deep-channel viscometer, as developed by Mannheimer and Schechter [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 195-211 (1970)]. Using a matched asymptotic expansion based on the small parameter 1/Ha, we can express the surface velocity as a coupling variable in the jump momentum balance at the liquid surface. By solving the latter through the determination of the Green's function, the whole flow can be analytically calculated. A modified Boussinesq number, tilde{B_o}, is produced as a new non-dimensional parameter that provides the balance between surface viscous shearing and the Lorentz force. It is shown that the tilde{B_o} number drives the electrical activation of the Hartmann layers, heavily modifying the MHD flow topology and leading to the emergence of the Lorentz force, for which interaction with the flow is not classical. Finally, the evolution laws given in this study allow the determination of scaling laws for an original experimental protocol, which would make it possible to accurately determine the surface shear viscosity of a liquid metal with respect to the quality of the ambient atmosphere.

  7. The saxitoxin/tetrodotoxin binding site on cloned rat brain IIa Na channels is in the transmembrane electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Satin, J.; Limberis, J. T.; Kyle, J. W.; Rogart, R. B.; Fozzard, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    The rat brain IIa (BrIIa) Na channel alpha-subunit and the brain beta 1 subunit were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, and peak whole-oocyte Na current (INa) was measured at a test potential of -10 mV. Hyperpolarization of the holding potential resulted in an increased affinity of STX and TTX rested-state block of BrIIa Na channels. The apparent half-block concentration (ED50) for STX of BrIIa current decreased with hyperpolarizing holding potentials (Vhold). At Vhold of -100 mV, the ED50 was 2.1 +/- 0.4 nM, and the affinity increased to a ED50 of 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM with Vhold of -140 mV. In the absence of toxin, the peak current amplitude was the same for all potentials negative to -90 mV, demonstrating that all of the channels were in a closed conformation and maximally available to open in this range of holding potentials. The Woodhull model (1973) was used to describe the increase of the STX ED50 as a function of holding potential. The equivalent electrical distance of block (delta) by STX was 0.18 from the extracellular milieu when the valence of STX was fixed to +2. Analysis of the holding potential dependence of TTX block yielded a similar delta when the valence of TTX was fixed to +1. We conclude that the guanidinium toxin site is located partially within the transmembrane electric field. Previous site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that an isoform-specific phenylalanine in the BrIIa channel is critical for high affinity toxin block. Therefore, we propose that amino acids at positions corresponding to this Phe in the BrIIa channel, which lie in the outer vestibule of the channel adjacent to the pore entrance,are partially in the transmembrane potential drop. PMID:7811911

  8. Manipulation and patterning of the surface hydrogen concentrationon Pd(111) electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, T.; Fomin, E.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Nilekar,A.U.; Mavrikakis, M.

    2007-05-10

    Modification of the structure of materials at the nanoscale level is one goal of current nanoscience research. For example, by purposefully modifying the spatial distribution of adsorbates one could control the rate of chemical reactions on a local scale. Here we show how this can be accomplished in the case of H on Pd(111) through the application of local electric fields. Hydrogen adsorption on the platinum group metals is particularly interesting because these metals are used as catalysts in a variety of industrial processes, including hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. Electric fields on surfaces are also of primary interest in electrochemistry where despite the considerable amount of experimental and theoretical work done to date, there still remains more work to be done before a clear understanding of phenomena at the atomic scale can be accomplished.

  9. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen M.

    2015-06-27

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  10. Fracture Surface Area Effects on Fluid Extraction and the Electrical Resistivity of Geothermal Reservoir Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Ralph, W; Bonner, B

    2002-05-09

    Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of fractured analogue geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. Experiments were performed at confining pressures up to 10 h4Pa (100 bars) and temperatures to 170 C. Fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling than intact samples. Monitoring the resistivity of fractured samples as they equilibrate to imposed pressure and temperature conditions provides an estimate of fluid migration into and out of the matrix. Measurements presented are an important step toward using field electrical methods to quantitatively search for fractures, infer saturation, and track fluid migration in geothermal reservoirs.

  11. Surface and subsurface damage detection in cement-based materials using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, T.; Poursaee, A.

    2016-04-01

    Cement-based materials are widely used in infrastructure facilities. However, often the degradation of structures leads to the failures earlier than designed service life. Thus, non-destructive testing techniques are urgently needed to evaluate the health information of the structures. In this paper, the implementation of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) was investigated. This low cost, radiation free and easy to perform modality is based on measuring the electrical properties of the material under test and using that to evaluate the existence of defects in that material. It uses a set of boundary potentials and injected current to reconstruct the conductivity distribution. An automatic measurement system was developed and surface damages as well as subsurface damages on mortar specimens were investigated. The reconstructed images were capable to show the presence and the location of the damages.

  12. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data.

    PubMed

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M; Feng, Ling; Hansen, Adam E; Baare, William; Rosen, Bruce; Fischl, Bruce; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2014-05-15

    Exploratory (i.e., voxelwise) spatial methods are commonly used in neuroimaging to identify areas that show an effect when a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis cannot be performed because no strong a priori anatomical hypothesis exists. However, noise at a single voxel is much higher than noise in a ROI making noise management critical to successful exploratory analysis. This work explores how preprocessing choices affect the bias and variability of voxelwise kinetic modeling analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET) data. These choices include the use of volume- or cortical surface-based smoothing, level of smoothing, use of voxelwise partial volume correction (PVC), and PVC masking threshold. PVC was implemented using the Muller-Gartner method with the masking out of voxels with low gray matter (GM) partial volume fraction. Dynamic PET scans of an antagonist serotonin-4 receptor radioligand ([(11)C]SB207145) were collected on sixteen healthy subjects using a Siemens HRRT PET scanner. Kinetic modeling was used to compute maps of non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) after preprocessing. The results showed a complicated interaction between smoothing, PVC, and masking on BPND estimates. Volume-based smoothing resulted in large bias and intersubject variance because it smears signal across tissue types. In some cases, PVC with volume smoothing paradoxically caused the estimated BPND to be less than when no PVC was used at all. When applied in the absence of PVC, cortical surface-based smoothing resulted in dramatically less bias and the least variance of the methods tested for smoothing levels 5mm and higher. When used in combination with PVC, surface-based smoothing minimized the bias without significantly increasing the variance. Surface-based smoothing resulted in 2-4 times less intersubject variance than when volume smoothing was used. This translates into more than 4 times fewer subjects needed in a group analysis to achieve similarly powered

  13. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. PMID:23770059

  14. Manipulating Traveling Brain Waves with Electric Fields: From Theory to Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2004-03-01

    Activity waves in disinhibited neocortical slices have been used as a biological model for epileptic seizure propagation [1]. Such waves have been mathematically modeled with integro-differential equations [2] representing non-local reaction diffusion dynamics of an excitable medium with an excitability threshold. Stability and propagation speed of traveling pulse solutions depend strongly on the threshold in the following manner: propagation speed should decrease with increased threshold over a finite range, beyond which the waves become unstable. Because populations of neurons can be polarized with an applied electric field that effectively shifts their threshold for action potential initiation [3], we predicted, and have experimentally verified, that electric fields could be used globally or locally to speed up, slow down and even block wave propagation. [1] Telfeian and Conners, Epilepsia, 40, 1499-1506, 1999. [2] Pinto and Ermentrout, SIAM J. App. Math, 62, 206-225, 2001. [3] Gluckman, et. al. J Neurophysiol. 76, 4202-5, 1996.

  15. Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanism and substrate-surface effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Howarth, J.; Dutta, I.

    2014-01-28

    Long range, continuous flow of liquid metals occurs upon application of an electric current. Here, we report experimental results elucidating the mechanism of current-induced liquid metal flow, and its dependence on substrate surface condition. It is shown that the observed flow is diffusion-controlled, with the flow-rate depending linearly on applied current density, indicating that it is driven by electromigration. The effective charge number for liquid electromigration, Z*, of several pure metals, such as Al, Bi, Ga, Sn, and Pb, were deduced from the experimental results and were found to be close to the elemental valency. With the exception of liquid Pb, Z* for all liquid metals tested in this study were positive, indicating that: (i) electron wind contributes much less to Z* in liquid metals than in solids, and (ii) with a few exceptions, liquid metals generally flow in the direction of the electric current. On smooth substrates which are wetted well by the liquid metal, flow occurs in a thin, continuous stream. On rough surfaces which are poorly wetted, on the other hand, discrete beads of liquid form, with mass transport between adjacent beads occurring by surface diffusion on the substrate. A rationale for the role of substrate roughness in fostering this observed transition in flow mechanism is presented.

  16. Can Electrical Vestibular Noise Be Used for the Treatment of Brain Diseases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Soma, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Kwak, Shin

    2005-11-01

    The therapy currently available for the treatment of degenerative neurological diseases is far from satisfactory, and a novel therapeutic strategy, especially for pharmacologically unresponsive patients, would be welcomed. The vestibular nerves are known to influence neuronal circuits in the medullary cardiovascular areas and, through the cerebellar vermis, the basal ganglia and the limbic system. By means of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), it may now be possible to ameliorate blunted responsiveness of degenerated neuronal circuits in the brains of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and/or Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance. We evaluate the effect of 24-hour noisy GVS on long-term heart rate dynamics in seven MSA patients, and on daytime locomotor activity dynamics in twelve patients with either PD or levodopa unresponsive parkinsonism. Short-range heart rate variability and long-range anti-correlation of trunk activity are significantly increased by the noisy GVS compared with sham stimulation, suggestive of improved autonomic and motor responsiveness. The noisy GVS is effective in boosting the neuro-degenerative brains of MSA and/or PD patients, including those unresponsive to standard levodopa therapy.

  17. A brain electrical signature of left-lateralized semantic activation from single words.

    PubMed

    Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Schnuerch, Robert; Gibbons, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and imaging studies consistently indicate a left-lateralization of semantic language processing in human temporo-parietal cortex. Surprisingly, electrocortical measures, which allow a direct assessment of brain activity and the tracking of cognitive functions with millisecond precision, have not yet been used to capture this hemispheric lateralization, at least with respect to posterior portions of this effect. Using event-related potentials, we employed a simple single-word reading paradigm to compare neural activity during three tasks requiring different degrees of semantic processing. As expected, we were able to derive a simple temporo-parietal left-right asymmetry index peaking around 300ms into word processing that neatly tracks the degree of semantic activation. The validity of this measure in specifically capturing verbal semantic activation was further supported by a significant relation to verbal intelligence. We thus posit that it represents a promising tool to monitor verbal semantic processing in the brain with little technological effort and in a minimal experimental setup. PMID:27156035

  18. Evaluation of multisensory stimuli--dimensions of meaning and electrical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Hiessl, Anna K; Skrandies, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    The semantic differential technique is used to statistically define connotative dimensions of meaning. The brain depends on these dimensions to process words. Earlier studies demonstrated that stimuli of the different semantic classes led to differences in neuronal processing. We investigated the influence of connotative meaning on multisensory processing (food words strongly related to odor, taste, vision or somatosensory texture). A group of 795 subjects rated 197 food words on the basis of 11 pairs of adjectives with opposite meanings. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions (Evaluation, Potency and Texture). Words with high positive or negative scores, and low scores on the other dimensions, were used as stimuli in an ERP experiment. EEG was recorded in 40 healthy adults from 30 channels and averaged according to semantic stimulus class. Component latency, global field power and topography were influenced by semantic meaning. These experiments determined that very early effects at 107 ms after stimulus presentation where latency and GFP were affected by stimulus class. When mapped topographically, different stimulus classes led to different scalp topography of evoked brain activity in sagittal direction already at an early state of processing (around 107 ms). The extent of lateralization of potential fields' centers of gravity was influenced by stimulus class around 304 ms. In summary, semantic dimensions influence neuronal processing of words related to multisensory perception. Such effects suggest a rapid and complex way of processing multisensory stimuli. PMID:23583966

  19. Metabolic and electric brain patterns during pleasant and unpleasant emotions induced by music masterpieces.

    PubMed

    Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique O; Díaz, José-Luís; Barrios, Fernando A; Favila-Humara, Rafael; Guevara, Miguel Angel; del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Corsi-Cabrera, María

    2007-07-01

    Brain correlates comparing pleasant and unpleasant states induced by three dissimilar masterpiece excerpts were obtained. Related emotional reactions to the music were studied using Principal Component Analysis of validated reports, fMRI, and EEG coherent activity. A piano selection by Bach and a symphonic passage from Mahler widely differing in musical features were used as pleasing pieces. A segment by Prodromidès was used as an unpleasing stimulus. Ten consecutive 30 s segments of each piece alternating with random static noise were played to 19 non-musician volunteers for a total of 30 min of auditory stimulation. Both brain approaches identified a left cortical network involved with pleasant feelings (Bach and Mahler vs. Prodromidès) including the left primary auditory area, posterior temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions. While the primary auditory zone may provide an early affective quality, left cognitive areas may contribute to pleasant feelings when melodic sequences follow expected rules. In contrast, unpleasant emotions (Prodromidès vs. Bach and Mahler) involved the activation of the right frontopolar and paralimbic areas. Left activation with pleasant and right with unpleasant musical feelings is consistent with right supremacy in novel situations and left in predictable processes. When all musical excerpts were jointly compared to noise, in addition to bilateral auditory activation, the left temporal pole, inferior frontal gyrus, and frontopolar area were activated suggesting that cognitive and language processes were recruited in general responses to music. Sensory and cognitive integration seems required for musical emotion.

  20. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  1. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  2. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces: Static properties of the cassiterite - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Vlcek, Lukas; Zhang, Zhan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J

    2007-04-01

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn

  3. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces:static properties of the cassiterite-water interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Vlcek, L.; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M .L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Predota, M.; Cummings, P. T.; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of South Bohimia; Illinois State Water Survey

    2007-03-24

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn

  4. Nonlinear waves on the free surface of a dielectric liquid in an oblique electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M. Kochurin, E. A.

    2015-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of the free surface of an ideal dielectric liquid that is exposed to an external oblique electric field has been studied theoretically. In the framework of the Hamiltonian formalism, a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations has been derived that describes the dynamics of nonlinear waves in the small-angle approximation. It is established that for a liquid with high dielectric permittivity, these equations have a solution in the form of plane waves of arbitrary shape that propagate without distortion in the direction of the horizontal component of the external field.

  5. ATS-6 spacecraft surface treatment for the control of electrical discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiser, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The ATS-6 has been subject to potential charges as high as 11,000 volts based on onboard measurements. Thus, special measures were required to protect the spacecraft surface areas, - primarily the Earth Viewing Module, the reflector support truss, and the solar array boom that were specially processed for thermal control - from electrical discharges whose accompanying fields could destroy sensitive receiving circuits. The paper describes thermal blanket grounding criteria and techniques applied to prevent undesired discharge effects, and discusses the disturbance rate from static discharge in orbit.

  6. The joint use of the tangential electric field and surface Laplacian in EEG classification.

    PubMed

    Carvalhaes, C G; de Barros, J Acacio; Perreau-Guimaraes, M; Suppes, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the joint use of the tangential electric field (EF) and the surface Laplacian (SL) derivation as a method to improve the classification of EEG signals. We considered five classification tasks to test the validity of such approach. In all five tasks, the joint use of the components of the EF and the SL outperformed the scalar potential. The smallest effect occurred in the classification of a mental task, wherein the average classification rate was improved by 0.5 standard deviations. The largest effect was obtained in the classification of visual stimuli and corresponded to an improvement of 2.1 standard deviations.

  7. Electrically driven directional motion of a four-wheeled molecule on a metal surface.

    PubMed

    Kudernac, Tibor; Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Parschau, Manfred; Maciá, Beatriz; Katsonis, Nathalie; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-11-09

    Propelling single molecules in a controlled manner along an unmodified surface remains extremely challenging because it requires molecules that can use light, chemical or electrical energy to modulate their interaction with the surface in a way that generates motion. Nature's motor proteins have mastered the art of converting conformational changes into directed motion, and have inspired the design of artificial systems such as DNA walkers and light- and redox-driven molecular motors. But although controlled movement of single molecules along a surface has been reported, the molecules in these examples act as passive elements that either diffuse along a preferential direction with equal probability for forward and backward movement or are dragged by an STM tip. Here we present a molecule with four functional units--our previously reported rotary motors--that undergo continuous and defined conformational changes upon sequential electronic and vibrational excitation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy confirms that activation of the conformational changes of the rotors through inelastic electron tunnelling propels the molecule unidirectionally across a Cu(111) surface. The system can be adapted to follow either linear or random surface trajectories or to remain stationary, by tuning the chirality of the individual motor units. Our design provides a starting point for the exploration of more sophisticated molecular mechanical systems with directionally controlled motion.

  8. A Study of the Electrical Properties and Mineralogy of the Surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John A.

    1997-01-01

    This annual progress report is a list of papers on a study of the electrical properties and mineralogy of the surface of Venus. These papers were written by P. I. Wood and C. A. Robinson. Titles include: Subduction on the margins of coronae on Venus: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements; The weathering process on Venus takes 2-3 hundred million years: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity signatures at coronae; SO2 and CH4 levels in the Venusian atmosphere, measured by Pioneer Venus: Caused by plinian-style volcanic activity at Maat Mons; Magellan reveals Venus; Recent volcanic activity on Venus: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity signatures; Occurrences of low-emissivity surface material at low altitudes on Venus: A window to the past; Must the Venus surface material contain hematite; Rock weathering on the surface of Venus; Comment on "The Rate of Pyrite Decomposition on the Surface of Venus-by J. A. Wood, and R. Brett; and Complex dielectric constants and magnetic permeabilities of mineral mixtures-by De Roo, R.D, C.A. Robinson, F.T. Ulaby, and J.A. Wood.

  9. One-step process for superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won Gyu; Song, Ki Young; Rahmawan, Yudi; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Dookon; Chung, Do Kwan; Suh, Kahp Y

    2012-07-25

    We present a direct one-step method to fabricate dual-scale superhydrophobic metallic surfaces using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). A dual-scale structure was spontaneously formed by the nature of exfoliation characteristic of Al 7075 alloy surface during WEDM process. A primary microscale sinusoidal pattern was formed via a programmed WEDM process, with the wavelength in the range of 200 to 500 μm. Notably, a secondary roughness in the form of microcraters (average roughness, Ra: 4.16 to 0.41 μm) was generated during the exfoliation process without additional chemical treatment. The low surface energy of Al 7075 alloy (γ = 30.65 mJ/m(2)) together with the presence of dual-scale structures appears to contribute to the observed superhydrophobicity with a static contact angle of 156° and a hysteresis less than 3°. To explain the wetting characteristics on dual-scale structures, we used a simple theoretical model. It was found that Cassie state is likely to present on the secondary roughness in all fabricated surfaces. On the other hand, either Wenzel or Cassie state can present on the primary roughness depending on the characteristic length of sinusoidal pattern. In an optimal condition of the serial cutting steps with applied powers of ∼30 and ∼8 kW, respectively, a stable, superhydrophobic metallic surface was created with a sinusoidal pattern of 500 μm wavelength.

  10. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  11. Musical training and language-related brain electrical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Besson, Mireille

    2006-05-01

    This experiment aimed at testing whether 8 weeks of musical training affect the ability of 8-year-old children to detect pitch changes in language. Twenty nonmusician children listened to linguistic phrases that ended with prosodically congruous words or with weak or strong pitch incongruities. We recorded reaction times, error rates, and event-related brain potentials to the final words. Half of the children followed music training and the other half painting training, and all children were retested following training. For both groups, the weak incongruity was the most difficult to detect, but performance was not significantly different between groups. However, the amplitude of a late positive component was largest to strong incongruities and was reduced after training only in the music group. These results suggest that a relatively short exposure to pitch processing in music exerts some influence on pitch processing in language.

  12. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Pischel, I; Lehnfeld, R

    2004-09-29

    Within a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial the electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using charge mode technology (Laplacian estimates) after exposure to a lozenge containing 4 different herbal preparations (lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat) or a matching placebo without any active ingredients. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males and 8 females) were tested within a crossover design. After baseline recording each subject sucked a lozenge and 2 hours later a second one. Recording was performed immediately after finishing the lozenge and in hourly intervals thereafter. Comparison to reference periods of 10 min eyes open and 5 min eyes closed, respectively, revealed increases in alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta 1 electrical power at the electrode positions Cz, P3, T3 and T5 which were even more pronounced after a second application two hours later. Since alpha 1 changes repeatedly have been attributed to attentional states, increases of this electrical activity must be seen as indicator of a relaxational psychophysiological state. Changes in the alpha2 frequencies have been related to working memory indicating that an increase can be seen as a correlate for attenuating this circuit. Increases of beta1 activity have been seen in the presence of anxiolytic drugs including major and minor tranquilizers. The changes as observed after the application of this herbal composition are therefore in line with the idea of having induced a state of relaxation and regeneration. This interpretation suggests that one could expect from the ingestion of this lozenge to better cope with psychological and emotional stress. The data are further proof that recording computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology.

  13. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Pischel, I; Lehnfeld, R

    2004-09-29

    Within a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial the electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using charge mode technology (Laplacian estimates) after exposure to a lozenge containing 4 different herbal preparations (lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat) or a matching placebo without any active ingredients. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males and 8 females) were tested within a crossover design. After baseline recording each subject sucked a lozenge and 2 hours later a second one. Recording was performed immediately after finishing the lozenge and in hourly intervals thereafter. Comparison to reference periods of 10 min eyes open and 5 min eyes closed, respectively, revealed increases in alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta 1 electrical power at the electrode positions Cz, P3, T3 and T5 which were even more pronounced after a second application two hours later. Since alpha 1 changes repeatedly have been attributed to attentional states, increases of this electrical activity must be seen as indicator of a relaxational psychophysiological state. Changes in the alpha2 frequencies have been related to working memory indicating that an increase can be seen as a correlate for attenuating this circuit. Increases of beta1 activity have been seen in the presence of anxiolytic drugs including major and minor tranquilizers. The changes as observed after the application of this herbal composition are therefore in line with the idea of having induced a state of relaxation and regeneration. This interpretation suggests that one could expect from the ingestion of this lozenge to better cope with psychological and emotional stress. The data are further proof that recording computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology. PMID:15546807

  14. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C{sub 60} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukanov, D. A. Saranin, A. A.; Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A.; Zotov, A. V.

    2015-01-05

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C{sub 60} ultra-thin layers (1–6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C{sub 60} ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C{sub 60} layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC{sub 60} and Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} compound layers.

  15. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm2 are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  16. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm. PMID:27409126

  17. Development Of Electrical Power Systems For Test-Bed Rovers Aiming To Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takanobu; Otsuki, Massatsugu; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Ishigami, Genya; Kubota, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Planetary surface exploration rovers are promisingly expected to safely travel over long distances and to make in-situ scientific observations. The authors have developed an innovative test-bed rover having a novel mobility system, lightweight manipulators, and advanced guidance and navigation functions. Electrical power systems (EPSs) of rovers require stable power supply to realize long-range travel on planetary surfaces. However, a power management scheme for the rover is different from that used for orbiting (or interplanetary) spacecrafts because the power spent by the rover significantly varies along with the rover's motion profile. The authors performed several field tests in a desert using the test-bed rover that uses the newly developed EPS. The developed autonomous power management and control for the rover have been tested and evaluated through the field tests. This paper reports the functions and performance of the developed EPS and the obtained experimental results via the field tests.

  18. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  19. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  20. The sensor of surface defects based on electrical impedance tomography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryndin, Eugeny A.; Isaeva, Alina S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the application of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to development of the surface defect sensor that can be used for structural health monitoring (such structural as bridge bearing, airframe, etc.). Thin conductive film with electrodes along its boundaries, as a sensor skin, is applied to structural surface. By using the corresponding boundary potential measurements and the value of applied current the both forward and inverse EIT problem were solved and method of defects detection in thin conductive film was created. This method allows calculating two-dimensional distribution of conductivity in film (conductivity map) and, indirectly, distribution of defects in it. The reconstruction defect efficiency criterion and the method of its calculation were proposed. The influence of initial data disturbance (non-uniform conductivity of the film as its roughness) on reconstruction defect efficiency without using all the combinations of current electrodes was examined.

  1. Understanding electric field-enhanced transport for the measurement of nanoparticles and their assembly on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao

    The goal of this dissertation is to understand the synthesis, characterization, and integration of nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based devices by electric field-enhanced transport of nanoparticles. Chapter I describes the factors used for determining particle trajectories and found that electric fields provide the directional electrostatic force to overcome other non-directional influences on particle trajectories. This idea is widely applied in the nanoparticle classification, characterization, and assembly onto substrate surfaces as investigated in the following chapters. Chapter 2 presents a new assembly method to position metal nanoparticles delivered from the gas phase onto surfaces using the electrostatic force generated by biased p-n junction patterned substrates. Aligned deposition patterns of metal nanoparticles were observed, and the patterning selectivity quantified. A simple model accounting for the generated electric field, and the electrostatic, van der Waals, and image forces was used to explain the observed results. Chapter 2.2 describes a data set for particle size resolved deposition, from which a Brownian dynamics model for the process can be evaluated. Brownian motion and fluid convection of nanoparticles, as well as the interactions between the charged nanoparticles and the patterned substrate, including electrostatic force, image force and van der Waals force, are accounted for in the simulation. Using both experiment and simulation the effects of the particle size, electric field intensity, and the convective flow on coverage selectivity have been investigated. Coverage selectivity is most sensitive to electric field, which is controlled by the applied reverse bias voltage across the p-n junction. A non-dimensional analysis of the competition between the electrostatic and diffusion force is found to provide a means to collapse a wide range of process operating conditions and an effective indicator or process performance. Directed assembly of

  2. Effects of the March 2015 solar eclipse on near-surface atmospheric electricity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A J

    2016-09-28

    Measurements of atmospheric electrical and standard meteorological parameters were made at coastal and inland sites in southern England during the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse. Clear evidence of a reduction in air temperature resulting from the eclipse was found at both locations, despite one of them being overcast during the entire eclipse. The reduction in temperature was expected to affect the near-surface electric field (potential gradient (PG)) through a reduction in turbulent transfer of space charge. No such effect could be unambiguously confirmed, however, with variability in PG and air-Earth current during the eclipse being comparable to pre- and post-eclipse conditions. The already low solar radiation for this latitude, season and time of day was likely to have contributed to the reduced effect of the eclipse on atmospheric electricity through boundary layer stability. The absence of a reduction in mean PG shortly after time of maximum solar obscuration, as observed during eclipses at lower geomagnetic latitude, implied that there was no significant change in atmospheric ionization from cosmic rays above background variability. This finding was suggested to be due to the relative importance of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at geomagnetic mid-latitudes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550771

  3. Selectivity and resolution of surface electrical stimulation for grasp and release.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Ard J; Schouten, Alfred C; Veltink, Peter H; van der Kooij, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of arm and hand muscles can be a functional tool for patients with motor dysfunction. Sufficient stimulation of finger and thumb musculature can support natural grasping function. Yet it remains unclear how different grasping movements can be selectively supported by electrical stimulation. The goal of this study is to determine to what extent activation of individual fingers is possible with surface electrical stimulation for the purpose of rehabilitation following stroke. The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle, flexor pollicis longus (FPL) muscle, and the thenar muscle group, all involved in grasp and release, were selected for stimulation. The evoked forces in individual fingers were measured. Stimulation thresholds and selective ranges were determined for each subject. Electrode locations where the highest selective range occurred were compared between subjects and influences of different isometric wrist positions were assessed. In all subjects selective stimulation of middle finger extension and thumb flexion was possible. In addition, selective stimulation of index and ring finger extension was possible in most cases. In nine out of the ten EDC subjects we were able to stimulate three or all four fingers selectively. However, large variability in electrode locations for high selectivity was observed between the subjects. Within the designs of grasping prostheses and grasping rehabilitation devices, the variability of electrode locations should be taken into account. The results of our study facilitate the optimization of such designs and favour a design which allows individualized stimulation locations. PMID:22180518

  4. Effects of the March 2015 solar eclipse on near-surface atmospheric electricity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A J

    2016-09-28

    Measurements of atmospheric electrical and standard meteorological parameters were made at coastal and inland sites in southern England during the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse. Clear evidence of a reduction in air temperature resulting from the eclipse was found at both locations, despite one of them being overcast during the entire eclipse. The reduction in temperature was expected to affect the near-surface electric field (potential gradient (PG)) through a reduction in turbulent transfer of space charge. No such effect could be unambiguously confirmed, however, with variability in PG and air-Earth current during the eclipse being comparable to pre- and post-eclipse conditions. The already low solar radiation for this latitude, season and time of day was likely to have contributed to the reduced effect of the eclipse on atmospheric electricity through boundary layer stability. The absence of a reduction in mean PG shortly after time of maximum solar obscuration, as observed during eclipses at lower geomagnetic latitude, implied that there was no significant change in atmospheric ionization from cosmic rays above background variability. This finding was suggested to be due to the relative importance of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at geomagnetic mid-latitudes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  5. Numerical modeling of surface and water phase contributions to the electrical properties of partially saturated sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Cassiani, G.; dalla, E.; Bergamini, F.; Pitea, D.; Binley, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Non-invasive techniques, such as ground penetrating radar, electrical resistivity tomography, and spectral induced polarization have found increasing application for the (time-lapse) monitoring of vadose zone dynamics. Critical to the usefulness of such techniques is the capability to link hydrological quantities of interest, such as moisture content, to the geophysical properties measured by non-invasive methods. Existing relationships are invariably empirical in nature, and should be calibrated on a site-by-site basis. Fundamental investigation of the electrical response of partially saturated natural porous media appears to be necessary to improve on the reliability of the hydro-geophysical relationships. We investigated the electrical response of a partially saturated, weakly consolidated sandstone via pore scale modelling, based on a digital representation of the porous medium. We created this representation purely on the basis of experimental grain-size distribution and porosity data, by using a synthetic, non-overlapping and gravitationally stable packing of spheres. Then we generated a digital representation of this medium by discretizing it in voxels. We simulated primary drainage by preforming a morphological analysis of the digital pore space. The pore-scale distribution of the phases at discrete pressure steps is computed using Laplace equation for a spherical interface and zero contact angle. Then we simulated the direct current response and the dielectric response of the multiphase system at each degree of saturation by means of finite-difference and finite-element solutions to the relevant partial differential equations. Both volume and surface pathways were taken into account. We compared the model results with laboratory data on DC resistivity and electrical permittivity of the studied sandstone. Three different approaches to model surface conductivity in simulating the DC response have been implemented and tested, reaching the conclusion that

  6. Mass analysis of neutral particles and ions released during electrical breakdowns on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle fluxes from breakdown events were studied. Methods to measure mass spectra and total emitted flux of neutral particles were developed. The design and construction of the specialized mass spectrometer was completed. Electrical breakdowns were initiated by a movable blunt contact touching the insulating surface. The contact discharge apparatus was used for final development of two different high-speed recording systems and for measurements of the composition of the materials given off by the discharge. It was shown that intense instantaneous fluxes of neutral particles were released from the sites of electrical breakdown events. A laser micropulse mass analyzer showed that visible discoloration at breakdown sites were correllated with the presence of iron on the polymer side of the film, presumably caused by punch-through to the Inconel backing. Kapton samples irradiated by an oxygen ion beam were tested. The irradiated samples were free of surface hydrocarbon contamination but otherwise behaved in the same way as the Kapton samples tested earlier. Only the two samples exposed to oxygen ion bombardment were relatively clean. This indicates an additional variable that should be considered when testing spacecraft materials in the laboratory.

  7. Effects of surface anchoring on the electric Frederiks transition in ferronematic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhbin, Mojtaba; Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of anchoring phenomenon on the electric Frederiks transition threshold field in a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles are discussed. The polarizability of these nanoparticles in combination with confinement effects cause the drastic effects on the ferronematic systems. This study is based on Frank free energy and Rapini-Papoular surface energy for ferronematic liquid crystal having finite anchoring condition. In the case of different anchoring boundary conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation of the total free energy is numerically solved by using the finite difference method together with the relaxation method and Maxwell construction to select the physical solutions and therefore investigate the effects of different anchoring strengths on the Frederiks transition threshold field. Maxwell construction method is employed to select three periodic solutions for nematic liquid crystal director at the interfaces of a slab. In the interval from zero to half- π, there is only one solution for the director orientation. In this way, NLC director rotates toward the normal to the surface as the applied electric field increases at the walls. Our numerical results illustrate that above Frederiks transition and in the intermediate anchoring strength, nematic molecules illustrate the different orientation at slab boundaries. We also study the effects of different anchoring strengths, nanoparticle volume fractions and polarizations on the Frederiks transition threshold field. We report that decreasing in the nanoparticle polarization results in the saturation Frederiks threshold. However, this situation does not happen for the nanoparticles volume fraction.

  8. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Brown, Ian G.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Kong, Fanping

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  9. Electrical conductivity and emerging contaminant as markers of surface freshwater contamination by wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2014-06-15

    The use of chemical markers of undoubted anthropogenic sources for surface freshwater contamination by wastewaters was evaluated employing correlations observed between measured physico-chemical parameters as the electrical conductivity and the concentration of different emerging organic compounds. During the period from April/2011 to April/2012 spatial-temporal variations and contamination patterns of two rivers (Piraí and Jundiaí rivers), São Paulo state, Brazil were evaluated. Seven physico-chemical parameters and concentrations of different classes of emerging contaminants were determined in samples collected in seven field campaigns. The high linear correlation coefficients obtained for the compounds diclofenac (r=0.9085), propanolol (r=0.8994), ibuprofen (r=0.8720) and atenolol (r=0.7811) with electrical conductivity, also corroborated by principal component analysis (PCA), point to the potential use of these compounds as markers of investigated surface water contamination by wastewaters. Due to specific inputs, these environmental markers showed very good effectiveness for the identification and differentiation of water body contamination by discharges of treated and untreated urban sewage.

  10. Three dimensional modeling and inversion of Borehole-surface Electrical Resistivity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.

    2013-12-01

    After a long time of exploration, many oil fields have stepped into the high water-cut period. It is sorely needed to determining the oil-water distribution and water flooding front. Borehole-surface electrical resistivity tomography (BSERT) system is a low-cost measurement with wide measuring scope and small influence on the reservoir. So it is gaining more and more application in detecting water flooding areas and evaluating residual oil distribution in oil fields. In BSERT system, current is connected with the steel casing of the observation well. The current flows along the long casing and transmits to the surface through inhomogeneous layers. Then received electric potential difference data on the surface can be used to inverse the deep subsurface resistivity distribution. This study presents the 3D modeling and inversion method of electrical resistivity data. In an extensive literature, the steel casing is treated as a transmission line current source with infinite small radius and constant current density. However, in practical multi-layered formations with different resistivity, the current density along the casing is not constant. In this study, the steel casing is modeled by a 2.5e-7 ohm-m physical volume that the casing occupies in the finite element mesh. Radius of the casing can be set to a little bigger than the true radius, and this helps reduce the element number and computation time. The current supply point is set on the center of the top surface of the physical volume. The homogeneous formation modeling result shows the same precision as the transmission line current source model. The multi-layered formation modeling result shows that the current density along the casing is high in the low-resistivity layer, and low in the high-resistivity layer. These results are more reasonable. Moreover, the deviated and horizontal well can be simulated as simple as the vertical well using this modeling method. Based on this forward modeling method, the

  11. Driving and controlling molecular surface rotors with a terahertz electric field.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jan; Gottschalk, Kay E; Astumian, R Dean

    2012-06-26

    Great progress has been made in the design and synthesis of molecular motors and rotors. Loosely inspired by biomolecular machines such as kinesin and the FoF1 ATPsynthase, these molecules are hoped to provide elements for construction of more elaborate structures that can carry out tasks at the nanoscale corresponding to the tasks accomplished by elementary machines in the macroscopic world. Most of the molecular motors synthesized to date suffer from the drawback that they operate relatively slowly (less than kHz). Here we show by molecular dynamics studies of a diethyl sulfide rotor on a gold(111) surface that a high-frequency oscillating electric field normal to the surface can drive directed rotation at GHz frequencies. The maximum directed rotation rate is 10(10) rotations per second, significantly faster than the rotation of previously reported directional molecular rotors. Understanding the fundamental basis of directed motion of surface rotors is essential for the further development of efficient externally driven artificial rotors. Our results represent a step toward the design of a surface-bound molecular rotary motor with a tunable rotation frequency and direction. PMID:22574650

  12. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  13. Semantic brain areas are involved in gesture comprehension: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gabaro, Veronica; Orlandi, Andrea; Zani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    While the mechanism of sign language comprehension in deaf people has been widely investigated, little is known about the neural underpinnings of spontaneous gesture comprehension in healthy speakers. Bioelectrical responses to 800 pictures of actors showing common Italian gestures (e.g., emblems, deictic or iconic gestures) were recorded in 14 persons. Stimuli were selected from a wider corpus of 1122 gestures. Half of the pictures were preceded by an incongruent description. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while participants decided whether the stimulus was congruent. Congruent pictures elicited a posterior P300 followed by late positivity, while incongruent gestures elicited an anterior N400 response. N400 generators were investigated with swLORETA reconstruction. Processing of congruent gestures activated face- and body-related visual areas (e.g., BA19, BA37, BA22), the left angular gyrus, mirror fronto/parietal areas. The incongruent-congruent contrast particularly stimulated linguistic and semantic brain areas, such as the left medial and the superior temporal lobe.

  14. Possible Time-Dependent Effect of Ions and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Verdel, Nada; Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. PMID:22605965

  15. A Method for Partitioning Surface and Subsurface Flow Using Rainfall Simulaton and Two-Dimensional Surface Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, A. M.; Paige, G. B.; Miller, S. N.; Carr, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid rangeland environments understanding how surface and subsurface flow processes and their interactions are influenced by watershed and rainfall characteristics is critical. However, it is difficult to resolve the temporal variations between mechanisms controlling these processes and challenging to obtain field measurements that document their interactions. Better insight into how these complex systems respond hydrologically is necessary in order to refine hydrologic models and decision support tools. We are conducting field studies integrating high resolution, two-dimensional surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) with variable intensity rainfall simulation, to quantify real-time partitioning of rainfall into surface and subsurface response. These studies are being conducted at the hillslope scale on long-term runoff plots on four different ecological sites in the Upper Crow Creek Watershed in southeastern Wyoming. Variable intensity rainfall rates were applied using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator in which intensities were increased incrementally from 49 to 180 mm hr-1 and steady-state runoff rates for each intensity were measured. Two 13.5 m electrode arrays at 0.5 m spacing were positioned on the surface perpendicular to each plot and potentials were measured at given time intervals prior to, during and following simulations using a dipole-dipole array configuration. The configuration allows for a 2.47 m depth of investigation in which magnitude and direction of subsurface flux can be determined. We used the calculated steady state infiltration rates to quantify the variability in the partial area runoff response on the ecological sites. Coupling this information with time-lapse difference inversions of ERI data, we are able to track areas of increasing and decreasing resistivity in the subsurface related to localized areas of infiltration during and following rainfall events. We anticipate implementing this method across a variety of

  16. Correlation between surface morphology and electrical properties of VO2 films grown by direct thermal oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Joonseok; Park, Changwoo; Park, Sungkyun; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Ju, Honglyoul

    2015-10-01

    We investigate surface morphology and electrical properties of VO2 films fabricated by direct thermal oxidation method. The VO2 film prepared with oxidation temperature at 580 °C exhibits excellent qualities of VO2 characteristics, e.g. a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near 67 °C, a resistivity ratio of ∼2.3 × 104, and a bandgap of 0.7 eV. The analysis of surface morphology with electrical resistivity of VO2 films reveals that the transport properties of VO2 films are closely related to the grain size and surface roughness that vary with oxidation annealing temperatures.

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of kind versus hostile intentions in the human brain: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience research suggests that inferring neutral intentions of other people recruits a specific brain network within the inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network including brain areas subserving theory of mind, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Recent studies on harmful intentions have refined this network by showing the specific involvement of the ACC, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in early stages (within 200 ms) of information processing. However, the functional dynamics for kind intentions within and among these networks remains unclear. To address this question, we measured electrical brain activity from 18 healthy adult participants while they were performing an intention inference task with three different types of intentions: kind, hostile and non-interactive. Electrophysiological results revealed that kind intentions were characterized by significantly larger peak amplitudes of N2 over the frontal sites than those for hostile and non-interactive intentions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between hostile and non-interactive intentions at N2. The source analysis suggested that the vicinity of the left cingulate gyrus contributed to the N2 effect by subtracting the kindness condition from the non-interactive condition within 250-350 ms. At a later stage (i.e., during the 270-500 ms epoch), the peak amplitude of the P3 over the parietal sites and the right hemisphere was significantly larger for hostile intentions compared to the kind and non-interactive intentions. No significant differences were observed at P3 between kind and non-interactive intentions. The source analysis showed that the vicinity of the left anterior cingulate cortex contributed to the P3 effect by subtracting the hostility condition from the non-interactive condition within 450-550 ms

  18. Plasma-Surface Interactions in Hollow Cathode Discharges for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Angela Maria

    Electric thrusters generate high exhaust velocities and can achieve specific impulses in excess of 1000 s. The low thrust generation and high specific impulse make electric propulsion ideal for interplanetary missions, spacecraft station keeping, and orbit raising maneuvers. Consequently, these devices have been used on a variety of space missions including Deep Space 1, Dawn, and hundreds of commercial spacecraft in Earth orbit. In order to provide the required total impulses, thruster burn time can often exceed 10,000 hours, making thruster lifetime essential. One of the main life-limiting components on ion engines is the hollow cathode, which serves as the electron source for ionization of the xenon propellant gas. Reactive contaminants such as oxygen can modify the cathode surface morphology and degrade the electron emission properties. Hollow cathodes that operate with reactive impurities in the propellant will experience higher operating temperatures, which increase evaporation of the emission materials and reduce cathode life. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms initiating cathode failure will improve thruster operation, increase lifetime, and ultimately reduce cost. A significant amount of work has been done previously to understand the effects of oxygen poisoning on vacuum cathodes; however, the xenon plasma adds complexity, and its role during cathode poisoning is not completely understood. The work presented here represents the first attempt at understanding how oxygen impurities in the xenon discharge plasma alter the emitter surface and affect operation of a 4:1:1 BaO-CaO-Al2O3 hollow cathode. A combination of experimentation and modeling was used to investigate how oxygen impurities in the discharge plasma alter the emitter surface and reduce the electron emission capability. The experimental effort involved operating a 4:1:1 hollow cathode at various conditions with oxygen impurities in the xenon flow. Since direct measurements of the emitter

  19. Rapid immunohistochemistry based on alternating current electric field for intraoperative diagnosis of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Mishie; Sasajima, Toshio; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Akesaka, Shiori; Kagaya, Masami; Kimura, Taichi; Ishida, Yusuke; Oda, Masaya; Takahashi, Masataka; Sugawara, Taku; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Akagami, Yoichi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) can contribute to the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We have recently developed a new IHC method based on an alternating current electric field to facilitate the antigen-antibody reaction. To ensure the requirement of R-IHC for intraoperative diagnosis, 183 cases of CNS tumors were reviewed regarding the accuracy rate of diagnosis without R-IHC. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7 % (166/183 cases) [corrected] in which definitive diagnoses were not provided in 17 cases because of the failure of glioma grading and differential diagnosis of lymphoma and glioma. To establish the clinicopathological application, R-IHC for frozen specimens was compared with standard IHC for permanent specimens. 33 gliomas were analyzed, and the Ki-67/MIB-1 indices of frozen specimens by R-IHC were consistent with the grade and statistically correlated with those of permanent specimens. Thus, R-IHC provided supportive information to determine the grade of glioma. For discrimination between glioma and lymphoma, R-IHC was able to provide clear results of CD20 and Ki-67/MIB-1 in four frozen specimens of CNS lymphoma as well as standard IHC. We conclude that the R-IHC for frozen specimens can provide important information for intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors.

  20. The Measurement of Surface Cracks in Metals by Using a.c. Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, D. H.; Waechter, R. T.; Collins, R.

    1982-05-01

    This paper describes some recent studies associated with the development of an instrument, the Crack Microgauge, at University College London, for the detection and measurement of surface cracks in metals by using a.c. electric currents in the metal surface. The design of the instrument has enhanced the accuracy of measurement of surface voltages in the neighbourhood of surface-breaking cracks to the point where it is now advantageous to consider the distribution of surface voltages by mathematical analysis. This enables better use to be made of the instrument since measurements can then be more accurately interpreted in terms of crack size and geometry. In contrast, earlier applications of the method relied on the calibration of the instruments against test blocks. The first generation of users of the Crack Microgauge interpreted their readings according to a simple one-dimensional normal crack model. This, however, is an oversimplification for cracks of finite aspect ratio and it leads to underestimates of centre-line crack depth typically of the order of 30-40<%> when the aspect ratio is about 3. The first major contribution of the theory was therefore to provide a model for surface current flow around cracks of finite aspect ratio. For this purpose a useful unfolding theorem was deduced in cases in which the current skin depth is small compared with crack dimensions. This allows the surface field to be unfolded into a plane distribution of potential satisfying Laplace's equation, and it enables us to obtain solutions for many different crack shapes by using standard mathematical methods. An account of these developments is given in ξ 2 of this paper. The unfolding of the surface field gives the global distribution of surface current around a crack, that is, on the length scale of the crack dimensions. On the length scale of the skin depth, however, the solutions need modification in the neighbourhood of the surface and interior edges of the crack. In

  1. Direct observation of DNA motions into solid state nanopore under applied electrical potentials on conductive surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Ando, Genki; Idutsu, Ichiro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    Solid state nanopore is one of emerging methods for rapid single DNA molecule detection because the translocation of the DNA though nanopore produces ionic current changes. One of issues in this method is clogging long DNA molecules. Once DNA molecules clogged, the molecules are rarely removed by varying or switching the polarity of applied bias voltages across the nanopore. We develop a modified nanopore by 50nm Au coating on top of the nanopore surface to be able to remove the clogged DNA molecules during the DNA translocation experiment. Fluorescence microscopy was implemented for observation of stained DNA molecules. The nanopores with diameters near 100 nm can be used initially. DNA translocation rates changes dramatically by tuning the applied electrical potentials on surface higher or lower than the potentials across the nanopore. Furthermore, the Au potentials modifies IV characteristic of the ionic current across the nanopore which is similar to the gate voltages controlling the SD current in FET. We will discuss the influence of surface potential on DNA motion and translocation and clogged DNA molecules. Finally, we will present the recent results of DNA translocation into the SiN-Au-SiO2 nanopore and discuss the effect of applied voltages on Au.

  2. Estimation of the electrical potential distribution along metallic casing from surface self-potential profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maineult, Alexis

    2016-06-01

    Corroding casings of wells generate negative self-potential (SP) anomalies, increasing from about - 10 to - 500 mV in the vicinity of the well to 0 mV at large distances. As reported in previous laboratory experiment, SP can be used to retrieve the distribution of electrical potential along the casing, which is somehow a proxy for the corrosion state of the casing. These studies used 3D (whole space) or surface 2D (whole surface) measurements of SP distribution; here we reported a field example, for which only a 1D surface SP profile is available. In order to retrieve the most probable associated potential distribution (defined by a spline) along the 11.1-m long metallic casing, we develop a direct model based on geometrical and geoelectrical properties of the medium, which was then used in a (non-deterministic) optimization procedure by simulated annealing, including some physical constrains. Tests carried out on a synthetic case allowed the initial source to be correctly retrieved, provided that the number of nodes used for the spline defining the potential distribution along the casing is large enough. The inversion of real field data provided a dipolar anomaly, with minimal negative amplitude of around - 600 mV at 5 m, and maximal positive amplitude of about 1100 mV at 9 m (close to the level of the water table), this shape being in agreement with the results of previous laboratory studies.

  3. Electric field driven changes of a gramicidin containing lipid bilayer supported on a Au(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Laredo, Thamara; Dutcher, John R; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2011-08-16

    Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaeffer methods were employed to deposit a mixed bilayer consisting of 90% of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 10% of gramicidin (GD), a short 15 residue ion channel forming peptide, onto a Au(111) electrode surface. This architecture allowed us to investigate the effect of the electrostatic potential applied to the electrode on the orientation and conformation of DMPC molecules in the bilayer containing the ion channel. The charge density data were determined from chronocoulometry experiments. The electric field and the potential across the membrane were determined through the use of charge density curves. The magnitudes of potentials across the gold-supported biomimetic membrane were comparable to the transmembrane potential acting on a natural membrane. The information regarding the orientation and conformation of DMPC and GD molecules in the bilayer was obtained from photon polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) measurements. The results show that the bilayer is adsorbed, in direct contact with the metal surface, when the potential across the interface is more positive than -0.4 V and is lifted from the gold surface when the potential across the interface is more negative than -0.4 V. This change in the state of the bilayer has a significant impact on the orientation and conformation of the phospholipid and gramicidin molecules. The potential induced changes in the membrane containing peptide were compared to the changes in the structure of the pure DMPC bilayer determined in earlier studies.

  4. An offline auditory P300 brain-computer interface using principal and independent component analysis techniques for functional electrical stimulation application.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Alexander S J; Andrew, Colin M; John, Lester R

    2008-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides technology that allows communication and control for people who are unable to interact with their environment. A P300 BCI exploits the fact that external or internal stimuli may provide a recognition response in the brain's electrical activity which may be recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) to act as a control signal. Additionally an auditory BCI does not require the user to avert their visual attention away from the task at hand and is thus more practical in a real environment than other visual stimulus BCIs.

  5. Development of a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Seki, C.; Kashikura, K.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed and tested a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface of animals. The beta camera consists of a thin CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator, a tapered fiber optics plate (taper fiber) and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The taper fiber is the key component of the camera. We have developed two types of beta cameras. One is 20mm diameter field of view camera for imaging brain surface of cats. The other is 10mm diameter camera for that of rats. Spatial resolutions of beta camera for cats and rats were 0.8mm FWHM and 0.5mm FWHM, respectively. We confirmed that developed beta cameras may overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of the positron emission tomography (PET).

  6. Augmented visual feedback counteracts the effects of surface muscular functional electrical stimulation on physiological tremor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using visual cues, and (b) augmented visual feedback exacerbates upper limb tremor. Methods 10 healthy subjects (23.4 ± 7.7 years) performed 2 postural tasks with combinations of FES (4 sites; frequency of stimulation: 30 Hz; pulse width: 300 microsec; range of current delivered 10–34 mAmp) and augmented visual feedback. Results Spectral analysis of tremor showed a decrease of power spectral density to 62.18% (p = 0.01), of the integral in the 8-12 Hz frequency band to 57.67% (p = 0.003), and of tremor root mean square (RMS) to 57.16% (p = 0.002) during FES, without any changes in tremor frequency. Augmented visual feedback blocked the beneficial effect of FES, as confirmed by power spectral analysis (p = 0.01). We found a statistically significant interaction between augmented visual feedback and electrical stimulation (p = 0.039). Conclusions Augmented visual feedback antagonizes the effects of FES on physiological tremor. The absence of changes of peak frequency argues against an effect of FES on mechanical properties of the upper limb. PMID:24063436

  7. Effects of local electric surface potential on holes charging process in uncapped germanium nanocrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, Aude; El Hdiy, Abdelillah

    2015-04-21

    The charging kinetics of holes are investigated in an uncapped Ge nanocrystal by the use of the nano-electron beam induced current technique. The charging process is studied under zero volt or under an appropriate electric field. The investigation is repeated many times on the same nanocrystal and on others in the same sample to attest of the reproducibility of the results. At 0 V, the cycles of charging kinetics are superimposed and are in a steady state, but an instantaneous local and negative surface potential, established in the nanocrystal at the beginning of the kinetics, slows down the holes charging process. Under an external field, the energy band bending accentuation affects the holes charging time constants. As a result, the holes charging cycles weakly affect the electrical performance of the thin oxide as is indicated by the value of the measured local resistivity of 6 × 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Ω cm, which is relatively lower than that of the thick thermal oxide.

  8. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  9. Application of Solar Electric Propulsion to a Comet Surface Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Mike; Coverstone, Victoria; Woo, Byoungsam

    2004-01-01

    Current NSTAR (planned for the Discovery Mission: Dawn) and NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster based propulsion systems were compared for a comet surface sample return mission to Tempe1 1. Mission and systems analyses were conducted over a range of array power for each propulsion system with an array of 12 kW EOL at 1 AU chosen for a baseline. Engine configurations investigated for NSTAR included 4 operational engines with 1 spare and 5 operational engines with 1 spare. The NEXT configuration investigated included 2 operational engines plus 1 spare, with performance estimated for high thrust and high Isp throttling modes. Figures of merit for this comparison include Solar Electric Propulsion dry mass, average engine throughput, and net non-propulsion payload returned to Earth flyby.

  10. Optical Solar Reflector - A stable, low alpha(s)/epsilon(IR), electrically conducting thermal control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, R.; Bhojaraj, H.; Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.

    1991-08-01

    Experimental studies related to the development of a stable, low alpha(s)/epsilon(IR) thermal control surface have been carried out for space applications. Systematic studies have been performed to overcome inherent problem of poor adhesion and environmental degradation of silver. The influence of the deposition parameters and post annealing temperatures on the electrical and optical properties of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film (used as transparent conductive coating) has been investigated. The test results indicate excellent stability of the coatings with adhesion and abrasion tests in accordance with military standards and also against prolonged exposure to humidity, thermal cycling, and thermo vacuum hot and cold soak tests. In addition, a summary of laboratory simulated exposure to ultraviolet, electron and proton irradiation are presented.

  11. Liquid Crystal Switching Response by Localized Surface Plasmon Induced Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuno, Zachary; Hirst, Linda; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effect of electric fields induced by localized surface plasmons (LSPs) from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the director of a nematic liquid crystal (LC). We deposit LC thin films on a self-assembled AuNP layer and excite the LSPs in the AuNPs using 530 nm excitation light. Using polarized optical microscopy we follow the birefringence of the LC film as the excitation is turned on and off and observe the homeotropic alignment of the LC change to planar. This realignment response is observed to be dependent on the excitation wavelength, excitation power, and temperature; occurring only within 1 degree Celsius of the LC phase transition from nematic to isotropic. This work was funded by UC Merced GRC Summer Fellowship.

  12. On the instability of conical protrusions of liquid surface in electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Petrin, A. B.

    2007-12-15

    Electric field is analyzed at the tip of the conical protrusion of a conductive liquid surface that forms as the field strength approaches certain threshold values. When the field exceeds the threshold, the cone tip generally becomes unstable and emits a slender jet. The field strength at the sharp tip of a conducting liquid cone tends to infinity. Even though the field has a singularity, the cone tip becomes unstable only if the semi-cone angle decreases below the Taylor angle, which is the same for all conducting liquids. It is shown that similar conical protrusions can form if the liquid is a dielectric and its permittivity is sufficiently high. In this case, the equilibrium cone angle depends on the permittivity. When the permittivity is lower than approximately 17.60, cones cannot form, and the ensuing phenomena do not occur.

  13. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  14. Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Laiwalla, Farah; Kim, Jennifer A; Urabe, Hayato; Van Wagenen, Rick; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2010-01-01

    Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (‘optrode’) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array. PMID:19721185

  15. Use of negatively reinforcing electrical brain stimulation to detect conventional and nonconventional anxiolytics as well as an anxiogenic drug.

    PubMed

    Jung, M E; Depoortere, R; Oglesby, M W

    2001-01-01

    The present study determined whether anxiolytics such as diazepam (DZP), the benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor-selective agonist abecarnil (ABC), or the 5-HT1(A) agent buspirone (BUS) would increase the response latency of rats to switch-off electrical brain stimulation (EBS) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We also investigated the effects of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a purported anxiogenic. Given acutely, DZP (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, ip) and ABC (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) increased response latency. The BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil (10.0 mg/kg, ip) blocked these effects. Increasing the frequency of EBS reversed the effects of DZP and ABC, suggesting that motor disruption did not account for the increase in latency seen with these drugs. Given acutely, BUS (10.0 mg/kg, ip) also increased response latency, which was likely due to motor disruption because it was not reversed by increasing the frequency of EBS. When BUS (2.5 mg/kg, ip) was given every 8 h for 3 days, an increase in latency was also obtained, which was reversible by increasing the frequency of EBS. Finally, PTZ (10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) shortened the latency to respond. These results (1) suggest that DZP, ABC, and chronic BUS attenuate, whereas PTZ potentiates, the negative reinforcing stimulus (NRS) induced by PAG stimulation, and (2) support the hypothesis that the switch-off procedure accurately detects anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs.

  16. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.

  17. Calibration of seawater intrusion models: Inverse parameter estimation using surface electrical resistivity tomography and borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujean, J.; Nguyen, F.; Kemna, A.; Antonsson, A.; Engesgaard, P.

    2014-08-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used to constrain seawater intrusion models because of its high sensitivity to total dissolved solid contents (TDS) in groundwater and its relatively high lateral coverage. However, the spatial variability of resolution in electrical imaging may prevent the correct recovery of the desired hydrochemical properties such as salt mass fraction. This paper presents a sequential approach to evaluate the feasibility of identifying hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity in density-dependent flow and transport models from surface ERT-derived mass fraction. In the course of this study, geophysical inversion was performed by using a smoothness constraint Tikhonov approach, whereas the hydrological inversion was performed using a gradient-based Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Two synthetic benchmarks were tested. They represent a pumping experiment in a homogeneous and heterogeneous coastal aquifer, respectively. These simulations demonstrated that only the lower salt mass fraction of the seawater-freshwater transition zone can be recovered for different times. This ability has here been quantified in terms of cumulative sensitivity and our study has further demonstrated that the mismatch between the targeted and the recovered salt mass fraction occurs from a certain threshold. We were additionally able to explore the capability of sensitivity-filtered ERT images using ground surface data only to recover (in both synthetic cases) the hydraulic conductivity while the dispersivity is more difficult to estimate. We attribute the latter mainly to the lack of ERT-derived data at depth (where resolution is poorer) as well as to the smoothing effect of the ERT inversion.

  18. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  19. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Djurabekova, Flyura Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan; Holmström, Eero; Hakala, Mikko

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  20. Nonlinear conductance and heterogeneity of voltage-gated ion channels allow defining electrical surface domains in cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2015-07-01

    The membrane potential of a cell measured by typical electrophysiological methods is only an average magnitude and experimental techniques allowing a more detailed mapping of the cell surface have shown the existence of spatial domains with locally different electric potentials and currents. Electrical potentials in non-neural cells are regulated by the nonlinear conductance of membrane ion channels. Voltage-gated potassium channels participate in cell hyperpolarization/depolarization processes and control the electrical signals over the cell surface, constituting good candidates to study basic biological questions on a more simplified scale than the complex cell membrane. These channels show also a high heterogeneity, making it possible to analyze the effects of diversity in the electrical responses of channels localized on spatial domains. We use a phenomenological approach of voltage gating that reproduces the observed rectification characteristics of inward rectifying potassium channels and relate the threshold voltage heterogeneity of the channels to the establishment of spatial domains with different electrical sensitivities. Although our model is only a limited picture of the whole cell membrane, it shows that domains with different ion channels may permit or suppress steady state bioelectrical signals over the cell surface according to their particular voltage sensitivity. Also, the nonlinear electrical coupling of channels with different threshold potentials can lead to a rich variety of bioelectrical phenomena, including regions of membrane potential bi-stability.

  1. Characterization of electric discharge machining, subsequent etching and shot-peening as a surface treatment for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stráský, Josef; Havlíková, Jana; Bačáková, Lucie; Harcuba, Petr; Mhaede, Mansour; Janeček, Miloš

    2013-09-01

    Presented work aims at multi-method characterization of combined surface treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical use. Surface treatment consists of consequent use of electric discharge machining (EDM), acid etching and shot peening. Surface layers are analyzed employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Acid etching by strong Kroll's reagent is capable of removing surface layer of transformed material created by EDM. Acid etching also creates partly nanostructured surface and significantly contributes to the enhanced proliferation of the bone cells. The cell growth could be positively affected by the superimposed bone-inspired structure of the surface with the morphological features in macro-, micro- and nano-range. Shot peening significantly improves poor fatigue performance after EDM. Final fatigue performance is comparable to benchmark electropolished material without any adverse surface effect. The proposed three-step surface treatment is a low-cost process capable of producing material that is applicable in orthopedics.

  2. Advances in electromagnetic brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2010-02-01

    Non-invasive and dynamic imaging of brain activity in the sub-millisecond time-scale is enabled by measurements on or near the scalp surface using an array of sensors that measure magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography (MEG)) or electric potentials (electroencephalography (EEG)). Algorithmic reconstruction of brain activity from MEG and EEG data is referred to as electromagnetic brain imaging (EBI). Reconstructing the actual brain response to external events and distinguishing unrelated brain activity has been a challenge for many existing algorithms in this field. Furthermore, even under conditions where there is very little interference, accurately determining the spatial locations and timing of brain sources from MEG and EEG data is challenging problem because it involves solving for unknown brain activity across thousands of voxels from just a few sensors (~300). In recent years, my research group has developed a suite of novel and powerful algorithms for EBI that we have shown to be considerably superior to existing benchmark algorithms. Specifically, these algorithms can solve for many brain sources, including sources located far from the sensors, in the presence of large interference from unrelated brain sources. Our algorithms efficiently model interference contributions to sensors, accurately estimate sparse brain source activity using fast and robust probabilistic inference techniques. Here, we review some of these algorithms and illustrate their performance in simulations and real MEG/EEG data.

  3. Electrically tunable surface plasmon for THz emission, detection, and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Jed; Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Buchwald, Walter; Woods, Charles

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz laser based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. In the free-electron laser, an energetic electron beam pumps a metallic grating to generate surface plasmons. Our solid-state optically pumped design consists of a thin layer of dielectic, such as SiNx, sandwiched between a corrugated structure and a thin metal or semiconductor layer. The lower layer is for current streaming, and replaces the electron beam in the original design. The upper layer consists of one micro-grating for coupling the electromagnetic field in, another for coupling out, and a nano-grating for coupling with the current in the lower layer for electromagnetic field generation. The surface plasmon waves generated from the upper layer by an external electromagnetic field, and the lower layer by the applied current, are coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  4. Ionization distances of Rydberg atoms approaching solid surfaces in the presence of weak electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nedeljkovic, N.N.; Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.

    2005-09-15

    The ionization distances R{sub c}{sup I} of slow hydrogenlike Rydberg atoms approaching solid surfaces in the presence of a weak external electric field are calculated. The ionization is treated as resonant electron tunneling in the very vicinity of the top of the potential barrier, created between the ionic core and polarized solid. We obtain both the complex energies and the ionization distances by solving the energy eigenvalue problem under the outgoing wave boundary condition towards the solid. The eigenvalue problem is studied in parabolic coordinates within the framework of an etalon equation method adapted to include the confluence of turning points. It is demonstrated that in a critical region R{approx_equal}R{sub c}{sup I}>>1 a.u. of ion-surface distances R, parabolic quantum numbers n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, and m can serve as approximate, but 'sufficiently good' quantum numbers, at least for lower n{sub 1} values. The method offers asymptotically exact analytical expressions for the ionization rates and energies, which follow the theoretical predictions of the complex scaling method (CSM). It is also found that the resulting ionization distances R{sub c}{sup I} are in very good agreement with the results of CSM. The implications of using obtained results in analyzing the recent xenon experimental data for R{sub c}{sup I} are briefly discussed.

  5. Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jehlik, Forrest; LaClair, Tim J.

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes. Application of response surface modeling to the synthetic drive cycle is shown to predict energy consumption of the three EPA cycles within 2.6% of the actual measured values. Additionally, the response model may be used to predict energy consumption of any cycle within the speed/acceleration envelope of the synthetic cycle. This technique results in reducing test time, which additionally provides a model that may be used to expand the analysis and understanding of the vehicle under consideration.

  6. Surface engineered polymeric nanocarriers mediate the delivery of transferrin-methotrexate conjugates for an improved understanding of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Jain, Ashay; Garg, Neeraj K; Tyagi, Rajeev K; Singh, Bhupinder; Katare, Om Prakash; Webster, Thomas J; Soni, Vandana

    2015-09-01

    The objective of present study was to enhance permeation of bioactive molecules across blood brain barrier (BBB) through polysorbate 80 coated poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with methotrexate-transferrin (Tw-Mtx-Tf-NP) conjugates (Mtx-Tf). The easy trans-BBB migration of developed formulations through endocytosis, and inhibition of P-gp efflux pump present in brain were established by Pluronic F-68 and/or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80/Tw). The over-expression of transferrin (Tf) receptors on cancer cell surface allowed targeted and sustained delivery of Mtx-Tf conjugated to brain cancer cells by receptor mediated endocytosis. The developed formulations showed improved penetration in comparison to non-targeting experimental NP controls. The transportation potential and bio-distribution studies of such nanosized polymeric carriers showing successful migration and trans-BBB passage was carried out by administering FITC labeled drug loaded NPs to albino rats through intravenous route. We have validated anti-tumor efficiency of newly formulated and drug loaded NPs compared to controls in experimentally induced tumor-harboring rat model. The present study suggests greater compatibility, less organ toxicity and higher anti-tumor activity of developed formulations due to their targeting and sustained delivery potential in cancer therapeutic interventions. In conclusion, our findings of targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of NPs for are corroborated with in vitro and in vivo evidence, and formulated novel delivery vehicle shows its value in developing new tools for treating brain cancer.

  7. Relationship Between Surface-Based Brain Morphometric Measures and Intelligence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of History of Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Sato, João Ricardo; Vieira, Gilson; Feng, Yeu; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Murphy, Declan; Ecker, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of conditions that show abnormalities in the neuroanatomy of multiple brain regions. The variability in the development of intelligence and language among individuals on the autism spectrum has long been acknowledged, but it remains unknown whether these differences impact on the neuropathology of ASD. In this study, we aimed to compare associations between surface-based regional brain measures and general intelligence (IQ) scores in ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay. We included 64 ASD adults of normal intelligence (37 without a history of language delay and 27 with a history of language delay and 80 neurotypicals). Regions with a significant association between verbal and nonverbal IQ and measures of cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and cortical volume were first identified in the combined sample of individuals with ASD and controls. Thicker dorsal frontal and temporal cortices, and thinner lateral orbital frontal and parieto-occipital cortices were associated with greater and lower verbal IQ scores, respectively. Correlations between cortical volume and verbal IQ were observed in similar regions as revealed by the CT analysis. A significant difference between ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay in the association between CT and verbal IQ was evident in the parieto-occipital region. These results indicate that ASD subgroups defined on the basis of differential language trajectories in childhood can have different associations between verbal IQ and brain measures in adulthood despite achieving similar levels of cognitive performance. PMID:25735789

  8. Relationship Between Surface-Based Brain Morphometric Measures and Intelligence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of History of Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Sato, João Ricardo; Vieira, Gilson; Feng, Yeu; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Murphy, Declan; Ecker, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of conditions that show abnormalities in the neuroanatomy of multiple brain regions. The variability in the development of intelligence and language among individuals on the autism spectrum has long been acknowledged, but it remains unknown whether these differences impact on the neuropathology of ASD. In this study, we aimed to compare associations between surface-based regional brain measures and general intelligence (IQ) scores in ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay. We included 64 ASD adults of normal intelligence (37 without a history of language delay and 27 with a history of language delay and 80 neurotypicals). Regions with a significant association between verbal and nonverbal IQ and measures of cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and cortical volume were first identified in the combined sample of individuals with ASD and controls. Thicker dorsal frontal and temporal cortices, and thinner lateral orbital frontal and parieto-occipital cortices were associated with greater and lower verbal IQ scores, respectively. Correlations between cortical volume and verbal IQ were observed in similar regions as revealed by the CT analysis. A significant difference between ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay in the association between CT and verbal IQ was evident in the parieto-occipital region. These results indicate that ASD subgroups defined on the basis of differential language trajectories in childhood can have different associations between verbal IQ and brain measures in adulthood despite achieving similar levels of cognitive performance.

  9. The electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and its dependence on tissue dielectric properties and anatomy: a computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J.; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2015-09-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are a non-invasive, anti-mitotic and approved treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In vitro studies have shown that inhibition of cell division in glioma is achieved when the applied alternating electric field has a frequency in the range of 200 kHz and an amplitude of 1-3 V cm-1. Our aim is to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and to investigate the dependence of these predictions on the heterogeneous, anisotropic dielectric properties used in the computational model. A realistic head model was developed by segmenting MR images and by incorporating anisotropic conductivity values for the brain tissues. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve for the electric potential within a volume mesh that consisted of the head tissues, a virtual lesion with an active tumour shell surrounding a necrotic core, and the transducer arrays. The induced electric field distribution is highly non-uniform. Average field strength values are slightly higher in the tumour when incorporating anisotropy, by about 10% or less. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the conductivity and permittivity of head tissues shows a variation in field strength of less than 42% in brain parenchyma and in the tumour, for values within the ranges reported in the literature. Comparing results to a previously developed head model suggests significant inter-subject variability. This modelling study predicts that during treatment with TTFields the electric field in the tumour exceeds 1 V cm-1, independent of modelling assumptions. In the future, computational models may be useful to optimize delivery of TTFields.

  10. The electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and its dependence on tissue dielectric properties and anatomy: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J; Miranda, Pedro C

    2015-09-21

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are a non-invasive, anti-mitotic and approved treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In vitro studies have shown that inhibition of cell division in glioma is achieved when the applied alternating electric field has a frequency in the range of 200 kHz and an amplitude of 1-3 V cm(-1). Our aim is to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and to investigate the dependence of these predictions on the heterogeneous, anisotropic dielectric properties used in the computational model. A realistic head model was developed by segmenting MR images and by incorporating anisotropic conductivity values for the brain tissues. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve for the electric potential within a volume mesh that consisted of the head tissues, a virtual lesion with an active tumour shell surrounding a necrotic core, and the transducer arrays. The induced electric field distribution is highly non-uniform. Average field strength values are slightly higher in the tumour when incorporating anisotropy, by about 10% or less. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the conductivity and permittivity of head tissues shows a variation in field strength of less than 42% in brain parenchyma and in the tumour, for values within the ranges reported in the literature. Comparing results to a previously developed head model suggests significant inter-subject variability. This modelling study predicts that during treatment with TTFields the electric field in the tumour exceeds 1 V cm(-1), independent of modelling assumptions. In the future, computational models may be useful to optimize delivery of TTFields.

  11. Physiologic and anatomic characterization of the brain surface glia barrier of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Bainton, Roland J

    2011-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) physiology requires special chemical, metabolic, and cellular privileges for normal function, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are the anatomic and physiologic constructs that arbitrate communication between the brain and body. In the vertebrate BBB, two primary cell types create CNS exclusion biology, a polarized vascular endothelium (VE), and a tightly associated single layer of astrocytic glia (AG). Examples of direct action by the BBB in CNS disease are constantly expanding, including key pathophysiologic roles in multiple sclerosis, stroke, and cancer. In addition, its role as a pharmacologic treatment obstacle to the brain is long standing; thus, molecular model systems that can parse BBB functions and understand the complex integration of sophisticated cellular anatomy and highly polarized chemical protection physiology are desperately needed. Compound barrier structures that use two primary cell types (i.e., functional bicellularity) are common to other humoral/CNS barrier structures. For example, invertebrates use two cell layers of glia, perineurial and subperineurial, to control chemical access to the brain, and analogous glial layers, fenestrated and pseudocartridge, to maintain the blood-eye barrier. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of brain-barrier glial anatomy in Drosophila, demonstrate the power of live imaging as a screening methodology for identifying physiologic characteristics of BBB glia, and compare the physiologies of Drosophila barrier layers to the VE/AG interface of vertebrates. We conclude that many unique BBB physiologies are conserved across phyla and suggest new methods for modeling CNS physiology and disease. PMID:21351158

  12. Registering fNIR data to brain surface image using MRI templates.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Hasan; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Platek, Steven M; Bunce, Scott; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Onaral, Banu

    2006-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) measures changes in the relative levels of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and has increasingly been used to assess neural functioning in the brain. In addition to the ongoing technological developments, investigators have also been conducting studies on functional mapping and refinement of data analytic strategies in order to better understand the relationship between the fNIR signal and brain activity. However, since fNIR is a relatively new functional brain imaging modality as compared to positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), it still lacks brain-mapping tools designed to allow researchers and clinicians to easily interact with their data. The aim of this study is to develop a registration technique for the fNIR measurements using anatomical landmarks and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) templates in order to visualize the brain activation when and where it happens. The proposed registration technique utilizes chain-code algorithm and depicts activations over respective locations based on sensor geometry. Furthermore, registered data locations have been used to create spatiotemporal visualization of fNIR measurements.

  13. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in the near-surface region of Pd(111) under the influence of surface coverage and external static electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Rey, M.; Tremblay, J. C.

    2015-04-21

    Past scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments of H manipulation on Pd(111), at low temperature, have shown that it is possible to induce diffusion of surface species as well as of those deeply buried under the surface. Several questions remain open regarding the role of subsurface site occupancies. In the present work, the interaction potential of H atoms with Pd(111) under various H coverage conditions is determined by means of density functional theory calculations in order to provide an answer to two of these questions: (i) whether subsurface sites are the final locations for the H impurities that attempt to emerge from bulk regions, and (ii) whether penetration of the surface is a competing route of on-surface diffusion during depletion of surface H on densely covered Pd(111). We find that a high H coverage has the effect of blocking resurfacing of H atoms travelling from below, which would otherwise reach the surface fcc sites, but it hardly alters deeper diffusion energy barriers. Penetration is unlikely and restricted to high occupancies of hcp hollows. In agreement with experiments, the Pd lattice expands vertically as a consequence of H atoms being blocked at subsurface sites, and surface H enhances this expansion. STM tip effects are included in the calculations self-consistently as an external static electric field. The main contribution to the induced surface electric dipoles originates from the Pd substrate polarisability. We find that the electric field has a non-negligible effect on the H-Pd potential in the vicinity of the topmost Pd atomic layer, yet typical STM intensities of 1-2 VÅ{sup −1} are insufficient to invert the stabilities of the surface and subsurface equilibrium sites.

  14. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  15. Surface Electrical Conductivity Prediction by Soil Moisture and Electromagnetic Mapping Techniques: Implication for Landmine Detection Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, J.; McNairn, H.; Keating, P. K.; Das, Y.; Dyke, L.; Best, M. E.; Singhroy, V.; Connell-Madore, S.; Hunter, J.; Klassen, R.; Dilabio, R.; Moore, A.

    2004-05-01

    Electrical conductivity (EC) can be a source of significant signal interference in landmine detection, implying that there is a necessity for soil EC prediction in order to carry out safe demining operations in landmine affected countries in the world. A fundamental study on soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture content has been carried out in order to increase the soil EC prediction accuracy when using data from various sensors, such as remote sensing, airborne and surficial electromagnetic (EM) methods. Results indicate that soil moisture consists of free water filling pore spaces and bound water which forms adsorbed water layers on the grain surfaces. The response of these two water phases to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that a moist clay poor soil may have low EC but a dry clay rich soil may have higher EC. This is a result of not only the bound water layers being a significant source of EC, but of the capillary component of the free water reacting differently to the different grain-sizes of the soil. The capillary water forms important electrical conductive bridges between the adsorbed water layers on the grains that constitute the soil. This implies that information on soil texture, mineralogy and their distribution are required for accurate EC prediction. Whereas information on these soil characteristics may be acquired by remote sensing and soil maps, soil moisture content is likely to vary from the time of data acquisition to that of demining operations, implying methods to predict these changes are required. In addition, soil type inhomogeniety, such as vertical and horizontal variation can also be a source of inaccuracies in moisture and EC predictions. However, these investigations also indicate that a wide band electrical frequency signal may have the possibility of providing information on, not only metallic mineral content, but on pore space, clay mineral type and water content. In addition, applications of

  16. Selective Tuning of a Particular Chemical Reaction on Surfaces through Electrical Resonance: An ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Masood; Shin, Dongbin; Ruoff, Rodney; Park, Noejung

    2015-12-17

    We used ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to investigate the effect of a monochromatic oscillating electric field in resonance with a particular molecular vibration on surfaces. As a case study, AIMD simulations were carried out for hydroxyl functional groups on graphene. When the frequency of the applied field matches with the C-OH vibration frequency, the amplitude is monotonically amplified, leading to a complete desorption from the surface, overcoming the substantial barrier. This suggests the possibility of activating a particular bond without damaging the remaining surface. We extended this work to the case of the amination of sp(2)-bonded carbon surfaces and discussed the general perspective that, in general, an unfavorable chemical process can be activated by applying an external electric field with an appropriate resonance frequency.

  17. Surface reconstruction from volume data used for creating an adaptable functional brain atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Thurfjell, L. |; Bengtsson, E.

    1995-08-01

    Functions for creating adaptable atlas structures from volume data have now been included in the Karolinska Computerized Brain Atlas (CBA) software system. The main objective is to allow the user to create functional structures based on data from brain activation studies with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The new structures will be related to the anatomy of the CBA data base brain. Thus, when the atlas is adapted to the anatomy of an individual, the new functional structures will be affected by the same transformation and can therefore be selected and displayed in relation to the anatomy of the individual. In this paper, the different steps involved in the creation of new atlas structures are explained and algorithms and data representations are described. The methods have been tested on data from activation studies. Such a study is chosen to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used.

  18. Surface antigens of brain synapses: identification of minor proteins using polyclonal antisera

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Antigenic proteins of brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and postsynaptic densities (PSD) were characterized using antisera raised against SPM. Immunostaining of brain sections showed that the antigens were restricted to synapses, and electron microscopy revealed staining at both presynaptic terminals and PSDs. In primary brain cell cultures the antisera were also neuron-specific but the antigens were distributed throughout the entire neuronal plasma membrane, suggesting that some restrictive influence present in whole tissue is absent when neurons are grown dispersed. The antigenic proteins with which these antisera react were identified using SDS gel immunoblots. SPM and PSD differed from one another in their characteristic antigenic proteins. Comparison with amido-black stained gel blots showed that in both cases most of these did not correspond to known abundant proteins of SPM or PSDs revealed by conventional biochemical techniques. None of the antigens revealed by the polyclonal antisera were detected by any of a large series of monoclonal antibodies against SPM. PMID:6368568

  19. Evaporation of water droplets on Pt-surface in presence of external electric field--A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Hens, Abhiram; Biswas, Gautam; De, Sudipta

    2015-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet on a hot solid substrate is an important problem in fluid mechanics. It is relevant to theoretical issues in heat transfer as well as several practical applications. This study investigates the spreading and evaporation of a nanoscale water droplet on a solid platinum surface. The major objective was to analyze the effect of an external electric field on these phenomena. Varying the intensity and direction of the external electric field, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand these phenomena at a molecular level. The results reveal that a horizontal electric field assists in droplet spreading, whereas a vertical electric field enhances the rate of evaporation for a certain range of field intensities. It also shows that the substrate temperature plays an important role in such processes. It is seen that the effect of an external electric field on droplet evaporation becomes significant at an intermediate range of surface temperatures and this effect is not clearly visible for either very high or very low range of surface temperatures.

  20. Electrical Properties of the Pulsed-Laser Deposited Surface-Barrier Structures Based on p-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avjyan, K.; Khachatryan, A.; Matevosyan, L.; Vardanyan, G.; Panosyan, Zh.; Yengibaryan, Ye.

    Surface-barrier structures based on p-Si where fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition method. Electrical properties (current-voltage and capacitance-voltage) of these structures were studied. It is shown, that the forward current ((+) on p-Si) varies as a J=J0exp(eU/nkT) and surface-barrier structures based on high-resistivity p-Si are light-sensitive.

  1. Design of electric-field assisted surface plasmon resonance system for the detection of heavy metal ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyaw, Htet Htet; Boonruang, Sakoolkan; Mohammed, Waleed S.; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-10-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as "Electric-Field assisted SPR system". High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions (Cd2+) in water from several parts per million (ppm) down to a few parts per billion (ppb) can be detected.

  2. Design of electric-field assisted surface plasmon resonance system for the detection of heavy metal ions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kyaw, Htet Htet; Boonruang, Sakoolkan E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th; Mohammed, Waleed S. E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-10-15

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as “Electric-Field assisted SPR system”. High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions (Cd{sup 2+}) in water from several parts per million (ppm) down to a few parts per billion (ppb) can be detected.

  3. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  4. Re-Inversion of Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography Data from the Hanford Site B-Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-05-01

    This report documents the three-dimensional (3D) inversion results of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data collected over the Hanford Site B-Complex. The data were collected in order to image the subsurface distribution of electrically conductive vadose zone contamination resulting from both planned releases of contamination into subsurface infiltration galleries (cribs, trenches, and tile fields), as well as unplanned releases from the B, BX, and BY tank farms and/or associated facilities. Electrically conductive contaminants are those which increase the ionic strength of pore fluids compared to native conditions, which comprise most types of solutes released into the subsurface B-Complex. The ERT data were collected and originally inverted as described in detail in report RPP-34690 Rev 0., 2007, which readers should refer to for a detailed description of data collection and waste disposal history. Although the ERT imaging results presented in that report successfully delineated the footprint of vadose zone contamination in areas outside of the tank farms, imaging resolution was not optimized due to the inability of available inversion codes to optimally process the massive ERT data set collected at the site. Recognizing these limitations and the potential for enhanced ERT characterization and time-lapse imaging at contaminated sites, a joint effort was initiated in 2007 by the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Science (DOE-SC), with later support by the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), to develop a high-performance distributed memory parallel 3D ERT inversion code capable of optimally processing large ERT data sets. The culmination of this effort was the development of E4D (Johnson et al., 2010,2012) In 2012, under the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), the U.S. Department of Energy – Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation

  5. PHYSIOLOGIC AND ANATOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRAIN SURFACE GLIA BARRIER OF DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    DeSalvo, Michael K.; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Bainton, Roland J.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) physiology requires special chemical, metabolic and cellular privileges for normal function, and blood brain barrier (BBB) structures are the anatomic and physiologic constructs that arbitrate communication between the brain and body. In the vertebrate BBB two primary cell types create CNS exclusion biology, a polarized vascular endothelium (VE) and a tightly associated single layer of astrocytic glia (AG). Examples of direct action by the BBB in CNS disease are constantly expanding, including key pathophysiologic roles in multiple sclerosis, stroke and cancer. In addition, its role as a pharmacologic treatment obstacle to the brain is long standing, thus molecular model systems that can parse BBB functions and understand the complex integration of sophisticated cellular anatomy and highly polarized chemical protection physiology are desperately needed. Compound barrier structures that use two primary cell types (i.e. functional bicellularity) are common to other humoral/CNS barrier structures. For example, invertebrates use two cell layers of glia, perineurial and subperineurial, to control chemical access to the brain, and analogous glial layers, fenestrated and pseudocartridge, to maintain the blood-eye barrier (BEB). In this article we summarize our current understanding of brain-barrier glial anatomy in Drosophila, demonstrate the power of live imaging as a screening methodology for identifying physiologic characteristics of BBB glia, and compare the physiologies of Drosophila barrier layers to the VE/AG interface of vertebrates. We conclude that the many unique BBB physiologies are conserved across phyla and suggest new methods for modeling CNS physiology and disease. PMID:21351158

  6. Swing-through gait with free-knees produced by surface functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heller, B W; Granat, M H; Andrews, B J

    1996-01-01

    The swing-through gait is often the gait of choice for those crutch walkers who can perform it. However, a practical (sufficiently low energy and sufficiently fast) gait is usually not achievable by paraplegic individuals with thoracic lesions. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was used to assist three spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects with complete thoracic lesions at T11, T11 and T6 to ambulate with a swing-through gait patten. Eight channels of surface stimulation were used to bilaterally stimulate knee extensors, knee flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors. The stimulation sequence was controlled by a computer that implemented a finite-state, rule-based control strategy according to sensor inputs. Over a long, level walkway, the T11 subjects averaged 0.40 m/s and 0.38 m/s for distances of 56 m and 51 m; the T6 subject averaged 0.30 m/s for 43 m. Using a motion analysis system, the gait patterns of two of the subjects were compared to those of a trained, non-impaired subject. The SCI subjects spent more time in both double support phases (when both crutches and both feet contact the floor) than did the non-impaired subjects, leading to a loss of momentum and hence a slower and less efficient gait. In conclusion, an FES assisted swing-through gait is shown to be a potentially useful mode of FES gait.

  7. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  8. Thermal electric and magnetic fields at the surface of an electron beam target

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    1999-06-09

    A relativistic electron beam pulse of high current density will heat a thin target plate to a plasma state as it traverses. The gradient of plasma temperature--Te is predominantly radial, and the gradient of plasma density--ne is predominantly axial. The cross product of these terms is significant at the vacuum-to-metal interface through which the beam enters. This cross product is a thermal source of magnetization, which can be much larger than the vacuum magnetic field of the electron beam, and it is of opposite polarity. The thermal energy density in the target can be hundreds of times larger than the energy density of the vacuum magnetic field of the beam. If the nose of the electron beam current pulse rises linearly with time then the thermal magnetization increases as time squared. Heat pushes electrons axially from the interior of the plate to the surfaces, and radially away from the beam axis. The electric field that arises from this effect is essentially the negative of the pressure gradient, it points outward.

  9. Employing Ti nano-powder dielectric to enhance surface characteristics in electrical discharge machining of AISI D2 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashi, Houriyeh; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Hamdi, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    Manufacturing components with superior surface characteristics is challenging when electrical discharge machining (EDM) is employed for mass production. The aim of this research is to enhance the characteristics of AISI D2 steel surface machined with EDM through adding Ti nano-powder to dielectric under various machining parameters, including discharge duration (Ton) and peak current (I). Surface roughness profilometer, FESEM and AFM analysis were utilized to reveal the machined surface characteristics in terms of surface roughness, surface morphology and surface micro-defects. Moreover, EDX analysis was performed in order to evaluate the atomic deposition of Ti nano-powder on the surface. The concentration of Ti nano-powder in dielectric was also examined using ESEM and EDX. According to the results, the addition of Ti nano-powder to dielectric notably enhanced the surface morphology and surface roughness at all machining parameters except Ton = 340 μs. Of these parameters, maximum enhancement was observed at Ton = 210 μs, where the material removal rate and average surface roughness improved by ∼69 and ∼35% for peak current of 6 and 12 A, respectively. Elemental analysis signified negligible Ti deposition on the machined surface while the atomic concentration of Ti was increased around the crack areas.

  10. Surface expression of alpha 4 integrin by CD4 T cells is required for their entry into brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Cloned CD4 T cell lines that recognize the Ac1-16 peptide of myelin basic protein bound to I-Au were isolated and used to analyze the immunopathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T helper type 1 (Th1) clones induced disease, while Th2 clones did not. Using variants of a single cloned Th1 line, the surface expression of alpha 4 integrins (very late antigen 4 [VLA-4]) was identified as a major pathogenic factor. Encephalitogenic clones and nonencephalitogenic variants differ by 10-fold in their level of surface expression of alpha 4 integrin and in their ability to bind to endothelial cells and recombinant vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). The alpha 4 integrin-high, disease-inducing cloned Th1 T cells enter brain parenchyma in abundance, while alpha 4 integrin-low, nonencephalitogenic Th1 cells do not. Moreover, antibodies to alpha 4 integrin, its ligand VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 all influence the pathogenicity of this encephalitogenic clone in vivo. The importance of the expression of VLA-4 for encephalitogenicity is not unique to cloned T cell lines, as similar results were obtained using myelin basic protein-primed lymph node T cells. alpha 4 integrin levels did not affect antigen responsiveness or production of the Th1 cytokines interleukin 2, interferon gamma, and lymphotoxin/tumor necrosis factor beta; and antibodies against alpha 4 integrin did not block antigen recognition in vitro. Thus, we conclude that surface expression of alpha 4 integrin is important in CD4 T cell entry into brain parenchyma. A general conclusion of these studies is that alpha 4 integrins may be crucial in allowing activated effector T cells to leave blood and enter the brain and other tissues to clear infections. PMID:7678116

  11. Processing and Characterization of Novel Biomimetic Nanoporous Bioceramic Surface on β-Ti Implant by Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Chander; Kansal, H. K.; Pabla, B. S.; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    Herein, a β-Ti-based implant was subjected to powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) for surface modification to produce a novel biomimetic nanoporous bioceramic surface. The microstructure, surface topography, and phase composition of the non-machined and machined (PMEDMed) surfaces were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surfaces was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion resistance of the surfaces was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid. The application of PMEDM not only altered the surface chemistry, but also imparted the surface with a nanoporous topography or a natural bone-like surface structure. The characterization results confirmed that the alloyed layer mainly comprised bioceramic oxides and carbide phases (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2, SiO2, TiC, NbC, SiC). The microhardness of PMEDMed surface was twofold higher than that of the base material (β-Ti alloy), primarily because of the formation of the hard carbide phases on the machined layer. Electrochemical analysis revealed that PMEDMed surface featured insulative and protective properties and thus displayed higher corrosion resistance ability when compared with the non-machined surface. This result was attributed to the formation of the bioceramic oxides on the machined surface. Additionally, the in vitro biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated using human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. PMEDMed surface with a micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited bioactivity and improved biocompatibility relative to β-Ti surface. Furthermore, PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the non-machined substrate.

  12. Response of the Shockley surface state to an external electrical field: A density-functional theory study of Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berland, K.; Einstein, T. L.; Hyldgaard, P.

    2012-01-01

    The response of the Cu(111) Shockley surface state to an external electrical field is characterized by combining a density-functional theory calculation for a slab geometry with an analysis of the Kohn-Sham wave functions. Our analysis is facilitated by a decoupling of the Kohn-Sham states via a rotation in Hilbert space. We find that the surface state displays isotropic dispersion, quadratic until the Fermi wave vector but with a significant quartic contribution beyond. We calculate the shift in energetic position and effective mass of the surface state for an electrical field perpendicular to the Cu(111) surface; the response is linear over a broad range of field strengths. We find that charge transfer occurs beyond the outermost copper atoms and that accumulation of electrons is responsible for a quarter of the screening of the electrical field. This allows us to provide well converged determinations of the field-induced changes in the surface state for a moderate number of layers in the slab geometry.

  13. A multi-surface model for ferroelectric ceramics - application to cyclic electric loading with changing maximum amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniprakash, S.; Arockiarajan, A.; Menzel, A.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the maximum amplitude of externally applied cyclic electric fields, ferroelectric ceramics show minor or major hysteresis. The materials also show asymmetric butterfly hysteresis in a prepoled material. Aiming at capturing these behaviour in a phenomenological constitutive model, a multi-surface modelling approach for ferroelectrics is introduced. In this paper, with the note on the motivation for a multi-surface model related to the results of new experimental investigations and also to experimental data reported in the literature, the constitutive relation for a rate dependent multi-surface ferroelectric model is developed. Following this, a brief graphical illustration shows how this model captures the objective phenomena. Consequently, the numerical implementation of the model to capture experimental results is demonstrated. Finally, the performance of this model to represent behaviour of decaying polarisation offset of electrically fatigued specimen is shown.

  14. Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of an electric field.

    PubMed

    Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-09-01

    Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) is a powerful tool for studying the structure of molecules adsorbed on an electrode surface (ATR-SEIRA). Coupled with an electrochemical system, structural changes induced by changes in the electric field can be detected. All the membrane proteins are subjected to the effect of membrane electric field, but conformational changes at different membrane potentials and their functional relevance have not been studied extensively except for channel proteins. In this contribution, background information of potential-dependent functional and structural changes of a prototypical channel, the KcsA channel, is summarized, and SEIRAS applied to the KcsA channel under the application of the potential is shown. The potassium channels allow K(+) to permeate selectively through the structural part called the selectivity filter, in which dehydrated K(+) ions interact with backbone carbonyls. In the absence of K(+), the selectivity filter undergoes conformational changes to the non-conductive collapsed conformation. To apply the electric field, the KcsA channels were fixed on the gold surface in either upside or reverse orientation. The SEIRA spectrum in K(+) or Na(+) solution revealed both backbone structural changes and local changes in the OCO-carboxylate groups. Upon application of the negative electric field, the spectrum of OCO was enhanced only in the K(+) solution. These results indicate that the negative electric field accumulates local K(+) concentration, which turned the collapsed filter to the conductive conformation. ATR-SEIRA serves as an unprecedented experimental system for examining membrane proteins under an electric field.

  15. Worker noise exposures from diesel and electric surface coal mining machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Adhikari, G.R.

    2007-09-15

    comparative study of noise produced from diesel and electric mining machinery in an opencast coal mine was made. It was found that the diesel machines produced higher environmental noise than the electric machines. The projected and measured operator's noise dose for 8-hour also showed that the diesel machines produced higher noise than the electric machines. The recorded sound levels and the noise dose for different machines and the crusher house were compared with the regulatory limits. With electric drill machines, drilling in hard rock produced higher noise levels than drilling in soft rock. This can be used to characterize the rock for blast designs.

  16. Stimulant mechanisms of cathinones - effects of mephedrone and other cathinones on basal and electrically evoked dopamine efflux in rat accumbens brain slices.

    PubMed

    Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Pinnell, Thomas; Patel, Nisha; Bevan, Melissa; Meintel, Meghan; Davidson, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Mephedrone, an erstwhile "legal high", and some non-abused cathinones (ethcathinone, diethylpropion and bupropion) were tested for stimulant effects in vitro, through assessing their abilities to increase basal and electrically evoked dopamine efflux in rat accumbens brain slices, and compared with cocaine and amphetamine. We also tested mephedrone against cocaine in a dopamine transporter binding study. Dopamine efflux was electrically evoked and recorded using voltammetry in the rat accumbens core. We constructed concentration response curves for these cathinones for effects on basal dopamine levels; peak efflux after local electrical stimulation and the time-constant of the dopamine decay phase, an index of dopamine reuptake. We also examined competition between mephedrone or cocaine and [(125)I]RTI121 at the dopamine transporter. Mephedrone was less potent than cocaine at displacing [(125)I]RTI121. Mephedrone and amphetamine increased basal levels of dopamine in the absence of electrical stimulation. Cocaine, bupropion, diethylpropion and ethcathinone all increased the peak dopamine efflux after electrical stimulation and slowed dopamine reuptake. Cocaine was more potent than bupropion and ethcathinone, while diethylpropion was least potent. Notably, cocaine had the fastest onset of action. These data suggest that, with respect to dopamine efflux, mephedrone is more similar to amphetamine than cocaine. These findings also show that cocaine was more potent than bupropion and ethcathinone while diethylpropion was least potent. Mephedrone's binding to the dopamine transporter is consistent with stimulant effects but its potency was lower than that of cocaine. These findings confirm and further characterize stimulant properties of mephedrone and other cathinones in adolescent rat brain.

  17. Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: a basis for high-definition tDCS.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dylan; Cortes, Mar; Datta, Abhishek; Minhas, Preet; Wassermann, Eric M; Bikson, Marom

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, low-cost, well-tolerated technique producing lasting modulation of cortical excitability. Behavioral and therapeutic outcomes of tDCS are linked to the targeted brain regions, but there is little evidence that current reaches the brain as intended. We aimed to: (1) validate a computational model for estimating cortical electric fields in human transcranial stimulation, and (2) assess the magnitude and spread of cortical electric field with a novel High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) scalp montage using a 4 × 1-Ring electrode configuration. In three healthy adults, Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES) over primary motor cortex (M1) was delivered using the 4 × 1 montage (4 × cathode, surrounding a single central anode; montage radius ~3 cm) with sufficient intensity to elicit a discrete muscle twitch in the hand. The estimated current distribution in M1 was calculated using the individualized MRI-based model, and compared with the observed motor response across subjects. The response magnitude was quantified with stimulation over motor cortex as well as anterior and posterior to motor cortex. In each case the model data were consistent with the motor response across subjects. The estimated cortical electric fields with the 4 × 1 montage were compared (area, magnitude, direction) for TES and tDCS in each subject. We provide direct evidence in humans that TES with a 4 × 1-Ring configuration can activate motor cortex and that current does not substantially spread outside the stimulation area. Computational models predict that both TES and tDCS waveforms using the 4 × 1-Ring configuration generate electric fields in cortex with comparable gross current distribution, and preferentially directed normal (inward) currents. The agreement of modeling and experimental data for both current delivery and focality support the use of the HD-tDCS 4 × 1-Ring montage for cortically targeted neuromodulation.

  18. Enhancement of electric field modulation of coercivity in Pt /Co/Al-O structures by tuning Co surface oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiogai, Junichi; Ohashi, Tatsuro; Yang, Tim; Kohda, Makoto; Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki; Nitta, Junsaku

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the oxidation of the Co ferromagnetic layer on gate modulation of its coercivity was experimentally investigated in Pt / Co / Al-O heterostructures. The Co surfaces were naturally oxidized by exposing to atmosphere after Co layer growth, and the degree of oxidation was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison between XPS and magneto-transport results suggested that a moderate oxidation of the Co interface enhances the electric-field induced coercivity change, indicating the importance of interface engineering for electrical control of magnetization reversal.

  19. Atmospheric plasma jet array in parallel electric and gas flow fields for three-dimensional surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    This letter reports on electrical and optical characteristics of a ten-channel atmospheric pressure glow discharge jet array in parallel electric and gas flow fields. Challenged with complex three-dimensional substrates including surgical tissue forceps and sloped plastic plate of up to 15°, the jet array is shown to achieve excellent jet-to-jet uniformity both in time and in space. Its spatial uniformity is four times better than a comparable single jet when both are used to treat a 15° sloped substrate. These benefits are likely from an effective self-adjustment mechanism among individual jets facilitated by individualized ballast and spatial redistribution of surface charges.

  20. Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABR) and middle latency responses (EMLR) obtained from patients with the nucleus multichannel cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Shallop, J K; Beiter, A L; Goin, D W; Mischke, R E

    1990-02-01

    Electrical auditory brain stem responses (EABR) and electrical middle latency responses (EMLR) were recorded from patients who had received the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant system. Twenty-five sequential patients had either intraoperative or outpatient EABR testing. We also recorded EMLRs from several outpatients. EABR results were consistent among all patients tested. Wave V mean latencies were the shortest (3.82 msec) for the most apical electrode (E20) and increased slightly for the medial (E12) and basal (E5) electrodes (3.94 and 4.20 msec, respectively). Absolute latencies for all EABR component waves were observed to be 1 to 1.5 msec shorter than typical acoustic auditory brain stem response (ABR) mean latencies. We have examined the relationships between patients' EABR/EMLR and their behavioral responses to electrical stimulation. Generally, the behavioral threshold and comfort current levels were lower than the predicted values based on EABR/EMLR findings. This observation may be due in part to psychophysical loudness differences noted for pulse rates of 10 to 500 pulses per second in some of the patients that we have studied in greater detail.

  1. Complex B1 Mapping and Electrical Properties Imaging of the Human Brain using a 16-channel Transceiver Coil at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Schmitter, Sebastian; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The electric properties (EPs) of biological tissue provide important diagnostic information within radio and microwave frequencies, and also play an important role in specific absorption rate (SAR) calculation which is a major safety concern at ultrahigh field (UHF). The recently proposed electrical properties tomography (EPT) technique aims to reconstruct EPs in biological tissues based on B1 measurement. However, for individual coil element in multi-channel transceiver coil which is increasingly utilized at UHF, current B1-mapping techniques could not provide adequate information (magnitude and absolute phase) of complex transmit and receive B1 which are essential for EPT, electric field, and quantitative SAR assessment. In this study, using a 16-channel transceiver coil at 7T, based on hybrid B1-mapping techniques within the human brain, a complex B1-mapping method has been developed, and in-vivo EPs imaging of the human brain has been demonstrated by applying a logarithm-based inverse algorithm. Computer simulation studies as well as phantom and human experiments have been conducted at 7T. The average bias and standard deviation for reconstructed conductivity in vivo were 28% and 67%, and 10% and 43% for relative permittivity, respectively. The present results suggest the feasibility and reliability of proposed complex B1-mapping technique and EPs reconstruction method. PMID:22692921

  2. Interactive effects of surface topography and pulsatile electrical field stimulation on orientation and elongation of fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heidi Au, Hoi Ting; Cheng, Irene; Chowdhury, Mohammad Fahad; Radisic, Milica

    2007-01-01

    In contractile tissues such as myocardium, functional properties are directly related to the cellular orientation and elongation. Thus, tissue engineering of functional cardiac patches critically depends on our understanding of the interaction between multiple guidance cues such as topographical, adhesive or electrical. The main objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of contact guidance and electrical field stimulation on elongation and orientation of fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, major cell populations of the myocardium. Polyvinyl surfaces were abraded using lapping paper with grain size 1 to 80μm, resulting in V-shaped abrasions with the average abrasion peak-to-peak width in the range from 3 to 13μm, and the average depth in the range from 140nm to 700nm (AFM). The surfaces with abrasions 13μm wide and 700nm deep, exhibited the strongest effect on neonatal rat cardiomyocyte elongation and orientation as well as statistically significant effect on orientation of fibroblasts, thus they were utilized for electrical field stimulation. Electrical field stimulation was performed using a regime of relevance for heart tissue in vivo as well as for cardiac tissue engineering. Stimulation (square pulses, 1ms duration, 1Hz, 2.3V/cm or 4.6V/cm) was initiated 24hr after cell seeding and maintained for additional 72hr. The cover slips were positioned between the carbon rod electrodes so that the abrasions were either parallel or perpendicular to the field lines. Non-abraded surfaces were utilized as controls. Field stimulation did not affect cell viability (live/dead staining). The presence of a well developed contractile apparatus in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (staining for cardiac Troponin I and actin filaments) was identified in the groups cultivated on abraded surfaces in the presence of field stimulation. Overall we observed that i) fibroblast and cardiomyocyte elongation on non-abraded surfaces was significantly enhanced by electrical

  3. The surface chemical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by thermal fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were thermally fluorinated at various temperatures to enhance the electrochemical properties of the MWCNTs for use as electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes. The fluorine functional groups were added to the surfaces of the MWCNTs via thermal fluorination. The thermal fluorination exposed the Fe catalyst on MWCNTs, and the specific surface area increased due to etching during the fluorination. The specific capacitances of the thermally fluorinated at 100 °C, MWCNT based electrode increased from 57 to 94 F/g at current densities of 0.2 A/g, respectively. This enhancement in capacitance can be attributed to increased polarization of the thermally fluorinated MWCNT surface, which increased the affinity between the electrode surface and the electrolyte ions.

  4. Reproducibility of brain-cognition relationships using three cortical surface-based protocols: An exhaustive analysis based on cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Kenia; Madsen, Sarah K; Joshi, Anand A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Román, Francisco J; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Burgaleta, Miguel; Karama, Sherif; Janssen, Joost; Marinetto, Eugenio; Desco, Manuel; Thompson, Paul M; Colom, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    People differ in their cognitive functioning. This variability has been exhaustively examined at the behavioral, neural and genetic level to uncover the mechanisms by which some individuals are more cognitively efficient than others. Studies investigating the neural underpinnings of interindividual differences in cognition aim to establish a reliable nexus between functional/structural properties of a given brain network and higher order cognitive performance. However, these studies have produced inconsistent results, which might be partly attributed to methodological variations. In the current study, 82 healthy young participants underwent MRI scanning and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery including measurements of fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory capacity/executive updating, controlled attention, and processing speed. The cognitive scores were obtained by confirmatory factor analyses. T1 -weighted images were processed using three different surface-based morphometry (SBM) pipelines, varying in their degree of user intervention, for obtaining measures of cortical thickness (CT) across the brain surface. Distribution and variability of CT and CT-cognition relationships were systematically compared across pipelines and between two cognitively/demographically matched samples to overcome potential sources of variability affecting the reproducibility of findings. We demonstrated that estimation of CT was not consistent across methods. In addition, among SBM methods, there was considerable variation in the spatial pattern of CT-cognition relationships. Finally, within each SBM method, results did not replicate in matched subsamples.

  5. Development and Experimental Study of Surface-Electrical Discharge Diamond Grinding of Al-10 wt%SiC Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Yadava, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    As silicon carbide possesses small fracture toughness, it is difficult to grind because it leads to cracking. Metal matrix composites can be machined using electrical discharge machining (EDM) but the process is slow. Electrical discharge diamond grinding (EDDG), which consists of diamond grinding and EDM with a rotating disk which enhanced material removal rate (MRR) and produce better surface finish. This paper describes the machining characteristic of Al-SiC composite using EDDG in surface grinding configuration which is called as surface-electrical discharge diamond grinding (S-EDDG). A chain of experiments were performed on S-EDDG set up by mounting newly self designed and fabricated set up on conventional die sinking EDM machine using the approach of one parameter-at-a-time concept. Surface roughness (Ra) and MRR are taken as output parameters as both are important outcome in the manufacturing process and they materialize a major division in the manufacturing system. The effects of current, wheel speed and depth of cut is analyzed on MRR and Ra. Finally, optimization have been done through weighted principal component analysis.

  6. Experimentally obtained values of electric field of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a dielectric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude on a dielectric surface induced by an impinging atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma plume was striking the dielectric surface at an angle of 45°, at 5 mm from the surface measured at the axis of the jet. The results were obtained using Pockels technique on a BSO (Bi12SiO20) crystal. A coaxial configuration of the plasma jet was used, operating in a stable mode with one bullet per voltage period, at 30 kHz and amplitude of 2 kV. The electric field was shown to be a function of the gas flow (He, at 300, 500 and 700 SCCM) and the manner in which the discharge spreads over the dielectric surface. The maximum value of 11.6 × 105 V m-1 was obtained at the negative half-period of the discharge current measured at the grounded electrode, at the flow of 300 SCCM. The largest electric field averaged over the area of the spreading of the discharge (3.6 × 105 V m-1) was found in the same conditions.

  7. Naval Academy: Low Grades in Electrical Engineering Courses Surface Broader Issues. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    This report discusses findings of a study of two issues during the 1989-90 academic year at the United States Naval Academy: the removal of the Chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department, and the Superintendent's decision to give a final electrical engineering examination that might have been compromised. The study reviewed the effect of…

  8. Electrical Polarization of Titanium Surfaces for the Enhancement of Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gittens, Rolando A.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Rettew, Robert; Butera, Robert J.; Alamgir, Faisal M.; Boyan, Barbara D.; Schwartz, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used clinically to promote bone regeneration in cases of fractures with delayed union or nonunion, with several in vitro and in vivo reports suggesting its beneficial effects on bone formation. However, the use of electrical stimulation of titanium (Ti) implants to enhance osseointegration is less understood, in part because of the few in vitro models that attempt to represent the in vivo environment. In this article, the design of a new in vitro system that allows direct electrical stimulation of osteoblasts through their Ti substrates without the flow of exogenous currents through the media is presented, and the effect of applied electrical polarization on osteoblast differentiation and local factor production was evaluated. A custom-made polycarbonate tissue culture plate was designed to allow electrical connections directly underneath Ti disks placed inside the wells, which were supplied with electrical polarization ranging from 100 to 500 mV to stimulate MG63 osteoblasts. Our results show that electrical polarization applied directly through Ti substrates on which the cells are growing in the absence of applied electrical currents may increase osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in a voltage-dependent manner. PMID:23996899

  9. Changing the optical and electrical properties of a crown dielectric surface using a 532 nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuzzaman, Md

    The optical response of a dielectric surface to a given laser radiation can be modified when this surface receives a supplemental uniform energy from an external source such as from the uniform electric field set up by a capacitor voltage. A low capacitor voltage across the dielectric can shift the wavelength of the probe laser as perceived by the dielectric surface toward smaller values. This shift is due to an increase of the vibrational frequency of the electric dipoles located on the dielectric surface. The change in the polarization properties of the dielectric surface suggests the usage of this configuration as an optoelectronic switch driven by a relatively small capacitor voltage. Another goal of this work is to observe the coupling between two lasers through a simultaneous interaction on the surface of a crown dielectric material. We analyze the destructive interference pattern between a weak probe laser and a stronger coupling laser in an electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-type configuration. We compare our destructive interference pattern obtained with crown glass illuminated with a diode laser of 532 nm, with previous results where a flint dielectric material was illuminated with the same radiation in similar experimental conditions.

  10. Registration of CT and MR brain images using a combination of points and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Aboutanos, Georges B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Margolin, Richard A.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    1995-05-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid registration technique that uses a weighted combination of several feature shapes, e.g. points and surfaces. The technique is a modification of Besl & McKay's iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 14:239-256, 1992). We use the technique to register x-ray computed tomography (CT) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) volume head images acquired from eleven patients that underwent craniotomies in a neurosurgical clinical trial. Each patient had five external markers attached to transcutaneous posts screwed into the outer table of the skull. We define registration error as the distance between corresponding marker positions after registration and transformation. The CT and MR images are registered using points (marker positions) only, surfaces only, and a weighted combination of points and surfaces. The CT surfaces are derived from contours corresponding to the inner surface of the skull. The MR surfaces are derived from contours corresponding to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-dura interface. Registration using points and surfaces is more accurate than registration using only points or surfaces.

  11. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs. PMID:27433685

  12. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs.

  13. A Study on the Effect of Electrical Stimulation as a User Stimuli for Motor Imagery Classification in Brain-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Clerc, Maureen; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) provides a neuroprosthetic interface to non-recovered muscle groups by stimulating the affected region of the human body. FES in combination with Brain-machine interfacing (BMI) has a wide scope in rehabilitation because this system directly links the cerebral motor intention of the users with its corresponding peripheral muscle activations. In this paper, we examine the effect of FES on the electroencephalography (EEG) during motor imagery (left- and right-hand movement) training of the users. Results suggest a significant improvement in the classification accuracy when the subject was induced with FES stimuli as compared to the standard visual one. PMID:27478573

  14. Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Harcuba, Petr; Bačáková, Lucie; Stráský, Josef; Bačáková, Markéta; Novotná, Katarína; Janeček, Miloš

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after surface treatment by the electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The EDM process with high peak currents proved to induce surface macro-roughness and to cause chemical changes to the surface. Evaluations were made of the mechanical properties by means of tensile tests, and of surface roughness for different peak currents of the EDM process. The EDM process with peak current of 29 A was found to induce sufficient surface roughness, and to have a low adverse effect on tensile properties. The chemical changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDX). The surface of the benchmark samples was obtained by plasma-spraying a titanium dioxide coating. An investigation of the biocompatibility of the surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V samples in cultures of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells revealed that the samples modified by EDM provided better substrates for the adhesion, growth and viability of MG 63 cells than the TiO2 coated surface. Thus, EDM treatment can be considered as a promising surface modification to orthopaedic implants, in which good integration with the surrounding bone tissue is required.

  15. Normal age-related brain morphometric changes: nonuniformity across cortical thickness, surface area and gray matter volume?

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Herve; Goldman, Aaron L; Sambataro, Fabio; Verchinski, Beth A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2012-03-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by global as well as regional structural changes. While these age-related changes in gray matter volume have been extensively studied, less has been done using newer morphological indexes, such as cortical thickness and surface area. To this end, we analyzed structural images of 216 healthy volunteers, ranging from 18 to 87 years of age, using a surface-based automated parcellation approach. Linear regressions of age revealed a concomitant global age-related reduction in cortical thickness, surface area and volume. Cortical thickness and volume collectively confirmed the vulnerability of the prefron