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Sample records for brain tumor images

  1. Brain tumor imaging: imaging brain metastasis using a brain-metastasizing breast adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Zettel, Martha L; Majewska, Ania K; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Brain metastases from primary or secondary breast tumors are difficult to model in the mouse. When metastatic breast cancer cell lines are injected directly into the arterial circulation, only a small fraction of cells enter the brain to form metastatic foci. To study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of brain metastasis, we have transfected MB-231BR, a brain-homing derivative of a human breast adenocarcinoma line MDA-MB-231, with the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) variant Venus. MB-231BR selectively enters the brain after intracardiac injection into the arterial circulation, resulting in accumulation of fluorescent foci of cells in the brain that can be viewed by standard fluorescence imaging procedures. We describe how to perform the intracardiac injection and the parameters used to quantify brain metastasis in brain sections by standard one-photon fluorescence imaging. The disadvantage of this model is that the kinetics of growth over time cannot be determined in the same animal. In addition, the injection technique does not permit precise placement of tumor cells within the brain. This model is useful for determining the molecular determinants of brain tumor metastasis.

  2. Thermal imaging of brain tumors in a rat glioma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Thompson, Reid C.; Kateb, Babak; Sorokoumov, Oleg; Grundfest, Warren S.; Black, Keith L.

    2002-05-01

    We have explored the capability of thermal imaging for the detection of brain tumors in a rat glioma mode. Fourteen Wistar rats were injected stereotactically with 100,000 C6 glioma cells. Approximately one and two weeks post implantation, the rats underwent bilateral craniotomy and the exposed brain surface was imaged with a short wave thermal camera. Thermal images were obtained at both low (approximately 28.7 degree(s)C) and high (approximately 38 degree(s)C) core temperatures. Temperature gradients between the tumor site and the contralateral normal brain were calculated. Overall, the tumors appeared cooler than normal brain, for both high and low core temperatures. Average temperature difference between tumor and normal brain were maximal in more advanced tumors (two weeks) and at higher core temperatures. At one week (N equals 6), the average temperature gradient between tumor and normal sites was 0.1 degree(s)C and 0.2 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P(greater than)0.05). At two weeks (N equals 8), the average temperature gradient was 0.3 degree(s)C and 0.7 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P<0.05). We conclude that thermal imaging can detect temperature differences between tumor and normal brain tissue in this model, particularly in more advanced tumors. Thermal imaging may provide a novel means to identify brain tumors intraoperatively.

  3. Multiscale modeling for image analysis of brain tumor studies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; May, Christian; Dionysiou, Dimitra; Stamatakos, Georgios; Büchler, Philippe; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Image-based modeling of tumor growth combines methods from cancer simulation and medical imaging. In this context, we present a novel approach to adapt a healthy brain atlas to MR images of tumor patients. In order to establish correspondence between a healthy atlas and a pathologic patient image, tumor growth modeling in combination with registration algorithms is employed. In a first step, the tumor is grown in the atlas based on a new multiscale, multiphysics model including growth simulation from the cellular level up to the biomechanical level, accounting for cell proliferation and tissue deformations. Large-scale deformations are handled with an Eulerian approach for finite element computations, which can operate directly on the image voxel mesh. Subsequently, dense correspondence between the modified atlas and patient image is established using nonrigid registration. The method offers opportunities in atlas-based segmentation of tumor-bearing brain images as well as for improved patient-specific simulation and prognosis of tumor progression.

  4. Applications of nanotechnology to imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mohs, Aaron M; Provenzale, James M

    2010-08-01

    In the past decade, numerous advances in the understanding of brain tumor physiology, tumor imaging, and tumor therapy have been attained. In some cases, these advances have resulted from refinements of pre-existing technologies (eg, improvements of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). In other instances, advances have resulted from development of novel technologies. The development of nanomedicine (ie, applications of nanotechnology to the field of medicine) is an example of the latter. In this review, the authors explain the principles that underlay nanoparticle design and function as well as the means by which nanoparticles can be used for imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

  5. Advanced MR Imaging in Pediatric Brain Tumors, Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Maarten; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology.

  6. Brain tumor classification of microscopy images using deep residual learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yota; Washiya, Kiyotada; Aoki, Kota; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The crisis rate of brain tumor is about one point four in ten thousands. In general, cytotechnologists take charge of cytologic diagnosis. However, the number of cytotechnologists who can diagnose brain tumors is not sufficient, because of the necessity of highly specialized skill. Computer-Aided Diagnosis by computational image analysis may dissolve the shortage of experts and support objective pathological examinations. Our purpose is to support a diagnosis from a microscopy image of brain cortex and to identify brain tumor by medical image processing. In this study, we analyze Astrocytes that is a type of glia cell of central nerve system. It is not easy for an expert to discriminate brain tumor correctly since the difference between astrocytes and low grade astrocytoma (tumors formed from Astrocyte) is very slight. In this study, we present a novel method to segment cell regions robustly using BING objectness estimation and to classify brain tumors using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) constructed by deep residual learning. BING is a fast object detection method and we use pretrained BING model to detect brain cells. After that, we apply a sequence of post-processing like Voronoi diagram, binarization, watershed transform to obtain fine segmentation. For classification using CNNs, a usual way of data argumentation is applied to brain cells database. Experimental results showed 98.5% accuracy of classification and 98.2% accuracy of segmentation.

  7. Metabolic brain imaging correlated with clinical features of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.; Chawluk, J.; Powlis, W.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Nineteen adults with brain tumors have been studied with positron emission tomography utilizing FDG. Fourteen had biopsy proven cerebral malignant glioma, one each had meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), two had unbiopsied lesions, and one patient had an area of biopsy proven radiation necrosis. Three different patterns of glucose metabolism are observed: marked increase in metabolism at the site of the known tumor in (10 high grade gliomas and the PNET), lower than normal metabolism at the tumor (in 1 grade II glioma, 3 grade III gliomas, 2 unbiopsied low density nonenhancing lesions, and the meningioma), no abnormality (1 enhancing glioma, the hemangiopericytoma and the radiation necrosis.) The metabolic rate of the tumor or the surrounding brain did not appear to be correlated with the history of previous irradiation or chemotherapy. Decreased metabolism was frequently observed in the rest of the affected hemisphere and in the contralateral cerebellum. Tumors of high grade or with enhancing CT characteristics were more likely to show increased metabolism. Among the patients with proven gliomas, survival after PETT scan tended to be longer for those with low metabolic activity tumors than for those with highly active tumors. The authors conclude that PETT may help to predict the malignant potential of tumors, and may add useful clinical information to the CT scan.

  8. Parallel optimization of tumor model parameters for fast registration of brain tumor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharaki, Evangelia I.; Hogea, Cosmina S.; Shen, Dinggang; Biros, George; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    The motivation of this work is to register MR brain tumor images with a brain atlas. Such a registration method can make possible the pooling of data from different brain tumor patients into a common stereotaxic space, thereby enabling the construction of statistical brain tumor atlases. Moreover, it allows the mapping of neuroanatomical brain atlases into the patient's space, for segmenting brains and thus facilitating surgical or radiotherapy treatment planning. However, the methods developed for registration of normal brain images are not directly applicable to the registration of a normal atlas with a tumor-bearing image, due to substantial dissimilarity and lack of equivalent image content between the two images, as well as severe deformation or shift of anatomical structures around the tumor. Accordingly, a model that can simulate brain tissue death and deformation induced by the tumor is considered to facilitate the registration. Such tumor growth simulation models are usually initialized by placing a small seed in the normal atlas. The shape, size and location of the initial seed are critical for achieving topological equivalence between the atlas and patient's images. In this study, we focus on the automatic estimation of these parameters, pertaining to tumor simulation. In particular, we propose an objective function reflecting feature-based similarity and elastic stretching energy and optimize it with APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search), for achieving significant reduction of the computational cost. The results indicate that the registration accuracy is high in areas around the tumor, as well as in the healthy portion of the brain.

  9. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  10. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue. PMID:27456312

  11. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  12. Emerging techniques and technologies in brain tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Bendszus, Martin; Sorensen, A. Gregory; Pope, Whitney B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the state of imaging techniques and technologies for detecting response of brain tumors to treatment in the setting of multicenter clinical trials. Within currently used technologies, implementation of standardized image acquisition and the use of volumetric estimates and subtraction maps are likely to help to improve tumor visualization, delineation, and quantification. Upon further development, refinement, and standardization, imaging technologies such as diffusion and perfusion MRI and amino acid PET may contribute to the detection of tumor response to treatment, particularly in specific treatment settings. Over the next few years, new technologies such as 23Na MRI and CEST imaging technologies will be explored for their use in expanding the ability to quantitatively image tumor response to therapies in a clinical trial setting. PMID:25313234

  13. Imaging of brain tumor proliferative activity with iodine-131-iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Tjuvajev, J.G.; Macapinlac, H.A.; Daghighian, F.

    1994-09-01

    Iodine-131-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) uptake and retention was imaged with SPECT at 2 and 24 hr after administering a 10-mCi dose to six patients with primary brain tumors. The SPECT images were directly compared to gadolinium contrast-enhanced MR images as well as to ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans and {sup 201}Tl SPECT scans. Localized uptake and retention of IUdR-derived radioactivity was observed in five of six patients. The plasma half-life of ({sup 131}I) IUdR was short (1.5 min) in comparison to the half-life of total plasma radioactivity (6.4 hr). The pattern of ({sup 131}I)IUdR-derived radioactivity was markedly different in the 2-hr compared to 24-hr images. Radioactivity was localized along the periphery of the tumor and extended beyond the margin of tumor identified by contrast enhancement on MRI. The estimated levels of tumor radioactivity at 24 hr, based on semiquantitative phantom studies, ranged between <0.1 and 0.2 {mu}Ci/cc (<0.001% and 0.002% dose/cc); brain levels were not measurable. Iodine-131-IUdR SPECT imaging of brain tumor proliferation has low (marginal) sensitivity due to low count rates and can detect only the most active regions of tumor growth. Imaging at 24 hr represents a washout strategy to reduce {sup 131}I-labeled metabolites contributing to background activity in the tumors, and is more likely to show the pattern of ({sup 131}I)IUdR-DNA incorporation and thereby increase image specificity. Iodine-123-IUdR SPECT imaging at 12 hr and the use of ({sup 124}I)IUdR and PET will improve count acquisitions and image quality. 74 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Numerical simulations of MREIT conductivity imaging for brain tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zi Jun; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Chauhan, Munish; Sadleir, Rosalind J; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a new modality capable of imaging the electrical properties of human body using MRI phase information in conjunction with external current injection. Recent in vivo animal and human MREIT studies have revealed unique conductivity contrasts related to different physiological and pathological conditions of tissues or organs. When performing in vivo brain imaging, small imaging currents must be injected so as not to stimulate peripheral nerves in the skin, while delivery of imaging currents to the brain is relatively small due to the skull's low conductivity. As a result, injected imaging currents may induce small phase signals and the overall low phase SNR in brain tissues. In this study, we present numerical simulation results of the use of head MREIT for brain tumor detection. We used a realistic three-dimensional head model to compute signal levels produced as a consequence of a predicted doubling of conductivity occurring within simulated tumorous brain tissues. We determined the feasibility of measuring these changes in a time acceptable to human subjects by adding realistic noise levels measured from a candidate 3 T system. We also reconstructed conductivity contrast images, showing that such conductivity differences can be both detected and imaged.

  15. Neuromorphometry of primary brain tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hevia-Montiel, Nidiyare; Rodriguez-Perez, Pedro I.; Lamothe-Molina, Paul J.; Arellano-Reynoso, Alfonso; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Alegria-Loyola, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique for the diagnosis and classification of brain tumors. Discrete compactness is a morphological feature of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects. This measure determines the compactness of a discretized object depending on the sum of the areas of the connected voxels and has been used for understanding the morphology of nonbrain tumors. We hypothesized that regarding brain tumors, we may improve the malignancy grade classification. We analyzed the values in 20 patients with different subtypes of primary brain tumors: astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma multiforme subdivided into the contrast-enhanced and the necrotic tumor regions. The preliminary results show an inverse relationship between the compactness value and the malignancy grade of gliomas. Astrocytomas exhibit a mean of 973±14, whereas oligodendrogliomas exhibit a mean of 942±21. In contrast, the contrast-enhanced region of the glioblastoma presented a mean of 919±43, and the necrotic region presented a mean of 869±66. However, the volume and area of the enclosing surface did not show a relationship with the malignancy grade of the gliomas. Discrete compactness appears to be a stable characteristic between primary brain tumors of different malignancy grades, because similar values were obtained from different patients with the same type of tumor. PMID:26158107

  16. Simulation of brain tumor resection in image-guided neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2011-03-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance images are typically used for neuronavigation in image-guided neurosurgery. However, intraoperative brain deformation (e.g., as a result of gravitation, loss of cerebrospinal fluid, retraction, resection, etc.) significantly degrades the accuracy in image guidance, and must be compensated for in order to maintain sufficient accuracy for navigation. Biomechanical finite element models are effective techniques that assimilate intraoperative data and compute whole-brain deformation from which to generate model-updated MR images (uMR) to improve accuracy in intraoperative guidance. To date, most studies have focused on early surgical stages (i.e., after craniotomy and durotomy), whereas simulation of more complex events at later surgical stages has remained to be a challenge using biomechanical models. We have developed a method to simulate partial or complete tumor resection that incorporates intraoperative volumetric ultrasound (US) and stereovision (SV), and the resulting whole-brain deformation was used to generate uMR. The 3D ultrasound and stereovision systems are complimentary to each other because they capture features deeper in the brain beneath the craniotomy and at the exposed cortical surface, respectively. In this paper, we illustrate the application of the proposed method to simulate brain tumor resection at three temporally distinct surgical stages throughout a clinical surgery case using sparse displacement data obtained from both the US and SV systems. We demonstrate that our technique is feasible to produce uMR that agrees well with intraoperative US and SV images after dural opening, after partial tumor resection, and after complete tumor resection. Currently, the computational cost to simulate tumor resection can be up to 30 min because of the need for re-meshing and the trial-and-error approach to refine the amount of tissue resection. However, this approach introduces minimal interruption to the surgical workflow

  17. Adaptive Intuitionistic Fuzzy Enhancement of Brain Tumor MR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, He; Deng, Wankai; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Image enhancement techniques are able to improve the contrast and visual quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, conventional methods cannot make up some deficiencies encountered by respective brain tumor MR imaging modes. In this paper, we propose an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy sets-based scheme, called as AIFE, which takes information provided from different MR acquisitions and tries to enhance the normal and abnormal structural regions of the brain while displaying the enhanced results as a single image. The AIFE scheme firstly separates an input image into several sub images, then divides each sub image into object and background areas. After that, different novel fuzzification, hyperbolization and defuzzification operations are implemented on each object/background area, and finally an enhanced result is achieved via nonlinear fusion operators. The fuzzy implementations can be processed in parallel. Real data experiments demonstrate that the AIFE scheme is not only effectively useful to have information from images acquired with different MR sequences fused in a single image, but also has better enhancement performance when compared to conventional baseline algorithms. This indicates that the proposed AIFE scheme has potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of brain tumors.

  18. Adaptive Intuitionistic Fuzzy Enhancement of Brain Tumor MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Deng, He; Deng, Wankai; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement techniques are able to improve the contrast and visual quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, conventional methods cannot make up some deficiencies encountered by respective brain tumor MR imaging modes. In this paper, we propose an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy sets-based scheme, called as AIFE, which takes information provided from different MR acquisitions and tries to enhance the normal and abnormal structural regions of the brain while displaying the enhanced results as a single image. The AIFE scheme firstly separates an input image into several sub images, then divides each sub image into object and background areas. After that, different novel fuzzification, hyperbolization and defuzzification operations are implemented on each object/background area, and finally an enhanced result is achieved via nonlinear fusion operators. The fuzzy implementations can be processed in parallel. Real data experiments demonstrate that the AIFE scheme is not only effectively useful to have information from images acquired with different MR sequences fused in a single image, but also has better enhancement performance when compared to conventional baseline algorithms. This indicates that the proposed AIFE scheme has potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of brain tumors. PMID:27786240

  19. Adaptive Intuitionistic Fuzzy Enhancement of Brain Tumor MR Images.

    PubMed

    Deng, He; Deng, Wankai; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2016-10-27

    Image enhancement techniques are able to improve the contrast and visual quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, conventional methods cannot make up some deficiencies encountered by respective brain tumor MR imaging modes. In this paper, we propose an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy sets-based scheme, called as AIFE, which takes information provided from different MR acquisitions and tries to enhance the normal and abnormal structural regions of the brain while displaying the enhanced results as a single image. The AIFE scheme firstly separates an input image into several sub images, then divides each sub image into object and background areas. After that, different novel fuzzification, hyperbolization and defuzzification operations are implemented on each object/background area, and finally an enhanced result is achieved via nonlinear fusion operators. The fuzzy implementations can be processed in parallel. Real data experiments demonstrate that the AIFE scheme is not only effectively useful to have information from images acquired with different MR sequences fused in a single image, but also has better enhancement performance when compared to conventional baseline algorithms. This indicates that the proposed AIFE scheme has potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of brain tumors.

  20. History and evolution of brain tumor imaging: insights through radiology.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    This review recounts the history of brain tumor diagnosis from antiquity to the present and, indirectly, the history of neuroradiology. Imaging of the brain has from the beginning held an enormous interest because of the inherent difficulty of this endeavor due to the presence of the skull. Because of this, most techniques when newly developed have always been used in neuroradiology and, although some have proved to be inappropriate for this purpose, many were easily incorporated into the specialty. The first major advance in modern neuroimaging was contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography, which permitted accurate anatomic localization of brain tumors and, by virtue of contrast enhancement, malignant ones. The most important advances in neuroimaging occurred with the development of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted sequences that allowed an indirect estimation of tumor cellularity; this was further refined by the development of perfusion and permeability mapping. From its beginnings with indirect and purely anatomic imaging techniques, neuroradiology now uses a combination of anatomic and physiologic techniques that will play a critical role in biologic tumor imaging and radiologic genomics.

  1. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  2. Unsupervised measurement of brain tumor volume on MR images.

    PubMed

    Velthuizen, R P; Clarke, L P; Phuphanich, S; Hall, L O; Bensaid, A M; Arrington, J A; Greenberg, H M; Silbiger, M L

    1995-01-01

    We examined unsupervised methods of segmentation of MR images of the brain for measuring tumor volume in response to treatment. Two clustering methods were used: fuzzy c-means and a nonfuzzy clustering algorithm. Results were compared with volume segmentations by two supervised methods, k-nearest neighbors and region growing, and all results were compared with manual labelings. Results of individual segmentations are presented as well as comparisons on the application of the different methods with 10 data sets of patients with brain tumors. Unsupervised segmentation is preferred for measuring tumor volumes in response to treatment, as it eliminates operator dependency and may be adequate for delineation of the target volume in radiation therapy. Some obstacles need to be overcome, in particular regarding the detection of anatomically relevant tissue classes. This study shows that these improvements are possible.

  3. Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Networks in MRI Images.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sergio; Pinto, Adriano; Alves, Victor; Silva, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Among brain tumors, gliomas are the most common and aggressive, leading to a very short life expectancy in their highest grade. Thus, treatment planning is a key stage to improve the quality of life of oncological patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used imaging technique to assess these tumors, but the large amount of data produced by MRI prevents manual segmentation in a reasonable time, limiting the use of precise quantitative measurements in the clinical practice. So, automatic and reliable segmentation methods are required; however, the large spatial and structural variability among brain tumors make automatic segmentation a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose an automatic segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), exploring small 3 ×3 kernels. The use of small kernels allows designing a deeper architecture, besides having a positive effect against overfitting, given the fewer number of weights in the network. We also investigated the use of intensity normalization as a pre-processing step, which though not common in CNN-based segmentation methods, proved together with data augmentation to be very effective for brain tumor segmentation in MRI images. Our proposal was validated in the Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge 2013 database (BRATS 2013), obtaining simultaneously the first position for the complete, core, and enhancing regions in Dice Similarity Coefficient metric (0.88, 0.83, 0.77) for the Challenge data set. Also, it obtained the overall first position by the online evaluation platform. We also participated in the on-site BRATS 2015 Challenge using the same model, obtaining the second place, with Dice Similarity Coefficient metric of 0.78, 0.65, and 0.75 for the complete, core, and enhancing regions, respectively.

  4. Brain Tumor Segmentation using Convolutional Neural Networks in MRI Images.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sergio; Pinto, Adriano; Alves, Victor; Silva, Carlos A

    2016-03-04

    Among brain tumors, gliomas are the most common and aggressive, leading to a very short life expectancy in their highest grade. Thus, treatment planning is a key stage to improve the quality of life of oncological patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used imaging technique to assess these tumors, but the large amount of data produced by MRI prevents manual segmentation in a reasonable time, limiting the use of precise quantitative measurements in the clinical practice. So, automatic and reliable segmentation methods are required; however, the large spatial and structural variability among brain tumors make automatic segmentation a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose an automatic segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), exploring small 33 kernels. The use of small kernels allows designing a deeper architecture, besides having a positive effect against overfitting, given the fewer number of weights in the network. We also investigated the use of intensity normalization as a pre-processing step, which though not common in CNN-based segmentation methods, proved together with data augmentation to be very effective for brain tumor segmentation in MRI images. Our proposal was validated in the Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge 2013 database (BRATS 2013), obtaining simultaneously the first position for the complete, core, and enhancing regions in Dice Similarity Coefficient metric (0:88, 0:83, 0:77) for the Challenge data set. Also, it obtained the overall first position by the online evaluation platform. We also participated in the on-site BRATS 2015 Challenge using the same model, obtaining the second place, with Dice Similarity Coefficient metric of 0:78, 0:65, and 0:75 for the complete, core, and enhancing regions, respectively.

  5. Image updating for brain deformation compensation in tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Olson, Jonathan D.; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR) are typically used for intraoperative guidance in image-guided neurosurgery, the accuracy of which can be significantly compromised by brain deformation. Biomechanical finite element models (FEM) have been developed to estimate whole-brain deformation and produce model-updated MR (uMR) that compensates for brain deformation at different surgical stages. Early stages of surgery, such as after craniotomy and after dural opening, have been well studied, whereas later stages after tumor resection begins remain challenging. In this paper, we present a method to simulate tumor resection by incorporating data from intraoperative stereovision (iSV). The amount of tissue resection was estimated from iSV using a "trial-and-error" approach, and the cortical shift was measured from iSV through a surface registration method using projected images and an optical flow (OF) motion tracking algorithm. The measured displacements were employed to drive the biomechanical brain deformation model, and the estimated whole-brain deformation was subsequently used to deform pMR and produce uMR. We illustrate the method using one patient example. The results show that the uMR aligned well with iSV and the overall misfit between model estimates and measured displacements was 1.46 mm. The overall computational time was ~5 min, including iSV image acquisition after resection, surface registration, modeling, and image warping, with minimal interruption to the surgical flow. Furthermore, we compare uMR against intraoperative MR (iMR) that was acquired following iSV acquisition.

  6. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function. PMID:27516807

  7. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS)

    PubMed Central

    Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin; Burren, Yuliya; Porz, Nicole; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Lanczi, Levente; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Weber, Marc-André; Arbel, Tal; Avants, Brian B.; Ayache, Nicholas; Buendia, Patricia; Collins, D. Louis; Cordier, Nicolas; Corso, Jason J.; Criminisi, Antonio; Das, Tilak; Delingette, Hervé; Demiralp, Çağatay; Durst, Christopher R.; Dojat, Michel; Doyle, Senan; Festa, Joana; Forbes, Florence; Geremia, Ezequiel; Glocker, Ben; Golland, Polina; Guo, Xiaotao; Hamamci, Andac; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Jena, Raj; John, Nigel M.; Konukoglu, Ender; Lashkari, Danial; Mariz, José António; Meier, Raphael; Pereira, Sérgio; Precup, Doina; Price, Stephen J.; Raviv, Tammy Riklin; Reza, Syed M. S.; Ryan, Michael; Sarikaya, Duygu; Schwartz, Lawrence; Shin, Hoo-Chang; Shotton, Jamie; Silva, Carlos A.; Sousa, Nuno; Subbanna, Nagesh K.; Szekely, Gabor; Taylor, Thomas J.; Thomas, Owen M.; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Unal, Gozde; Vasseur, Flor; Wintermark, Max; Ye, Dong Hye; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Binsheng; Zikic, Darko; Prastawa, Marcel; Reyes, Mauricio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients—manually annotated by up to four raters—and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%–85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously. Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource. PMID:25494501

  8. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS).

    PubMed

    Menze, Bjoern H; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin; Burren, Yuliya; Porz, Nicole; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Lanczi, Levente; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Weber, Marc-André; Arbel, Tal; Avants, Brian B; Ayache, Nicholas; Buendia, Patricia; Collins, D Louis; Cordier, Nicolas; Corso, Jason J; Criminisi, Antonio; Das, Tilak; Delingette, Hervé; Demiralp, Çağatay; Durst, Christopher R; Dojat, Michel; Doyle, Senan; Festa, Joana; Forbes, Florence; Geremia, Ezequiel; Glocker, Ben; Golland, Polina; Guo, Xiaotao; Hamamci, Andac; Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Jena, Raj; John, Nigel M; Konukoglu, Ender; Lashkari, Danial; Mariz, José Antonió; Meier, Raphael; Pereira, Sérgio; Precup, Doina; Price, Stephen J; Raviv, Tammy Riklin; Reza, Syed M S; Ryan, Michael; Sarikaya, Duygu; Schwartz, Lawrence; Shin, Hoo-Chang; Shotton, Jamie; Silva, Carlos A; Sousa, Nuno; Subbanna, Nagesh K; Szekely, Gabor; Taylor, Thomas J; Thomas, Owen M; Tustison, Nicholas J; Unal, Gozde; Vasseur, Flor; Wintermark, Max; Ye, Dong Hye; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Binsheng; Zikic, Darko; Prastawa, Marcel; Reyes, Mauricio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four raters-and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%-85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously. Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource.

  9. Postictal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes Masquerading as Brain Tumor Progression: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Pirio, Anastasie M.; Billakota, Santoshi; Peters, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common among patients with brain tumors. Transient, postictal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities are a long recognized phenomenon. However, these radiographic changes are not as well studied in the brain tumor population. Moreover, reversible neuroimaging abnormalities following seizure activity may be misinterpreted for tumor progression and could consequently result in unnecessary tumor-directed treatment. Here, we describe two cases of patients with brain tumors who developed peri-ictal pseudoprogression and review the relevant literature. PMID:27462237

  10. Aptamer for imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumor glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Delač, Mateja; Motaln, Helena; Ulrich, Henning; Lah, Tamara T

    2015-09-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids (RNA or ssDNA), identified by an in vitro selection process, denominated SELEX, from a partially random oligonucleotide library. They bind to a molecular target, a protein or other complex macromolecular structures of interest with high affinity and specificity, comparable to those of antibodies. Recently, aptamer selection protocols were developed for targeting living cells, including tumors. Chemical modifications of the aptamers and modalities of their detection and delivery systems are already available with high selectivity and targeting ability for the desired cancer cell type, making them promising for diagnosis and therapy. Glioblastoma multiformae represents the most malignant and fatal stage of glioma, and is also the most frequent brain tumor. Glioblastoma-specific aptamers were developed by either targeting the whole cell surface or known glioma biomarkers. These aptamers may gain importance for imaging, tumor cell isolation from biopsies and drug delivery. In biomedical imaging techniques, aptamers coupled with radionuclide or fluorescent labels, bioconjugates and nanoparticles offer an advanced, noninvasive manner for defining the glioblastoma tissue border. Though single modality aptamer imaging probes have some limitations, these are overcome by the use of multimodal probes. Due to selectivity and chemical characteristics, aptamers can be coupled to functionalized nanoparticles and loaded with a drug, appeared promising for in vivo targeting of glioblastoma. Finally, aptamers are effective mediators for gene silencing when coupled to small interfering RNA and a viral vector, thus providing a novel tool with enhanced targeting capability in drug delivery, designed for tailored treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  11. Tumor growth model for atlas based registration of pathological brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moualhi, Wafa; Ezzeddine, Zagrouba

    2015-02-01

    The motivation of this work is to register a tumor brain magnetic resonance (MR) image with a normal brain atlas. A normal brain atlas is deformed in order to take account of the presence of a large space occupying tumor. The method use a priori model of tumor growth assuming that the tumor grows in a radial way from a starting point. First, an affine transformation is used in order to bring the patient image and the brain atlas in a global correspondence. Second, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas provides a template for the lesion. Finally, the seeded atlas is deformed combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model for tumor growth (MTG). Results show that an automatic segmentation method of brain structures in the presence of large deformation can be provided.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wankhede, Mamta; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. Delivery of nanoparticles to malignant brain tumors represents a formidable challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and infiltrating cancer cells in the normal brain. Newer strategies permit better delivery of MNPs systemically and by direct convection-enhanced delivery to the brain. Completion of a human clinical trial involving direct injection of MNPs into recurrent malignant brain tumors for thermotherapy has established their feasibility, safety and efficacy in patients. Future translational studies are in progress to understand the promising impact of MNPs in the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wankhede, Mamta; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. Delivery of nanoparticles to malignant brain tumors represents a formidable challenge due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier and infiltrating cancer cells in the normal brain. Newer strategies permit better delivery of MNPs systemically and by direct convection-enhanced delivery to the brain. Completion of a human clinical trial involving direct injection of MNPs into recurrent malignant brain tumors for thermotherapy has established their feasibility, safety and efficacy in patients. Future translational studies are in progress to understand the promising impact of MNPs in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. PMID:22390560

  14. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, N. V.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. C. de Witt; Noske, D. P.; Galgano, G. D.; Mansvelder, H. D.; Baayen, J. C.; Groot, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy provides label-free, real-time images of histopathological quality; increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and rarefaction of neuropil in fresh, unstained human brain tissue could be clearly recognized. We further demonstrate THG images taken with a GRIN objective, as a step toward in situ THG microendoscopy of tumor boundaries. THG imaging is thus a promising tool for optical biopsies. PMID:27231629

  15. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  16. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-07

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  17. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P.; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric brain tumors: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Poussaint, T Y

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into the primary imaging tool for evaluation of the central nervous system. MRI is the essential imaging study in the twenty-first century for the evaluation of the child with a brain tumor for initial preoperative diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided therapies. This article provides an overview of the locations and MRI features of common pediatric tumors of childhood.

  19. Automatic Brain Tumor Detection in T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Kropatsch, W. G.; Bartušek, K.

    2013-10-01

    This work focuses on fully automatic detection of brain tumors. The first aim is to determine, whether the image contains a brain with a tumor, and if it does, localize it. The goal of this work is not the exact segmentation of tumors, but the localization of their approximate position. The test database contains 203 T2-weighted images of which 131 are images of healthy brain and the remaining 72 images contain brain with pathological area. The estimation, whether the image shows an afflicted brain and where a pathological area is, is done by multi resolution symmetry analysis. The first goal was tested by five-fold cross-validation technique with 100 repetitions to avoid the result dependency on sample order. This part of the proposed method reaches the true positive rate of 87.52% and the true negative rate of 93.14% for an afflicted brain detection. The evaluation of the second part of the algorithm was carried out by comparing the estimated location to the true tumor location. The detection of the tumor location reaches the rate of 95.83% of correct anomaly detection and the rate 87.5% of correct tumor location.

  20. Apoptosis imaging for monitoring DR5 antibody accumulation and pharmacodynamics in brain tumors non-invasively

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas G.; Osl, Franz; Renner, Anja; Pöschinger, Thomas; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Scheuer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    High grade gliomas often possess an impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) which allows delivery of large molecules to brain tumors. However, achieving optimal drug concentrations in brain tumors remains a significant hurdle for treating patients successfully. Thus, detailed investigations of drug activities in gliomas are needed. To investigate BBB penetration, pharmacodynamics and tumor retention kinetics, we studied an agonistic DR5 antibody in a brain tumor xenograft model to investigate a non-invasive imaging method for longitudinal monitoring of apoptosis induction by this antibody. Brain tumors were induced by intracranial (i.c.) implantation of a luciferase-expressing tumor cell line as a reporter. To quantify accumulation of anti-DR5 in brain tumors, we generated a dose response curve for apoptosis induction after i.c. delivery of fluorescence-labeled anti-DR5 at different dosages. Assuming 100% drug delivery after i.c. application, the amount of accumulated antibody after i.v. application was calculated relative to its apoptosis induction. We found that up to 0.20–0.97% of antibody delivered i.v. reached the brain tumor, but that apoptosis induction declined quickly within 24 hours. These results were confirmed by 3D fluorescence microscopy of antibody accumulation in explanted brains. Nonetheless, significant antitumor efficacy was documented after anti-DR5 delivery. We further demonstrated that antibody crossing the BBB was facilitated its impairment in brain tumors. These imaging methods enable the quantification of antibody accumulation and pharmacodynamics in brain tumors, offering a holistic approach for assessment of CNS targeting drugs. PMID:24509903

  1. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Spreafico, Filippo Gandola, Lorenza; Marchiano, Alfonso; Simonetti, Fabio; Poggi, Geraldina; Adduci, Anna; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Luksch, Roberto; Biassoni, Veronica; Meazza, Cristina; Catania, Serena; Terenziani, Monica; Musumeci, Renato; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Massimino, Maura

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T{sub 1}-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T{sub 2}-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% {+-} 6% at 1 year and 57% {+-} 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation.

  2. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  3. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  4. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  5. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  6. Application of an enhanced fuzzy algorithm for MR brain tumor image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemanth, D. Jude; Vijila, C. Kezi Selva; Anitha, J.

    2010-02-01

    Image segmentation is one of the significant digital image processing techniques commonly used in the medical field. One of the specific applications is tumor detection in abnormal Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain images. Fuzzy approaches are widely preferred for tumor segmentation which generally yields superior results in terms of accuracy. But most of the fuzzy algorithms suffer from the drawback of slow convergence rate which makes the system practically non-feasible. In this work, the application of modified Fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm to tackle the convergence problem is explored in the context of brain image segmentation. This modified FCM algorithm employs the concept of quantization to improve the convergence rate besides yielding excellent segmentation efficiency. This algorithm is experimented on real time abnormal MR brain images collected from the radiologists. A comprehensive feature vector is extracted from these images and used for the segmentation technique. An extensive feature selection process is performed which reduces the convergence time period and improve the segmentation efficiency. After segmentation, the tumor portion is extracted from the segmented image. Comparative analysis in terms of segmentation efficiency and convergence rate is performed between the conventional FCM and the modified FCM. Experimental results show superior results for the modified FCM algorithm in terms of the performance measures. Thus, this work highlights the application of the modified algorithm for brain tumor detection in abnormal MR brain images.

  7. Radiation necrosis in the brain: imaging features and differentiation from tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ritu; Vattoth, Surjith; Jacob, Rojymon; Manzil, Fathima Fijula Palot; O'Malley, Janis P; Borghei, Peyman; Patel, Bhavik N; Curé, Joel K

    2012-01-01

    Radiation necrosis in the brain commonly occurs in three distinct clinical scenarios, namely, radiation therapy for head and neck malignancy or intracranial extraaxial tumor, stereotactic radiation therapy (including radiosurgery) for brain metastasis, and radiation therapy for primary brain tumors. Knowledge of the radiation treatment plan, amount of brain tissue included in the radiation port, type of radiation, location of the primary malignancy, and amount of time elapsed since radiation therapy is extremely important in determining whether the imaging abnormality represents radiation necrosis or recurrent tumor. Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of these two entities overlap considerably, and even at histopathologic analysis, tumor mixed with radiation necrosis is a common finding. Advanced imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion MR imaging (with calculation of certain specific parameters such as apparent diffusion coefficient ratios, relative peak height, and percentage of signal recovery), MR spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography can be useful in differentiating between recurrent tumor and radiation necrosis. In everyday practice, the visual assessment of diffusion-weighted and perfusion images may also be helpful by favoring one diagnosis over the other, with restricted diffusion and an elevated relative cerebral blood volume being seen much more frequently in recurrent tumor than in radiation necrosis.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for brain tumor image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yinghua; Hatami, Nisa; Yee, Matthew; Phipps, Jennifer; Elson, Daniel S.; Gorin, Fredric; Schrot, Rudolph J.; Marcu, Laura

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the application of an endoscopic fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system to the intraoperative diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The clinically compatible FLIM prototype integrates a gated (down to 0.2 ns) intensifier imaging system with a fiber-bundle (fiber image guide of 0.5 mm diameter, 10,000 fibers with a gradient index lens objective 0.5 NA, and 4 mm field of view) to provide intraoperative access to the surgical field. Experiments conducted in three patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection demonstrate that FLIM-derived parameters allow for delineation of tumor from normal cortex. For example, at 460+/-25-nm wavelength band emission corresponding to NADH/NADPH fluorescence, GBM exhibited a weaker florescence intensity (35% less, p-value <0.05) and a longer lifetime τGBM-Amean=1.59+/-0.24 ns than normal cortex τNC-Amean=1.28+/-0.04 ns (p-value <0.005). Current results demonstrate the potential use of FLIM as a tool for image-guided surgery of brain tumors.

  9. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN FIVE DOGS WITH CONFIRMED AND SUSPECTED BRAIN TUMORS.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kathleen Ella; Tyrrell, Dayle; Long, Sam Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Early postoperative neuroimaging has been performed in people for over 20 years to detect residual brain tumor tissue and surgical complications. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics observed using early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in a group of dogs undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor removal. Two independent observers came to a consensus opinion for presence/absence of the following MRI characteristics: residual tumor tissue; hemorrhage and ischemic lesions; abnormal enhancement (including the margins of the resection cavity, choroid plexus, meninges) and signal intensity changes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Five dogs were included in the study, having had preoperative and early postoperative MRI acquired within four days after surgery. The most commonly observed characteristics were abnormal meningeal enhancement, linear enhancement at margins of the resection cavity, hemorrhage, and a thin rim of hyperintensity surrounding the resection cavity on diffusion-weighted imaging. Residual tumor tissue was detected in one case of an enhancing tumor and in one case of a tumor containing areas of hemorrhage preoperatively. Residual tumor tissue was suspected but could not be confirmed when tumors were nonenhancing. Findings supported the use of early postoperative MRI as a method for detecting residual brain tumor tissue in dogs.

  10. Optimizing brain tumor resection. Midfield interventional MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Alexander, E

    2001-11-01

    The development of the intraoperative MR imager represents an important example of creative vision and interdisciplinary teamwork. The result is a remarkable tool for neurosurgical applications. MRT allows surgical manipulation under direct visualization of the intracranial contents through the eye of the surgeon and through the volumetric images of the MR imaging system. This technology can be applied to cranial and spinal cases, and forseeably can encompass application to the entire gamut of neurosurgical efforts. The author's experience has been that this device is easy and comfortable for the surgeon to use. Image acquisition, giving views in the plane of choice, lasts no more than 2 to 60 seconds (depending on the imaging method), and does not increase the duration of a given procedure substantially. The author believes that the information received through intraoperative MR imaging scanning ultimately will contribute to decreasing the duration of surgery. Future possibilities include combining the intraoperative MR imager with other technologies, such as the endoscope, focused ultrasound, robotics, and the evaluation of brain function intraoperatively. The development of the intraoperative MR imager marks a significant advance in neurosurgery, an advance that will revolutionize intraoperative visualization as fully as the operating microscope. The combination of intraoperative visualization and precise surgical navigation is unparalleled, and its enhancement of surgical applications will be widespread. Considering the remarkable potential of the intraoperative MR imager for neurosurgical applications, optimal magnet design, image quality, and navigational methods are necessary to capitalize on the advantages of this revolutionary tool. The intraoperative MR imaging system that the author's team has developed and used has combined these features, and allows the performance of open surgical procedures without the need of patient or magnet repositioning. By

  11. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  12. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors A A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  13. Fluorescence microscopy studies of a peripheral-benzodiazepine-receptor-targeted molecular probe for brain tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Vernier, P. Thomas; Manning, H. Charles; Salemi, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Craft, Cheryl M.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    2003-10-01

    This study investigates the potential of a new multi-modal lanthanide chelate complex for specifically targeting brain tumor cells. We report here results from ongoing studies of up-take, sub-cellular localization and binding specificity of this new molecular imaging probe. Fluorescence microscopy investigations in living rat C6 glioma tumor cells demonstrate that the new imaging agent has affinity for glioma cells and binds to mitochondria.

  14. Imaging diagnosis and fundamental knowledge of common brain tumors in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akio

    2006-07-01

    The most common primary brain tumors in Japanese adults are meningiomas, gliomas, pituitary adenomas, and schwannomas, which together account for 84.0% of all primary brain tumors. The typical imaging findings of these tumors are well known by radiologists; therefore, the clinical and pathological issues, including terminology, genetics, and relation to hormones are discussed in this article. Other diseases important for the differential diagnoses are also mentioned. The molecular genetic analysis of brain tumors has recently become important. For instance, genetic analysis is important for differentiating oligodendroglial tumors from astrocytic tumors, and the gene mutation predicts response to chemotherapy for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Background factors such as hormones, history of cranial irradiation, and medications influence oncogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor appearances as seen by imaging modalities. A differential diagnosis with knowledge of the above may have some advantages over diagnoses based on imaging findings alone. Nonneoplastic diseases such as abscesses and demyelinating diseases may mimic gliomas. Pituitary adenomas may be confused with nonneoplastic conditions such as physiological hypertrophy and Rathke's cleft cyst. Such misdiagnoses would result in a treatment protocol very different from what would be suitable. Such conditions should be carefully distinguished from neoplasms.

  15. In Vivo Follow-up of Brain Tumor Growth via Bioluminescence Imaging and Fluorescence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Genevois, Coralie; Loiseau, Hugues; Couillaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Reporter gene-based strategies are widely used in experimental oncology. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using the firefly luciferase (Fluc) as a reporter gene and d-luciferin as a substrate is currently the most widely employed technique. The present paper compares the performances of BLI imaging with fluorescence imaging using the near infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) to monitor brain tumor growth in mice. Fluorescence imaging includes fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI), fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT), and fluorescence molecular Imaging (FMT®). A U87 cell line was genetically modified for constitutive expression of both the encoding Fluc and iRFP reporter genes and assayed for cell, subcutaneous tumor and brain tumor imaging. On cultured cells, BLI was more sensitive than FRI; in vivo, tumors were first detected by BLI. Fluorescence of iRFP provided convenient tools such as flux cytometry, direct detection of the fluorescent protein on histological slices, and fluorescent tomography that allowed for 3D localization and absolute quantification of the fluorescent signal in brain tumors. PMID:27809256

  16. Molecular imaging of brain tumors personal experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Bernhard J; Cornelius, Jan F; Sandu, Nora; Buchfelder, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Non-invasive energy metabolism measurements in brain tumors in vivo are now performed widely as molecular imaging by positron emission tomography. This capability has developed from a large number of basic and clinical science investigations that have cross fertilized one another. Apart from precise anatomical localization and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Most importantly, molecular imaging represents a key-technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols that may later be applied to human patients. Common clinical indications for molecular imaging of primary brain tumors therefore contain (i) primary brain tumor diagnosis, (ii) identification of the metabolically most active brain tumor reactions (differentiation of viable tumor tissue from necrosis), and (iii) prediction of treatment response by measurement of tumor perfusion, or ischemia. The key-question remains whether the magnitude of biochemical alterations demonstrated by molecular imaging reveals prognostic value with respect to survival. Molecular imaging may identify early disease and differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Moreover, an early identification of treatment effectiveness could influence patient management by providing objective criteria for evaluation of therapeutic strategies for primary brain tumors. Specially, its novel potential to visualize metabolism and signal transduction to gene expression is used in reporter gene assays to trace the location and temporal level of expression of therapeutic and endogenous genes. The authors present here illustrative data of PET imaging: the thymidine kinase gene expression in experimentally transplanted F98 gliomas in cat brain indicates, that [(18)F]FHBG visualizes cells expressing TK-GFP gene in transduced gliomas as well as quantities and localizes transduced

  17. Improved tumor identification using dual tracer molecular imaging in fluorescence guided brain surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Torres, Veronica; Straus, David; Brey, Eric M.; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumors represent a leading cause of cancer death for people under the age of 40 and the probability complete surgical resection of brain tumors remains low owing to the invasive nature of these tumors and the consequences of damaging healthy brain tissue. Molecular imaging is an emerging approach that has the potential to improve the ability for surgeons to correctly discriminate between healthy and cancerous tissue; however, conventional molecular imaging approaches in brain suffer from significant background signal in healthy tissue or an inability target more invasive sections of the tumor. This work presents initial studies investigating the ability of novel dual-tracer molecular imaging strategies to be used to overcome the major limitations of conventional "single-tracer" molecular imaging. The approach is evaluated in simulations and in an in vivo mice study with animals inoculated orthotopically using fluorescent human glioma cells. An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted Affibody-fluorescent marker was employed as a targeted imaging agent, and the suitability of various FDA approved untargeted fluorescent tracers (e.g. fluorescein & indocyanine green) were evaluated in terms of their ability to account for nonspecific uptake and retention of the targeted imaging agent. Signal-to-background ratio was used to measure and compare the amount of reporter in the tissue between targeted and untargeted tracer. The initial findings suggest that FDA-approved fluorescent imaging agents are ill-suited to act as untargeted imaging agents for dual-tracer fluorescent guided brain surgery as they suffer from poor delivery to the healthy brain tissue and therefore cannot be used to identify nonspecific vs. specific uptake of the targeted imaging agent where current surgery is most limited.

  18. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

  19. Evaluation of image quality of MRI data for brain tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckel, Frank; Arlt, Felix; Geisler, Benjamin; Zidowitz, Stephan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    3D medical images are important components of modern medicine. Their usefulness for the physician depends on their quality, though. Only high-quality images allow accurate and reproducible diagnosis and appropriate support during treatment. We have analyzed 202 MRI images for brain tumor surgery in a retrospective study. Both an experienced neurosurgeon and an experienced neuroradiologist rated each available image with respect to its role in the clinical workflow, its suitability for this specific role, various image quality characteristics, and imaging artifacts. Our results show that MRI data acquired for brain tumor surgery does not always fulfill the required quality standards and that there is a significant disagreement between the surgeon and the radiologist, with the surgeon being more critical. Noise, resolution, as well as the coverage of anatomical structures were the most important criteria for the surgeon, while the radiologist was mainly disturbed by motion artifacts.

  20. Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Steven C.; Thompson, Reid C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2007-04-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can successfully discriminate between normal, tumor core, and tumor margin tissues in the brain. To achieve efficient, real-time surgical resection guidance with optical biopsy, probe-based spectroscopy must be extended to spectral imaging to spatially demarcate the tumor margins. We describe the design and characterization of a combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance imaging system that uses liquid-crystal tunable filter technology. Experiments were conducted to quantitatively determine the linearity, field of view, spatial and spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity of the imaging system. Spectral images were acquired from tissue phantoms, mouse brain in vitro, and human cortex in vivo for functional testing of the system. The spectral imaging system produces measured intensities that are linear with sample emission intensity and integration time and possesses a 1 in. (2.54 cm) field of view for a 7 in. (18 cm) object distance. The spectral resolution is linear with wavelength, and the spatial resolution is pixel-limited. The sensitivity spectra for the imaging system provide a guide for the distribution of total image integration time between wavelengths. Functional tests in vitro demonstrate the capability to spectrally discriminate between brain tissues based on exogenous fluorescence contrast or endogenous tissue composition. In vivo imaging captures adequate fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensities within a clinically viable 2 min imaging time frame and demonstrates the importance of hemostasis to acquired signal strengths and imaging speed.

  1. Brain tumor demarcation with liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Steven C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2006-02-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can successfully discriminate between normal, tumor core, and tumor margin tissues in the brain. To achieve efficient surgical resection guidance with optical biopsy, probe-based spectroscopy must be extended to spectral imaging to spatially demarcate the tumor margins. This paper describes the design and testing of a combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance imaging system which uses liquid-crystal tunable filter technology. Experiments were conducted to quantitatively determine its linearity, field of view, spatial and spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity. For functional testing, spectral images were acquired from tissue phantoms, mouse brain in vitro, and rat brain cortex in vivo. The spectral imaging system is characterized by measured intensities which are linear with sample emission intensity and integration time, a one-inch field of view for a seven-inch object distance, spectral resolution which is linear with wavelength, spatial resolution which is pixel-limited, and sensitivity functions which provide a guide for the distribution of total image integration time between wavelengths. Functional testing demonstrated good spatial and spectral constrast between brain tissue types, the capability to acquire adequate fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensities within a one-minute imaging timeframe, and the importance of hemostasis to acquired signal strengths and imaging speed.

  2. Intraoperative Spectroscopy with Ultrahigh Sensitivity for Image-Guided Surgery of Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kairdolf, Brad A; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Sharma, Abhinav K; Wang, May Dongmei; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G; Nie, Shuming

    2016-01-05

    Intraoperative cancer imaging and fluorescence-guided surgery have attracted considerable interest because fluorescence signals can provide real-time guidance to assist a surgeon in differentiating cancerous and normal tissues. Recent advances have led to the clinical use of a natural fluorophore called protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for image-guided surgical resection of high-grade brain tumors (glioblastomas). However, traditional fluorescence imaging methods have only limited detection sensitivity and identification accuracy and are unable to detect low-grade or diffuse infiltrating gliomas (DIGs). Here we report a low-cost hand-held spectroscopic device that is capable of ultrasensitive detection of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in vivo, together with intraoperative spectroscopic data obtained from both animal xenografts and human brain tumor specimens. The results indicate that intraoperative spectroscopy is at least 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current surgical microscopes, allowing ultrasensitive detection of as few as 1000 tumor cells. For detection specificity, intraoperative spectroscopy allows the differentiation of brain tumor cells from normal brain cells with a contrast signal ratio over 100. In vivo animal studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX fluorescence is strongly correlated with both MRI and histological staining, confirming that the fluorescence signals are highly specific to tumor cells. Furthermore, ex vivo spectroscopic studies of excised brain tissues demonstrate that the hand-held spectroscopic device is capable of detecting diffuse tumor margins with low fluorescence contrast that are not detectable with current systems in the operating room. These results open new opportunities for intraoperative detection and fluorescence-guided resection of microscopic and low-grade glioma brain tumors with invasive or diffusive margins.

  3. Enhancement of brain tumor MR images based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wankai; Deng, He; Cheng, Lifang

    2015-12-01

    Brain tumor is one of the most fatal cancers, especially high-grade gliomas are among the most deadly. However, brain tumor MR images usually have the disadvantages of low resolution and contrast when compared with the optical images. Consequently, we present a novel adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy enhancement scheme by combining a nonlinear fuzzy filtering operation with fusion operators, for the enhancement of brain tumor MR images in this paper. The presented scheme consists of the following six steps: Firstly, the image is divided into several sub-images. Secondly, for each sub-image, object and background areas are separated by a simple threshold. Thirdly, respective intuitionistic fuzzy generators of object and background areas are constructed based on the modified restricted equivalence function. Fourthly, different suitable operations are performed on respective membership functions of object and background areas. Fifthly, the membership plane is inversely transformed into the image plane. Finally, an enhanced image is obtained through fusion operators. The comparison and evaluation of enhancement performance demonstrate that the presented scheme is helpful to determine the abnormal functional areas, guide the operation, judge the prognosis, and plan the radiotherapy by enhancing the fine detail of MR images.

  4. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  5. Raman spectroscopic imaging as complementary tool for histopathologic assessment of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Bergner, Norbert; Romeike, Bernd; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Geiger, Kathrin; Kirsch, Matthias; Schackert, Gabriele; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy enables label-free assessment of brain tissues and tumors based on their biochemical composition. Combination of the Raman spectra with the lateral information allows grading of tumors, determining the primary tumor of brain metastases and delineating tumor margins - even during surgery after coupling with fiber optic probes. This contribution presents exemplary Raman spectra and images collected from low grade and high grade regions of astrocytic gliomas and brain metastases. A region of interest in dried tissue sections encompassed slightly increased cell density. Spectral unmixing by vertex component analysis (VCA) and N-FINDR resolved cell nuclei in score plots and revealed the spectral contributions of nucleic acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ester and proteins in endmember signatures. The results correlated with the histopathological analysis after staining the specimens by hematoxylin and eosin. For a region of interest in non-dried, buffer immersed tissue sections image processing was not affected by drying artifacts such as denaturation of biomolecules and crystallization of cholesterol. Consequently, the results correspond better to in vivo situations. Raman spectroscopic imaging of a brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma showed an endmember with spectral contributions of glycogen which can be considered as a marker for this primary tumor.

  6. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  7. Small unilamellar vesicles: a platform technology for molecular imaging of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Umar; Albaghdadi, Homam; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Tuor, Ursula I.; Mester, Zoltan; Stanimirovic, Danica; Katsaras, John; Abulrob, Abedelnasser

    2011-05-01

    Molecular imaging enables the non-invasive investigation of cellular and molecular processes. Although there are challenges to overcome, the development of targeted contrast agents to increase the sensitivity of molecular imaging techniques is essential for their clinical translation. In this study, spontaneously forming, small unilamellar vesicles (sULVs) (30 nm diameter) were used as a platform to build a bimodal (i.e., optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) targeted contrast agent for the molecular imaging of brain tumors. sULVs were loaded with a gadolinium (Gd) chelated lipid (Gd-DPTA-BOA), functionalized with targeting antibodies (anti-EGFR monoclonal and anti-IGFBP7 single domain), and incorporated a near infrared dye (Cy5.5). The resultant sULVs were characterized in vitro using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), phantom MRI and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Antibody targeted and nontargeted Gd loaded sULVs labeled with Cy5.5 were assessed in vivo in a brain tumor model in mice using time domain optical imaging and MRI. The results demonstrated that a spontaneously forming, nanosized ULVs loaded with a high payload of Gd can selectively target and image, using MR and optical imaging, brain tumor vessels when functionalized with anti-IGFBP7 single domain antibodies. The unique features of these targeted sULVs make them promising molecular MRI contrast agents.

  8. Small Unilamellar Vesicles: A Platform Technology for Molecular Imaging of Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, U; Albaghdadi, H; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Tuor, U.I; Mester, Z; Stanimirovic, D; Katsaras, John; Abulrob, A

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the non-invasive investigation of cellular and molecular processes. Although there are challenges to overcome, the development of targeted contrast agents to increase the sensitivity of molecular imaging techniques is essential for their clinical translation. In this study, spontaneously forming, small unilamellar vesicles (sULVs) (30 nm diameter) were used as a platform to build a bimodal (i.e., optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) targeted contrast agent for the molecular imaging of brain tumors. sULVs were loaded with a gadolinium (Gd) chelated lipid (Gd-DPTA-BOA), functionalized with targeting antibodies (anti-EGFR monoclonal and anti-IGFBP7 single domain), and incorporated a near infrared dye (Cy5.5). The resultant sULVs were characterized in vitro using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), phantom MRI and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Antibody targeted and nontargeted Gd loaded sULVs labeled with Cy5.5 were assessed in vivo in a brain tumor model in mice using time domain optical imaging and MRI. The results demonstrated that a spontaneously forming, nanosized ULVs loaded with a high payload of Gd can selectively target and image, using MR and optical imaging, brain tumor vessels when functionalized with anti-IGFBP7 single domain antibodies. The unique features of these targeted sULVs make them promising molecular MRI contrast agents.

  9. Absorption edge subtraction imaging for volumetric measurement in an animal model of malignant brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigley, S.; Rigon, L.; Ataelmannan, K.; Chapman, D.; Doucette, R.; Griebel, R.; Juurlink, B.; Arfelli, F.; Menk, R.-H.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.; Beveridge, T.; Lewis, R.; Pavlov, K.; Siu, K.; Hall, C.; Schültke, E.

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of utilizing colloidal gold as a marker for C6 glioblastoma cells implanted into rat brain as an appropriate model for volumetric measurements of tumors using absorption edge subtraction (AES). Phase sensitive X-ray imaging is combined with KES to give good soft tissue contrast. Current methods for volumetric measurements of implanted C6 glioblastoma tumors in rat brains using MRI technology are inadequate due to the small size of the tumor (2.5-4 mm in diameter) and the thickness of the MRI slice (1-1.5 mm). Previously, our group has shown that AES detection of colloidal gold labeled C6 glioblastoma cells implanted into a rat brains may be feasible. The long-term goal for this project is to establish a method, which would allow the researcher to monitor the development of a tumor over time. Most importantly, this technique should allow researchers to accurately determine the potency of a treatment on the size and growth rate for a C6 implanted tumors. In addition, we plan to challenge the hypothesis that tumors of the glioma type do not metastasize outside of the brain. A sensitive technique for the detection of C6 cells, such as that using colloidal gold and AES/DEI, should enable researchers to detect C6 cells, which have metastasized and migrated to different areas of the body. The ability to detect implanted C6 cells followed by the development of the tumor, the possible migration of the cells and the ability to accurately measure the effects of treatments on the volume of the tumor would be of the utmost importance to brain tumor research.

  10. Nonrigid Registration of Brain Tumor Resection MR Images Based on Joint Saliency Map and Keypoint Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhijun; Qin, Binjie

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM), is maximized to achieve a global rigid registration of the two images. Being detected and clustered at the paired contiguous matching areas in the globally registered images, the paired pools of DoG keypoints in combination with the JSM provide a useful cluster-to-cluster correspondence to guide the local control-point correspondence detection and the outlier keypoint rejection. Lastly, a quasi-inverse consistent deformation is smoothly approximated to locally register brain images through the mapping the clustered control points by compact support radial basis functions. The 2D implementation of the method can model the brain shift in brain tumor resection MR images, though the theory holds for the 3D case. PMID:22303173

  11. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment.

  12. Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Imaging of Orthotopic Brain Tumors in Mice.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emilie; Moore, Alfred; Dixit, Suraj; Zhu, Yun; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Optical imaging strategies, such as fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging, are non-invasive, in vivo whole body imaging techniques utilized to study cancer. Optical imaging is widely used in preclinical work because of its ease of use and cost-friendliness. It also provides the opportunity to study animals and biological responses longitudinally over time. Important considerations include depth of tissue penetration, photon scattering, absorption and the choice of light emitting probe, all of which affect the resolution (image quality and data information) and the signal to noise ratio of the image. We describe how to use bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging to track a chemotherapeutic delivery nanocarrier conjugated with a fluorophore to determine its localization in vivo.

  13. Comparison of CT and MRI brain tumor imaging using a canine glioma model.

    PubMed

    Whelan, H T; Clanton, J A; Wilson, R E; Tulipan, N B

    1988-01-01

    A canine gliosarcoma model was used to study the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast enhancement in defining the histologic margins of brain tumors. The effectiveness of this technique was compared to conventional computed tomography (CT) using iodinated contrast enhancement. Cultured canine gliosarcoma cells were injected into the left hemisphere of adult mongrel dogs. The dogs developed brain tumors and progressive clinical signs. Serial MRI with and without gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid was compared to serial CT with and without sodium iothalamate obtained on the same days. After the final scans, animals were sacrificed; the brains were removed and processed for routine histopathologic study. All tumors were visualized with contrast-enhanced MRI which proved most sensitive. Gadolinium di-ethylene triamine penta-acetic acid caused bright enhancement of tumors in a distribution that consistently corresponded to areas of pathologically proved tumor infiltration. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings correlated better with MRI than with CT which tended to produce poorer resolution and underrepresent the size of viable tumor. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is more accurate than unenhanced MRI, unenhanced CT, or enhanced CT in defining the histologic margins of tumors.

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  15. Targeted delivery of antibody-based therapeutic and imaging agents to CNS tumors: Crossing the blood-brain-barrier divide

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Li, Chunsheng; Pryma, Daniel A.; Brem, Steven; Coukos, George; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brain tumors are inherently difficult to treat in large part due to the cellular blood-brain barriers (BBB) that limit the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor tissue from the systemic circulation. Virtually no large-molecules, including antibody-based proteins, can penetrate the BBB. With antibodies fast becoming attractive ligands for highly specific molecular targeting to tumor antigens, a variety of methods are being investigated to enhance the access of these agents to intracranial tumors for imaging or therapeutic applications. Areas covered This review describes the characteristics of the BBB and the vasculature in brain tumors, described as the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB). Antibodies targeted to molecular markers of CNS tumors will be highlighted, and current strategies for enhancing the delivery of antibodies across these cellular barriers into the brain parenchyma to the tumor will be discussed. Non-invasive imaging approaches to assess BBB/BBTB permeability and/or antibody targeting will be presented as a means of guiding the optimal delivery of targeted agents to brain tumors. Expert Opinion Pre-clinical and clinical studies highlight the potential of several approaches in increasing brain tumor delivery across the blood-brain barrier divide. However, each carries its own risks and challenges. There is tremendous potential in using neuroimaging strategies to assist in understanding and defining the challenges to translating and optimizing molecularly-targeted antibody delivery to CNS tumors to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23751126

  16. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  17. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  18. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  19. Brain tumor classification using the diffusion tensor image segmentation (D-SEG) technique

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy L.; Byrnes, Tiernan J.; Yang, Guang; Howe, Franklyn A.; Bell, B. Anthony; Barrick, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing demand for noninvasive brain tumor biomarkers to guide surgery and subsequent oncotherapy. We present a novel whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) segmentation (D-SEG) to delineate tumor volumes of interest (VOIs) for subsequent classification of tumor type. D-SEG uses isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of the diffusion tensor to segment regions with similar diffusion characteristics. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 95 patients with low- and high-grade glioma, metastases, and meningioma and from 29 healthy subjects. D-SEG uses k-means clustering of the 2D (p,q) space to generate segments with different isotropic and anisotropic diffusion characteristics. Results Our results are visualized using a novel RGB color scheme incorporating p, q and T2-weighted information within each segment. The volumetric contribution of each segment to gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid spaces was used to generate healthy tissue D-SEG spectra. Tumor VOIs were extracted using a semiautomated flood-filling technique and D-SEG spectra were computed within the VOI. Classification of tumor type using D-SEG spectra was performed using support vector machines. D-SEG was computationally fast and stable and delineated regions of healthy tissue from tumor and edema. D-SEG spectra were consistent for each tumor type, with constituent diffusion characteristics potentially reflecting regional differences in tissue microstructure. Support vector machines classified tumor type with an overall accuracy of 94.7%, providing better classification than previously reported. Conclusions D-SEG presents a user-friendly, semiautomated biomarker that may provide a valuable adjunct in noninvasive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25121771

  20. In vivo optical imaging of brain tumors and arthritis using fluorescent SapC-DOPS nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhengtao; LaSance, Kathleen; Blanco, Victor; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Kaur, Balveen; Frederick, Malinda; Thornton, Sherry; Lemen, Lisa; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-05-02

    We describe a multi-angle rotational optical imaging (MAROI) system for in vivo monitoring of physiopathological processes labeled with a fluorescent marker. Mouse models (brain tumor and arthritis) were used to evaluate the usefulness of this method. Saposin C (SapC)-dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) nanovesicles tagged with CellVue Maroon (CVM) fluorophore were administered intravenously. Animals were then placed in the rotational holder (MARS) of the in vivo imaging system. Images were acquired in 10° steps over 380°. A rectangular region of interest (ROI) was placed across the full image width at the model disease site. Within the ROI, and for every image, mean fluorescence intensity was computed after background subtraction. In the mouse models studied, the labeled nanovesicles were taken up in both the orthotopic and transgenic brain tumors, and in the arthritic sites (toes and ankles). Curve analysis of the multi angle image ROIs determined the angle with the highest signal. Thus, the optimal angle for imaging each disease site was characterized. The MAROI method applied to imaging of fluorescent compounds is a noninvasive, economical, and precise tool for in vivo quantitative analysis of the disease states in the described mouse models.

  1. Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Spatial Layout Information in Brain Tumor T1-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images. PMID:25028970

  2. Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation of alpha-[F-18]Fluoromethyl Phenylalanine for Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chaofeng; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Radiolabeled amino acids have proven utility for imaging brain tumors in humans, particularly those that target system L amino acid transport. We have prepared the novel phenylalanine analogue, α-[18F]fluoromethyl phenylalanine (FMePhe, 9), as part of an effort to develop new system L tracers that can be prepared in high radiochemical yield through nucleophilic [18F]fluorination. The tumor imaging properties of both enantiomers this new tracer were evaluated through cell uptake, biodistribution and microPET studies in the mouse DBT model of high grade glioma. Methods The non-radioactive form of 9 and the cyclic sulfamidate labeling precursor were prepared from commercially available racemic α-benzylserine. Racemic [18F]9 was prepared from the labeling precursor in two steps using standard [18F]fluoride nucleophilic reaction conditions followed by acidic deprotection. The individual enantiomers [18F]9a and [18F]9b were isolated using preparative chiral HPLC. In vitro uptake inhibition assays were performed with each enantiomer using DBT cells. Biodistribution and microPET/CT studies were performed with each enantiomers in male BALB/c mice at approximately 2 weeks after implantation of DBT tumor cells. Results Radiolabeling of the cyclic sulfamidate precursor 5 provide racemic [18F]9 in high radiochemical yield (60–70%, n = 4) and high radiochemical purity (>96%, n = 4). In vitro uptake assays demonstrate that both [18F]9a and [18F]9b undergo tumor cell uptake through system L transport. The biodistribution studies using the single enantiomers [18F]9a and [18F]9b demonstrated good tumor uptake with lower uptake in most normal tissues, and [18F]9a had higher tumor uptake than [18F]9b. MicroPET imaging demonstrated good tumor visualization within 10 min of injection, rapid uptake of radioactivity, and tumor to brain ratios of approximately 6:1 at 60 min postinjection. Conclusions The novel PET tracer, [18F]FMePhe, is readily synthesized in good yield

  3. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  4. Perylene-diimide-based nanoparticles as highly efficient photoacoustic agents for deep brain tumor imaging in living mice

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Yang, Zhen; ...

    2014-11-06

    In order to promote preclinical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, novel photoacoustic contrast agents are highly desired for molecular imaging of diseases, especially for deep tumor imaging. In this paper, perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diiimide-based near-infrared-absorptive organic nanoparticles are reported as an efficient agent for photoacoustic imaging of deep brain tumors in living mice with enhanced permeability and retention effect

  5. Perylene-diimide-based nanoparticles as highly efficient photoacoustic agents for deep brain tumor imaging in living mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Bu, Lihong; Lu, Xiaomei; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Heng; Cheng, Zhen

    2015-02-04

    In order to promote preclinical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, novel photoacoustic contrast agents are highly desired for molecular imaging of diseases, especially for deep tumor imaging. Here, perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diiimide-based near-infrared-absorptive organic nanoparticles are reported as an efficient agent for photoacoustic imaging of deep brain tumors in living mice with enhanced permeability and retention effect.

  6. Imaging of brain tumors after administration of L-(/sup 13/N)glutamate: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Reiman, R.E.; Benua, R.S.; Gelbard, A.S.; Allen, J.C.; Vomero, J.J.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    Cyclotron-produced L-(/sup 13/N)glutamate was used to visualize malignant intracranial tumors in 12 pediatric patients who had evidence of recurrent disease as documented by computed transaxial tomography (TCT). Imaging was performed using a rectilinear scanner, gamma camera, or a positron-emission tomograph (PET). The results indicate that /sup 13/N is rapidly taken up by a majority of brain tumors following the administration of L-(/sup 13/N)glutamate, and that /sup 13/N uptake is correlated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by contrast TCT or pertechnetate /sup 99m/Tc studies. The feasibility of using this agent in conjunction with PET is established.

  7. Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-03-01

    Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units, e.g. peptides or antibodies, as well as a cloaking agent, to prevent uptake by the immune system, i.e. enabling control of the plasma residence time. These dynamic nano-platforms (DNP) contain contrast enhancement agents for the imaging (MRI, optical, photo-acoustic) of targeted locations, i.e. tumors. Added to this are targeted therapy agents, such as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A simple protocol, for rats implanted with human brain cancer, consists of tail injection with DNPs, followed by 5 min red light illumination of the tumor region. It resulted in excellent cure statistics for 9L glioblastoma.

  8. Clinical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Iv, Michael; Telischak, Nicholas; Feng, Dan; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2015-01-01

    Current neuroimaging provides detailed anatomic and functional evaluation of brain tumors, allowing for improved diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Some challenges persist even with today's advanced imaging techniques, including accurate delineation of tumor margins and distinguishing treatment effects from residual or recurrent tumor. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are an emerging tool that can add clinically useful information due to their distinct physiochemical features and biodistribution, while having a good safety profile. Nanoparticles can be used as a platform for theranostic drugs, which have shown great promise for the treatment of CNS malignancies. This review will provide an overview of clinical ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides and how they can be applied to the diagnostic and therapeutic neuro-oncologic setting.

  9. Near-infrared fluorescence heptamethine carbocyanine dyes mediate imaging and targeted drug delivery for human brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jason Boyang; Shi, Changhong; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Xu, Qijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Qinlong; Yu, John S.; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Chung, Leland W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors and brain metastases are among the deadliest malignancies of all human cancers, largely due to the cellular blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers that limit the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents from the systemic circulation to tumors. Thus, improved strategies for brain tumor visualization and targeted treatment are critically needed. Here we identified and synthesized a group of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) heptamethine carbocyanine dyes and derivative NIRF dye-drug conjugates for effective imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumors of either primary or metastatic origin in mice, which is mechanistically mediated by tumor hypoxia and organic aniontransporting polypeptide genes. We also demonstrate that these dyes, when conjugated to chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine, significantly restricted the growth of both intracranial glioma xenografts and prostate tumor brain metastases and prolonged survival in mice. These results show promise in the application of NIRF dyes as novel theranostic agents for the detection and treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26197410

  10. Near-infrared fluorescence heptamethine carbocyanine dyes mediate imaging and targeted drug delivery for human brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason Boyang; Shi, Changhong; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Xu, Qijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Qinlong; Yu, John S; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumors and brain metastases are among the deadliest malignancies of all human cancers, largely due to the cellular blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers that limit the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents from the systemic circulation to tumors. Thus, improved strategies for brain tumor visualization and targeted treatment are critically needed. Here we identified and synthesized a group of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) heptamethine carbocyanine dyes and derivative NIRF dye-drug conjugates for effective imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumors of either primary or metastatic origin in mice, which is mechanistically mediated by tumor hypoxia and organic anion-transporting polypeptide genes. We also demonstrate that these dyes, when conjugated to chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine, significantly restricted the growth of both intracranial glioma xenografts and prostate tumor brain metastases and prolonged survival in mice. These results show promise in the application of NIRF dyes as novel theranostic agents for the detection and treatment of brain tumors.

  11. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  12. Dose to craniofacial region through portal imaging of pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, Christine J; Osa, Etin-Osa; Dewyngaert, J Keith; Chang, Jenghwa; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2012-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) from portal imaging (PI) of the craniofacial region in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Twenty pediatric brain tumor patients were retrospectively studied. Each received portal imaging of treatment fields and orthogonal setup fields in the craniofacial region. The number of PI and monitor units used for PI were documented for each patient. Dose distributions and dose-volume histograms were generated to quantify the maximum, minimum, and mean dose to the PTV, and the mean dose to OARs through PI acquisition. The doses resulting from PI are reported as percentage of prescribed dose. The average maximum, minimum, and mean doses to PTV from PI were 2.9 ± 0.7%, 2.2 ± 1.0%, and 2.5 ± 0.7%, respectively. The mean dose to the OARs from PI were brainstem 2.8 ± 1.1%, optic nerves/chiasm 2.6 ± 0.9%, cochlea 2.6 ± 0.9%, hypothalamus/pituitary 2.4 ± 0.6%, temporal lobes 2.3 ± 0.6%, thyroid 1.6 ± 0.8%, and eyes 2.6 ± 0.9%. The mean number of portal images and the mean number of PI monitor units per patient were 58.8 and 173.3, respectively. The dose from PI while treating pediatric brain tumors using IMRT is significant (2%-3% of the prescribed dose). This may result in exceeding the tolerance limit of many critical structures and lead to unwanted late complications and secondary malignancies. Dose contributions from PI should be considered in the final documented dose. Attempts must be made in PI practices to lower the imaging dose when feasible.

  13. Brain tumor imaging using small-angle x-ray scattering tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Torben H.; Bech, Martin; Bunk, Oliver; Thomsen, Maria; Menzel, Andreas; Bouchet, Audrey; Le Duc, Géraldine; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution small-angle x-ray scattering computed tomography (SAXS-CT) of soft matter and soft tissue samples. Complete SAXS patterns over extended ranges of momentum transfer are reconstructed spatially resolved from volumes inside an extended sample. Several SAXS standard samples are used to quantitatively validate the method and demonstrate its performance. Further results on biomedical tissue samples (rat brains) are presented that demonstrate the advantages of the method compared to existing biomedical x-ray imaging approaches. Functional areas of the brains as well as tumor morphology are imaged. By providing insights into the structural organization at the nano-level, SAXS-CT complements and extends results obtainable with standard methods such as x-ray absorption tomography and histology.

  14. Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%. PMID:23243462

  15. Alpha shape theory for 3D visualization and volumetric measurement of brain tumor progression using magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Hamoud Al-Tamimi, Mohammed Sabbih; Sulong, Ghazali; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2015-07-01

    Resection of brain tumors is a tricky task in surgery due to its direct influence on the patients' survival rate. Determining the tumor resection extent for its complete information via-à-vis volume and dimensions in pre- and post-operative Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) requires accurate estimation and comparison. The active contour segmentation technique is used to segment brain tumors on pre-operative MR images using self-developed software. Tumor volume is acquired from its contours via alpha shape theory. The graphical user interface is developed for rendering, visualizing and estimating the volume of a brain tumor. Internet Brain Segmentation Repository dataset (IBSR) is employed to analyze and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of tumor volume. Accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the estimated volume using the proposed method with that of gold-standard. Segmentation by active contour technique is found to be capable of detecting the brain tumor boundaries. Furthermore, the volume description and visualization enable an interactive examination of tumor tissue and its surrounding. Admirable features of our results demonstrate that alpha shape theory in comparison to other existing standard methods is superior for precise volumetric measurement of tumor.

  16. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  17. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  18. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  19. Consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Bendszus, Martin; Boxerman, Jerrold; Barboriak, Daniel; Erickson, Bradley J.; Smits, Marion; Nelson, Sarah J.; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Alexander, Brian; Goldmacher, Gregory; Wick, Wolfgang; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weller, Michael; Galanis, Evanthia; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Shankar, Lalitha; Jacobs, Paula; Pope, Whitney B.; Yang, Dewen; Chung, Caroline; Knopp, Michael V.; Cha, Soonme; van den Bent, Martin J.; Chang, Susan; Al Yung, W.K.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent joint meeting was held on January 30, 2014, with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), clinical scientists, imaging experts, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, clinical trials cooperative groups, and patient advocate groups to discuss imaging endpoints for clinical trials in glioblastoma. This workshop developed a set of priorities and action items including the creation of a standardized MRI protocol for multicenter studies. The current document outlines consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol (BTIP), along with the scientific and practical justifications for these recommendations, resulting from a series of discussions between various experts involved in aspects of neuro-oncology neuroimaging for clinical trials. The minimum recommended sequences include: (i) parameter-matched precontrast and postcontrast inversion recovery-prepared, isotropic 3D T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo; (ii) axial 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo acquired after contrast injection and before postcontrast 3D T1-weighted images to control timing of images after contrast administration; (iii) precontrast, axial 2D T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; and (iv) precontrast, axial 2D, 3-directional diffusion-weighted images. Recommended ranges of sequence parameters are provided for both 1.5 T and 3 T MR systems. PMID:26250565

  20. Mutual-information-corrected tumor displacement using intraoperative ultrasound for brain shift compensation in image-guided neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2008-03-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) has emerged as a practical neuronavigational tool for brain shift compensation in image-guided tumor resection surgeries. The use of iUS is optimized when coregistered with preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR) of the patient's head. However, the fiducial-based registration alone does not necessarily optimize the alignment of internal anatomical structures deep in the brain (e.g., tumor) between iUS and pMR. In this paper, we investigated and evaluated an image-based re-registration scheme to maximize the normalized mutual information (nMI) between iUS and pMR to improve tumor boundary alignment using the fiducial registration as a starting point for optimization. We show that this scheme significantly (p<<0.001) reduces tumor boundary misalignment pre-durotomy. The same technique was employed to measure tumor displacement post-durotomy, and the locally measured tumor displacement was assimilated into a biomechanical model to estimate whole-brain deformation. Our results demonstrate that the nMI re-registration pre-durotomy is critical for obtaining accurate measurement of tumor displacement, which significantly improved model response at the craniotomy when compared with stereopsis data acquired independently from the tumor registration. This automatic and computationally efficient (<2min) re-registration technique is feasible for routine clinical use in the operating room (OR).

  1. Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging-navigated argon-helium cryoablation therapy against a rabbit VX2 brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YANG; KAN, HONG-LI; SUN, HONG; WANG, DONG-XIN; WANG, HUAI-WU; LIU, JI-XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided and monitored argon-helium cryoablation for the treatment of brain tumors in rabbits. In addition, the present study evaluated the associations between imaging and pathology, the therapeutic effects and the effects on the surrounding normal tissues. A total of 14 rabbits were equally divided into groups C and D. Under general anesthesia, the skull was drilled and tumor blocks were implanted. Subsequently, a New Zealand rabbit VX2 brain tumor model was successfully established. Rabbits in group C were treated with argon-helium cryoablation and those in group D did not undergo any treatment (control). Regular postoperative MRI scanning was performed to observe the changes in tumor size, and the survival times of the rabbits in groups C and D were recorded. The extent of necrosis in the brain tumor exhibited a significant correlation with the freezing time of cryoablation, and the necrotic region was shown to be the same size as the ice ball. The survival times of the rabbits in the treatment group (group C) were significantly prolonged. Therefore, the observations of the present study demonstrated that the VX2 brain tumor model, produced using an improved tumor block implantation method, was stable and suitable for MRI observation and interventional study. In addition, argon-helium cryoablation was shown to be a safe and feasible therapeutic method for the treatment of brain tumors, and was demonstrated to significantly increase the survival times of the brain tumor-bearing rabbits. PMID:26136965

  3. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  4. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M.; Mojra, A.; Sadeghi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors.

  5. Immunology of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patrick; Eisele, Günter; Weller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors of different origin, but notably malignant gliomas, are characterized by their immunosuppressive properties which allow them to escape the host's immune surveillance. The activating immune cell ligands that are expressed by tumor cells, together with potentially immunogenic antigens, are overridden by numerous immune inhibitory signals, with TGF-3 as the master immunosuppressive molecule (Figure 4.1).The ongoing investigation of mechanisms of tumor-derived immunosuppression allows for an increasing understanding of brain tumor immunology. Targeting different mechanisms of tumor-derived immunosuppression, such as inhibition of TGF-[, may represent a promising strategy for future immunotherapeutic approaches.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging using a high-temperature superconducting resonator in a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for a spontaneous rat brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates the peri-tumor signal abnormalities of a spontaneous brain tumor in a rat by using a 4 cm high-temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonator. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values derived from diffusion tensor imaging reflect the interstitial characteristic of the peri-lesional tissues of brain tumors. Low FA indicates interstitial tumor infiltration and tissue injury, while high FA indicates better tissue integrity. Better delineation of tissue contents obtained by the HTS surface resonator at 77 K may facilitate therapeutic strategy and improve clinical outcomes.

  7. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  8. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... them create an advance directive and power of attorney for health care. Support Groups You can ease ... surgery Brain tumor - children Breast cancer Increased intracranial pressure Lung cancer - small cell Melanoma Renal cell carcinoma ...

  9. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information ...

  10. Comparison of manual vs. automated multimodality (CT-MRI) image registration for brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abhirup; Santiago, Roberto J.; Smith, Ryan; Kassaee, Alireza . E-mail: Kassaee@xrt.upenn.edu

    2005-03-31

    Computed tomgoraphy-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) registrations are routinely used for target-volume delineation of brain tumors. We clinically use 2 software packages based on manual operation and 1 automated package with 2 different algorithms: chamfer matching using bony structures, and mutual information using intensity patterns. In all registration algorithms, a minimum of 3 pairs of identical anatomical and preferably noncoplanar landmarks is used on each of the 2 image sets. In manual registration, the program registers these points and links the image sets using a 3-dimensional (3D) transformation. In automated registration, the 3 landmarks are used as an initial starting point and further processing is done to complete the registration. Using our registration packages, registration of CT and MRI was performed on 10 patients. We scored the results of each registration set based on the amount of time spent, the accuracy reported by the software, and a final evaluation. We evaluated each software program by measuring the residual error between 'matched' points on the right and left globes and the posterior fossa for fused image slices. In general, manual registration showed higher misalignment between corresponding points compared to automated registration using intensity matching. This error had no directional dependence and was, most of the time, larger for a larger structure in both registration techniques. Automated algorithm based on intensity matching also gave the best results in terms of registration accuracy, irrespective of whether or not the initial landmarks were chosen carefully, when compared to that done using bone matching algorithm. Intensity-matching algorithm required the least amount of user-time and provided better accuracy.

  11. Image Analysis for MRI Based Brain Tumor Detection and Feature Extraction Using Biologically Inspired BWT and SVM.

    PubMed

    Bahadure, Nilesh Bhaskarrao; Ray, Arun Kumar; Thethi, Har Pal

    2017-01-01

    The segmentation, detection, and extraction of infected tumor area from magnetic resonance (MR) images are a primary concern but a tedious and time taking task performed by radiologists or clinical experts, and their accuracy depends on their experience only. So, the use of computer aided technology becomes very necessary to overcome these limitations. In this study, to improve the performance and reduce the complexity involves in the medical image segmentation process, we have investigated Berkeley wavelet transformation (BWT) based brain tumor segmentation. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy and quality rate of the support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, relevant features are extracted from each segmented tissue. The experimental results of proposed technique have been evaluated and validated for performance and quality analysis on magnetic resonance brain images, based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and dice similarity index coefficient. The experimental results achieved 96.51% accuracy, 94.2% specificity, and 97.72% sensitivity, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique for identifying normal and abnormal tissues from brain MR images. The experimental results also obtained an average of 0.82 dice similarity index coefficient, which indicates better overlap between the automated (machines) extracted tumor region with manually extracted tumor region by radiologists. The simulation results prove the significance in terms of quality parameters and accuracy in comparison to state-of-the-art techniques.

  12. Image Analysis for MRI Based Brain Tumor Detection and Feature Extraction Using Biologically Inspired BWT and SVM

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Arun Kumar; Thethi, Har Pal

    2017-01-01

    The segmentation, detection, and extraction of infected tumor area from magnetic resonance (MR) images are a primary concern but a tedious and time taking task performed by radiologists or clinical experts, and their accuracy depends on their experience only. So, the use of computer aided technology becomes very necessary to overcome these limitations. In this study, to improve the performance and reduce the complexity involves in the medical image segmentation process, we have investigated Berkeley wavelet transformation (BWT) based brain tumor segmentation. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy and quality rate of the support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, relevant features are extracted from each segmented tissue. The experimental results of proposed technique have been evaluated and validated for performance and quality analysis on magnetic resonance brain images, based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and dice similarity index coefficient. The experimental results achieved 96.51% accuracy, 94.2% specificity, and 97.72% sensitivity, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique for identifying normal and abnormal tissues from brain MR images. The experimental results also obtained an average of 0.82 dice similarity index coefficient, which indicates better overlap between the automated (machines) extracted tumor region with manually extracted tumor region by radiologists. The simulation results prove the significance in terms of quality parameters and accuracy in comparison to state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:28367213

  13. Automated identification of brain tumors from single MR images based on segmentation with refined patient-specific priors

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Ana; Price, Cathy J.; Mancini, Laura; Josse, Goulven; Grogan, Alice; Yamamoto, Adam K.; Geva, Sharon; Leff, Alex P.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Seghier, Mohamed L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and financial constraints. Here, we provide a modified automatic lesion identification (ALI) procedure which enables brain tumor identification from single MR images. Our method rests on (A) a modified segmentation-normalization procedure with an explicit “extra prior” for the tumor and (B) an outlier detection procedure for abnormal voxel (i.e., tumor) classification. To minimize tissue misclassification, the segmentation-normalization procedure requires prior information of the tumor location and extent. We therefore propose that ALI is run iteratively so that the output of Step B is used as a patient-specific prior in Step A. We test this procedure on real T1-weighted images from 18 patients, and the results were validated in comparison to two independent observers' manual tracings. The automated procedure identified the tumors successfully with an excellent agreement with the manual segmentation (area under the ROC curve = 0.97 ± 0.03). The proposed procedure increases the flexibility and robustness of the ALI tool and will be particularly useful for lesion-behavior mapping studies, or when lesion identification and/or spatial normalization are problematic. PMID:24381535

  14. Automated identification of brain tumors from single MR images based on segmentation with refined patient-specific priors.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Price, Cathy J; Mancini, Laura; Josse, Goulven; Grogan, Alice; Yamamoto, Adam K; Geva, Sharon; Leff, Alex P; Yousry, Tarek A; Seghier, Mohamed L

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and financial constraints. Here, we provide a modified automatic lesion identification (ALI) procedure which enables brain tumor identification from single MR images. Our method rests on (A) a modified segmentation-normalization procedure with an explicit "extra prior" for the tumor and (B) an outlier detection procedure for abnormal voxel (i.e., tumor) classification. To minimize tissue misclassification, the segmentation-normalization procedure requires prior information of the tumor location and extent. We therefore propose that ALI is run iteratively so that the output of Step B is used as a patient-specific prior in Step A. We test this procedure on real T1-weighted images from 18 patients, and the results were validated in comparison to two independent observers' manual tracings. The automated procedure identified the tumors successfully with an excellent agreement with the manual segmentation (area under the ROC curve = 0.97 ± 0.03). The proposed procedure increases the flexibility and robustness of the ALI tool and will be particularly useful for lesion-behavior mapping studies, or when lesion identification and/or spatial normalization are problematic.

  15. How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Diagnosed in Children? Brain ... resonance angiography (MRA) or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Brain or spinal cord tumor biopsy Imaging tests such ...

  16. Free magnesium levels in normal human brain and brain tumors: sup 31 P chemical-shift imaging measurements at 1. 5 T

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Vigneron, D.B.; Murphy-Boesch, J.; Nelson, S.J.; Kessler, H.B.; Coia, L.; Curran, W.; Brown, T.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors have studied a series of normal subjects and patients with brain tumors, by using {sup 31}P three-dimensional chemical shift imaging to obtain localized {sup 31}P spectra of the brain. A significant proportion of brain cytosolic ATP in normal brain is not complexed to Mg{sup 2+}, as indicated by the chemical shift {delta} of the {beta}-P resonance of ATP. The ATP {beta}P resonance position in brain thus is sensitive to changes in intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and in the proportion of ATP complexed with Mg because this shift lies on the rising portion of the {delta} vs. Mg{sup 2+} titration curve for ATP. They have measured the ATP {beta}-P shift and compared intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and fractions of free ATP for normal individuals and a limited series of patients with brain tumors. In four of the five spectra obtained from brain tissue containing a substantial proportion of tumor, intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} was increased, and the fraction of free ATP was decreased, compared with normal brain.

  17. A robust framework for soft tissue simulations with application to modeling brain tumor mass effect in 3D MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogea, Cosmina; Biros, George; Abraham, Feby; Davatzikos, Christos

    2007-12-01

    We present a framework for black-box and flexible simulation of soft tissue deformation for medical imaging and surgical planning applications. Our main motivation in the present work is to develop robust algorithms that allow batch processing for registration of brains with tumors to statistical atlases of normal brains and construction of brain tumor atlases. We describe a fully Eulerian formulation able to handle large deformations effortlessly, with a level-set-based approach for evolving fronts. We use a regular grid—fictitious domain method approach, in which we approximate coefficient discontinuities, distributed forces and boundary conditions. This approach circumvents the need for unstructured mesh generation, which is often a bottleneck in the modeling and simulation pipeline. Our framework employs penalty approaches to impose boundary conditions and uses a matrix-free implementation coupled with a multigrid-accelerated Krylov solver. The overall scheme results in a scalable method with minimal storage requirements and optimal algorithmic complexity. We illustrate the potential of our framework to simulate realistic brain tumor mass effects at reduced computational cost, for aiding the registration process towards the construction of brain tumor atlases.

  18. Prioritization of brain MRI volumes using medical image perception model and tumor region segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Irfan; Ejaz, Naveed; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to explore prioritization methods in diagnostic imaging modalities to automatically determine the contents of medical images. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritization of brain MRI. First, the visual perception of the radiologists is adapted to identify salient regions. Then this saliency information is used as an automatic label for accurate segmentation of brain lesion to determine the scientific value of that image. The qualitative and quantitative results prove that the rankings generated by the proposed method are closer to the rankings created by radiologists.

  19. Metallofullerene-based Nanoplatform for Brain Tumor Brachytherapy and Longitudinal Imaging in a Murine Orthotopic Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Michael D.; Wilson, John D.; Fuller, Christine E.; Zhang, Jianyuan; Dorn, Harry C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate in an orthotopic xenograft brain tumor model that a functionalized metallofullerene (f-Gd3N@C80) can enable longitudinal tumor imaging and, when radiolabeled with lutetium 177 (177Lu) and tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80), provide an anchor to deliver effective brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: All experiments involving the use of mice were carried out in accordance with protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Human glioblastoma U87MG cells were implanted by using stereotactic procedures into the brains of 37 female athymic nude-Foxn1nu mice and allowed to develop into a tumor for 8 days. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in five mice. Biodistribution studies were performed in 12 mice at four time points over 7 days to evaluate gadolinium content. Survival studies involved 20 mice that received infusion of a nanoplatform by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) 8 days after tumor implantation. Mice in survival studies were divided into two groups: one comprised untreated mice that received f-Gd3N@C80 alone and the other comprised mice treated with brachytherapy that received 1.11 MBq of 177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80. Survival data were evaluated by using Kaplan-Meier statistical methods. Results: MR imaging showed extended tumor retention (25.6% ± 1.2 of the infused dose at 52 days, confirmed with biodistribution studies) of the f-Gd3N@C80 nanoplatform, which enabled longitudinal imaging. Successful coupling of 177Lu to the f-Gd3N@C80 surface was achieved by using a bifunctional macrocyclic chelator. The extended tumor retention allowed for effective brachytherapy, as indicated by extended survival time (>2.5 times that of the untreated group) and histologic signs of radiation-induced tumor damage. Conclusion: The authors have developed a multimodal nanoplatform and have demonstrated longitudinal tumor imaging, prolonged intratumoral probe

  20. Adapting non-local means of de-noising in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Mizukuchi, Takashi; Fujii, Masazumi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Tsuzaka, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    In image-guided brain tumor surgery, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a powerful tool for updating navigational information after brain shift, controlling the resection of brain tumors, and evaluating intraoperative complications. Low-field iMRI scans occasionally generate a lot of noise, the reason for which is yet to be determined. This noise adversely affects the neurosurgeons' interpretations. In this study, in order to improve the image quality of iMR images, we optimized and adapted an unbiased non-local means (UNLM) filter to iMR images. This noise appears to occur at a specific frequency-encoding band. In order to adapt the UNLM filter to the noise, we improved the UNLM, so that de-noising can be performed at different noise levels that occur at different frequency-encoding bands. As a result, clinical iMR images can be de-noised adequately while preserving crucial information, such as edges. The UNLM filter preserved the edges more clearly than did other classical filters attached to an anisotropic diffusion filter. In addition, UNLM de-noising can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of clinical iMR images by more than 2 times (p < 0.01). Although the computational time of the UNLM processing is very long, post-processing of UNLM filter images, for which the parameters were optimized, can be performed during other MRI scans. Therefore, The UNLM filter was more effective than increasing the number of signal averages. The iMR image quality was improved without extension of the MR scanning time. UNLM de-noising in post-processing is expected to improve the diagnosability of low-field iMR images.

  1. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research.

  2. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  3. Tumor-specific delivery of BSH-3R for boron neutron capture therapy and positron emission tomography imaging in a mouse brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshiya; Michiue, Hiroyuki; Kitamatsu, Mizuki; Hayashi, Yuri; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Matsui, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor with poor disease outcomes, is managed in modern medicine by multimodality therapy. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an encouraging treatment under clinical investigation. In malignant cells, BNCT consists of two major factors: neutron radiation and boron uptake. To increase boron uptake in cells, we created a mercapto-closo-undecahydrododecaborate ([B12HnSH](2-)2Na(+), BSH) fused with a short arginine peptide (1R, 2R, 3R) and checked cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse brain tumor model, only BSH with at least three arginine domains could penetrate cell membranes of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, to monitor the pharmacokinetic properties of these agents in vivo, we fused BSH and BSH-3R with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA); DOTA is a metal chelating agent for labeling positron emission tomography (PET) probe with (64)Cu. We administered BSH-DOTA-(64)Cu and BSH-3R-DOTA-(64)Cu to the tumor model through a mouse tail vein and determined the drugs' pharmacokinetics by PET imaging. BSH-3R showed a high uptake in the tumor area on PET imaging. We concluded that BSH-3R is the ideal boron compound for clinical use during BNCT and that in developing this compound for clinical use, the BSH-3R PET probe is essential for pharmacokinetic imaging.

  4. Discriminating healthy from tumor and necrosis tissue in rat brain tissue samples by Raman spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Amharref, Nadia; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Dukic, Sylvain; Venteo, Lydie; Schneider, Laurence; Pluot, Michel; Manfait, Michel

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate molecular changes associated with glioma tissues by Raman microspectroscopy in order to develop its use in clinical practice. Spectroscopic markers obtained from C6 glioma tissues were compared to conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Cholesterol and phospholipid contents were highest in corpus callosum and decreased gradually towards the cortex surface as well as in the tumor. Two different necrotic areas have been identified: a fully necrotic zone characterized by the presence of plasma proteins and a peri-necrotic area with a high lipid content. This result was confirmed by Nile Red staining. Additionally, one structure was detected in the periphery of the tumor. Invisible with histopathological hematoxylin and eosin staining, it was revealed by immunohistochemical Ki-67 and MT1-MMP staining used to visualize the proliferative and invasive activities of glioma, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis on the only cluster averaged spectra showed a clear distinction between normal, tumoral, necrotic and edematous tissues. Raman microspectroscopy can discriminate between healthy and tumoral brain tissue and yield spectroscopic markers associated with the proliferative and invasive properties of glioblastoma. Development of in vivo Raman spectroscopy could thus accurately define tumor margins, identify tumor remnants, and help in the development of novel therapies for glioblastoma.

  5. Ultrasound/Magnetic Targeting with SPIO-DOX-Microbubble Complex for Image-Guided Drug Delivery in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Cheng, Yu-Hang; Ting, Chien-Yu; Ho, Yi-Ju; Hsu, Po-Hung; Liu, Hao-Li; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the deployment of chemotherapeutic drugs against brain tumors is ensuring that sufficient drug concentrations reach the tumor, while minimizing drug accumulation at undesired sites. Recently, injection of therapeutic agents following blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening by focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles (MBs) has been shown to enhance drug delivery in targeted brain regions. Nevertheless, the distribution and quantitative deposition of agents delivered to the brain are still hard to estimate. Based on our previous work on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded MBs, we present a novel theranostic complex of SPIO-Doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated MB (SD-MB) for drug delivery to the brain. Magnetic labeling of the drug enables direct visualization via magnetic resonance imaging, and also facilitates magnetic targeting (MT) to actively enhance targeted deposition of the drug. In a rat glioma model, we demonstrated that FUS sonication can be used with SD-MBs to simultaneously facilitate BBB opening and allow dual ultrasound/magnetic targeting of chemotherapeutic agent (DOX) delivery. The accumulation of SD complex within brain tumors can be significantly enhanced by MT (25.7 fold of DOX, 7.6 fold of SPIO). The change in relaxation rate R2 (1/T2) within tumors was highly correlated with SD deposition as quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (R2 = 0.93) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (R2 = 0.94), demonstrating real-time monitoring of DOX distribution. Our results suggest that SD-MBs can serve as multifunction agents to achieve advanced molecular theranostics. PMID:27446489

  6. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  7. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  8. Saturation Power Dependence of Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Image Contrasts in Human Brain Tumors and Strokes at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuna; Wen, Zhibo; Huang, Fanheng; Lu, Shilong; Wang, Xianlong; Hu, Shuguang; Zu, Donglin; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2011-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is capable of detecting mobile cellular proteins and peptides in tumor and monitoring pH effects in stroke, through the saturation transfer between irradiated amide protons and water protons. In this work, four healthy subjects, eight brain tumor patients (four with high-grade glioma; one with lung cancer metastasis; three with meningioma), and four stroke patients (average 4.3 ± 2.5 days after the onset of the stroke) were scanned at 3T, using different radiofrequency saturation powers. The APT effect was quantified using the magnetization-transfer-ratio (MTR) asymmetry at 3.5 ppm with respect to the water resonance. At a saturation power of 2 μT, the measured APT-MRI signal of the normal brain tissue was almost zero, due to the contamination of the negative conventional MTR asymmetry. This irradiation power caused an optimal hyperintense APT-MRI signal in the tumor and an optimal hypointense signal in the stroke, compared to the normal brain tissue. The results suggest that the saturation power of 2 μT is ideal for APT imaging of these two pathologies at 3T with the existing clinical hardware. PMID:21394783

  9. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  10. Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

  11. Noninvasive imaging of the functional effects of anti-VEGF therapy on tumor cell extravasation and regional blood volume in an experimental brain metastasis model.

    PubMed

    JuanYin, Juan; Tracy, Kirsten; Zhang, Luhua; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Shapiro, Erik; Koretsky, Alan; Kelly, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.

  12. Use of 99m-technetium-glucoheptonate as a tracer for brain tumor imaging: An overview of its strengths and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors represent a vexing clinical problem in oncology due to their increasing incidence, difficulties in treatment and high rates of recurrence. It is especially challenging to evaluate the posttreatment disease status because differentiation of recurrence from treatment-induced changes (radiation necrosis) is not possible with the use of magnetic resonance imaging, the most commonly used imaging method in this setting. Various functional imaging methods, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been employed in this context. SPECT with 99m-technetium (99mTc)-glucoheptonate (GHA) has shown promising results for differentiation of recurrent brain tumor from radiation necrosis. In this review, we have discussed in details the basics of 99mTc-GHA SPECT imaging in brain tumor along with the available literature in this regard. PMID:25589798

  13. Microcomputer-based technique for 3-D reconstruction and volume measurement of computed tomographic images. Part 2: Anaplastic primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Albright, R E; Fram, E K

    1988-12-01

    Serial computed tomography (CT) plays an integral part in monitoring effects of therapy for primary anaplastic brain tumors. Despite advances in CT technology, clinicians often cannot obtain accurate quantitative volume information to complement the qualitative assessment of tumor change. This paper presents a microcomputer-based method that provides both quantitative volume measurements and 3-D reconstructions of primary anaplastic brain tumors based on their hard copy CT or magnetic resonance imaging studies. The findings of this study demonstrate that planimetry is feasible for routine clinical use and is superior in accuracy to the spherical geometric model, which is shown to significantly overestimate tumor volume. The findings of 62 quantitative tumor studies (17 patients) showed a direct relationship between the total tumor volume and the volume of the hypodense intratumor core. There was no evidence of a relationship between the total tumor volume and the amount of peritumor low density (edema).

  14. Simultaneous 11C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Suspected Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Cornelius; Goericke, Sophia; Grueneisen, Johannes; Sawicki, Lino Morris; Goebel, Juliane; El Hindy, Nicolai; Wrede, Karsten; Binse, Ina; Poeppel, Thorsten; Quick, Harald; Forsting, Michael; Hense, Joerg; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated 11C- methionine PET/MRI for suspected primary brain tumors, in comparison to MRI alone. Material and Methods Forty-eight consecutive patients with suspected primary brain tumor were prospectively enrolled for an integrated 11C-methionine PET/MRI. Two neuro-radiologists separately evaluated the MRI alone and the integrated PET/MRI data sets regarding most likely diagnosis and diagnostic confidence on a 5-point scale. Reference standard was histopathology or follow-up imaging. Results Fifty-one suspicious lesions were detected: 16 high-grade glioma and 25 low-grade glioma. Ten non-malignant cerebral lesions were described by the reference standard. MRI alone and integrated PET/MRI each correctly classified 42 of the 51 lesions (82.4%) as neoplastic lesions (WHO grade II, III and IV) or non-malignant lesions (infectious and neoplastic lesions). Diagnostic confidence for all lesions, low-grade astrocytoma and high-grade astrocytoma (3.7 vs. 4.2, 3,1 vs. 3.8, 4.0 vs. 4,7) were significantly (p < 0.05) better with integrated PET/MRI than in MRI alone. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated 11C-methionine-PET/MRI for the assessment of suspected primary brain tumors. Although integrated methionine PET/MRI does not lead to an improvement of correct diagnoses, diagnostic confidence is significantly improved. PMID:27907162

  15. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  16. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child you love is diagnosed with a brain tumor, it is difficult to think about anything else. There are often more questions than answers. Your life can feel as though it has been turned upside ... Brain Tumor Association for information, insight and support. Our ...

  17. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  18. In vitro influence of hypoxia on bioluminescence imaging in brain tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Jarvi, Mark; Niedre, Mark; Mocanu, Joseph D.; Moriyama, Yumi; Li, Buhong; Lilge, Lothar; Wilson, Brian C.

    2007-02-01

    Bioluminescence Imaging (BLI) has been employed as an imaging modality to identify and characterize fundamental processes related to cancer development and response at cellular and molecular levels. This technique is based on the reaction of luciferin with oxygen in the presence of luciferase and ATP. A major concern in this technique is that tumors are generally hypoxic, either constitutively and/or as a result of treatment, therefore the oxygen available for the bioluminescence reaction could possibly be reduced to limiting levels, and thus leading to underestimation of the actual number of luciferase-labeled cells during in vivo procedures. In this report, we present the initial in vitro results of the oxygen dependence of the bioluminescence signal in rat gliosarcoma 9L cells tagged with the luciferase gene (9L luc cells). Bioluminescence photon emission from cells exposed to different oxygen tensions was detected by a sensitive CCD camera upon exposure to luciferin. The results showed that bioluminescence signal decreased at administered pO II levels below about 5%, falling by approximately 50% at 0.2% pO II. Additional experiments showed that changes in BLI was due to the cell inability to maintain normal levels of ATP during the hypoxic period reducing the ATP concentration to limiting levels for BLI.

  19. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  20. In vivo near-infrared imaging for the tracking of systemically delivered mesenchymal stem cells: tropism for brain tumors and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Muk; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Woo, Ji Sun; Ryu, Chung Heon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of various neurological diseases, including brain tumors. However, the tracking of in vivo stem cell migration, distribution, and survival need to be defined for their clinical application. The systemic routes of stem cell delivery must be determined because direct intracerebral injection as a cure for brain tumors is an invasive method. In this study, we show for the first time that near-infrared (NIR) imaging can reveal the distribution and tumor tropism of intravenously injected MSCs in an intracranial xenograft glioma model. MSCs were labeled with NIR fluorescent nanoparticles, and the effects of the NIR dye on cell proliferation and migratory capacity were evaluated in vitro. We investigated the tumor-targeting properties and tissue distribution of labeled MSCs introduced by intravenous injection and followed by in vivo imaging analysis, histological analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed no cytotoxicity or change in the overall growth rate and characteristics of labeled MSCs compared with control MSCs. NIR fluorescent imaging showed the organ distribution and targeted tumor tropism of systemically injected human MSCs. A significant number of MSCs accumulated specifically at the tumor site in the mouse brain. These results suggest that NIR-based cell tracking is a potentially useful imaging technique to visualize cell survival, migration, and distribution for the application of MSC-mediated therapies in the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  1. 3D Deep Learning for Multi-modal Imaging-Guided Survival Time Prediction of Brain Tumor Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Dong; Zhang, Han; Adeli, Ehsan; Liu, Luyan

    2016-01-01

    High-grade glioma is the most aggressive and severe brain tumor that leads to death of almost 50% patients in 1–2 years. Thus, accurate prognosis for glioma patients would provide essential guidelines for their treatment planning. Conventional survival prediction generally utilizes clinical information and limited handcrafted features from magnetic resonance images (MRI), which is often time consuming, laborious and subjective. In this paper, we propose using deep learning frameworks to automatically extract features from multi-modal preoperative brain images (i.e., T1 MRI, fMRI and DTI) of high-grade glioma patients. Specifically, we adopt 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and also propose a new network architecture for using multi-channel data and learning supervised features. Along with the pivotal clinical features, we finally train a support vector machine to predict if the patient has a long or short overall survival (OS) time. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods can achieve an accuracy as high as 89.9% We also find that the learned features from fMRI and DTI play more important roles in accurately predicting the OS time, which provides valuable insights into functional neuro-oncological applications. PMID:28149967

  2. 3D Deep Learning for Multi-modal Imaging-Guided Survival Time Prediction of Brain Tumor Patients.

    PubMed

    Nie, Dong; Zhang, Han; Adeli, Ehsan; Liu, Luyan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-10-01

    High-grade glioma is the most aggressive and severe brain tumor that leads to death of almost 50% patients in 1-2 years. Thus, accurate prognosis for glioma patients would provide essential guidelines for their treatment planning. Conventional survival prediction generally utilizes clinical information and limited handcrafted features from magnetic resonance images (MRI), which is often time consuming, laborious and subjective. In this paper, we propose using deep learning frameworks to automatically extract features from multi-modal preoperative brain images (i.e., T1 MRI, fMRI and DTI) of high-grade glioma patients. Specifically, we adopt 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and also propose a new network architecture for using multi-channel data and learning supervised features. Along with the pivotal clinical features, we finally train a support vector machine to predict if the patient has a long or short overall survival (OS) time. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods can achieve an accuracy as high as 89.9% We also find that the learned features from fMRI and DTI play more important roles in accurately predicting the OS time, which provides valuable insights into functional neuro-oncological applications.

  3. Imaging of Cu, Zn, Pb and U in human brain tumor resections by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, M. V.; Dehnhardt, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Zilles, K.; Becker, J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20 [mu]m thin tissue sections of primary human brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme--GBM) and adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ~1 cm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, and laser power density 1 x 109 W cm-2). The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-SFMS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, 208Pb+, and 238U+ were measured by LA-ICP-MS within the tumor area and the surrounding region invaded by GBM as well as in control tissue. The quantitative determination of copper, zinc, lead and uranium distribution in brain tissues by LA-ICP-MS was performed using prepared matrix-matched laboratory standards doped with these elements of interest. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained for Cu and Zn were 0.34 and 0.14 [mu]g g-1, respectively, while LODs of 12.5 and 6.9 ng g-1 were determined for Pb and U. The concentration and distribution of selected elements are compared between the control tissues and regions affected by GBM. A correlation was found between LA-ICP-MS and receptor-autoradiographic results. As receptor-autoradiographic techniques, a labeling for A1AR and the pBR was employed. Regarding the A1AR, we used the specific A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR)-ligand, 3H-CPFPX [3H-cyclopentyl-3-(3-fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine], which has been shown to specifically label the invasive zone around GBMs. The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor was labeled with 3H-Pk11195 [3H-1-(2-chlorphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline-carboxamide].

  4. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath

    2009-01-01

    This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu2SiO5: Ce in short LSO), Barium Fluoride (BaF2) and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr3) scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF2 and LaBr3, although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work) method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom. PMID:20098551

  5. Positron emission tomography of fluorine-18-deoxyglucose and image-guided phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, W.D.; Heindel, W.; Herholz, K.; Rudolf, J.; Bunke, J.; Jeske, J.; Friedmann, G. )

    1990-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of 2(18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and volume-selective phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) are methods used to assess the energy metabolism of the brain. Both methods were studied with respect to their contribution to differential diagnosis in 23 patients with various brain tumors. The various neuroectodermal tumors differed with respect to their metabolic rate for glucose (MRGL). Benign and malignant tumors could be better differentiated by using tumor metabolism relative to contralateral brain and by evaluating heterogeneities in tumors. Low-grade gliomas usually showed normal 31P-MR spectra; high-grade gliomas were characterized by reduced and often split phosphodiester peaks and alkaline pH. Meningiomas, which had variable MRGL, typically showed extremely low phosphocreatine levels, reduced phosphodiesters, and alkaline pH. We concluded that FDG-PET and 31P-MRS examine different aspects of tumor metabolism. Therefore, both can contribute independently and complementarily to the differential diagnosis of brain tumors.

  6. Pharmacodynamic analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-monitored focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening for drug delivery to brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Hsieh, Han-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li

    2013-01-01

    Microbubble-enhanced focused ultrasound (FUS) can enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain for brain tumor treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of brain tumor conditions on the distribution and dynamics of small molecule leakage into targeted regions of the brain after FUS-BBB opening. A total of 34 animals were used, and the process was monitored by 7T-MRI. Evans blue (EB) dye as well as Gd-DTPA served as small molecule substitutes for evaluation of drug behavior. EB was quantified spectrophotometrically. Spin-spin (R1) relaxometry and area under curve (AUC) were measured by MRI to quantify Gd-DTPA. We found that FUS-BBB opening provided a more significant increase in permeability with small tumors. In contrast, accumulation was much higher in large tumors, independent of FUS. The AUC values of Gd-DTPA were well correlated with EB delivery, suggesting that Gd-DTPA was a good indicator of total small-molecule accumulation in the target region. The peripheral regions of large tumors exhibited similar dynamics of small-molecule leakage after FUS-BBB opening as small tumors, suggesting that FUS-BBB opening may have the most significant permeability-enhancing effect on tumor peripheral. This study provides useful information toward designing an optimized FUS-BBB opening strategy to deliver small-molecule therapeutic agents into brain tumors.

  7. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4-39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54-59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7-59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response in

  8. Dual-Targeting Lactoferrin-Conjugated Polymerized Magnetic Polydiacetylene-Assembled Nanocarriers with Self-Responsive Fluorescence/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for In Vivo Brain Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jen-Hung; Chiu, Tsung-Lang; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lai, Yen-Ho; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, You-Yin; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining a high concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain is difficult due to the restrictions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid removal from blood circulation. To enable controlled drug release and enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-crossing efficiency for brain tumor therapy, a new dual-targeting magnetic polydiacetylene nanocarriers (PDNCs) delivery system modified with lactoferrin (Lf) is developed. The PDNCs are synthesized using the ultraviolet (UV) cross-linkable 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomers through spontaneous assembling onto the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to form micelles-polymerized structures. The results demonstrate that PDNCs will reduce the drug leakage and further control the drug release, and display self-responsive fluorescence upon intracellular uptake for cell trafficking and imaging-guided tumor treatment. The magnetic Lf-modified PDNCs with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-targeting ability can enhance the transportation of the PDNCs across the BBB for tracking and targeting gliomas. An enhanced therapeutic efficiency can be obtained using Lf-Cur (Curcumin)-PDNCs by improving the retention time of the encapsulated Cur and producing fourfold higher Cur amounts in the brain compared to free Cur. Animal studies also confirm that Lf targeting and controlled release act synergistically to significantly suppress tumors in orthotopic brain-bearing rats.

  9. Brain tumor imaging with synthesized /sup 18/F-fluorophenylalanine and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mineura, K.; Kowada, M.; Shishido, F.

    1989-06-01

    Two patients with cerebral gliomas were studied with 18F-fluorophenylalanine, newly synthesized by the electrophilic substitution reaction, using positron emission tomography. The tracer accumulated markedly in the tumor lesion and delineated the extent of the lesion. This new tracer will be promising in the diagnosis of gliomas.

  10. Imaging the efficacy of UVC irradiation on superficial brain tumors and metastasis in live mice at the subcellular level.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, Masashi; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Yamada, Akimitsu; Sakurada, Harumi; Chishima, Takashi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-02-01

    The effect of UVC irradiation was investigated on a model of brain cancer and a model of experimental brain metastasis. For the brain cancer model, brain cancer cells were injected stereotactically into the brain. For the brain metastasis model, lung cancer cells were injected intra-carotidally or stereotactically. The U87 human glioma cell line was used for the brain cancer model, and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was used for the experimental brain metastasis model. Both cancer cell types were labeled with GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm. A craniotomy open window was used to image single cancer cells in the brain. This double labeling of the cancer cells with GFP and RFP enabled apoptosis of single cells to be imaged at the subcellular level through the craniotomy open window. UVC irradiation, beamed through the craniotomy open window, induced apoptosis in the cancer cells. UVC irradiation was effective on LLC and significantly extended survival of the mice with experimental brain metastasis. In contrast, the U87 glioma was relatively resistant to UVC irradiation. The results of this study suggest the use of UVC for treatment of superficial brain cancer or metastasis.

  11. Spectroscopic-guided brain tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Toms, Steven A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    A pilot in vivo study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopy for brain tumor margin detection. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired using a portable clinical spectroscopic system from normal brain tissues, tumors, and tumor margins in 21 brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy. Results form this study show the potential of optical spectroscopy in detecting infiltrating tumor margins of primary brain tumors.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of an (18)Fluorine-Labeled COX Inhibitor--[(18)F]Fluorooctyl Fenbufen Amide--For Imaging of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chia; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Yu, Chung-Shan

    2016-03-21

    Molecular imaging of brain tumors remains a great challenge, despite the advances made in imaging technology. An anti-inflammatory compound may be a useful tool for this purpose because there is evidence of inflammatory processes in brain tumor micro-environments. Fluorooctylfenbufen amide (FOFA) was prepared from 8-chlorooctanol via treatment with potassium phthalimide, tosylation with Ts2O, fluorination with KF under phase transfer catalyzed conditions, deprotection using aqueous hydrazine, and coupling with fenbufen. The corresponding radiofluoro product [(18)F]FOFA, had a final radiochemical yield of 2.81 mCi and was prepared from activated [(18)F]F(-) (212 mCi) via HPLC purification and concentration. The radiochemical purity was determined to be 99%, and the specific activity was shown to exceed 22 GBq/μmol (EOS) based on decay-corrected calculations. Ex-vivo analysis of [(18)F]FOFA in plasma using HPLC showed that the agent had a half-life of 15 min. PET scanning showed significant accumulation of [(18)F]FOFA over tumor loci with reasonable contrast in C6-glioma bearing rats. These results suggest that this molecule is a promising agent for the visualization of brain tumors. Further investigations should focus on tumor micro-environments.

  13. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... be associated with the type, size, and/or location of the tumor, as well as the treatments used to manage it. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and other treatments all have the potential to ... American ...

  14. Differentiation of Low- and High-Grade Pediatric Brain Tumors with High b-Value Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and a Fractional Order Calculus Model

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yi; Wang, He; Liu, Guanzhong; Damen, Frederick W.; Wanamaker, Christian; Li, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that a new set of parameters (D, β, and μ) from a fractional order calculus (FROC) diffusion model can be used to improve the accuracy of MR imaging for differentiating among low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of the performing hospital approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of pediatric patients. Multi-b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 67 pediatric patients with brain tumors. Diffusion coefficient D, fractional order parameter β (which correlates with tissue heterogeneity), and a microstructural quantity μ were calculated by fitting the multi-b-value diffusion-weighted images to an FROC model. D, β, and μ values were measured in solid tumor regions, as well as in normal-appearing gray matter as a control. These values were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The performance of FROC parameters for differentiating among patient groups was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results None of the FROC parameters exhibited significant differences in normal-appearing gray matter (P ≥ .24), but all showed a significant difference (P < .002) between low- (D, 1.53 μm2/msec ± 0.47; β, 0.87 ± 0.06; μ, 8.67 μm ± 0.95) and high-grade (D, 0.86 μm2/msec ± 0.23; β, 0.73 ± 0.06; μ, 7.8 μm ± 0.70) brain tumor groups. The combination of D and β produced the largest area under the ROC curve (0.962) in the ROC analysis compared with individual parameters (β, 0.943; D,0.910; and μ, 0.763), indicating an improved performance for tumor differentiation. Conclusion The FROC parameters can be used to differentiate between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumor groups. The combination of FROC parameters or individual parameters may serve as in vivo, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging markers for classifying

  15. Comparison of BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and DSC MR perfusion imaging for prediction of neurovascular uncoupling potential in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jay J; Zacà, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    metrics obtained by T2* gadolinium perfusion MR imaging were compared to BOLD percentage signal change on BH CVR maps in a group of 19 patients with intracranial brain tumors of different nature and grade. Single pixel maximum rCBV and rCBF within holotumoral regions of interest (i.e., "ipsilesional" ROIs) were normalized to contralateral hemispheric homologous (i.e., "contralesional") normal tissue. Furthermore, percentage signal change on BH CVR maps within ipsilesional ROIs were normalized to the percentage signal change within contralesional homologous ROIs. Inverse linear correlation was found between normalized rCBF (r(flow)) or rCBV (r(vol)) and normalized CVR percentage signal change (r(CVR)) in grade IV lesions. In the grade III lesions a less steep inverse linear trend was seen that did not reach statistical significance, whereas no correlation at all was seen in the grade II group. Statistically significant difference was present for r(flow) and r(vol) between the grade II and IV groups and between the grade III and IV groups but not for r(CVR). The r(CVR) was significantly lower than 1 in every group. Our results demonstrate that while T2*MR perfusion maps and CVR maps are both adequate to map tumoral regions at risk of NVU in high grade gliomas, CVR maps can detect areas of decreased CVR also in low and intermediate grade gliomas where NVU may be caused by factors other than tumor neovascularity alone. Comparison of areas of abnormally decreased regional CVR with areas of absent BOLD task-based activation in expected eloquent cortical regions infiltrated by or adjacent to the tumors revealed overall 95% concordance, thus confirming the capability of BH CVR mapping to effectively demonstrate areas of NVU. ed by factors other than tumor neovascularity alone. Comparison of areas of abnormally decreased regional CVR with areas of absent BOLD task-based activation in expected eloquent cortical regions infiltrated by or adjacent to the tumors revealed overall 95

  16. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  17. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Brain Tumor Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management. PMID:24060923

  18. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  19. Advanced MRI for Pediatric Brain Tumors with Emphasis on Clinical Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Young-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors. PMID:28096729

  20. Clinical Use of Diffusion Tensor Image-Merged Functional Neuronavigation for Brain Tumor Surgeries: Review of Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative Data for 123 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Mo; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To achieve maximal safe resection during brain tumor surgery, functional image-merged neuronavigation is widely used. We retrospectively reviewed our cases in which diffusion tensor image (DTI)-merged functional neuronavigation was performed during surgery. Materials and Methods Between November 2008 and May 2010, 123 patients underwent surgery utilizing DTI-merged neuronavigation. Anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained preoperatively and fused with DTI of major white matter tracts, such as the corticospinal tract, optic radiation, or arcuate fasciculus. We used this fused image for functional neuronavigation during brain tumor surgery of eloquent areas. We checked the DTI images together with postoperative MRI images and evaluated the integrity of white matter tracts. Results A single white matter tract was inspected in 78 patients, and two or more white matter tracts were checked in 45 patients. Among the 123 patients, a grossly total resection was achieved in 90 patients (73.2%), subtotal resection in 29 patients (23.6%), and partial resection in 4 patients (3.3%). Postoperative neurologic outcomes, compared with preoperative function, included the following: 100 patients (81.3%) displayed improvement of neurologic symptoms or no change, 7 patients (5.7%) experienced postoperative permanent neurologic deterioration (additional or aggravated neurologic symptoms), and 16 patients (13.0%) demonstrated transient worsening. Conclusion DTI-merged functional neuronavigation could be a useful tool in brain tumor surgery for maximal safe resection. However, there are still limitations, including white matter tract shift, during surgery and in DTI itself. Further studies should be conducted to overcome these limitations. PMID:25048489

  1. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search En Español Category Cancer A-Z Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults If you have a brain or spinal cord tumor or are close to ... cope. Here you can find out all about brain and spinal cord tumors in adults, including risk ...

  2. A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated.

  3. Brain tumors in man and animals: report of a workshop.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop on brain tumors in man and animals. Animals, especially rodents are often used as surrogates for man to detect chemicals that have the potential to induce brain tumors in man. Therefore, the workshop was focused mainly on brain tumors in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse because of the frequent use of these strains in long-term carcinogenesis studies. Over 100 brain tumors in F344 rats and more than 50 brain tumors in B6C3F1 mice were reviewed and compared to tumors found in man and domestic or companion animals. In the F344 rat, spontaneous brain tumors are uncommon, most are of glial origin, and the highly undifferentiated glioblastoma multiforme, a frequent tumor of man was not found. In the B6C3F1 mouse, brain tumors are exceedingly rare. Lipomas of the choroid plexus and meningiomas together account for more than 50% of the tumors found. Both rodent strains examined have low background rates and very little variability between control groups. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:3536473

  4. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  5. Intra-individual comparison of 18F-FET and 18F-DOPA in PET imaging of recurrent brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Combs, Stephanie E.; Leotta, Karin; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Rieken, Stefan; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA) and 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (18F-FET) have already been used successfully for imaging of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between these 2 promising tracers to determine the consequences for imaging protocols and the interpretation of findings. Methods Forty minutes of dynamic PET imaging were performed on 2 consecutive days with both 18F-DOPA and 18F-FET in patients with recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (n = 8) or high-grade glioblastoma (n = 8). Time-activity-curves (TACs), standardized uptake values (SUVs) and compartment modeling of both tracers were analyzed, respectively. Results The TAC of DOPA-PET peaked at 8 minutes p.i. with SUV 5.23 in high-grade gliomas and 10 minutes p.i. with SUV 4.92 in low-grade gliomas. FET-PET peaked at 9 minutes p.i. with SUV 3.17 in high-grade gliomas and 40 minutes p.i. with SUV 3.24 in low-grade gliomas. Neglecting the specific uptake of DOPA into the striatum, the tumor-to-brain and tumor-to-blood ratios were higher for DOPA-PET. Kinetic modeling demonstrated a high flow constant k1 (mL/ccm/min), representing cellular internalization through AS-transporters, for DOPA in both high-grade (k1 = 0.59) and low-grade (k1 = 0.55) tumors, while lower absolute values and a relevant dependency from tumor-grading (high-grade k1 = 0.43; low-grade k1 = 0.33) were observed with FET. Conclusions DOPA-PET demonstrates superior contrast ratios for lesions outside the striatum, but SUVs do not correlate with grading. FET-PET can provide additional information on tumor grading and benefits from lower striatal uptake but presents lower contrast ratios and requires prolonged imaging if histology is not available in advance due to a more variable time-to-peak. PMID:24305717

  6. [Diagnostic imaging of thyroid tumor].

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-11-01

    Recently, thyroid nodules are found frequently when other imaging test was performed, and selection of diagnostic methods and its handling have become a problem clinically. Although it is possible to differentiate the malignant tumor from benign one using B-mode ultrasound, it can be obtained more detailed information in combination of other modalities such as color Doppler and tissue elasticity imaging (elastography). The malignant B-mode findings are irregular shape, indistinct border, hypoechoic and inhomogeneous internal echo, and fine calcification. CT/MRI is useful to evaluate the extention of thyroid cancer to adjacent organs beyond the thyroid capsule. It is also useful to evaluate distant metastases to lung or brain of thyroid cancer. In nuclear medicine, 125I scintigraphy is used to measure thyroid uptake rate, 131I scintigraphy is used to investigate the distant metastasis of thyroid cancer. It is necessary to be careful that some false-positive cases exist in 18FDG-PET.

  7. Progress on the diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huile

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most challenging disorders encountered, and early and accurate diagnosis is essential for the management and treatment of these tumors. In this article, diagnostic modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging are reviewed. We mainly focus on the newly emerging, specific imaging probes, and their potential use in animal models and clinical settings. PMID:24334439

  8. Imaging the Working Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swithenby, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

  9. Brain tumor segmentation with Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Havaei, Mohammad; Davy, Axel; Warde-Farley, David; Biard, Antoine; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua; Pal, Chris; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Larochelle, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). The proposed networks are tailored to glioblastomas (both low and high grade) pictured in MR images. By their very nature, these tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have almost any kind of shape, size, and contrast. These reasons motivate our exploration of a machine learning solution that exploits a flexible, high capacity DNN while being extremely efficient. Here, we give a description of different model choices that we've found to be necessary for obtaining competitive performance. We explore in particular different architectures based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), i.e. DNNs specifically adapted to image data. We present a novel CNN architecture which differs from those traditionally used in computer vision. Our CNN exploits both local features as well as more global contextual features simultaneously. Also, different from most traditional uses of CNNs, our networks use a final layer that is a convolutional implementation of a fully connected layer which allows a 40 fold speed up. We also describe a 2-phase training procedure that allows us to tackle difficulties related to the imbalance of tumor labels. Finally, we explore a cascade architecture in which the output of a basic CNN is treated as an additional source of information for a subsequent CNN. Results reported on the 2013 BRATS test data-set reveal that our architecture improves over the currently published state-of-the-art while being over 30 times faster.

  10. Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Survival rates are often ... Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors More In Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children About Brain ...

  11. Effect of α-Methyl versus α-Hydrogen Substitution on Brain Availability and Tumor Imaging Properties of Heptanoic [F-18]Fluoroalkyl Amino Acids for Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Alyami, Wadha; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-04-14

    Two [(18)F]fluoroalkyl substituted amino acids differing only by the presence or absence of a methyl group on the α-carbon, (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoro-2-methylheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAMHep, (S)-[(18)F]14) and (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoroheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAHep, (S)-[(18)F]15), were developed for brain tumor imaging and compared to the well-established system L amino acid tracer, O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ([(18)F]FET), in the delayed brain tumor (DBT) mouse model of high-grade glioma. Cell uptake, biodistribution, and PET/CT imaging studies showed differences in amino acid transport of these tracer by DBT cells. Recognition of (S)-[(18)F]15 but not (S)-[(18)F]14 by system L amino acid transporters led to approximately 8-10-fold higher uptake of the α-hydrogen substituted analogue (S)-[(18)F]15 in normal brain. (S)-[(18)F]15 had imaging properties similar to those of (S)-[(18)F]FET in the DBT tumor model while (S)-[(18)F]14 afforded higher tumor to brain ratios due to much lower uptake by normal brain. These results have important implications for the future development of α-alkyl and α,α-dialkyl substituted amino acids for brain tumor imaging.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Amino-2-methyl-4-[76Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic Acid (BrVAIB) for Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burkemper, Jennifer L.; Huang, Chaofeng; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The novel compound, (S)-amino-2-methyl-4-[76Br]-bromo-3-(E)-butenoic acid (BrVAIB, [76Br]5), was characterized against the known system A tracer, IVAIB ([123I]8). [76Br]5 was prepared in a 51% ± 19% radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (≥98%). The biological properties of [76Br]5 were compared with those of [123I]8. Results showed that [76Br]5 undergoes mixed amino acid transport by system A and system L transport, while [123I]8 had less uptake by system L. [76Br]5 demonstrated higher uptake than [123I]8 in DBT tumors 1 h after injection (3.7 ± 0.4% ID/g vs 1.5 ± 0.3% ID/g) and also showed higher uptake vs [123I]8 in normal brain. Small animal PET studies with [76Br]5 demonstrated good tumor visualization of intracranial DBTs up to 24 h with clearance from normal tissues. These results indicate that [76Br]5 is a promising PET tracer for brain tumor imaging and lead compound for a mixed system A and system L transport substrate. PMID:26444035

  13. Stereotaxic interstitial irradiation of malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.

    1985-11-01

    The authors discuss the feasibility of treatment of malignant tumors with brachytherapy. The history of brain tumor brachytherapy, its present day use, and future directions are detailed. 24 references.

  14. Brain Tumor-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In patients with brain tumor (BT), seizures are the onset symptom in 20-40% of patients, while a further 20-45% of patients will present them during the course of the disease. These patients present a complex therapeutic profile and require a unique and multidisciplinary approach. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is challenging for this particular patient population because brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is often drug-resistant, has a strong impact on the quality of life and weighs heavily on public health expenditures. In BT patients, the presence of epilepsy is considered the most important risk factor for long-term disability. For this reason, the problem of the proper administration of medications and their potential side effects is of great importance, because good seizure control can significantly improve the patient’s psychological and relational sphere. In these patients, new generation drugs such as gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, topiramate, zonisamide are preferred because they have fewer drug interactions and cause fewer side effects. Among the recently marketed drugs, lacosamide has demonstrated promising results and should be considered a possible treatment option. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a customized treatment plan for each individual patient with BTRE. This requires a vision of patient management concerned not only with medical therapies (pharmacological, surgical, radiological, etc.) but also with emotional and psychological support for the individual as well as his or her family throughout all stages of the illness. PMID:23204982

  15. Automated classification of brain tumor type in whole-slide digital pathology images using local representative tiles.

    PubMed

    Barker, Jocelyn; Hoogi, Assaf; Depeursinge, Adrien; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-05-01

    Computerized analysis of digital pathology images offers the potential of improving clinical care (e.g. automated diagnosis) and catalyzing research (e.g. discovering disease subtypes). There are two key challenges thwarting computerized analysis of digital pathology images: first, whole slide pathology images are massive, making computerized analysis inefficient, and second, diverse tissue regions in whole slide images that are not directly relevant to the disease may mislead computerized diagnosis algorithms. We propose a method to overcome both of these challenges that utilizes a coarse-to-fine analysis of the localized characteristics in pathology images. An initial surveying stage analyzes the diversity of coarse regions in the whole slide image. This includes extraction of spatially localized features of shape, color and texture from tiled regions covering the slide. Dimensionality reduction of the features assesses the image diversity in the tiled regions and clustering creates representative groups. A second stage provides a detailed analysis of a single representative tile from each group. An Elastic Net classifier produces a diagnostic decision value for each representative tile. A weighted voting scheme aggregates the decision values from these tiles to obtain a diagnosis at the whole slide level. We evaluated our method by automatically classifying 302 brain cancer cases into two possible diagnoses (glioblastoma multiforme (N = 182) versus lower grade glioma (N = 120)) with an accuracy of 93.1% (p < 0.001). We also evaluated our method in the dataset provided for the 2014 MICCAI Pathology Classification Challenge, in which our method, trained and tested using 5-fold cross validation, produced a classification accuracy of 100% (p < 0.001). Our method showed high stability and robustness to parameter variation, with accuracy varying between 95.5% and 100% when evaluated for a wide range of parameters. Our approach may be useful to automatically

  16. Labeled Putrescine as a Probe in Brain Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkow, Nora; Goldman, Stephen S.; Flamm, Eugene S.; Cravioto, Humberto; Wolf, Alfred P.; Brodie, Jonathan D.

    1983-08-01

    The polyamine metabolism of transplanted N-nitrosomethylurea-derived rat glioma was determined with radiolabeled putrescine used as a marker for malignancy. The uptake of putrescine in vivo was complete within 5 minutes and was specific for tumor tissue. The conversion of putrescine to spermine and other metabolites by the tumor was rapid, in contrast to the case for adjacent normal brain. These results suggest that putrescine labeled with carbon-11 may be used as a positron-emission tomographic tracer for the selective metabolic imaging of brain tumor and may be used in an appropriate model as a marker for tumor growth rate.

  17. Multi-parametric analysis and registration of brain tumors: constructing statistical atlases and diagnostic tools of predictive value.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos; Zacharaki, Evangelia I; Gooya, Ali; Clark, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    We discuss computer-based image analysis algorithms of multi-parametric MRI of brain tumors, aiming to assist in early diagnosis of infiltrating brain tumors, and to construct statistical atlases summarizing population-based characteristics of brain tumors. These methods combine machine learning, deformable registration, multi-parametric segmentation, and biophysical modeling of brain tumors.

  18. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Laviña, Bàrbara

    2016-01-01

    Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases. PMID:28042833

  19. Optimal experimental design for filter exchange imaging: Apparent exchange rate measurements in the healthy brain and in intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Englund, Elisabet; C Sundgren, Pia; Lätt, Jimmy; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Nilsson, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Filter exchange imaging (FEXI) is sensitive to the rate of diffusional water exchange, which depends, eg, on the cell membrane permeability. The aim was to optimize and analyze the ability of FEXI to infer differences in the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in the brain between two populations. Methods A FEXI protocol was optimized for minimal measurement variance in the AXR. The AXR variance was investigated by test‐retest acquisitions in six brain regions in 18 healthy volunteers. Preoperative FEXI data and postoperative microphotos were obtained in six meningiomas and five astrocytomas. Results Protocol optimization reduced the coefficient of variation of AXR by approximately 40%. Test‐retest AXR values were heterogeneous across normal brain regions, from 0.3 ± 0.2 s−1 in the corpus callosum to 1.8 ± 0.3 s−1 in the frontal white matter. According to analysis of statistical power, in all brain regions except one, group differences of 0.3–0.5 s−1 in the AXR can be inferred using 5 to 10 subjects per group. An AXR difference of this magnitude was observed between meningiomas (0.6 ± 0.1 s−1) and astrocytomas (1.0 ± 0.3 s−1). Conclusions With the optimized protocol, FEXI has the ability to infer relevant differences in the AXR between two populations for small group sizes. Magn Reson Med 77:1104–1114, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:26968557

  20. Fractal analysis of microvascular networks in malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors are characterized by a microvascular network which differs from normal brain vascularity. Different tumors show individual angiogenic patterns. Microvascular heterogeneity can also be observed within a neoplastic histotype. It has been shown that quantification of neoplastic microvascular patterns could be used in combination with the histological grade for tumor characterization and to refine clinical prognoses, even if no objective parameters have yet been validated. To overcome the limits of the Euclidean approach, we employ fractal geometry to analyze the geometric complexity underlying the microangioarchitectural networks in brain tumors. We have developed a computer-aided fractal-based analysis for the quantification of the microvascular patterns in histological specimens and ultra-high-field (7-Tesla) magnetic resonance images. We demonstrate that the fractal parameters are valid estimators of microvascular geometrical complexity. Furthermore, our analysis allows us to demonstrate the high geometrical variability underlying the angioarchitecture of glioblastoma multiforme and to differentiate low-grade from malignant tumors in histological specimens and radiological images. Based on the results of this study, we speculate the existence of a gradient in the geometrical complexity of microvascular networks from those in the normal brain to those in malignant brain tumors. Here, we summarize a new methodology for the application of fractal analysis to the study of the microangioarchitecture of brain tumors; we further suggest this approach as a tool for quantifying and categorizing different neoplastic microvascular patterns and as a potential morphometric biomarker for use in clinical practice.

  1. Drug delivery systems for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Rautioa, Jarkko; Chikhale, Prashant J

    2004-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. They are extremely difficult to treat. Although, the rate of brain tumor incidence is relatively low, the field clearly lacks therapeutic strategies capable of overcoming barriers for effective delivery of drugs to brain tumors. Clinical failure of many potentially effective therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors is usually not due to a lack of drug potency, but rather can be attributed to shortcomings in the methods by which a drug is delivered to the brain and into brain tumors. In response to the lack of efficacy of conventional drug delivery methods, extensive efforts have been made to develop novel strategies to overcome the obstacles for brain tumor drug delivery. The challenge is to design therapeutic strategies that deliver drugs to brain tumors in a safe and effective manner. This review provides some insight into several potential techniques that have been developed to improve drug delivery to brain tumors, and it should be helpful to clinicians and research scientists as well.

  2. Research of the multimodal brain-tumor segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yisu; Chen, Wufan

    2015-12-01

    It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. A new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance.

  3. Liposomally formulated phospholipid-conjugated indocyanine green for intra-operative brain tumor detection and resection.

    PubMed

    Suganami, Akiko; Iwadate, Yasuo; Shibata, Sayaka; Yamashita, Masamichi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Aoki, Ichio; Saeki, Naokatsu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Yutaka

    2015-12-30

    Some tumor-specific near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes such as indocyanine green (ICG), IDRye800CW, and 5-aminolevulinic acid have been used clinically for detecting tumor margins or micro-cancer lesions. In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties of liposomally formulated phospholipid-conjugated ICG, denoted by LP-iDOPE, as a clinically translatable NIR imaging nanoparticle for brain tumors. We also confirmed its brain-tumor-specific biodistribution and its characteristics as the intra-operative NIR imaging nanoparticles for brain tumor surgery. These properties of LP-iDOPE may enable neurosurgeons to achieve more accurate identification and more complete resection of brain tumor.

  4. (R,S)-anti-1-amino-2-[18F]fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid: synthesis from racemic 2-benzyloxycyclopentanone and biological evaluation for brain tumor imaging with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Jarkas, Nachwa; Voll, Ronald J; Williams, Larry; Camp, Vernon M; Goodman, Mark M

    2010-09-23

    (R,S)-anti-1-amino-2-fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid (2-FACPC, 4b) was radiolabeled in 39% yield starting from cyclic sulfamidate 12. The 9L gliosarcoma cells assays showed that 4b is mainly a substrate for the L-type amino acid transport with some affinity to the A-type. In rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma tumors, 4b displayed high tumor to brain ratio (10:1) at 120 min after injection. FACPC is an attractive candidate for imaging brain tumors with PET, and its isolated enantiomers are under investigation.

  5. Clinical applications of choline PET/CT in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Milano, Amalia; Gaeta, Maria Chiara; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors are the most common forms of brain tumors. From a clinical perspective, neuroimaging plays a significant role, in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. To date MRI is considered the current clinical gold standard for imaging, however, despite providing superior structural detail it features poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in brain treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. In the last years functional neuroimaging has become largely widespread thanks to the use of molecular tracers employed in cellular metabolism which has significantly improved the management of patients with brain tumors, especially in the post-treatment phase. Despite the considerable progress of molecular imaging in oncology its use in the diagnosis of brain tumors is still limited by a few wellknown technical problems. Because 18F-FDG, the most common radiotracer used in oncology, is avidly accumulated by normal cortex, the low tumor/background signal ratio makes it difficult to distinguish the tumor from normal surrounding tissues. By contrast, radiotracers with higher specificity for the tumor are labeled with a short half-life isotopes which restricts their use to those centers equipped with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy facility. 11C-choline has been reported as a suitable tracer for neuroimaging application. The recent availability of choline labeled with a long half-life radioisotope as 18F increases the possibility of studying this tracer's potential role in the staging of brain tumors. The present review focuses on the possible clinical applications of PET/CT with choline tracers in malignant brain tumors and brain metastases, with a special focus on malignant gliomas.

  6. Fractal analysis of tumoral lesions in brain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Landrove, Miguel; Pereira, Demian; Caldeira, María E; Itriago, Salvador; Juliac, María

    2007-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a method for supervised characterization and classification of tumoral lesions in brain, based on the analysis of irregularities at the lesion contour on T2-weighted MR images. After the choice of a specific image, a segmentation procedure with a threshold selected from the histogram of intensity levels is applied to isolate the lesion, the contour is detected through the application of a gradient operator followed by a conversion to a "time series" using a chain code procedure. The correlation dimension is calculated and analyzed to discriminate between normal or malignant structures. The results found showed that it is possible to detect a differentiation between benign (cysts) and malignant (gliomas) lesions suggesting the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool.

  7. Analysis of the Setup Uncertainty and Margin of the Daily ExacTrac 6D Image Guide System for Patients with Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se An; Yea, Ji Woon; Kang, Min Kyu; Park, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the setup uncertainties for brain sites when using BrainLAB’s ExacTrac X-ray 6D system for daily pretreatment to determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV) margin. Between August 2012 and April 2015, 28 patients with brain tumors were treated by daily image-guided radiotherapy using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guidance system of the Novalis-Tx linear accelerator. DUONTM (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium) masks were used to fix the head. The radiotherapy was fractionated into 27–33 treatments. In total, 844 image verifications were performed for 28 patients and used for the analysis. The setup corrections along with the systematic and random errors were analyzed for six degrees of freedom in the translational (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical) and rotational (pitch, roll, and yaw) dimensions. Optimal PTV margins were calculated based on van Herk et al.’s [margin recipe = 2.5∑ + 0.7σ - 3 mm] and Stroom et al.’s [margin recipe = 2∑ + 0.7σ] formulas. The systematic errors (∑) were 0.72, 1.57, and 0.97 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical translational dimensions, respectively, and 0.72°, 0.87°, and 0.83° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. The random errors (σ) were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.54 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical rotational dimensions, respectively, and 0.28°, 0.24°, and 0.31° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. According to van Herk et al.’s and Stroom et al.’s recipes, the recommended lateral PTV margins were 0.97 and 1.66 mm, respectively; the longitudinal margins were 1.26 and 3.47 mm, respectively; and the vertical margins were 0.21 and 2.31 mm, respectively. Therefore, daily setup verifications using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guide system are very useful for evaluating the setup uncertainties and determining the setup margin. PMID:27019082

  8. Analysis of the Setup Uncertainty and Margin of the Daily ExacTrac 6D Image Guide System for Patients with Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se An; Yea, Ji Woon; Kang, Min Kyu; Park, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the setup uncertainties for brain sites when using BrainLAB's ExacTrac X-ray 6D system for daily pretreatment to determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV) margin. Between August 2012 and April 2015, 28 patients with brain tumors were treated by daily image-guided radiotherapy using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guidance system of the Novalis-Tx linear accelerator. DUONTM (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium) masks were used to fix the head. The radiotherapy was fractionated into 27-33 treatments. In total, 844 image verifications were performed for 28 patients and used for the analysis. The setup corrections along with the systematic and random errors were analyzed for six degrees of freedom in the translational (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical) and rotational (pitch, roll, and yaw) dimensions. Optimal PTV margins were calculated based on van Herk et al.'s [margin recipe = 2.5∑ + 0.7σ - 3 mm] and Stroom et al.'s [margin recipe = 2∑ + 0.7σ] formulas. The systematic errors (∑) were 0.72, 1.57, and 0.97 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical translational dimensions, respectively, and 0.72°, 0.87°, and 0.83° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. The random errors (σ) were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.54 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical rotational dimensions, respectively, and 0.28°, 0.24°, and 0.31° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. According to van Herk et al.'s and Stroom et al.'s recipes, the recommended lateral PTV margins were 0.97 and 1.66 mm, respectively; the longitudinal margins were 1.26 and 3.47 mm, respectively; and the vertical margins were 0.21 and 2.31 mm, respectively. Therefore, daily setup verifications using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guide system are very useful for evaluating the setup uncertainties and determining the setup margin.

  9. Brain Imaging Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOWMAN, F. DUBOIS

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of brain imaging technologies has led to intense neuroscientific inquiry into the human brain. Studies often investigate brain function related to emotion, cognition, language, memory, and numerous other externally induced stimuli as well as resting-state brain function. Studies also use brain imaging in an attempt to determine the functional or structural basis for psychiatric or neurological disorders and, with respect to brain function, to further examine the responses of these disorders to treatment. Neuroimaging is a highly interdisciplinary field, and statistics plays a critical role in establishing rigorous methods to extract information and to quantify evidence for formal inferences. Neuroimaging data present numerous challenges for statistical analysis, including the vast amounts of data collected from each individual and the complex temporal and spatial dependence present. We briefly provide background on various types of neuroimaging data and analysis objectives that are commonly targeted in the field. We present a survey of existing methods targeting these objectives and identify particular areas offering opportunities for future statistical contribution. PMID:25309940

  10. Glial brain tumor detection by using symmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Balbi, Sergio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Monti, Emanuele; Minotto, Renzo

    2012-02-01

    In this work a fully automatic algorithm to detect brain tumors by using symmetry analysis is proposed. In recent years a great effort of the research in field of medical imaging was focused on brain tumors segmentation. The quantitative analysis of MRI brain tumor allows to obtain useful key indicators of disease progression. The complex problem of segmenting tumor in MRI can be successfully addressed by considering modular and multi-step approaches mimicking the human visual inspection process. The tumor detection is often an essential preliminary phase to solvethe segmentation problem successfully. In visual analysis of the MRI, the first step of the experts cognitive process, is the detection of an anomaly respect the normal tissue, whatever its nature. An healthy brain has a strong sagittal symmetry, that is weakened by the presence of tumor. The comparison between the healthy and ill hemisphere, considering that tumors are generally not symmetrically placed in both hemispheres, was used to detect the anomaly. A clustering method based on energy minimization through Graph-Cut is applied on the volume computed as a difference between the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere mirrored across the symmetry plane. Differential analysis involves the loss the knowledge of the tumor side. Through an histogram analysis the ill hemisphere is recognized. Many experiments are performed to assess the performance of the detection strategy on MRI volumes in presence of tumors varied in terms of shapes positions and intensity levels. The experiments showed good results also in complex situations.

  11. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  12. Challenges for the functional diffusion map in pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Saunders, Dawn E.; Phipps, Kim P.; Kaur, Ramneek; Paine, Simon M.L.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Clark, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional diffusion map (fDM) has been suggested as a tool for early detection of tumor treatment efficacy. We aim to study 3 factors that could act as potential confounders in the fDM: areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size. Methods Thirty-four pediatric patients with brain tumors were enrolled in a retrospective study, approved by the local ethics committee, to examine the fDM. Tumors were selected to encompass a range of types and grades. A qualitative analysis was carried out to compare how fDM findings may be affected by each of the 3 confounders by comparing fDM findings to clinical image reports. Results Results show that the fDM in areas of necrosis do not discriminate between treatment response and tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor grade alters the behavior of the fDM: a decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a sign of tumor progression in high-grade tumors and treatment response in low-grade tumors. Our results also suggest using only tumor area overlap between the 2 time points analyzed for the fDM in tumors of varying size. Conclusions Interpretation of fDM results needs to take into account the underlying biology of both tumor and healthy tissue. Careful interpretation of the results is required with due consideration to areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size. PMID:24305721

  13. Imaging of CNS Tumors in Children: Advances and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Louis-Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    MR technology is constantly improving. Functional imaging techniques such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, diffusion imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly utilized in the pediatric patient with a brain tumor. However estimate of tumor size remains the primary imaging endpoint in the evaluation of response to treatment; validation across institutions and vendor platforms of MRI functional parameters is necessary given the relative uncommon occurrence of brain tumors in children. Pediatric neuroimaging can be challenging, and the optimal way to image children with CNS tumors is not uniformly applied across all centers. Application of proper scanning techniques and validation of functional imaging techniques should lead to improved care of children with CNS tumors PMID:18952579

  14. Brain tumor locating in 3D MR volume using symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Bartusek, Karel

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with the automatic determination of a brain tumor location in 3D magnetic resonance volumes. The aim of this work is not the precise segmentation of the tumor and its parts but only the detection of its location. This work is the first step in the tumor segmentation process, an important topic in neuro-image processing. The algorithm expects 3D magnetic resonance volumes of brain containing a tumor. The detection is based on locating the area that breaks the left-right symmetry of the brain. This is done by multi-resolution comparing of corresponding regions in left and right hemisphere. The output of the computation is the probabilistic map of the tumor location. The created algorithm was tested on 80 volumes from publicly available BRATS databases containing 3D brain volumes afflicted by a brain tumor. These pathological structures had various sizes and shapes and were located in various parts of the brain. The locating performance of the algorithm was 85% for T1-weighted volumes, 91% for T1-weighted contrast enhanced volumes, 96% for FLAIR and T2-wieghted volumes and 95% for their combinations.

  15. The Microenvironmental Landscape of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Quail, Daniela F; Joyce, Johanna A

    2017-03-13

    The brain tumor microenvironment (TME) is emerging as a critical regulator of cancer progression in primary and metastatic brain malignancies. The unique properties of this organ require a specific framework for designing TME-targeted interventions. Here, we discuss a number of these distinct features, including brain-resident cell types, the blood-brain barrier, and various aspects of the immune-suppressive environment. We also highlight recent advances in therapeutically targeting the brain TME in cancer. By developing a comprehensive understanding of the complex and interconnected microenvironmental landscape of brain malignancies we will greatly expand the range of therapeutic strategies available to target these deadly diseases.

  16. Imaging the Alzheimer Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, J. Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad; Furst, Ansgar; Bayley, Peter; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Sabri, Osama; Adamson, Maheen M.; Coburn, Kerry L.; Olichney, John; Schuff, Norbert; Spielman, Daniel; Edland, Steven D.; Black, Sandra; Rosen, Allyson; Kennedy, David; Weiner, Michael; Perry, George

    2013-01-01

    This supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease contains more than half of the chapters from The Handbook of Imaging the Alzheimer Brain, which was first presented at the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease in Paris, in July, 2011. While the Handbook contains 27 chapters that are modified articles from 2009, 2010, and 2011 issues of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, this supplement contains the 31 new chapters of that book and an introductory article drawn from the introductions to each section of the book. The Handbook was designed to provide a multilevel overview of the full field of brain imaging related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Handbook, as well as this supplement, contains both reviews of the basic concepts of imaging, the latest developments in imaging, and various discussions and perspectives of the problems of the field and promising directions. The Handbook was designed to be useful for students and clinicians interested in AD as well as scientists studying the brain and pathology related to AD. PMID:21971448

  17. The biology of radiosurgery and its clinical applications for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kondziolka, Douglas; Shin, Samuel M.; Brunswick, Andrew; Kim, Irene; Silverman, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was developed decades ago but only began to impact brain tumor care when it was coupled with high-resolution brain imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The technique has played a key role in the management of virtually all forms of brain tumor. We reviewed the radiobiological principles of SRS on tissue and how they pertain to different brain tumor disorders. We reviewed the clinical outcomes on the most common indications. This review found that outcomes are well documented for safety and efficacy and show increasing long-term outcomes for benign tumors. Brain metastases SRS is common, and its clinical utility remains in evolution. The role of SRS in brain tumor care is established. Together with surgical resection, conventional radiotherapy, and medical therapies, patients have an expanding list of options for their care. Clinicians should be familiar with radiosurgical principles and expected outcomes that may pertain to different brain tumor scenarios. PMID:25267803

  18. Development of multifunctional nanoparticles for brain tumor diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiseh, Omid

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and drug delivery. MNPs have traditionally been developed for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery and multi-modal imaging using these nanoparticles. Opportunities now exist to engineer MNP with designated features (e.g., size, coatings, and molecular functionalizations) for specific biomedical applications. The goal of this interdisciplinary research project is to develop targeting multifunctional nanoparticles, serving as both contrast agents and drug carriers that can effectively pass biological barriers, for diagnosis, staging and treatment of brain tumors. The developed nanoparticle system consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (NP) and a shell comprised of biodegradable polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan. Additionally, near-infrared fluorescing (NIRF) molecules were integrated onto the NP shell to enable optical detection. Tumor targeting was achieved by the addition of chlorotoxin, a peptide with that has high affinity to 74 out of the 79 classifications of primary brain tumors and ability to illicit a therapeutic effect. This novel NP system was tested both in vitro and in vivo and was shown to specifically target gliomas in tissue culture and medulloblastomas in transgenic mice with an intact blood brain barriers (BBB), and delineate tumor boundaries in both MR and optical imaging. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of this NP system was explored in vitro, which revealed a unique nanoparticle-enabled pathway that enhances the therapeutic potential of bound peptides by promoting the internalization of membrane bound cell surface receptors. This NP system was further modified with siRNA and evaluated as a carrier for brain tumor targeted gene therapy. Most significantly, the evaluation of

  19. Brain tumor immunotherapy: an immunologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Lampson, Lois A

    2003-01-01

    Key concepts in brain tumor immunotherapy are reviewed. "Immunotherapy" can refer to a fully-developed, tumor-specific immune response, or to its individual cellular or molecular mediators. The immune response is initiated most efficiently in organized lymphoid tissue. After initiation, antigen-specific T lymphocytes (T cells) survey the tissues--including the brain. If the T cells re-encounter their antigen at a tumor site, they can be triggered to carry out their effector functions. T cells can attack tumor in many ways, directly and indirectly, through cell-cell contact, secreted factors, and attraction and activation of other cells, endogenous or blood-borne. Recent work expands the list of candidate tumor antigens: they are not limited to cell surface proteins and need not be absolutely tumor-specific. Once identified, tumor antigens can be targeted immunologically, or in novel ways. The immune response is under complex regulatory control. Most current work aims to enhance initiation of the response (for example, with tumor vaccines), rather than enhancing the effector phase at the tumor site. The effector phase includes a rich, interactive set of cells and mediators; some that are not usually stressed are of particular interest against tumor in the brain. Within the brain, immune regulation varies from site to site, and local neurochemicals (such as substance P or glutamate) can contribute to local control. Given the complexity of a tumor, the brain, and the immune response, animal models are essential, but more emphasis should be given to their limitations and to step-by-step analysis, rather than animal "cures".

  20. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  1. Critical Care Management of Cerebral Edema in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Yoshua; Lo, Victor P; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral edema associated with brain tumors is extremely common and can occur in both primary and metastatic tumors. The edema surrounding brain tumors results from leakage of plasma across the vessel wall into the parenchyma secondary to disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The clinical signs of brain tumor edema depend on the location of the tumor as well as the extent of the edema, which often exceeds the mass effect induced by the tumor itself. Uncontrolled cerebral edema may result in increased intracranial pressure and acute herniation syndromes that can result in permanent neurological dysfunction and potentially fatal herniation. Treatment strategies for elevated intracranial pressure consist of general measures, medical interventions, and surgery. Alhough the definitive treatment for the edema may ultimately be surgical resection of the tumor, the impact of the critical care management cannot be underestimated and thus patients must be vigilantly monitored in the intensive care unit. In this review, we discuss the pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of patients presenting with cerebral edema. Imaging findings and treatment modalities used in the intensive care unit are also discussed.

  2. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI.

  3. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI. PMID:26447861

  4. MRI virtual biopsy and treatment of brain metastatic tumors with targeted nanobioconjugates: nanoclinic in the brain.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rameshwar; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Gangalum, Pallavi R; Ding, Hui; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Wagner, Shawn; Inoue, Satoshi; Konda, Bindu; Rekechenetskiy, Arthur; Chesnokova, Alexandra; Markman, Janet L; Ljubimov, Vladimir A; Li, Debiao; Prasad, Ravi S; Black, Keith L; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2015-05-26

    Differential diagnosis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement(s) remains a significant problem, which may be difficult to resolve without biopsy, which can be often dangerous or even impossible. Such MRI enhancement(s) can result from metastasis of primary tumors such as lung or breast, radiation necrosis, infections, or a new primary brain tumor (glioma, meningioma). Neurological symptoms are often the same on initial presentation. To develop a more precise noninvasive MRI diagnostic method, we have engineered a new class of poly(β-l-malic acid) polymeric nanoimaging agents (NIAs). The NIAs carrying attached MRI tracer are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specifically target cancer cells for efficient imaging. A qualitative/quantitative "MRI virtual biopsy" method is based on a nanoconjugate carrying MRI contrast agent gadolinium-DOTA and antibodies recognizing tumor-specific markers and extravasating through the BBB. In newly developed double tumor xenogeneic mouse models of brain metastasis this noninvasive method allowed differential diagnosis of HER2- and EGFR-expressing brain tumors. After MRI diagnosis, breast and lung cancer brain metastases were successfully treated with similar tumor-targeted nanoconjugates carrying molecular inhibitors of EGFR or HER2 instead of imaging contrast agent. The treatment resulted in a significant increase in animal survival and markedly reduced immunostaining for several cancer stem cell markers. Novel NIAs could be useful for brain diagnostic MRI in the clinic without currently performed brain biopsies. This technology shows promise for differential MRI diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases and other pathologies when biopsies are difficult to perform.

  5. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  6. The proteomics of pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Tsangaris, George T

    2014-10-01

    Pediatric tumors of the CNS are the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. In pediatric pathology, brain tumors constitute the most frequent solid malignancy. An unparalleled outburst of information in pediatric neuro-oncology research has been witnessed over the last few years, largely due to increased use of high-throughput technologies such as genomics, proteomics and meta-analysis tools. Input from these technologies gives scientists the advantage of early prognosis assessment, more accurate diagnosis and prospective curative intent in the pediatric brain tumor clinical setting. The present review aims to summarize current knowledge on research applying proteomics techniques or proteomics-based approaches performed on pediatric brain tumors. Proteins that can be used as potential disease markers or molecular targets, and their biological significance, are herein listed and discussed. Furthermore, future perspectives that proteomics technologies may offer regarding this devastating disorder are presented.

  7. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?

    PubMed

    Kalifa, Chantal; Grill, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1]. Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients. In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2]. Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group. Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies. Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications [3]. At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4]. Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors

  8. [124I]-iododeoxyuridine imaging tumor proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberg, R.; Roelcke, U.; Weinreich, R.

    1996-05-01

    Quantitative imaging of tissue proliferation could identify the regions of tumor that are most rapidly dividing, provide spatial information for radiation treatment planning and stereotactic biopsies, and provide an earlier measure of treatment response than CT or MR, or FDG PET. Carrier-free [124I]-labeled sodium iodide was produced at Essen Univ., and [124I]-IUdR was synthesized at PSI by a reaction with 2-deoxyuridine in an iodogen coated reaction vial; radiochemical yield varied from 51-71%. [124I]-IUdR was injected i.v. in 10 patients with primary brain tumors and sequential scans were obtained 0-60 min and at 24 hrs (1 hr scan) with a Siemens ECAT 933/04-16 tomograph. The PET and MR images were registered to each other using the Pellizzari algorithm. The IUdR-DNA incorporation constant (Ki) was calculated from ROI time-activity data and the metabolite corrected blood curve. Tumor proliferation was independently assessed by BUdR immunohistochemistry (labeling index) on tissue samples obtained at surgery. Mean tumor activity 24 hrs after [124I]-IUdR administration ranged from 1.9 - 22.1 nCi/cc and Ki ranged from 3.4 - 28.6 {mu}l/min/g. Normal brain activity ranged from 0.74 - 2.2 nCi/cc and Ki was 2.0 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}l/min/g, respectively. The expected relationship between Ki and tumor grade was observed, and a good correlation was observed between Ki and tumor grade was observed, and a good correlation was observed between Ki and labeling index of random surgical tumor specimens in 7 evaluable patients (r=0.86). In higher grade tumors there was marked variation in IUdR activity and Ki, suggesting a wide range of proliferative activity within the tumor. Ki in low grade tumors was low and more uniform. The potential for [124I]-IUdR PET imaging of tumor proliferation was shown to be feasible, despite low injection doses (0.75-1.6 mCi), rapid clearance of [124I]-IUdR from blood, and a low fraction of detectable emission (only 23% of decay is {beta}{sup +}).

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    SciTech Connect

    Aslian, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Babapour Mofrad, Farshid; Astarakee, Mahdi; Khaledi, Navid; Fadavi, Pedram

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer.

  10. Brain receptor imaging.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Herholz, Karl

    2006-02-01

    Receptors have a prominent role in brain function, as they are the effector sites of neurotransmission at the postsynaptic membrane, have a regulatory role on presynaptic sites for transmitter reuptake and feedback, and are modulating various functions on the cell membrane. Distribution, density, and activity of receptors in the brain can be visualized by radioligands labeled for SPECT and PET, and the receptor binding can be quantified by appropriate tracer kinetic models, which can be modified and simplified for particular application. Selective radioligands are available for the various transmitter systems, by which the distribution of these receptors in the normal brain and changes in receptor binding during various physiologic activities or resulting from pathologic conditions can be visualized. The quantitative imaging for several receptors has gained clinical importance-for example, dopamine (D2)) receptors for differential diagnosis of movement disorders and for assessment of receptor occupancy by neuroleptics drugs; serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors and the 5-HT transporter in affective disorders and for assessment of activity of antidepressants; nicotinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase as markers of cognitive and memory impairment; central benzodiazepine-binding sites at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor complex as markers of neuronal integrity in neurodegenerative disorders, epilepsy, and stroke and as the site of action of benzodiazepines; peripheral benzodiazepine receptors as indicators of inflammatory changes; opioid receptors detecting increased cortical excitability in focal epilepsy but also affected in perception of and emotional response to pain; and several receptor systems affected in drug abuse and craving. Further studies of the various transmitter/receptor systems and their balance and infraction will improve our understanding of complex brain functions and will provide more insight into the pathophysiology of

  11. Psychiatric aspects of brain tumors: A review

    PubMed Central

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Ting, Mark Bryan; Farah, Tara; Ugur, Umran

    2015-01-01

    Infrequently, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation of brain tumors. They may present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory problems, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia. Symptoms may be misleading, complicating the clinical picture. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding reports of brain tumors and psychiatric symptoms from 1956-2014. Search engines used include PubMed, Ovid, Psych Info, MEDLINE, and MedScape. Search terms included psychiatric manifestations/symptoms, brain tumors/neoplasms. Our literature search yielded case reports, case studies, and case series. There are no double blind studies except for post-diagnosis/-surgery studies. Early diagnosis is critical for improved quality of life. Symptoms that suggest work-up with neuroimaging include: new-onset psychosis, mood/memory symptoms, occurrence of new or atypical symptoms, personality changes, and anorexia without body dysmorphic symptoms. This article reviews the existing literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this clinically complex condition. PMID:26425442

  12. Psychiatric aspects of brain tumors: A review.

    PubMed

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Ting, Mark Bryan; Farah, Tara; Ugur, Umran

    2015-09-22

    Infrequently, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation of brain tumors. They may present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory problems, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia. Symptoms may be misleading, complicating the clinical picture. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding reports of brain tumors and psychiatric symptoms from 1956-2014. Search engines used include PubMed, Ovid, Psych Info, MEDLINE, and MedScape. Search terms included psychiatric manifestations/symptoms, brain tumors/neoplasms. Our literature search yielded case reports, case studies, and case series. There are no double blind studies except for post-diagnosis/-surgery studies. Early diagnosis is critical for improved quality of life. Symptoms that suggest work-up with neuroimaging include: new-onset psychosis, mood/memory symptoms, occurrence of new or atypical symptoms, personality changes, and anorexia without body dysmorphic symptoms. This article reviews the existing literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this clinically complex condition.

  13. Quantitative assessment of Cerenkov luminescence for radioguided brain tumor resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Klein, Justin S; Mitchell, Gregory; Cherry, Simon

    2017-03-13

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a developing imaging modality that detects radiolabeled molecules via visible light emitted during the radioactive decay process. We used a Monte Carlo based computer simulation to quantitatively investigate CLI compared to direct detection of the ionizing radiation itself as an intraoperative imaging tool for assessment of brain tumor margins. Our brain tumor model consisted of a 1 mm spherical tumor remnant embedded up to 5 mm in depth below the surface of normal brain tissue. Tumor to background contrast ranging from 2:1 to 10:1 were considered. We quantified all decay signals (e+/-, gamma photon, Cerenkov photons) reaching the brain volume surface. CLI proved to be the most sensitive method for detecting the tumor volume in both imaging and non-imaging strategies as assessed by contrast-to-noise ratio and by receiver operating characteristic output of a channelized Hotelling observer.

  14. Delayed Contrast Extravasation MRI for Depicting Tumor and Non-Tumoral Tissues in Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Leor; Guez, David; Last, David; Daniels, Dianne; Grober, Yuval; Nissim, Ouzi; Hoffmann, Chen; Nass, Dvora; Talianski, Alisa; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Cohen, Zvi R.; Mardor, Yael

    2012-01-01

    The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that our high resolution

  15. Confronting pediatric brain tumors: parent stories.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    This narrative symposium brings to light the extreme difficulties faced by parents of children diagnosed with brain tumors. NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Gigi McMillan and Christy A. Rentmeester, developed a call for stories that was distributed on several list serves and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The call asks parents to share their personal experience of diagnosis, treatment, long-term effects of treatment, social issues and the doctor-patient-parent dynamic that develops during this process. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. One change readers may notice is that the story authors are not listed in alphabetical order. The symposium editors had a vision for this issue that included leading readers through the timeline of this topic: diagnosis-treatment-acute recovery-recurrence-treatment (again)-acute recovery (again)-long-term quality of life-(possibly) end of life. Stories are arranged to help lead the reader through this timeline.Gigi McMillan is a patient and research subject advocate, co-founder of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network, as well as, the mother of a child who suffered from a pediatric brain tumor. She also authored the introduction for this symposium. Christy Rentmeester is an Associate Professor of Health Policy and Ethics in the Creighton University School of Medicine. She served as a commentator for this issue. Other commentators for this issue are Michael Barraza, a clinical psychologist and board member of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network; Lisa Stern, a pediatrician who has diagnosed six children with brain tumors in her 20 years of practice; and Katie Rose, a pediatric brain tumor patient who shares her special insights about this world.

  16. Neurologic sequelae of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nicole J

    2009-11-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size, and location of the tumor, the patient's age at diagnosis, and the treatment modalities used. Heightened surveillance and improved neuroimaging modalities have been instrumental in detecting and addressing such complications, which are often not appreciated until many years after completion of therapy. As current brain tumor therapies are continually refined and newer targeted therapies are developed, it will be important for future cooperative group studies to include systematic assessments to determine the incidence of neurologic complications and to provide a framework for the development of novel strategies for prevention and intervention.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C

    2009-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment strategy that is now widely investigated clinically. Researchers have begun to search for objective measures that indicate pharmacologic responses to antiangiogenic drugs. Therefore, there is a great interest in techniques to visualize angiogenesis in growing tumors noninvasively. Several markers have been described that are preferentially expressed on newly formed blood vessels in tumors (alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen) and in the extracellular matrix surrounding newly formed blood vessels (extra domain B of fibronectin, Tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinases, and Robo-4). Several ligands targeting these markers have been tested as a radiotracer for imaging angiogenesis in tumors. The potential of some of these tracers, such as radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides and radiolabeled anti-PSMA antibodies, has already been tested in cancer patients, while for markers such as Robo-4, the ligand has not yet been identified. In this review, an overview on the currently used nuclear imaging probes for noninvasive visualization of tumor angiogenesis is given.

  18. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C; Heth, Jason A; Maher, Cormac O; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D; Freudiger, Christian W; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A

    2015-10-14

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a nondestructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. We show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ = 0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery.

  19. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C.; Heth, Jason A.; Maher, Cormac O.; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a non-destructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. Here we show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ=0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Importantly, quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26468325

  20. Metabolism of steroids by human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Weidenfeld, J; Schiller, H

    1984-01-01

    Hormonal steroids or their precursors can be metabolized in the CNS to products with altered hormonal activity. The importance of the intracerebral transformation of steroids has been demonstrated, particularly with regard to neuroendocrine regulation and sexual behavior. These studies were carried out on normal brain tissues, but the ability of neoplastic tissues of CNS origin to metabolize steroids is unknown. We investigated the in vitro metabolism of tritiated pregnenolone, testosterone, and estradiol-17 beta by homogenates of four brain tumors defined as astrocytomas. In three tumors of cortical origin, removed from adult patients, the only enzymic activity found was the conversion of estradiol to estrone. In one tumor of cerebellar origin removed from an 11-year-old boy, the following conversions were found: pregnenolone to progesterone, testosterone to either androstenedione or estradiol, and estradiol to estrone. These results demonstrate that human astrocytomas can transform steroids to compounds with modified hormonal activity. These compounds formed by the tumorous tissue can affect brain function, which may be of clinical significance. Furthermore, these results may add important parameters for biochemical characterization of neoplastic brain tissues.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is the Preferred Method to Assess Treatment-Related Skeletal Changes in Children With Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kaste, Sue C.; Kaufman, Robert A.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the growing skeleton for potential altered skeletalgenesis associated with antiangiogenesis therapy. Patients and Methods Knee radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively obtained on patients enrolled on two consecutive clinical trials using vandetanib, a potent oral (VEGF receptor 2) VEGFR-2 inhibitor alone or combined with dasatinib, a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Results Fifty-nine patients (32 females) underwent 119 MRIs; 51 patients underwent 89 radiographs of the knees. The median age at enrollment was 6.2 years (range, 2.4–17.6 years). The dose of vandetanib ranged from 50 to 145 mg/m2/day. The median treatment duration was 205 days. Only two patients have not experienced disease progression after 18 and 60 months from diagnosis. MRI identified clinically significant premature physeal fusion in both knees of one patient, focal physeal thickening in one, osteonecrosis in eight patients (present at enrollment in one), and bony spicules crossing the physis in two patients (bilateral in one). MRI follow-up period averaged 5.3 months (range, 0–25.5 months; median, 3.5 months). Radiographs delineated normally fused physes in two patients but no cases of premature physeal fusion, osteonecrosis or bony spicules. Conclusions As MRI provided greater information than radiographs, and thus would be a more sensitive test to assess skeletalgenesis in pediatric patients. PMID:23526749

  2. Ion transporters in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Damin; Zhu, Wen; Kuo, John S.; Hu, Shaoshan; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Ion transporters are important in regulation of ionic homeostasis, cell volume, and cellular signal transduction under physiological conditions. They have recently emerged as important players in cancer progression. In this review, we discussed two important ion transporter proteins, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC-1) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other malignant tumors. NKCC-1 is a Na+-dependent Cl− transporter that mediates the movement of Na+, K+, and Cl− ions across the plasma membrane and maintains cell volume and intracellular K+ and Cl− homeostasis. NHE-1 is a ubiquitously expressed cell membrane protein which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular microdomain pH (pHe) homeostasis and cell volume. Here, we summarized recent pre-clinical experimental studies on NKCC-1 and NHE-1 in GBM and other malignant tumors, such as breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer. These studies illustrated that pharmacological inhibition or down-regulation of these ion transporter proteins reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and suppresses migration and invasion of cancer cells. These new findings reveal the potentials of these ion transporters as new targets for cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. PMID:25620102

  3. Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors: Emerging Imaging Techniques and Advances in Understanding of Genetic Features.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Cerebellar tumors are the most common group of solid tumors in children. MR imaging provides an important role in characterization of these lesions, surgical planning, and postsurgical surveillance. Preoperative imaging can help predict the histologic subtype of tumors, which can provide guidance for surgical planning. Beyond histology, pediatric brain tumors are undergoing new classification schemes based on genetic features. Intraoperative MR imaging has emerged as an important tool in the surgical management of pediatric brain tumors. Effective understanding of the imaging features of pediatric cerebellar tumors can benefit communication with neurosurgeons and neuro-oncologists and can improve patient management.

  4. Brain tumors: Special characters for research and banking

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Dashti, Sepideh; Khalaj, Zahra; Nazemroaia, Fatemeh; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    A brain tumor is an intracranial neoplasm within the brain or in the central spinal canal. Primary malignant brain tumors affect about 200,000 people worldwide every year. Brain cells have special characters. Due to the specific properties of brain tumors, including epidemiology, growth, and division, investigation of brain tumors and the interpretation of results is not simple. Research to identify the genetic alterations of human tumors improves our knowledge of tumor biology, genetic interactions, progression, and preclinical therapeutic assessment. Obtaining data for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy requires sufficient samples, and brain tumors have a wide range. As a result, establishing the bank of brain tumors is very important and essential. PMID:25625110

  5. Neurocutaneous Syndromes and Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nicole J

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of most childhood cancer remains largely unknown, but is likely attributable to random or induced genetic aberrations in somatic tissue. However, a subset of children develops cancer in the setting of an underlying inheritable condition involving a germline genetic mutation or chromosomal aberration. The term "neurocutaneous syndrome" encompasses a group of multisystem, hereditary disorders that are associated with skin manifestations as well as central and/or peripheral nervous system lesions of variable severity. This review outlines the central nervous system tumors associated with underlying neurocutaneous disorders, including neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, schwannomatosis, tuberous sclerosis complex, Von Hippel Lindau, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Recognizing the presence of an underlying syndrome is critically important to both optimizing clinical care and treatment as well as genetic counseling and monitoring of these affected patients and their families.

  6. Invited review--neuroimaging response assessment criteria for brain tumors in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Garcia, Paulo A; Daniel, Gregory B; Bourland, John Daniel; Debinski, Waldemar; Dervisis, Nikolaos; Klahn, Shawna

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of therapeutic response using cross-sectional imaging techniques, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MRI, is an integral part of the clinical management of brain tumors in veterinary patients. Spontaneous canine brain tumors are increasingly recognized and utilized as a translational model for the study of human brain tumors. However, no standardized neuroimaging response assessment criteria have been formulated for use in veterinary clinical trials. Previous studies have found that the pathophysiologic features inherent to brain tumors and the surrounding brain complicate the use of the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) assessment system. Objectives of this review are to describe strengths and limitations of published imaging-based brain tumor response criteria and propose a system for use in veterinary patients. The widely used human Macdonald and response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria are reviewed and described as to how they can be applied to veterinary brain tumors. Discussion points will include current challenges associated with the interpretation of brain tumor therapeutic responses such as imaging pseudophenomena and treatment-induced necrosis, and how advancements in perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown promise in differentiating tumor progression from therapy-induced changes. Finally, although objective endpoints such as MR imaging and survival estimates will likely continue to comprise the foundations for outcome measures in veterinary brain tumor clinical trials, we propose that in order to provide a more relevant therapeutic response metric for veterinary patients, composite response systems should be formulated and validated that combine imaging and clinical assessment criteria.

  7. INVITED REVIEW – NEUROIMAGING RESPONSE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR BRAIN TUMORS IN VETERINARY PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Garcia, Paulo A.; Daniel, Gregory B.; Bourland, John Daniel; Debinski, Waldemar; Dervisis, Nikolaos; Klahn, Shawna

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of therapeutic response using cross-sectional imaging techniques, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MRI, is an integral part of the clinical management of brain tumors in veterinary patients. Spontaneous canine brain tumors are increasingly recognized and utilized as a translational model for the study of human brain tumors. However, no standardized neuroimaging response assessment criteria have been formulated for use in veterinary clinical trials. Previous studies have found that the pathophysiologic features inherent to brain tumors and the surrounding brain complicate the use of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) assessment system. Objectives of this review are to describe strengths and limitations of published imaging-based brain tumor response criteria and propose a system for use in veterinary patients. The widely used human Macdonald and Response Assessment in Neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria are reviewed and described as to how they can be applied to veterinary brain tumors. Discussion points will include current challenges associated with the interpretation of brain tumor therapeutic responses such as imaging pseudophenomena and treatment-induced necrosis, and how advancements in perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown promise in differentiating tumor progression from therapy-induced changes. Finally, although objective endpoints such as MR-imaging and survival estimates will likely continue to comprise the foundations for outcome measures in veterinary brain tumor clinical trials, we propose that in order to provide a more relevant therapeutic response metric for veterinary patients, composite response systems should be formulated and validated that combine imaging and clinical assessment criteria. PMID:24219161

  8. Antiangiogenic (metronomic) chemotherapy for brain tumors: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Samuel, David P; Wen, Patrick Y; Kieran, Mark W

    2009-07-01

    Significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors have been made through better imaging, surgical techniques and advances in radiation therapy. However, the cure rate for most adult and pediatric brain tumor patients has not mirrored this success. Angiogenesis, the development of neovascularization, provides the required nutrients and oxygen to an expanding tumor and is controlled by a complex balance of proangiogenic cytokines and antiangiogenic factors. A series of new inhibitors of angiogenesis are now in clinical trials. Most of these rely on inhibiting tumor cell-mediated cytokines or blocking the activation of their cognate receptors. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, by contrast, targets dividing cells but can be modulated to attack dividing endothelial cells. This review will focus on the use of low-dose antiangiogenic (also called metronomic) chemotherapy to inhibit endothelial cell function and resultant neovascularization in the treatment of adult and pediatric brain tumors. By examining the biology and preclinical findings that led to the development of antiangiogenic/metronomic chemotherapy, clinical studies have been undertaken that support the role of this approach in the clinic, and have led to the introduction of a number of markers being used to better predict active combinations and appropriate patient populations.

  9. System A Amino Acid Transport-Targeted Brain and Systemic Tumor PET Imaging Agents 2-Amino-3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methylpropanoic Acid and 3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methyl-2-(Methylamino)propanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiping; McConathy, Jonathan; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amino acid based radiotracers target tumor cells through increased uptake by membrane-associated amino acid transport (AAT) systems. In the present study, four structurally related non-natural 18F-labeled amino acids, (R)- and (S)-[18F]FAMP 1 and (R)- and (S)-[18F]MeFAMP 2 have been prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential utility in brain and systemic tumor imaging based upon primarily system A transport with positron emission tomography (PET). Methods The transport of enantiomers of [18F]FAMP 1 and [18F]MeFAMP 2 was measured through in vitro uptake assays in human derived cancer cells including A549 (lung), DU145 (prostate), SKOV3 (ovary), MDA MB468 (breast) and U87 (brain) in the presence and absence of amino acid transporter inhibitors. The in vivo biodistribution of these tracers was evaluated using tumor mice xenografts at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. Results All four tracers showed moderate to high levels of uptake (1- 9 %ID/5×105 cells) by the cancer cell lines tested in vitro. AAT cell inhibition assays demonstrated that (R)-[18F]1 and (S)-[18F]1 entered these tumor cells via mixed AATs, likely but not limited to system A and system L. In contrast, (R)-[18F]2 and (S)-[18F]2 showed high selectivity for system A AAT. Similar to the results of in vitro cell studies, the tumor uptake of all four tracers was good to high and persisted over the 2 hours time course of in vivo studies. The accumulation of these tracers was higher in tumor than most normal tissues including blood, brain, muscle, bone, heart, and lung, and the tracers with the highest in vitro selectivity for system A AAT generally demonstrated the best tumor imaging properties. Higher uptake of these tracers was observed in the pancreas, kidney and spleen compared to tumors. Conclusions These preclinical studies demonstrate good imaging properties in a wide range of tumors for all four amino acids evaluated with (R)-[18F]2 having the highest

  10. Analysis of plasma free amino acid profiles in canine brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Utsugi, Shinichi; Azuma, Kazuo; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Canine brain tumors are best diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, opportunities of MRI examination are restricted due to its limited availability in veterinary facilities; thus, numerous canine brain tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Therefore, development of a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker is required for the early detection of brain tumors. In the present study, plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles between dogs with and without brain tumors were compared. A total of 12 dogs with brain tumors, diagnosed based on clinical signs, and on the results of intracranial MRI and/or pathological examination were evaluated. In addition, eight dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and 16 healthy dogs were also included. A liquid chromatography system with automated pre-column derivatization functionality was used to measure the levels of 20 amino acids. As a result, the levels of three amino acids (alanine, proline and isoleucine) were increased significantly (1.6-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in the plasma of dogs with brain tumors as compared with the levels in control dogs (all P<0.05). Thus, the PFAA levels of dogs with brain tumors differed from those of healthy dogs. The present study demonstrated that analysis of PFAA levels of dogs with brain tumors may serve as a useful biomarker for the early detection of canine brain tumors. PMID:28357072

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    PubMed Central

    Bondy, Melissa L.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Malmer, Beatrice; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Davis, Faith G.; Il’yasova, Dora; Kruchko, Carol; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tihan, Tarik; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wrensch, Margaret; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologists in the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) have prioritized areas for further research. Although many risk factors have been examined over the past several decades, there are few consistent findings possibly due to small sample sizes in individual studies and differences between studies in subjects, tumor types, and methods of classification. Individual studies have generally lacked sufficient sample size to examine interactions. A major priority based on available evidence and technologies includes expanding research in genetics and molecular epidemiology of brain tumors. BTEC has taken an active role in promoting understudied groups such as pediatric brain tumors, the etiology of rare glioma subtypes, such as oligodendroglioma, and meningioma, which not uncommon, has only recently been systematically registered in the US. There is also a pressing need to bring more researchers, especially junior investigators, to study brain tumor epidemiology. However, relatively poor funding for brain tumor research has made it difficult to encourage careers in this area. We review the group’s consensus on the current state of scientific findings and present a consensus on research priorities to identify the important areas the science should move to address. PMID:18798534

  12. Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

  13. Perspectives on Dual Targeting Delivery Systems for Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huile

    2017-03-01

    Brain tumor remains one of the most serious threats to human beings. Different from peripheral tumors, drug delivery to brain tumor is largely restricted by the blood brain barrier (BBB). To fully conquer this barrier and specifically deliver drugs to brain tumor, dual targeting delivery systems were explored, which are functionalized with two active targeting ligands: one to the BBB and the other to the brain tumor. The development of dual targeting delivery system is still in its early stage, and attentions need to be paid to issues and concerns that remain unresolved in future studies.

  14. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  15. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  16. [Chemotherapy of brain tumors in aduts].

    PubMed

    Roth, P; Weller, M

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of patients with brain tumors has long been the domain of neurosurgery and radiotherapy but chemotherapy is now well established as an additional treatment option for many tumor entities in neuro-oncology. This is particularly true for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsing glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma as well as the treatment of medulloblastoma and primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to purely histopathological features, treatment decisions including those for chemotherapy are now based increasingly more on molecular tumor profiling. Within the group of gliomas these markers include the methylation status of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the 1p/19q status, which reflects the loss of genetic material on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. The presence of a 1p/19q codeletion is associated with a better prognosis and increased sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapy in patients with anaplastic gliomas.

  17. The diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric MRI to determine pediatric brain tumor grades and types.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Girard, Nadine; Ghattas, Badih; Fellah, Slim; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Scavarda, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Childhood brain tumors show great histological variability. The goal of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of multimodal MR imaging (diffusion, perfusion, MR spectroscopy) in the distinction of pediatric brain tumor grades and types. Seventy-six patients (range 1 month to 18 years) with brain tumors underwent multimodal MR imaging. Tumors were categorized by grade (I-IV) and by histological type (A-H). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of single and combined MR modalities, and of single imaging parameters to distinguish the different groups. The highest diagnostic accuracy for tumor grading was obtained with diffusion-perfusion (73.24%) and for tumor typing with diffusion-perfusion-MR spectroscopy (55.76%). The best diagnostic accuracy was obtained for tumor grading in I and IV and for tumor typing in embryonal tumor and pilocytic astrocytoma. Poor accuracy was seen in other grades and types. ADC and rADC were the best parameters for tumor grading and typing followed by choline level with an intermediate echo time, CBV for grading and Tmax for typing. Multiparametric MR imaging can be accurate in determining tumor grades (primarily grades I and IV) and types (mainly pilocytic astrocytomas and embryonal tumors) in children.

  18. Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1996-01-01

    This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

  19. Monitoring brain tumor response to therapy using MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, M; Clarke, L P; Hall, L O; Heidtman, C; Velthuizen, R; Gosche, K; Phuphanich, S; Wagner, H; Greenberg, H; Silbiger, M L

    1997-01-01

    The performance evaluation of a semi-supervised fuzzy c-means (SFCM) clustering method for monitoring brain tumor volume changes during the course of routine clinical radiation-therapeutic and chemo-therapeutic regimens is presented. The tumor volume determined using the SFCM method was compared with the volume estimates obtained using three other methods: (a) a k nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier, b) a grey level thresholding and seed growing (ISG-SG) method and c) a manual pixel labeling (GT) method for ground truth estimation. The SFCM and kNN methods are applied to the multispectral, contrast enhanced T1, proton density, and T2 weighted, magnetic resonance images (MRI) whereas the ISG-SG and GT methods are applied only to the contrast enhanced T1 weighted image. Estimations of tumor volume were made on eight patient cases with follow-up MRI scans performed over a 32 week interval during treatment. The tumor cases studied include one meningioma, two brain metastases and five gliomas. Comparisons with manually labeled ground truth estimations showed that there is a limited agreement between the segmentation methods for absolute tumor volume measurements when using images of patients after treatment. The average intraobserver reproducibility for the SFCM, kNN and ISG-SG methods was found to be 5.8%, 6.6% and 8.9%, respectively. The average of the interobserver reproducibility of these methods was found to be 5.5%, 6.5% and 11.4%, respectively. For the measurement of relative change of tumor volume as required for the response assessment, the multi-spectral methods kNN and SFCM are therefore preferred over the seedgrowing method.

  20. Radiomics in Brain Tumors: An Emerging Technique for Characterization of Tumor Environment.

    PubMed

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Zinn, Pascal O; Colen, Rivka R

    2016-11-01

    The role of radiomics in the diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy planning of brain tumors is becoming increasingly clear. Incorporation of quantitative approaches in radiology, in combination with increased computer power, offers unique insights into macroscopic tumor characteristics and their direct association with the underlying pathophysiology. This article presents the most recent findings in radiomics and radiogenomics with respect to identifying potential imaging biomarkers with prognostic value that can lead to individualized therapy. In addition, a brief introduction to the concept of big data and its significance in medicine is presented.

  1. Efficient multilevel brain tumor segmentation with integrated bayesian model classification.

    PubMed

    Corso, J J; Sharon, E; Dube, S; El-Saden, S; Sinha, U; Yuille, A

    2008-05-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data that takes a step toward bridging the gap between bottom-up affinity-based segmentation methods and top-down generative model based approaches. The main contribution of the paper is a Bayesian formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are conventionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multichannel magnetic resonance (MR) volumes. The computationally efficient method runs orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art techniques giving comparable or improved results. Our quantitative results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor.

  2. Comparative imaging of P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C in thin sections of rat brain tumor as well as control tissues by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, Myroslav V.; Dehnhardt, Markus; Matusch, Andreas; Becker, J. Sabine

    2008-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of selected elements (P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C) in thin sections of rat brain samples (thickness 20 μm). The sample surface was scanned (raster area ~ 2 cm 2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 μm, and irradiance 1 × 10 9 W cm - 2 ). The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field. The possibility was evaluated of using carbon (via measurement of 13C +) as an internal standard element for imaging element distribution as part of this method. The LA-ICP-MS images obtained for P, S, Fe Cu and Zn were quantified using synthetically prepared matrix-matched laboratory standards. Depending on the sample analyzed, concentrations of Cu and Zn in the control tissue were found to be in the range of 8-10 μg g - 1 and 10-12 μg g - 1 , while in the tumor tissue these concentrations were in the range of 12-15 μg g - 1 and 15-17 μg g - 1 , respectively. The measurements of P, S and Fe distribution revealed the depletion of these elements in tumor tissue. In all the samples, the shape of the tumor could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding healthy tissue by the depletion in carbon. Additional experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the water content of the analyzed tissue on the intensity signal of the analyte. The results of these measurements show the linear correlation ( R2 = 0.9604) between the intensity of analyte and amount of water in the sample. The growth of a brain tumor was thus studied for the first time by imaging mass spectrometry.

  3. Subacute brain atrophy after radiation therapy for malignant brain tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, A.; Matsutani, M.; Kohno, T.; Nakamura, O.; Tanaka, H.; Fujimaki, T.; Funada, N.; Matsuda, T.; Nagata, K.; Takakura, K.

    1989-05-15

    Brain atrophy with mental and neurologic deterioration developing a few months after radiation therapy in patients without residual or recurrent brain tumors has been recognized. Two illustrative case reports of this pathologic entity are presented. Six autopsy cases with this entity including the two cases were reviewed neurologically, radiographically, and histopathologically. All patients presented progressive disturbances of mental status and consciousness, akinesia, and tremor-like involuntary movement. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated marked enlargement of the ventricles, moderate widening of the cortical sulci, and a moderately attenuated CT number for the white matter in all six patients. Four of the six patients had CSF drainage (ventriculoperitoneal shunt or continuous lumbar drainage), however, none of them improved. Histologic examination demonstrated swelling and loss of the myelin sheath in the white matter in all patients, and reactive astrocytosis in three of the six patients. Neither prominent neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, nor axonal loss in the white matter was generally identified. The blood vessels of the cerebral cortex and white matter were normal. Ependymal layer and the surrounding brain tissue were normal in all patients. These findings suggested that this pathologic condition results from demyelination secondary to direct neurotoxic effect of irradiation. The authors' previous report was reviewed and the differential diagnoses, the risk factors for this pathologic entity, and the indication for radiation therapy in aged patients with a malignant brain tumor are discussed.

  4. Automated Tumor Volumetry Using Computer-Aided Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, Michel; Sadaghiani, Mohammed Salehi; Akbari, Hamed; Atthiah, Mark A.; Ali, Zarina S.; Da, Xiao; Zhan, Yiqang; O'Rourke, Donald; Grady, Sean M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Accurate segmentation of brain tumors, and quantification of tumor volume, is important for diagnosis, monitoring, and planning therapeutic intervention. Manual segmentation is not widely used because of time constraints. Previous efforts have mainly produced methods that are tailored to a particular type of tumor or acquisition protocol and have mostly failed to produce a method that functions on different tumor types and is robust to changes in scanning parameters, resolution, and image quality, thereby limiting their clinical value. Herein, we present a semiautomatic method for tumor segmentation that is fast, accurate, and robust to a wide variation in image quality and resolution. Materials and Methods A semiautomatic segmentation method based on the geodesic distance transform was developed and validated by using it to segment 54 brain tumors. Glioblastomas, meningiomas, and brain metastases were segmented. Qualitative validation was based on physician ratings provided by three clinical experts. Quantitative validation was based on comparing semiautomatic and manual segmentations. Results Tumor segmentations obtained using manual and automatic methods were compared quantitatively using the Dice measure of overlap. Subjective evaluation was performed by having human experts rate the computerized segmentations on a 0–5 rating scale where 5 indicated perfect segmentation. Conclusions The proposed method addresses a significant, unmet need in the field of neuro-oncology. Specifically, this method enables clinicians to obtain accurate and reproducible tumor volumes without the need for manual segmentation. PMID:25770633

  5. Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

  6. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org.

  7. Magnetic resonance microscopy at 14 Tesla and correlative histopathology of human brain tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Segura, Ana; Morales, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose Manuel; Cardona-Marsal, Ramon; Lopez-Gines, Concepcion; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) can provide high microstructural detail in excised human lesions. Previous MRM images on some experimental models and a few human samples suggest the large potential of the technique. The aim of this study was the characterization of specific morphological features of human brain tumor samples by MRM and correlative histopathology. We performed MRM imaging and correlative histopathology in 19 meningioma and 11 glioma human brain tumor samples obtained at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first MRM direct structural characterization of human brain tumor samples. MRM of brain tumor tissue provided images with 35 to 40 µm spatial resolution. The use of MRM to study human brain tumor samples provides new microstructural information on brain tumors for better classification and characterization. The correlation between MRM and histopathology images allowed the determination of image parameters for critical microstructures of the tumor, like collagen patterns, necrotic foci, calcifications and/or psammoma bodies, vascular distribution and hemorrhage among others. Therefore, MRM may help in interpreting the Clinical Magnetic Resonance images in terms of cell biology processes and tissue patterns. Finally, and most importantly for clinical diagnosis purposes, it provides three-dimensional information in intact samples which may help in selecting a preferential orientation for the histopathology slicing which contains most of the informative elements of the biopsy. Overall, the findings reported here provide a new and unique microstructural view of intact human brain tumor tissue. At this point, our approach and results allow the identification of specific tissue types and pathological features in unprocessed tumor samples.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy at 14 Tesla and Correlative Histopathology of Human Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Segura, Ana; Morales, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose Manuel; Cardona-Marsal, Ramon; Lopez-Gines, Concepcion; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) can provide high microstructural detail in excised human lesions. Previous MRM images on some experimental models and a few human samples suggest the large potential of the technique. The aim of this study was the characterization of specific morphological features of human brain tumor samples by MRM and correlative histopathology. We performed MRM imaging and correlative histopathology in 19 meningioma and 11 glioma human brain tumor samples obtained at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first MRM direct structural characterization of human brain tumor samples. MRM of brain tumor tissue provided images with 35 to 40 µm spatial resolution. The use of MRM to study human brain tumor samples provides new microstructural information on brain tumors for better classification and characterization. The correlation between MRM and histopathology images allowed the determination of image parameters for critical microstructures of the tumor, like collagen patterns, necrotic foci, calcifications and/or psammoma bodies, vascular distribution and hemorrhage among others. Therefore, MRM may help in interpreting the Clinical Magnetic Resonance images in terms of cell biology processes and tissue patterns. Finally, and most importantly for clinical diagnosis purposes, it provides three-dimensional information in intact samples which may help in selecting a preferential orientation for the histopathology slicing which contains most of the informative elements of the biopsy. Overall, the findings reported here provide a new and unique microstructural view of intact human brain tumor tissue. At this point, our approach and results allow the identification of specific tissue types and pathological features in unprocessed tumor samples. PMID:22110653

  9. [Interdisciplinary neuro-oncology: part 2: systemic therapy of primary brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, G; Hattingen, E; Schlegel, J; Stummer, W; Schlegel, U

    2014-08-01

    By combining the expertise of clinical neuroscience, the aim of neuro-oncology is to optimize diagnostic planning and therapy of primary brain tumors in an interdisciplinary setting together with radio-oncology and medical oncology. High-end imaging frequently allows brain tumors to be diagnosed preoperatively with respect to tumor entity and even tumor malignancy grade. Moreover, neuroimaging is indispensable for guidance of biopsy resection and monitoring of therapy. Surgical resection of intracranial lesions with preservation of neurological function has become dramatically more extensive. Tools to achieve this goal are, for example neuronavigation, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tractography, intraoperative cortical stimulation and precise intraoperative definition of tumor margins by virtue of various techniques. In addition to classical histopathological diagnosis and tumor classification, modern neuropathology is supplemented by molecular characterization of brain tumors in order to provide clinicians with prognostic and predictive (of therapy) markers, such as codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q in anaplastic gliomas and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in glioblastomas. Although this is not yet individualized tumor therapy, the increasingly more detailed analysis of the molecular pathogenesis of an individual glioma will eventually lead to specific pharmacological blockade of disturbed intracellular pathways in individual patients. This article gives an overview of the state of the art of interdisciplinary neuro-oncology whereby part 1 deals with the diagnostics and surgical therapy of primary brain tumors and part 2 describes the medical therapy of primary brain tumors.

  10. [Interdisciplinary neuro-oncology: part 1: diagnostics and operative therapy of primary brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, G; Hattingen, E; Schlegel, J; Stummer, W; Schlegel, U

    2014-08-01

    By combining the expertise of clinical neuroscience, the aim of neuro-oncology is to optimize diagnostic planning and therapy of primary brain tumors in an interdisciplinary setting together with radio-oncology and medical oncology. High-end imaging frequently allows brain tumors to be diagnosed preoperatively with respect to tumor entity and even tumor malignancy grade. Moreover, neuroimaging is indispensable for guidance of biopsy resection and monitoring of therapy. Surgical resection of intracranial lesions with preservation of neurological function is increasingly feasible. Tools to achieve this goal are, for example neuronavigation, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tractography, intraoperative cortical stimulation and precise intraoperative definition of tumor margins by virtue of various techniques. In addition to classical histopathological diagnosis and tumor classification, modern neuropathology is supplemented by molecular characterization of brain tumors in order to provide clinicians with prognostic and predictive (of therapy) markers, such as codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q in anaplastic gliomas and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in glioblastomas. Although this is not yet individualized tumor therapy, the increasingly more detailed analysis of the molecular pathogenesis of an individual glioma will eventually lead to specific pharmacological blockade of disturbed intracellular pathways in individual patients. This article gives an overview of the state of the art of interdisciplinary neuro-oncology whereby part 1 deals with the diagnostics and surgical therapy of primary brain tumors and part 2 describes the medical therapy of primary brain tumors.

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  12. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  13. Detection of brain tumors using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography and nanoparticles as contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Koenig, Anne; Heinrich, Emilie; Texier, Isabelle; Couillaud, Franck

    2012-12-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is used to localize tumors in mice using fluorescent nanoparticles as a blood pool contrast agent. The infrared dye DiR is loaded in the lipid core of nontargeted nanoparticles (DiR-lipidots) and injected systemically via the tail vein in mice bearing U87 tumors. Distribution and time-course of DiR-lipidots are followed using in vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging and reveal enhanced fluorescent signal within the subcutaneous tumors up to seven days due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumor growth into the brain is followed using bioluminescent imaging, and tumor localization is further determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The fDOT provides three-dimensional fluorescent maps that allow for consistent localization for both subcutaneous and brain tumors.

  14. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  15. Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  16. Spiral Perfusion Imaging With Consecutive Echoes (SPICE™) for the Simultaneous Mapping of DSC- and DCE-MRI Parameters in Brain Tumor Patients: Theory and Initial Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Eric S; Prah, Douglas E; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects. In particular, residual susceptibility effects compete with T1 shortening, which can confound DCE-MRI parameters, whereas dipolar T1 and T2 leakage and residual susceptibility effects can confound DSC-MRI parameters. We introduce here a novel perfusion imaging acquisition and postprocessing method termed Spiral Perfusion Imaging with Consecutive Echoes (SPICE) that can be used to simultaneously acquire DCE- and DSC-MRI data, which requires only a single dose of the Gd contrast agent, does not require the collection of a precontrast T1 map for DCE-MRI processing, and eliminates the confounding contrast agent effects due to contrast extravasation. A detailed mathematical description of SPICE is provided here along with a demonstration of its utility in patients with high-grade glioma.

  17. Spiral Perfusion Imaging With Consecutive Echoes (SPICE™) for the Simultaneous Mapping of DSC- and DCE-MRI Parameters in Brain Tumor Patients: Theory and Initial Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Eric S.; Prah, Douglas E.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects. In particular, residual susceptibility effects compete with T1 shortening, which can confound DCE-MRI parameters, whereas dipolar T1 and T2 leakage and residual susceptibility effects can confound DSC-MRI parameters. We introduce here a novel perfusion imaging acquisition and postprocessing method termed Spiral Perfusion Imaging with Consecutive Echoes (SPICE) that can be used to simultaneously acquire DCE- and DSC-MRI data, which requires only a single dose of the Gd contrast agent, does not require the collection of a precontrast T1 map for DCE-MRI processing, and eliminates the confounding contrast agent effects due to contrast extravasation. A detailed mathematical description of SPICE is provided here along with a demonstration of its utility in patients with high-grade glioma. PMID:28090589

  18. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  19. Plasmonics-enhanced and optically modulated delivery of gold nanostars into brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M; Xia, Jun; Doyle, Sarah L; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Ozaki, Ema; Mulfaul, Kelly; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M; Wang, Lihong V; Grant, Gerald A; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-04-21

    Plasmonics-active gold nanostars exhibiting strong imaging contrast and efficient photothermal transduction were synthesized for a novel pulsed laser-modulated plasmonics-enhanced brain tumor microvascular permeabilization. We demonstrate a selective, optically modulated delivery of nanoprobes into the tumor parenchyma with minimal off-target distribution.

  20. Plasmonics-enhanced and optically modulated delivery of gold nanostars into brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Xia, Jun; Doyle, Sarah L.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Ozaki, Ema; Mulfaul, Kelly; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M.; Wang, Lihong V.; Grant, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanostars exhibiting strong imaging contrast and efficient photothermal transduction were synthesized for a novel pulsed laser-modulated plasmonics-enhanced brain tumor microvascular permeabilization. We demonstrate a selective, optically modulated delivery of nanoprobes into the tumor parenchyma with minimal off-target distribution. PMID:24619405

  1. Statistical feature selection for enhanced detection of brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Colen, Rivka R.

    2014-09-01

    Feature-based methods are widely used in the brain tumor recognition system. Robust of early cancer detection is one of the most powerful image processing tools. Specifically, statistical features, such as geometric mean, harmonic mean, mean excluding outliers, median, percentiles, skewness and kurtosis, have been extracted from brain tumor glioma to aid in discriminating two levels namely, Level I and Level II using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the diagnosis of brain tumor. Statistical feature describes the major characteristics of each level from glioma which is an important step to evaluate heterogeneity of cancer area pixels. In this paper, we address the task of feature selection to identify the relevant subset of features in the statistical domain, while discarding those that are either redundant or confusing, thereby improving the performance of feature-based scheme to distinguish between Level I and Level II. We apply a Decision Structure algorithm to find the optimal combination of nonhomogeneity based statistical features for the problem at hand. We employ a Naïve Bayes classifier to evaluate the performance of the optimal statistical feature based scheme in terms of its glioma Level I and Level II discrimination capability and use real-data collected from 17 patients have a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Dataset provided from 3 Tesla MR imaging system by MD Anderson Cancer Center. For the specific data analyzed, it is shown that the identified dominant features yield higher classification accuracy, with lower number of false alarms and missed detections, compared to the full statistical based feature set. This work has been proposed and analyzed specific GBM types which Level I and Level II and the dominant features were considered as feature aid to prognostic indicators. These features were selected automatically to be better able to determine prognosis from classical imaging studies.

  2. Halofuginone inhibits angiogenesis and growth in implanted metastatic rat brain tumor model--an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Rinat; Itzik, Anna; Harel, Hila; Nagler, Arnon; Vlodavsky, Israel; Siegal, Tali

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF) is a potent inhibitor of collagen type alpha1(I). In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001). Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001). In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05). Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03). Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  3. Biphasic modeling of brain tumor biomechanics and response to radiation treatment.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Stelios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2016-06-14

    Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers where tumors are surrounded by tissues with different mechanical properties. Existing mathematical models ignore direct mechanical interactions of the tumor with the normal brain. Here, we developed a clinically relevant model, which predicts tumor growth accounting directly for mechanical interactions. A three-dimensional model of the gray and white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a normal brain. Subsequently, a biphasic tissue growth theory for an initial tumor seed was employed, incorporating the effects of radiotherapy. Additionally, three different sets of brain tissue properties taken from the literature were used to investigate their effect on tumor growth. Results show the evolution of solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure within the tumor and the normal brain. Heterogeneous distribution of the solid stress exerted on the tumor resulted in a 35% spatial variation in cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the model predicted that distant from the tumor, normal tissues still undergo significant deformations while it was found that intratumoral fluid pressure is elevated. Our predictions relate to clinical symptoms of brain cancers and present useful tools for therapy planning.

  4. Management of childhood brain tumors: consensus report by the Pediatric Hematology Oncology (PHO) Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP).

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sunil; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Suri, Vaishali; Patir, Rana; Kurkure, Purna; Kellie, Stewart; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2011-12-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood tumors and remain the leading cause of cancer related deaths in children. Appropriate diagnosis and management of these tumors are essential to improve survival. There are no clinical practical guidelines available for the management of brain tumors in India. This document is a consensus report prepared after a National Consultation on Pediatric Brain Tumors held in Delhi on 06 Nov 2008. The meeting was attended by eminent experts from all over the country, in the fields of Neurosurgery, Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, Neuropathology, Diagnostic Imaging, Pediatric Endocrinology and Allied Health Professionals. This article highlights that physicians looking after children with brain tumors should work as part of a multidisciplinary team to improve the survival, quality of life, neuro-cognitive outcomes and standards of care for children with brain tumors. Recommendations for when to suspect, diagnostic workup, initial management, long-term follow up and specific management of individual tumors are outlined.

  5. Biodistribution of ultra small gadolinium-based nanoparticles as theranostic agent: application to brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Imen; Duc, Géraldine Le; Kryza, David; Berniard, Aurélie; Mowat, Pierre; Roux, Stéphane; Taleb, Jacqueline; Bonazza, Pauline; Perriat, Pascal; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles are novel objects with interesting physical properties, allowing their use for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were imaged following intravenous injection in healthy rats and rats grafted with 9L gliosarcoma tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic imaging. Quantitative biodistribution using gamma-counting of each sampled organ confirmed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared essentially by renal excretion. Accumulation of these nanoparticles in 9L gliosarcoma tumors implanted in the rat brain was quantitated. This passive and long-duration accumulation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in tumor, which is related to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is in good agreement with the use of these nanoparticles as radiosensitizers for brain tumors.

  6. Regional brain glucose metabolism in patients with brain tumors before and after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Lau, Y.H.

    1994-05-01

    This study was performed to measure regional glucose metabolism in nonaffected brain regions of patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Seven female and four male patients (mean age 51.5{plus_minus}14.0 years old) were compared with eleven age and sex matched normal subjects. None of the patients had hydrocephalus and/or increased intracranial pressure. Brain glucose metabolism was measured using FDG-PET scan. Five of the patients were reevaluated one week after receiving radiation treatment (RT) to the brain. Patients were on Decadron and/or Dilantin at the time of both scan. PET images were analyzed with a template of 115 nonoverlapping regions of interest and then grouped into eight gray matter regions on each hemisphere. Brain regions with tumors and edema shown in MR imaging were excluded. Z scores were used to compare individual patients` regional values with those of normal subjects. The number of regional values with Z scores of less than - 3.0 were considered abnormal and were quantified. The mean global glucose metabolic rate (mean of all regions) in nonaffected brain regions of patients was significantly lower than that of normal controls (32.1{plus_minus}9.0 versus 44.8{plus_minus}6.3 {mu}mol/100g/min, p<0.001). Analyses of individual subjects revealed that none of the controls and 8 of the 11 patients had at least one abnormal region. In these 8 patients the regions which were abnormal were most frequently localized in right (n=5) and left occipital (n=6) and right orbital frontal cortex (n=7) whereas the basal ganglia was not affected. Five of the patients who had repeated scans following RT showed decrements in tumor metabolism (41{plus_minus}20.5%) and a significant increase in whole brain metabolism (8.6{plus_minus}5.3%, p<0.001). The improvement in whole brain metabolism after RT suggests that the brain metabolic decrements in the patients were related to the presence of tumoral tissue and not just a medication effect.

  7. Automatic brain tumor extraction from T1-weighted coronal MRI using fast bounding box and dynamic snake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Mandal, Mrinal

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation from MRI data is an important but challenging task. This paper presents an efficient and fully automatic brain tumor segmentation technique. The proposed technique includes a fuzzy C-means (FCM) based preprocessing to enhance the quality of T1-weighted coronal MR images, a fast bounding box (FBB) detection algorithm to locate a rectangle around tumor, and a new dynamic snake using modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) for the final tumor extraction.

  8. MR imaging in staging of bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ehara, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    For staging of bone tumors, TNM and Enneking’s systems are used with some differences. Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly useful for defining the extent of high-grade tumors, including transcortical and intertrabecular infiltration and periosteal extension. The concepts of compartment and curative surgical margins are important for bone tumor staging. PMID:17098647

  9. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Avsenik, Jernej; Bisdas, Sotirios; Popovic, Katarina Surlan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Conclusions. Blood-brain barrier permeability can be evaluated in vivo by perfusion computed tomography - an efficient diagnostic method that involves the sequential acquisition of tomographic images during the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material. The major clinical applications of perfusion computed tomography are in acute stroke and in brain tumor imaging. PMID:26029020

  10. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

  11. Confidence-based ensemble for GBM brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jing; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Okada, Kazunori; Kim, Hyun J.; Pope, Whitney; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    It is a challenging task to automatically segment glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumors on T1w post-contrast isotropic MR images. A semi-automated system using fuzzy connectedness has recently been developed for computing the tumor volume that reduces the cost of manual annotation. In this study, we propose a an ensemble method that combines multiple segmentation results into a final ensemble one. The method is evaluated on a dataset of 20 cases from a multi-center pharmaceutical drug trial and compared to the fuzzy connectedness method. Three individual methods were used in the framework: fuzzy connectedness, GrowCut, and voxel classification. The combination method is a confidence map averaging (CMA) method. The CMA method shows an improved ROC curve compared to the fuzzy connectedness method (p < 0.001). The CMA ensemble result is more robust compared to the three individual methods.

  12. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh Sharma, R.; Marikkannu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for the identification of brain regions using magnetic resonance images accountable for brain tumor is presented in this paper. Classification of medical images is substantial in both clinical and research areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality outperforms towards diagnosing brain abnormalities like brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhage, and many more. The primary objective of this work is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) novel brain tumor classification model using MRI images with both micro- and macroscale textures designed to differentiate the MRI of brain under two classes of lesion, benign and malignant. The design approach was initially preprocessed using 3D Gaussian filter. Based on VOI (volume of interest) of the image, features were extracted using 3D volumetric Square Centroid Lines Gray Level Distribution Method (SCLGM) along with 3D run length and cooccurrence matrix. The optimal features are selected using the proposed refined gravitational search algorithm (RGSA). Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002). The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods. PMID:26509188

  13. Ultrasound, normal fetus- ventricles of brain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Images ... of brain ventricles. Ventricles are spaces in the brain that are filled with fluid. In this early ultrasound, the ventricles can be seen as light lines extending through the skull, seen in the upper right side of the image.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  15. Growth patterns of microscopic brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Leonard M.; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2002-11-01

    Highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme form complex growth patterns in vitro in which invasive cells organize in tenuous branches. Here, we formulate a chemotaxis model for this sort of growth. A key element controlling the pattern is homotype attraction, i.e., the tendency for invasive cells to follow pathways previously explored. We investigate this in two ways: we show that there is an intrinsic instability in the model, which leads to branch formation. We also give a discrete description for the expansion of the invasive zone, and a continuum model for the nutrient supply. The results indicate that both strong heterotype chemotaxis and strong homotype chemoattraction are required for branch formation within the invasive zone. Our model thus can give a way to assess the importance of the various processes, and a way to explore and analyze transitions between different growth regimes.

  16. Evolution of brain imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Tony; Feng, Janine

    2011-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and static magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are now the most common imaging modalities used for anatomic evaluation of pathologic processes affecting the brain. By contrast, radionuclide-based methods, including planar imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), are the most widely used methods for evaluating brain function. SPECT and PET have been evolving for a longer time than CT and MRI and have made significant contributions to understanding brain function. The pioneering work on cerebral flow early in the last century laid the foundation of measurement with radioactive gases. This was initially performed with scintillation counters, which gave way to single, then multiple scintillation and multiprobe detectors. The invention of rectilinear scanners, MARK series, Anger cameras, and SPECT imaging further advanced nuclear medicine's role in brain imaging. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by SPECT provides pathophysiologic information that directs patient management in a variety of central nervous disorders (CNS), with the greatest clinical impact found in cerebrovascular disease and seizure disorder. In the former, SPECT not only provides means of early detection and localization of acute strokes but can also direct thrombolysis and determine prognosis in the postcerebrovascular accident period. With respect to the latter, ictal SPECT can localize seizure foci so that patients with refractory disease can potentially undergo surgical resection of the affected area. In contrast to brain SPECT, brain PET images reflect regional cerebral metabolism. Because of neurovascular coupling, findings on SPECT and PET images are often comparable. PET, however, still has improved spatial resolution and is therefore more sensitive than SPECT, particularly in the evaluation of dementias. Brain PET instrumentation has greatly evolved from its infancy, when it was used in regional

  17. Neural stem cell-based gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung U

    2011-03-01

    Advances in gene-based medicine since 1990s have ushered in new therapeutic strategy of gene therapy for inborn error genetic diseases and cancer. Malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme and medulloblastoma remain virtually untreatable and lethal. Currently available treatment for brain tumors including radical surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy, have substantially improved the survival rate in patients suffering from these brain tumors; however, it remains incurable in large proportion of patients. Therefore, there is substantial need for effective, low-toxicity therapies for patients with malignant brain tumors, and gene therapy targeting brain tumors should fulfill this requirement. Gene therapy for brain tumors includes many therapeutic strategies and these strategies can be grouped in two major categories: molecular and immunologic. The widely used molecular gene therapy approach is suicide gene therapy based on the conversion of non-toxic prodrugs into active anticancer agents via introduction of enzymes and genetic immunotherapy involves the gene transfer of immune-stimulating cytokines including IL-4, IL-12 and TRAIL. For both molecular and immune gene therapy, neural stem cells (NSCs) can be used as delivery vehicle of therapeutic genes. NSCs possess an inherent tumor tropism that supports their use as a reliable delivery vehicle to target therapeutic gene products to primary brain tumors and metastatic cancers throughout the brain. Significance of the NSC-based gene therapy for brain tumor is that it is possible to exploit the tumor-tropic property of NSCs to mediate effective, tumor-selective therapy for primary and metastatic cancers in the brain and outside, for which no tolerated curative treatments are currently available.

  18. Brain imaging in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith A; Fox, Nick C; Sperling, Reisa A; Klunk, William E

    2012-04-01

    Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies.

  19. Neovascularization and tumor growth in the rabbit brain. A model for experimental studies of angiogenesis and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed Central

    Zagzag, D.; Brem, S.; Robert, F.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the study of tumor angiogenesis within the rabbit brain is presented. Implantation of the VX2 carcinoma provides a reproducible tumor accompanied by angiogenesis. The authors report the sequential growth, histology, tumor neovascularization, and vascular permeability of this tumor following its intracerebral implantation. Tumor angiogenesis correlates with the rapid and logarithmic intracerebral tumor growth. The proliferation of blood vessels in the tumor and the organization of tumor cells around tumor vessels are described. Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (detected by Evans blue leakage) starts in the early stages of tumor development and becomes prominent as the tumor vasculature and size increase. This model is useful for experimental studies of angiogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 15 PMID:2451889

  20. Towards hyperpolarized 13C-succinate imaging of brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pratip; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Perman, William H.; Harris, Kent C.; Lin, Alexander P.; Norton, Valerie A.; Tan, Chou T.; Ross, Brian D.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2007-05-01

    We describe a novel 13C enriched precursor molecule, sodium 1- 13C acetylenedicarboxylate, which after hydrogenation by PASADENA (Parahydrogen and Synthesis Allows Dramatically Enhanced Nuclear Alignment) under controlled experimental conditions, becomes hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate. Fast in vivo 3D FIESTA MR imaging demonstrated that, following carotid arterial injection, the hyperpolarized 13C-succinate appeared in the head and cerebral circulation of normal and tumor-bearing rats. At this time, no in vivo hyperpolarized signal has been localized to normal brain or brain tumor. On the other hand, ex vivo samples of brain harvested from rats bearing a 9L brain tumor, 1 h or more following in vivo carotid injection of hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate, contained significant concentrations of the injected substrate, 13C sodium succinate, together with 13C maleate and succinate metabolites 1- 13C-glutamate, 5- 13C-glutamate, 1- 13C-glutamine and 5- 13C-glutamine. The 13C substrates and products were below the limits of NMR detection in ex vivo samples of normal brain consistent with an intact blood-brain barrier. These ex vivo results indicate that hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate may become a useful tool for rapid in vivo identification of brain tumors, providing novel biomarkers in 13C MR spectral-spatial images.

  1. Brain necrosis after radiotherapy for primary intracerebral tumor.

    PubMed

    Hohwieler, M L; Lo, T C; Silverman, M L; Freidberg, S R

    1986-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a standard postoperative treatment for cerebral glioma. We have observed the onset of symptoms related to brain necrosis, as opposed to recurrent tumor, in surviving patients. This has been manifest as dementia with a computed tomographic pattern of low density in the frontal lobe uninvolved with tumor, but within the field of radiotherapy. Two patients presented with mass lesions also unrelated to recurrent tumor. We question the necessity of full brain irradiation and suggest that radiotherapy techniques be altered to target the tumor and not encompass the entire brain.

  2. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies.

  3. Tumor detection in vivo NIRF images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celenk, Mehmet; Yang, Lin; Kamalakar, Ganti; Bleyle, Derek J.; Sunkara, Sudhir K.; Wang, Yufei; Prudich, Philip; Huang, Yuangcui; Zhou, Qiang

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of biotechnology and imaging systems have enabled real-time in vivo imaging at both the cellular and molecular level. This paper focuses on a technique that has been designed to detect tumor cells in vivo when using NIRF (near-infrared 705-715 nm range fluorescence) images. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm offers reasonably accurate estimates of the tumor parameters in the presence of white noise and varying background.

  4. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Orazio; Filippi, Luca; Manni, Carlo; Santoni, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic imaging procedures (computed tomography [CT] and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) have become essential tools for brain tumor assessment. Functional images (positron emission tomography [PET] and single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) can provide additional information useful during the diagnostic workup to determine the degree of malignancy and as a substitute or guide for biopsy. After surgery and/or radiotherapy, nuclear medicine examinations are essential to assess persistence of tumor, to differentiate recurrence from radiation necrosis and gliosis, and to monitor the disease. The combination of functional images with anatomic ones is of the utmost importance for a full evaluation of these patients, which can be obtained by means of imaging fusion. Despite the fast-growing diffusion of PET, in most cases of brain tumors, SPECT studies are adequate and provide results that parallel those obtained with PET. The main limitation of SPECT imaging with brain tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is the lack of precise anatomic details; this drawback is overcome by the fusion with morphological studies that provide an anatomic map to scintigraphic data. In the past, software-based fusion of independently performed SPECT and CT or MRI demonstrated usefulness for brain tumor assessment, but this process is often time consuming and not practical for everyday nuclear medicine studies. The recent development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems, which allow the acquisition of SPECT and CT images in the same scanning session, and their co-registration by means of the hardware, has facilitated this process. In SPECT studies of brain tumors with various radiopharmaceuticals, fused images are helpful in providing the precise localization of neoplastic lesions, and in excluding the disease in sites of physiologic tracer uptake. This information is useful for optimizing diagnosis, therapy monitoring, and radiotherapy treatment planning, with a

  5. Retrieval of Brain Tumors by Adaptive Spatial Pooling and Fisher Vector Representation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Yujia; Yang, Ru; Zhao, Jie; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques have currently gained increasing popularity in the medical field because they can use numerous and valuable archived images to support clinical decisions. In this paper, we concentrate on developing a CBIR system for retrieving brain tumors in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI images. Specifically, when the user roughly outlines the tumor region of a query image, brain tumor images in the database of the same pathological type are expected to be returned. We propose a novel feature extraction framework to improve the retrieval performance. The proposed framework consists of three steps. First, we augment the tumor region and use the augmented tumor region as the region of interest to incorporate informative contextual information. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into subregions by an adaptive spatial division method based on intensity orders; within each subregion, we extract raw image patches as local features. Third, we apply the Fisher kernel framework to aggregate the local features of each subregion into a respective single vector representation and concatenate these per-subregion vector representations to obtain an image-level signature. After feature extraction, a closed-form metric learning algorithm is applied to measure the similarity between the query image and database images. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 3604 images with three types of brain tumors, namely, meningiomas, gliomas, and pituitary tumors. The mean average precision can reach 94.68%. Experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithm against some related state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. PMID:27273091

  6. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  7. Patients With Brain Tumors: Who Receives Postacute Occupational Therapy Services?

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Xiong, Chen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Data on the utilization of occupational therapy among patients with brain tumors have been limited to those with malignant tumors and small samples of patients outside North America in specialized palliative care settings. We built on this research by examining the characteristics of patients with brain tumors who received postacute occupational therapy services in Ontario, Canada, using health care administrative data. Between fiscal years 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, 3,199 patients with brain tumors received occupational therapy services in the home care setting after hospital discharge; 12.4% had benign brain tumors, 78.2% had malignant brain tumors, and 9.4% had unspecified brain tumors. However, patients with benign brain tumors were older (mean age=63.3 yr), and a higher percentage were female (65.2%). More than 90% of patients received in-home occupational therapy services. Additional research is needed to examine the significance of these differences and to identify factors that influence access to occupational therapy services in the home care setting.

  8. Brain tumors in children with neurofibromatosis: additional neuropsychological morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    De Winter, A. E.; Moore, B. D.; Slopis, J. M.; Ater, J. L.; Copeland, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with numerous physical anomalies and an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairment. Tumors of the CNS occur in approximately 15% of children with neurofibromatosis, presenting additional risk for cognitive impairment. This study examines the impact of an additional diagnosis of brain tumor on the cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 149 children with neurofibromatosis. Thirty-six of these children had a codiagnosis of brain tumor. A subset of 36 children with neurofibromatosis alone was matched with the group of children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis and brain tumor. Although mean scores of the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group were, in general, lower than those of the neurofibromatosis alone group, these differences were not statistically significant. Children in the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group who received cranial irradiation (n = 9) demonstrated weaker academic abilities than did children with brain tumor who had not received that treatment. These results suggest that neurofibromatosis is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning, but the severity of the problems is not significantly exacerbated by the codiagnosis of a brain tumor unless treatment includes cranial irradiation. PMID:11550319

  9. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamic changes in orthotropic brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Dheerendra; Sharma, Vikrant; Liu, Hanli

    2007-02-01

    Radio surgical interventions such as Gamma Knife and Cyberknife have become attractive as therapeutic interventions. However, one of the drawbacks of cyberknife is radionecrosis, which is caused by excessive radiation to surrounding normal tissues. Radionecrosis occurs in about 10-15% of cases and could have adverse effects leading to death. Currently available imaging techniques have failed to reliably distinguish radionecrosis from tumor growth. Development of imaging techniques that could provide distinction between tumor growth and radionecrosis would give us ability to monitor effects of radiation therapy non-invasively. This paper investigates the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new technique to monitor the growth of brain tumors. Brain tumors (9L glioma cell line) were implanted in right caudate nucleus of rats (250-300 gms, Male Fisher C) through a guide screw. A new algorithm was developed, which used broadband steady-state reflectance measurements made using a single source-detector pair, to quantify absolute concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives and reduced scattering coefficients. Preliminary results from the brain tumors indicated decreases in oxygen saturation, oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations and increases in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations with tumor growth. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology could provide an efficient, noninvasive means of monitoring vascular oxygenation dynamics of brain tumors and further facilitate investigations of efficacy of tumor treatments.

  11. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  12. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  13. Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Welp, Hubert; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    A big challenge during neurosurgeries is to distinguish between healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, but currently a suitable non-invasive real time imaging modality is not available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a potential technique for such a modality. OCT has a penetration depth of 1-2 mm and a resolution of 1-15 μm which is sufficient to illustrate structural differences between healthy tissue and brain tumor. Therefore, we investigated gray and white matter of healthy central nervous system and meningioma samples with a Spectral Domain OCT System (Thorlabs Callisto). Additional OCT images were generated after paraffin embedding and after the samples were cut into 10 μm thin slices for histological investigation with a bright field microscope. All samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. In all cases B-scans and 3D images were made. Furthermore, a camera image of the investigated area was made by the built-in video camera of our OCT system. For orientation, the backsides of all samples were marked with blue ink. The structural differences between healthy tissue and meningioma samples were most pronounced directly after removal. After paraffin embedding these differences diminished. A correlation between OCT en face images and microscopy images can be seen. In order to increase contrast, post processing algorithms were applied. Hence we employed Spectroscopic OCT, pattern recognition algorithms and machine learning algorithms such as k-means Clustering and Principal Component Analysis.

  14. Spatial organization and correlations of cell nuclei in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Berman, Hal; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Accepting the hypothesis that cancers are self-organizing, opportunistic systems, it is crucial to understand the collective behavior of cancer cells in their tumorous heterogeneous environment. In the present paper, we ask the following basic question: Is this self-organization of tumor evolution reflected in the manner in which malignant cells are spatially distributed in their heterogeneous environment? We employ a variety of nontrivial statistical microstructural descriptors that arise in the theory of heterogeneous media to characterize the spatial distributions of the nuclei of both benign brain white matter cells and brain glioma cells as obtained from histological images. These descriptors, which include the pair correlation function, structure factor and various nearest neighbor functions, quantify how pairs of cell nuclei are correlated in space in various ways. We map the centroids of the cell nuclei into point distributions to show that while commonly used local spatial statistics (e.g., cell areas and number of neighboring cells) cannot clearly distinguish spatial correlations in distributions of normal and abnormal cell nuclei, their salient structural features are captured very well by the aforementioned microstructural descriptors. We show that the tumorous cells pack more densely than normal cells and exhibit stronger effective repulsions between any pair of cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that brain gliomas are organized in a collective way rather than randomly on intermediate and large length scales. The existence of nontrivial spatial correlations between the abnormal cells strongly supports the view that cancer is not an unorganized collection of malignant cells but rather a complex emergent integrated system.

  15. Nonlinear microscopy and infrared and Raman microspectroscopy for brain tumor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Meyer, Tobias; Bergner, Norbert; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Scope of the neurosurgical management of brain tumors is to remove pathological tissue, preserve normal tissue and brain functions, and collect material for neuropathological diagnosis. A prerequisite is to recognize the tumor margins as precise as possible. Scope of neuropathology is to determine the type and grade of the tumor that is an important indicator for the treatment and prognosis of the patient. In this contribution we present vibrational spectroscopic approaches to complement existing neurosurgical and neuropathological tools. First, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging is applied to obtain molecular contrast from dried, thin tissue sections. Second, Raman spectroscopic images were collected from the same specimens. Finally, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopic images were obtained. To demonstrate the complementary nature of the techniques results from a brain metastasis of a lung cancer are discussed. Whereas CARS images could be collected within seconds, exposure times were minutes for FTIR images and hours for Raman images. However, the CARS microscope just probed a single band near 2850 cm-1. FTIR and Raman system probed the full spectral range involving the fingerprint region below 1800 cm-1 and the stretch vibrations between 2800 and 3600 cm-1. Morphological features were resolved in the images such as solid tumor, tumor islets, necrosis and cell nuclei.

  16. Finite element modeling of haptic thermography: A novel approach for brain tumor detection during minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Mojra, Afsaneh

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a novel neuroimaging method that can potentially locate tissue abnormalities and hence improves surgeon's diagnostic ability. In the present study, thermography technique coupled with artificial tactile sensing method called "haptic thermography" is utilized to investigate the presence of an abnormal object as a tumor with an elevated temperature relative to the normal tissue in the brain. The brain tissue is characterized as a hyper-viscoelastic material to be descriptive of mechanical behavior of the brain tissue during tactile palpation. Based on a finite element approach, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a patient diagnosed to have a brain tumor is utilized to simulate and analyze the capability of haptic thermography in detection and localization of brain tumor. Steady-state thermal results prove that temperature distribution is an appropriate outcome of haptic thermography for the superficial tumors while heat flux distribution can be used as an extra thermal result for deeply located tumors.

  17. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    TBI, November 18, 2011, Detroit, Prof. Haacke Wayne State University, TBI Workshop, Mild TBI, November 18, 2011, Detroit, Prof. Kou. Henry Ford...Del Campo -Perez V, Alvarez-Garcıa E, Vara-Perez C, Andrade-Olivie MA. 2011. Model predicting survival/exitus after traumatic brain injury: biomarker...visualize blood products and improve tumor contrast in the study of brain masses. J Magn Reson Imaging 2006;24: 41–51. 4. Kohler R, Vargas MI, Masterson K

  18. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain.

  19. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Genomics and Epigenomics Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Fontebasso, Adam M; Jabado, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors remain a disproportionate cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. A number of studies exploring the cancer genome of brain tumors across ages using integrated genetics and epigenetics and next-generation sequencing technologies have recently emerged. This has led to considerable advances in the understanding of the basic biology and pathogenesis of brain tumors, including the most malignant and common variants in children: gliomas and medulloblastoma. Notably, studies of pediatric brain tumors have identified unexpected oncogenic pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. These range from a single pathway/molecule defect such as abnormalities of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, considered to be a hallmark of pilocytic astrocytomas, to alterations in the epigenome as a critical component altered in many subgroups of high-grade brain tumors. Importantly, the type, timing, and spatial clustering of these molecular alterations provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the respective brain tumor they target and critical markers for therapy that will help refine pathological grading. We summarize these novel findings in pediatric brain tumors, which also are put in the context of the evolving notion of molecular pathology, now a mandated tool for proper classification and therapy assignment in the clinical setting.

  20. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  1. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    El-Habashy, Salma E.; Nazief, Alaa M.; Adkins, Chris E.; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H.; Hamdan, Ahmed M.; Hanafy, Amira S.; Terrell, Tori O.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Lockman, Paul R.; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood–brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  2. Multilevel segmentation and integrated bayesian model classification with an application to brain tumor segmentation.

    PubMed

    Corso, Jason J; Sharon, Eitan; Yuille, Alan

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data, which is very common in medical image analysis. The main contribution of the paper is a mathematical formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are traditionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm. We apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multimodal MR volumes. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of brain tumor.

  3. Automatic metastatic brain tumor segmentation for stereotactic radiosurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Hrycushko, Brian; Wardak, Zabi; Lu, Weiguo; Yan, Yulong; Jiang, Steve B.; Timmerman, Robert; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Nedzi, Lucien; Gu, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an automatic segmentation strategy for efficient and accurate metastatic brain tumor delineation on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1c) magnetic resonance images (MRI) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) applications. The proposed four-step automatic brain metastases segmentation strategy is comprised of pre-processing, initial contouring, contour evolution, and contour triage. First, T1c brain images are preprocessed to remove the skull. Second, an initial tumor contour is created using a multi-scaled adaptive threshold-based bounding box and a super-voxel clustering technique. Third, the initial contours are evolved to the tumor boundary using a regional active contour technique. Fourth, all detected false-positive contours are removed with geometric characterization. The segmentation process was validated on a realistic virtual phantom containing Gaussian or Rician noise. For each type of noise distribution, five different noise levels were tested. Twenty-one cases from the multimodal brain tumor image segmentation (BRATS) challenge dataset and fifteen clinical metastases cases were also included in validation. Segmentation performance was quantified by the Dice coefficient (DC), normalized mutual information (NMI), structural similarity (SSIM), Hausdorff distance (HD), mean value of surface-to-surface distance (MSSD) and standard deviation of surface-to-surface distance (SDSSD). In the numerical phantom study, the evaluation yielded a DC of 0.98  ±  0.01, an NMI of 0.97  ±  0.01, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 2.2  ±  0.8 mm, an MSSD of 0.1  ±  0.1 mm, and an SDSSD of 0.3  ±  0.1 mm. The validation on the BRATS data resulted in a DC of 0.89  ±  0.08, which outperform the BRATS challenge algorithms. Evaluation on clinical datasets gave a DC of 0.86  ±  0.09, an NMI of 0.80  ±  0.11, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 8

  4. Automatic metastatic brain tumor segmentation for stereotactic radiosurgery applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Hrycushko, Brian; Wardak, Zabi; Lu, Weiguo; Yan, Yulong; Jiang, Steve B; Timmerman, Robert; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Nedzi, Lucien; Gu, Xuejun

    2016-12-21

    The objective of this study is to develop an automatic segmentation strategy for efficient and accurate metastatic brain tumor delineation on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1c) magnetic resonance images (MRI) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) applications. The proposed four-step automatic brain metastases segmentation strategy is comprised of pre-processing, initial contouring, contour evolution, and contour triage. First, T1c brain images are preprocessed to remove the skull. Second, an initial tumor contour is created using a multi-scaled adaptive threshold-based bounding box and a super-voxel clustering technique. Third, the initial contours are evolved to the tumor boundary using a regional active contour technique. Fourth, all detected false-positive contours are removed with geometric characterization. The segmentation process was validated on a realistic virtual phantom containing Gaussian or Rician noise. For each type of noise distribution, five different noise levels were tested. Twenty-one cases from the multimodal brain tumor image segmentation (BRATS) challenge dataset and fifteen clinical metastases cases were also included in validation. Segmentation performance was quantified by the Dice coefficient (DC), normalized mutual information (NMI), structural similarity (SSIM), Hausdorff distance (HD), mean value of surface-to-surface distance (MSSD) and standard deviation of surface-to-surface distance (SDSSD). In the numerical phantom study, the evaluation yielded a DC of 0.98  ±  0.01, an NMI of 0.97  ±  0.01, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 2.2  ±  0.8 mm, an MSSD of 0.1  ±  0.1 mm, and an SDSSD of 0.3  ±  0.1 mm. The validation on the BRATS data resulted in a DC of 0.89  ±  0.08, which outperform the BRATS challenge algorithms. Evaluation on clinical datasets gave a DC of 0.86  ±  0.09, an NMI of 0.80  ±  0.11, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 8

  5. Efficacy of cabazitaxel in mouse models of pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Emily; Ditzler, Sally; Lee, Donghoon; Richards, Andrew; Yagle, Kevin; Park, Joshua; Eslamy, Hedieh; Bobilev, Dmitri; Vrignaud, Patricia; Olson, James

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an unmet need in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors for chemotherapy that is efficacious, avoids damage to the developing brain, and crosses the blood-brain barrier. These experiments evaluated the efficacy of cabazitaxel in mouse models of pediatric brain tumors. Methods The antitumor activity of cabazitaxel and docetaxel were compared in flank and orthotopic xenograft models of patient-derived atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), medulloblastoma, and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET). Efficacy of cabazitaxel and docetaxel were also assessed in the Smo/Smo spontaneous mouse medulloblastoma tumor model. Results This study observed significant tumor growth inhibition in pediatric patient-derived flank xenograft tumor models of ATRT, medulloblastoma, and CNS-PNET after treatment with either cabazitaxel or docetaxel. Cabazitaxel, but not docetaxel, treatment resulted in sustained tumor growth inhibition in the ATRT and medulloblastoma flank xenograft models. Patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models of ATRT, medulloblastoma, and CNS-PNET showed significantly improved survival with treatment of cabazitaxel. Conclusion These data support further testing of cabazitaxel as a therapy for treating human pediatric brain tumors. PMID:25140037

  6. Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Biegel, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made toward improving survival for children with brain tumors, and yet there is still relatively little known regarding the molecular genetic events that contribute to tumor initiation or progression. Nonrandom patterns of chromosomal deletions in several types of childhood brain tumors suggest that the loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are critical events in tumorigenesis. Deletions of chromosomal regions 10q, 11 and 17p, and example, are frequent events in medulloblastoma, whereas loss of a region within 22q11.2, which contains the INI1 gene, is involved in the development of atypical teratoid and rhabdoid tumors. A review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes identified to date in childhood brain tumors will be presented. PMID:11550309

  7. Computational modeling of brain tumors: discrete, continuum or hybrid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    In spite of all efforts, patients diagnosed with highly malignant brain tumors (gliomas), continue to face a grim prognosis. Achieving significant therapeutic advances will also require a more detailed quantitative understanding of the dynamic interactions among tumor cells, and between these cells and their biological microenvironment. Data-driven computational brain tumor models have the potential to provide experimental tumor biologists with such quantitative and cost-efficient tools to generate and test hypotheses on tumor progression, and to infer fundamental operating principles governing bidirectional signal propagation in multicellular cancer systems. This review highlights the modeling objectives of and challenges with developing such in silico brain tumor models by outlining two distinct computational approaches: discrete and continuum, each with representative examples. Future directions of this integrative computational neuro-oncology field, such as hybrid multiscale multiresolution modeling are discussed.

  8. Validation of IR-spectroscopic brain tumor classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beleites, C.; Steiner, G.; Sobottka, S.; Schackert, G.; Salzer, R.

    2006-02-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, infrared spectroscopic imaging serves as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. In the past it was demonstrated that the IR spectra of brain tumors can be discriminated from one another according to their grade of malignancy. Although classification success rates up to 93% were observed one problem consists in the variation of the models depending on the number of samples used for the development of the classification model. In order to open the path for clinical trials the classification has to be validated. A series of classification models were built using a k-fold cross validation scheme and the classification predictions from the various models were combined to provide an aggregated prediction. The validation highlights instabilities in the models, error rates, sensitivity as well as specificity of the classification and allows the determination of confidence intervals. Better classification models could be achieved by an aggregated prediction. The validation shows that brain tumors can be classified by infrared spectroscopy and the grade of malignancy corresponds reasonably to the histopathological assignment.

  9. "Armed" oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be "armed" to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 has drastically advanced, due to development of recombinant HSV-1 generation systems that utilize bacterial artificial chromosome and multiple DNA recombinases. Because antitumor immunity is induced in the course of oncolytic activities of HSV-1, transgenes encoding immunomodulatory molecules have been most frequently used for arming. Other armed oncolytic HSV-1 include those that express antiangiogenic factors, fusogenic membrane glycoproteins, suicide gene products, and proapoptotic proteins. Provided that the transgene product does not interfere with viral replication, such arming of oncolytic HSV-1 results in augmentation of antitumor efficacy. Immediate-early viral promoters are often used to control the arming transgenes, but strict-late viral promoters have been shown useful to restrict the expression in the late stage of viral replication when desirable. Some armed oncolytic HSV-1 have been created for the purpose of noninvasive in vivo imaging of viral infection and replication. Development of a wide variety of armed oncolytic HSV-1 will lead to an establishment of a new genre of therapy for brain tumors as well as other cancers.

  10. Differentiating histologic malignancy of primary brain tumors: Pentavalent Technetium-99m-DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Tsuneo; Otake, Hidenori; Shibasaki, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed pentavalent {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake in primary brain tumors and evaluated the relationship between retention and histologic malignancy. SPECT images of the brain were obtained at 30 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of approximately 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA in patients with brain tumors. Sixty studies were performed in 57 patients and 63 lesions were demonstrated: 11 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade 3), 11 astrocytomas (Grade 2), 18 meningiomas and 10 schwannomas. Uptake ratios, retention ratio and retention index were calculated and compared with tumor histology and malignancy grade. Approximately 95% of both benign and malignant primary brain tumors were demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA SPECT images. False negative was noted in three cases. The early uptake ratios were closely related to the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor histology or histologic malignancy. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  12. Improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery via Raman-based technology.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Todd; Lewis, Spencer; Freudiger, Christian W; Sunney Xie, X; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in the surgical management of brain tumors, achieving optimal surgical results and identification of tumor remains a challenge. Raman spectroscopy, a laser-based technique that can be used to nondestructively differentiate molecules based on the inelastic scattering of light, is being applied toward improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. Here, the authors systematically review the application of Raman spectroscopy for guidance during brain tumor surgery. Raman spectroscopy can differentiate normal brain from necrotic and vital glioma tissue in human specimens based on chemical differences, and has recently been shown to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues during surgery. Raman spectroscopy also forms the basis for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, a technique that amplifies spontaneous Raman signals by 10,000-fold, enabling real-time histological imaging without the need for tissue processing, sectioning, or staining. The authors review the relevant basic and translational studies on CRS microscopy as a means of providing real-time intraoperative guidance. Recent studies have demonstrated how CRS can be used to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues and that it has excellent agreement with traditional histology. Under simulated operative conditions, CRS has been shown to identify tumor margins that would be undetectable using standard bright-field microscopy. In addition, CRS microscopy has been shown to detect tumor in human surgical specimens with near-perfect agreement to standard H & E microscopy. The authors suggest that as the intraoperative application and instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy and imaging matures, it will become an essential component in the neurosurgical armamentarium for identifying residual tumor and improving the surgical management of brain tumors.

  13. Determination of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity through the analysis of T2 Relaxation time of brain tumors before surgery using MATLAB software

    PubMed Central

    Abdolmohammadi, Jamil; Shafiee, Mohsen; Faeghi, Fariborz; Arefan, Douman; Zali, Alireza; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Farshidfar, Zahra; Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Tavakkoli, Ali; Yarham, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 32 patients (18 males and 14 females from 18–77 y/o) were admitted to the neurosurgery department of Shohada-E Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2014. In addition to routine pulse sequences, T2W Multi echo pulse sequences were taken and the images were analyzed using the MATLAB software to determine the brain tumor cellularity, compared with the biopsy Results These findings illustrate the need for more T2 relaxation time decreases, the higher classes of tumors will stand out in the designed table. In this study, the results show T2 relaxation time with a 85% diagnostic weight, compared with the biopsy, to determine the brain tumor cellularity (p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicate that the T2 relaxation time feature is the best method to distinguish and present the degree of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity (85% accuracy compared to biopsy). The use of more data is recommended in order to increase the percent accuracy of this techniques. PMID:27757181

  14. Dietary Selenium Supplementation Modulates Growth of Brain Metastatic Tumors and Changes the Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Brain Microvessels.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Jagoda K; Wolff, Gretchen; Xiao, Rijin; Power, Ronan F; Toborek, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Various dietary agents can modulate tumor invasiveness. The current study explored whether selenoglycoproteins (SeGPs) extracted from selenium-enriched yeast affect tumor cell homing and growth in the brain. Mice were fed diets enriched with specific SeGPs (SeGP40 or SeGP65, 1 mg/kg Se each), glycoproteins (GP40 or GP65, 0.2-0.3 mg/kg Se each) or a control diet (0.2-0.3 mg/kg Se) for 12 weeks. Then, murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells were infused into the brain circulation. Analyses were performed at early (48 h) and late stages (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Imaging of tumor progression in the brain revealed that mice fed SeGP65-enriched diet displayed diminished metastatic tumor growth, fewer extravasating tumor cells and smaller metastatic lesions. While administration of tumor cells resulted in a significant upregulation of adhesion molecules in the early stage of tumor progression, overexpression of VCAM-1 (vascular call adhesion molecule-1) and ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule) messenger RNA (mRNA) was diminished in SeGP65 supplemented mice. Additionally, mice fed SeGP65 showed decreased expression of acetylated NF-κB p65, 48 h post tumor cell infusion. The results indicate that tumor progression in the brain can be modulated by specific SeGPs. Selenium-containing compounds were more effective than their glycoprotein controls, implicating selenium as a potential negative regulator of metastatic process.

  15. Sex steroids in human brain tumors and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    von Schoultz, E; Bixo, M; Bäckström, T; Silfvenius, H; Wilking, N; Henriksson, R

    1990-02-15

    The concentrations of three sex steroids, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, were analyzed by radioimmunoassay after celite chromatography in brain tumor and breast cancer tissues. The concentrations in malignant gliomas and breast cancers showed interindividual variations, especially evident with regard to estradiol. High estradiol concentrations were recorded in two patients with malignant astrocytoma. The concentrations of 1.00 pg/mg and 3.32 pg/mg were 10 to 30 times as high as in normal female brain. In five of ten astrocytomas the estradiol concentration was higher than the lowest breast cancer value. The distribution of progesterone seemed more even, and the level was significantly lower in brain tumors and breast cancers as compared with female brain, perhaps indicating an increased metabolism. Testosterone levels were somewhat higher in brain tumors, as compared with breast cancers, but not different from values in brain tissue. There were no significant age or sex correlation or differences in the concentrations of steroids in the brain tumors. The results suggest that manipulation of sex steroid metabolism in malignant brain tumors can be of beneficial therapeutic value as has been shown for breast cancer and prostatic carcinoma.

  16. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  17. Molecular Imaging System for Monitoring Tumor Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Esra; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In cancer, non-invasive imaging techniques that monitor molecular processes associated with the tumor angiogenesis could have a central role in the evaluation of novel antiangiogenic and proangiogenic therapies as well as early detection of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can serve as specific biological targets for imaging of angiogenesis since expression of MMPs is required for angiogenesis and has been found to be upregulated in every type of human cancer and correlates with stage, invasive, metastatic properties and poor prognosis. However, for most cancers it is still unknown when, where and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis [1]. Development of high-resolution, high sensitivity imaging techniques in parallel with the tumor models could prove invaluable for assessing the physical location and the time frame of MMP enzymatic acitivity. The goal of this study is to understand where, when and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis. We will accomplish this goal by following two objectives: to develop a high sensitivity, high resolution molecular imaging system, to develop a virtual tumor simulator that can predict the physical location and the time frame of the MMP activity. In order to achieve our objectives, we will first develop a PAM system and develop a mathematical tumor model in which the quantitative data obtained from the PAM can be integrated. So, this work will develop a virtual tumor simulator and a molecular imaging system for monitoring tumor angiogenesis. 1.Kessenbrock, K., V. Plaks, and Z. Werb, MMP:regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell, 2010. 141(1)

  18. Current state of our knowledge on brain tumor epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Quinn T; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    The overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 person-years; 11.52 per 100,000 person-years for benign tumors and 7.19 per 100,000 person-years for malignant tumors. Incidence, response to treatment, and survival after diagnosis vary greatly by age at diagnosis, histologic type of tumor, and degree of neurologic compromise. The only established environmental risk factor for brain tumors is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor for brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive due to systematic differences in study designs and difficulty of accurately measuring cell phone use. Recently studies of genetic risk factors for brain tumors have expanded to genome-wide association studies. In addition, genome-wide studies of somatic genetic changes in tumors show correlation with clinical outcomes.

  19. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed.

  20. Chemo Drug May Combat Serious Brain Tumor After All

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemo Drug May Combat Serious Brain Tumor After All Certain glioblastomas respond to anti-angiogenic compounds, study ... Dec. 22, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are written and provided ...

  1. Uranyl phthalocyanines show promise in the treatment of brain tumors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Processes synthesize sulfonated and nonsulfonated uranyl phthalocyanines for application in neutron therapy of brain tumors. Tests indicate that the compounds are advantageous over the previously used boron and lithium compounds.

  2. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  3. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  4. Isolated angiitis in the hypothalamus mimicking brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Ito, Masanori; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Kaneda, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old female presented with exaggerating somnolence without contributory medical and lifestyle histories. She was not aware of any preceding infection or headache. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isolated enhanced mass in the hypothalamus without meningeal enhancement. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid examinations showed no significant findings except for hypernatremia and hyperprolactinemia. She underwent an open biopsy via the interhemispheric route. Histological examination revealed marked perivascular lymphocytic aggregation with polyclonal immunostaining both for B and T lymphocytes. No findings suggestive of underlying malignancy were recognized. Extensive work-up aiming at systemic vasculitis and lymphoma revealed no signs of extracranial lesion, so the most probable diagnosis was isolated angiitis in the hypothalamus. Angiitis may originate from the hypothalamus and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic lesion mimicking brain tumor on neuroimaging.

  5. Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery to Brain Tumors via Minicells: Proof of Principle Using Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Tumors as a Model

    PubMed Central

    MacDiarmid, Jennifer A.; Langova, Veronika; Bailey, Dale; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; Christensen, Neil; Armstrong, Luke R.; Brahmbhatt, Vatsala N.; Smolarczyk, Katarzyna; Harrison, Matthew T.; Costa, Marylia; Mugridge, Nancy B.; Sedliarou, Ilya; Grimes, Nicholas A.; Kiss, Debra L.; Stillman, Bruce; Hann, Christine L.; Gallia, Gary L.; Graham, Robert M.; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytotoxic chemotherapy can be very effective for the treatment of cancer but toxicity on normal tissues often limits patient tolerance and often causes long-term adverse effects. The objective of this study was to assist in the preclinical development of using modified, non-living bacterially-derived minicells to deliver the potent chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR targeted, doxorubicin loaded minicells (designated EGFRminicellsDox) to deliver doxorubicin to spontaneous brain tumors in 17 companion dogs; a comparative oncology model of human brain cancers. Methodology/Principle Findings EGFRminicellsDox were administered weekly via intravenous injection to 17 dogs with late-stage brain cancers. Biodistribution was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Anti-tumor response was determined using MRI, and blood samples were subject to toxicology (hematology, biochemistry) and inflammatory marker analysis. Targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells rapidly localized to the core of brain tumors. Complete resolution or marked tumor regression (>90% reduction in tumor volume) were observed in 23.53% of the cohort, with lasting anti-tumor responses characterized by remission in three dogs for more than two years. The median overall survival was 264 days (range 49 to 973). No adverse clinical, hematological or biochemical effects were observed with repeated administration of EGFRminicellsDox (30 to 98 doses administered in 10 of the 17 dogs). Conclusions/Significance Targeted minicells loaded with doxorubicin were safely administered to dogs with late stage brain cancer and clinical activity was observed. These findings demonstrate the strong potential for clinical applications of targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for the effective treatment of patients with brain cancer. On

  6. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors. PMID:22891953

  7. Emerging Insights into Barriers to Effective Brain Tumor Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Graeme F.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Nance, Elizabeth A.; Hanes, Justin; Brem, Henry

    2014-01-01

    There is great promise that ongoing advances in the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) combined with rapidly expanding knowledge of brain tumor patho-biology will provide new, more effective therapies. Brain tumors that form from brain cells, as opposed to those that come from other parts of the body, rarely metastasize outside of the CNS. Instead, the tumor cells invade deep into the brain itself, causing disruption in brain circuits, blood vessel and blood flow changes, and tissue swelling. Patients with the most common and deadly form, glioblastoma (GBM) rarely live more than 2 years even with the most aggressive treatments and often with devastating neurological consequences. Current treatments include maximal safe surgical removal or biopsy followed by radiation and chemotherapy to address the residual tumor mass and invading tumor cells. However, delivering effective and sustained treatments to these invading cells without damaging healthy brain tissue is a major challenge and focus of the emerging fields of nanomedicine and viral and cell-based therapies. New treatment strategies, particularly those directed against the invasive component of this devastating CNS disease, are sorely needed. In this review, we (1) discuss the history and evolution of treatments for GBM, (2) define and explore three critical barriers to improving therapeutic delivery to invasive brain tumors, specifically, the neuro-vascular unit as it relates to the blood brain barrier, the extra-cellular space in regard to the brain penetration barrier, and the tumor genetic heterogeneity and instability in association with the treatment efficacy barrier, and (3) identify promising new therapeutic delivery approaches that have the potential to address these barriers and create sustained, meaningful efficacy against GBM. PMID:25101239

  8. Characterization of distinct immunophenotypes across pediatric brain tumor types.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Andrea M; Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Amani, Vladimir; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Waziri, Allen; Wang, Michael; Handler, Michael H; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing evidence that antitumor immune control exists in the pediatric brain, these findings have yet to be exploited successfully in the clinic. A barrier to development of immunotherapeutic strategies in pediatric brain tumors is that the immunophenotype of these tumors' microenvironment has not been defined. To address this, the current study used multicolor FACS of disaggregated tumor to systematically characterize the frequency and phenotype of infiltrating immune cells in the most common pediatric brain tumor types. The initial study cohort consisted of 7 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 19 ependymoma (EPN), 5 glioblastoma (GBM), 6 medulloblastoma (MED), and 5 nontumor brain (NT) control samples obtained from epilepsy surgery. Immune cell types analyzed included both myeloid and T cell lineages and respective markers of activated or suppressed functional phenotypes. Immune parameters that distinguished each of the tumor types were identified. PA and EPN demonstrated significantly higher infiltrating myeloid and lymphoid cells compared with GBM, MED, or NT. Additionally, PA and EPN conveyed a comparatively activated/classically activated myeloid cell-skewed functional phenotype denoted in particular by HLA-DR and CD64 expression. In contrast, GBM and MED contained progressively fewer infiltrating leukocytes and more muted functional phenotypes similar to that of NT. These findings were recapitulated using whole tumor expression of corresponding immune marker genes in a large gene expression microarray cohort of pediatric brain tumors. The results of this cross-tumor comparative analysis demonstrate that different pediatric brain tumor types exhibit distinct immunophenotypes, implying that specific immunotherapeutic approaches may be most effective for each tumor type.

  9. Functional imaging in tumor-associated lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer cell dissemination; however whether lymphatic drainage pathways and function change during tumor progression and metastasis remains to be elucidated. In this report, we employed a non-invasive, dynamic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique for functional lymphatic imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into tumor-free mice and mice bearing C6/LacZ rat glioma tumors in the tail or hindlimb. Our imaging data showed abnormal lymphatic drainage pathways and reduction/loss of lymphatic contractile function in mice with lymph node (LN) metastasis, indicating that cancer metastasis to the draining LNs is accompanied by transient changes of the lymphatic architectural network and its function. Therefore, functional lymphatic imaging may provide a role in the clinical staging of cancer.

  10. Sports and childhood brain tumors: Can I play?

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Sébastien; Lober, Robert M.; Davis, Carissa; Stave, Christopher; Partap, Sonia; Fisher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether children with brain tumors have a higher risk of complications while participating in sports. We sought to estimate the prevalence of such events by conducting a systematic review of the literature, and we surveyed providers involved with pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumor patients. Methods A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted for original articles addressing sport-related complications in the brain-tumor population. An online questionnaire was created to survey providers involved with pediatric CNS tumor patients about their current recommendations and experience regarding sports and brain tumors. Results We retrieved 32 subjects, including 19 pediatric cases from the literature. Most lesions associated with sport complications were arachnoid cysts (n = 21), followed by glioma (n = 5). The sports in which symptom onset most commonly occurred were soccer (n = 7), football (n = 5), and running (n = 5). We surveyed 111 pediatric neuro-oncology providers. Sport restriction varied greatly from none to 14 sports. Time to return to play in sports with contact also varied considerably between providers. Rationales for limiting sports activities were partly related to subspecialty. Responders reported 9 sport-related adverse events in patients with brain tumor. Conclusions Sport-related complications are uncommon in children with brain tumors. Patients might not be at a significantly higher risk and should not need to be excluded from most sports activities. PMID:26034627

  11. Optically enhanced blood-brain-barrier crossing of plasmonic-active nanoparticles in preclinical brain tumor animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M.; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides tremendous biomedical opportunities for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents where their actual target delivery cannot be easily imaged, integrating imaging and therapeutic properties into one platform facilitates the understanding of pharmacokinetic profiles, and enables monitoring of the therapeutic process in each individual. Such a concept dubbed "theranostics" potentiates translational research and improves precision medicine. One particular challenging application of theranostics involves imaging and controlled delivery of nanoplatforms across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into brain tissues. Typically, the BBB hinders paracellular flux of drug molecules into brain parenchyma. BBB disrupting agents (e.g. mannitol, focused ultrasound), however, suffer from poor spatial confinement. It has been a challenge to design a nanoplatform not only acts as a contrast agent but also improves the BBB permeation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of plasmonic gold nanoparticles as both high-resolution optical contrast agent and focalized tumor BBB permeation-inducing agent. We specifically examined the microscopic distribution of nanoparticles in tumor brain animal models. We observed that most nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor periphery or perivascular spaces. Nanoparticles were present in both endothelial cells and interstitial matrices. This study also demonstrated a novel photothermal-induced BBB permeation. Fine-tuning the irradiating energy induced gentle disruption of the vascular integrity, causing short-term extravasation of nanomaterials but without hemorrhage. We conclude that our gold nanoparticles are a powerful biocompatible contrast agent capable of inducing focal BBB permeation, and therefore envision a strong potential of plasmonic gold nanoparticle in future brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  12. A Correlative Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Approach to Locating Nanoparticles in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Kircher, Moritz F.; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25464144

  13. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  15. Tl-201 and Tc-99m-Sestamibi SPECT for brain tumor detection: Comparison using MRI coregistration

    SciTech Connect

    Darcourt, J.; Itti, L.; Chang, L.

    1994-05-01

    Tl-201 (Tl) brain SPECT has been validated for the differential diagnosis of high versus low grade gliomas and recurrence versus radiation necrosis. We compared this technique to Tc-99m-Sestamibi (MIBI) SPECT in 9 patients (pts) with brain tumors using MRI coregistration. Pts were injected with 4 mCi of Tl and brain SPECT was performed using a dedicated brain system. This was immediately following by an injection of 20 mCi of MIBI and a brain SPECT using the same camera and with the pt in the same position. Four pts were studied for the diagnosis of radiation necrosis vs. tumor recurrence (2 had biopsy proven recurrence); 5 pts were studied for primary tumor evaluation: 2 meningiomas, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 low-grade astrocytoma, 1 cysticercosis. Coregistration was performed for every pt by 3D surface fitting of the inner skull MIBI contour to the MRI brain surface extracted automatically. ROIs were drawn on the MRI and applied to the coregistered MIBI and Tl images for tumor to non-tumor ratios T/NT calculations. There was a tight correlation between MIBI and Tl T/NT (r-0.96) and a 1.5 threshold separated radiation necrosis from recurrence and low from high grade primary tumors. Therefore, the data already available on Tl brain tumor imaging can be used with MIBI SPECT with the advantage of a better image quality (2.5 to 4 times more counts).

  16. Current status of gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Andrea M; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2013-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor in adults, with current treatments having limited impact on disease progression. Therefore the development of alternative treatment options is greatly needed. Gene therapy is a treatment strategy that relies on the delivery of genetic material, usually transgenes or viruses, into cells for therapeutic purposes, and has been applied to GBM with increasing promise. We have included selectively replication-competent oncolytic viruses within this strategy, although the virus acts directly as a complex biologic anti-tumor agent rather than as a classic gene delivery vehicle. GBM is a good candidate for gene therapy because tumors remain locally within the brain and only rarely metastasize to other tissues; the majority of cells in the brain are post-mitotic, which allows for specific targeting of dividing tumor cells; and tumors can often be accessed neurosurgically for administration of therapy. Delivery vehicles used for brain tumors include nonreplicating viral vectors, normal adult stem/progenitor cells, and oncolytic viruses. The therapeutic transgenes or viruses are typically cytotoxic or express prodrug activating suicide genes to kill glioma cells, immunostimulatory to induce or amplify anti-tumor immune responses, and/or modify the tumor microenvironment such as blocking angiogenesis. This review describes current preclinical and clinical gene therapy strategies for the treatment of glioma.

  17. Current status of gene therapy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    MURPHY, ANDREA M.; RABKIN, SAMUEL D.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor in adults, with current treatments having limited impact on disease progression. Therefore the development of alternative treatment options is greatly needed. Gene therapy is a treatment strategy that relies on the delivery of genetic material, usually transgenes or viruses, into cells for therapeutic purposes, and has been applied to GBM with increasing promise. We have included selectively replication-competent oncolytic viruses within this strategy, although the virus acts directly as a complex biologic anti-tumor agent rather than as a classic gene delivery vehicle. GBM is a good candidate for gene therapy because tumors remain locally within the brain and only rarely metastasize to other tissues; the majority of cells in the brain are post-mitotic, which allows for specific targeting of dividing tumor cells; and tumors can often be accessed neurosurgically for administration of therapy. Delivery vehicles used for brain tumors include nonreplicating viral vectors, normal adult stem/progenitor cells, and oncolytic viruses. The therapeutic transgenes or viruses are typically cytotoxic or express prodrug activating suicide genes to kill glioma cells, immunostimulatory to induce or amplify anti-tumor immune responses, and/or modify the tumor microenvironment such as blocking angiogenesis. This review describes current preclinical and clinical gene therapy strategies for the treatment of glioma. PMID:23246627

  18. An epigenetic gateway to brain tumor cell identity.

    PubMed

    Mack, Stephen C; Hubert, Christopher G; Miller, Tyler E; Taylor, Michael D; Rich, Jeremy N

    2016-01-01

    Precise targeting of genetic lesions alone has been insufficient to extend brain tumor patient survival. Brain cancer cells are diverse in their genetic, metabolic and microenvironmental compositions, accounting for their phenotypic heterogeneity and disparate responses to therapy. These factors converge at the level of the epigenome, representing a unified node that can be disrupted by pharmacologic inhibition. Aberrant epigenomes define many childhood and adult brain cancers, as demonstrated by widespread changes to DNA methylation patterns, redistribution of histone marks and disruption of chromatin structure. In this Review, we describe the convergence of genetic, metabolic and microenvironmental factors on mechanisms of epigenetic deregulation in brain cancer. We discuss how aberrant epigenetic pathways identified in brain tumors affect cell identity, cell state and neoplastic transformation, as well as addressing the potential to exploit these alterations as new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of brain cancer.

  19. Irinotecan and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-03-15

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Poor Performance Status; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. Mouse brain imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yang; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) provides structural and functional information when used in small animal brain imaging. Acoustic distortion caused by bone structures largely limits the deep brain image quality. In our work, we present ex vivo PACT images of freshly excised mouse brain, intending that can serve as a gold standard for future PACT in vivo studies on small animal brain imaging. Our results show that structures such as the striatum, hippocampus, ventricles, and cerebellum can be clearly di erentiated. An artery feature called the Circle of Willis, located at the bottom of the brain, can also be seen. These results indicate that if acoustic distortion can be accurately accounted for, PACT should be able to image the entire mouse brain with rich structural information.

  1. Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Daou, Marie-Claire; Smith, Thomas W; Litofsky, N Scott; Hsieh, Chung C; Ross, Alonzo H

    2005-11-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is required for neuroblastic migration during the development of the cerebral cortex. DCX is a microtubule-associated protein that plays a role in cellular motility. These facts led us to hypothesize that DCX is increased in invasive brain tumors. DCX expression was assessed in 69 paraffin-embedded brain tumors of neuroepithelial origin. In addition, mouse brain sections of the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus were used as positive controls for immunostaining, and specificity of antibody staining was demonstrated by peptide neutralization. DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5). However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9). By the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical test, the circumscribed group was significantly different from both the high-grade invasive group (P<0.0001) and the low-grade invasive group (P<0.0001). We conclude that DCX is preferentially expressed in invasive brain tumors. In addition, DCX immunostaining was stronger at the margin of the tumor than at the center. For a subset of these tumors, we also detected DCX mRNA and protein by Northern and Western blotting. DCX mRNA and protein was detected in glioma cell lines by Northern blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Collectively, the immunohistochemistry, Western blots and Northern blots conclusively demonstrate expression of DCX by human brain tumors.

  2. Modeling Tumor-Associated Edema in Gliomas during Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Its Impact on Imageable Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Rockne, Russell C.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Swanson, Kristin R.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor, is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR. Additionally, by evaluating virtual tumors with varying growth kinetics, we see tumors

  3. Modeling Tumor-Associated Edema in Gliomas during Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Its Impact on Imageable Tumor.

    PubMed

    Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Rockne, Russell C; Anderson, Alexander R A; Swanson, Kristin R

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor, is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR. Additionally, by evaluating virtual tumors with varying growth kinetics, we see tumors

  4. Gene therapeutics: the future of brain tumor therapy?

    PubMed

    Cutter, Jennifer L; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Chiocca, E Antonio; Kaur, Balveen

    2006-07-01

    Primary glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive brain tumor that has no cure. Current treatments include gross resection of the tumor, radiation and chemotherapy. Despite valiant efforts, prognosis remains dismal. A promising new technique involves the use of oncolytic viruses that can specifically replicate and lyse in cancers, without spreading to normal tissues. Currently, these are being tested in relevant preclinical models and clinical trials as a therapeutic modality for many types of cancer. Results from recent clinical trials with oncolytic viruses have revealed the safety of this approach, although evidence for efficacy remains elusive. Oncolytic viral strategies are summarized in this review, with a focus on therapies used in brain tumors.

  5. Medical management of brain tumors and the sequelae of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, David; Lee, Eudocia Q.; Nayak, Lakshmi; Norden, Andrew D.; Reardon, David A.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with malignant brain tumors are prone to complications that negatively impact their quality of life and sometimes their overall survival as well. Tumors may directly provoke seizures, hypercoagulable states with resultant venous thromboembolism, and mood and cognitive disorders. Antitumor treatments and supportive therapies also produce side effects. In this review, we discuss major aspects of supportive care for patients with malignant brain tumors, with particular attention to management of seizures, venous thromboembolism, corticosteroids and their complications, chemotherapy including bevacizumab, and fatigue, mood, and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25358508

  6. The roles of viruses in brain tumor initiation and oncomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Alexander; Marcinkiewicz, Lucasz; Dupart, Evan; Lyshchev, Anton; Martynov, Boris; Ryndin, Anatolii; Kotelevskaya, Elena; Brown, Jay; Schiff, David

    2012-01-01

    While some avian retroviruses have been shown to induce gliomas in animal models, human herpesviruses, specifically, the most extensively studied cytomegalovirus, and the much less studied roseolovirus HHV-6, and Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, currently attract more and more attention as possible contributing or initiating factors in the development of human brain tumors. The aim of this review is to summarize and highlight the most provoking findings indicating a potential causative link between brain tumors, specifically malignant gliomas, and viruses in the context of the concepts of viral oncomodulation and the tumor stem cell origin. PMID:21720806

  7. An evaluative tool for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Garg, Ishita; Miga, Michael I.; Thompson, Reid C.

    2010-02-01

    A patient specific finite element biphasic brain model has been utilized to codify a surgeon's experience by establishing quantifiable biomechanical measures to score orientations for optimal planning of brain tumor resection. When faced with evaluating several potential approaches to tumor removal during preoperative planning, the goal of this work is to facilitate the surgeon's selection of a patient head orientation such that tumor presentation and resection is assisted via favorable brain shift conditions rather than trying to allay confounding ones. Displacement-based measures consisting of area classification of the brain surface shifting in the craniotomy region and lateral displacement of the tumor center relative to an approach vector defined by the surgeon were calculated over a range of orientations and used to form an objective function. The objective function was used in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to find the ideal patient orientation. For a frontal lobe tumor presentation the model predicts an ideal orientation that indicates the patient should be placed in a lateral decubitus position on the side contralateral to the tumor in order to minimize unfavorable brain shift.

  8. [Surgery of metastatic brain tumors with new surgical instruments].

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Shibui, S; Matsuoka, K; Watanabe, T; Nakamura, O

    1987-05-01

    The risk of damages of neurological function by the operation of metastatic brain tumors was reduced considerably after introduction of neurosurgical apparatuses, such as ultrasonograph, ultrasonic surgical aspirator and laser scalpel. Of these, ultrasonograph is useful to indicate the exact location of brain tumor at real time during the operation. Ultrasonic surgical aspirator reduced the risk of damage on important brain structures due to the selectivity of fragmentation and the safety of the dissection in the vicinity of important vessels and nerve tissues. Laser scalpel is also useful to extirpate the hemorrhagic tumor with hard consistency. Cases introduced in this paper were: case 1, brain metastasis from lung cancer located just under the left motor area in brain; case 2, metastasis with abundant neovascularization from renal cancer to orbital cavity which showed invasion to orbital roof and frontal bone; case 3, radiation induced sarcoma after the treatment of retinoblastoma; case 4, a large cerebellar metastatic tumor; case 5, neurogenic sarcoma which were successfully removed by using one of or combination of ultrasonograph, ultrasonic aspirator and laser scalpel. Advantage of these new instruments for the surgery on metastatic brain tumor was mentioned here. However, it is necessarily to get a custom before we use these apparatuses at operation efficiently.

  9. Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

    2011-10-01

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  10. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  11. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  12. Structural Brain Alterations in Children an Average of 5 Years after Surgery and Chemotherapy for Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mary Baron; Macey, Paul M.; Harper, Ronald M.; Jacob, Eufemia; Patel, Sunita K.; Finlay, Jonathan L.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Compton, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Background Young children with brain tumors are often treated with high-dose chemotherapy after surgery to avoid brain tissue injury associated with irradiation. The effects of systemic chemotherapy on healthy brain tissue in this population, however, are unclear. Our objective was to compare gray and white matter integrity using MRI procedures in children with brain tumors (n=7, mean age 8.3 years), treated with surgery and high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) an average of 5.4 years earlier, to age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=9, mean age 9.3 years). Methods Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected to evaluate tissue integrity throughout the brain, as measured by mean diffusivity (MD), a marker of glial, neuronal, and axonal status, and fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of axonal health. Individual MD and FA maps were calculated, normalized, smoothed, and compared between groups using analysis of covariance, with age and sex as covariates. Results Higher mean diffusivity values, indicative of injury, emerged in patients compared with controls (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), and were especially apparent in the central thalamus, external capsule, putamen, globus pallidus and pons. Reduced FA values in some regions did not reach significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Children treated with surgery and high-dose chemotherapy with AuHCR for brain tumors an average of 5.4 years earlier show alterations in white and gray matter in multiple brain areas distant from the tumor site, raising the possibility for long-term consequences of the tumor or treatment. PMID:24830985

  13. Characterization of brain tumors by MRS, DWI and Ki-67 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Calvar, J A; Meli, F J; Romero, C; Calcagno, M L; Yánez, P; Martinez, A R; Lambre, H; Taratuto, A L; Sevlever, G

    2005-05-01

    With the advent of fast imaging hardware and specialized software, additional non-invasive magnetic resonance characterization of tumors has become available through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), hemodynamic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Thus, patterns could be discerned to discriminate different types of tumors and even to infer their possible evolution in time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between MRS, DWI, histopathology and Ki-67 labeling index in a large number of brain tumors. Localized proton spectra were obtained in 47 patients with brain tumors who subsequently underwent surgery (biopsy or tumor removal). We performed MRS with short echo-time (30 ms) and metabolic values in spectra were measured using an external software with 25 peaks. In all patients who had DWI, we measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) in the same region of interest (ROI) where the voxel in MRS was located. In most tumors the histological diagnosis and Ki-67 labeling index had been determined on our original surgical specimen. Cho/Cr, (Lip+Mm)/Cr, NAA/(Cho+Cr) and Glx/Cr indexes in MRS allowed discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas and metastases (MTs). Likewise, absolute ADC values differentiated low- from high-grade gliomas expressed by Ki-67 labeling index. A novel finding was that high Glx/Cr in vivo MRS index (similar to other known indexes) was a good predictor of tumor grading.

  14. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Jaedicke, Volker; Stroop, Ralf; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2015-07-01

    Non-contact imaging methods to distinguish between healthy tissue and brain tumor tissue during surgery would be highly desirable but are not yet available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology with a resolution around 1-15 μm and a penetration depth of 1-2 mm that may satisfy the demands. To analyze its potential, we measured ex vivo human brain tumor tissue samples from 10 patients with a Spectral Domain OCT system (Thorlabs Callisto: center wavelength of 930 nm) and compared the results with standard histology. In detail, three different measurements were made for each sample. First the sample was measured directly after surgery. Then it was embedded in paraffin (also H and E staining) and examined for the second time. At last, the slices of each paraffin block cut by the pathology were measured. Each time a B-scan was created and for a better comparison with the histology a 3D image was generated, in order to get the corresponding en face images. In both, histopathological diagnosis and the analysis of the OCT images, different types of brain tumor showed difference in structure. This has been affirmed by two blinded investigators. Nevertheless the difference between two images of samples taken directly after surgery is less distinct. To enhance the contrast in the images further, we employ Spectroscopic OCT and pattern recognition algorithms and compare these results to the histopathological standard.

  15. Functional Assays for Specific Targeting and Delivery of RNA Nanoparticles to Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Vieweger, Mario; Yoo, Ji Young; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative progress in nanoparticle development has opened a new era of targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells and tissue. However, developing proper detection methods has lagged behind resulting in the lack of precise evaluation and monitoring of the systemically administered nanoparticles. RNA nanoparticles derived from the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA have emerged as a new generation of drugs for cancer therapy. Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles can be fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly of engineered RNA fragments harboring targeting (RNA aptamer or chemical ligand), therapeutic (siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and small molecule drugs), and imaging (fluorophore, radiolabels) modules. We have recently demonstrated that RNA nanoparticles can reach and target intracranial brain tumors in mice upon systemic injection with little or no accumulation in adjacent healthy brain tissues or in major healthy internal organs. Herein, we describe various functional imaging methods (fluorescence confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence whole body imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate and monitor RNA nanoparticle targeting to intracranial brain tumors in mice. Such imaging techniques will allow in-depth evaluation of specifically delivered RNA therapeutics to brain tumors. PMID:25896001

  16. Integrin Targeting for Tumor Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunpeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for studying molecular recognitions and molecular imaging in a noninvasive, sensitive, and real-time way. Some advantages of optical imaging include cost-effectiveness, convenience, and non-ionization safety as well as complementation with other imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in tumor optical imaging by targeting integrin receptors in preclinical studies. This review has emphasized the construction and evaluation of diverse integrin targeting agents for optical imaging of tumors in mouse models. They mainly include some near-infrared fluorescent dye-RGD peptide conjugates, their multivalent analogs, and nanoparticle conjugates for targeting integrin αvβ3. Some compounds targeting other integrin subtypes such as α4β1 and α3 for tumor optical imaging have also been included. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed some promising integrin-targeting optical agents which have further enhanced our understanding of integrin expression and targeting in cancer biology as well as related anticancer drug discovery. Especially, some integrin-targeted multifunctional optical agents including nanoparticle-based optical agents can multiplex optical imaging with other imaging modalities and targeted therapy, serving as an attractive type of theranostics for simultaneous imaging and targeted therapy. Continued efforts to discover and develop novel, innovative integrin-based optical agents with improved targeting specificity and imaging sensitivity hold great promises for improving cancer early detection, diagnosis, and targeted therapy in clinic. PMID:21546996

  17. Nanoparticles for imaging and treating brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Joseph D; Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens; Basilion, James P

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer tumors cause disruption of the selective properties of vascular endothelia, even causing disruptions in the very selective blood–brain barrier, which are collectively referred to as the blood–brain–tumor barrier. Nanoparticles (NPs) have previously shown great promise in taking advantage of this increased vascular permeability in other cancers, which results in increased accumulation in these cancers over time due to the accompanying loss of an effective lymph system. NPs have therefore attracted increased attention for treating brain cancer. While this research is just beginning, there have been many successes demonstrated thus far in both the laboratory and clinical setting. This review serves to present the reader with an overview of NPs for treating brain cancer and to provide an outlook on what may come in the future. For NPs, just like the blood–brain–tumor barrier, the future is wide open. PMID:23256496

  18. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  19. Possible neuro-Sweet disease mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata--case report.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Chihiro; Esaki, Takanori; Ando, Maya; Furuya, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Mori, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of possible neuro-Sweet Disease (NSD) mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata, manifesting as numbness in the bilateral upper and lower extremities, gait disturbance, dysarthria, and swallowing disturbance which gradually deteriorated over 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion in the medulla oblongata, extending to the upper cervical cord with rim enhancement by gadolinium. The preoperative diagnosis was brain tumor, such as glioma, or inflammatory disease. His neurological symptoms gradually deteriorated, so biopsy was performed through the midline suboccipital approach. Histological examination showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. Human leukocyte antigen typing showed Cw1 and B54 which strongly suggested possible NSD. Steroid pulse therapy was started after surgery and the clinical symptoms improved. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inflammatory disorders such as NSD mimicking brain tumor.

  20. Development and characterization of non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS) for brain tumor margining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Sudhir

    During tumor removal surgery, due to the problems associated with obtaining high-resolution, real-time chemical images of where exactly the tumor ends and healthy tissue begins (tumor margining), it is often necessary to remove a much larger volume of tissue than the tumor itself. In the case of brain tumor surgery, however, it is extremely unsafe to remove excess tissue. Therefore, without an accurate image of the tumor margins, some of the tumor's finger-like projections are inevitably left behind in the surrounding parenchyma to grow again. For this reason, the development of techniques capable of providing high-resolution real-time images of tumor margins up to centimeters below the surface of a tissue is ideal for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors, as well as surgical guidance during brain tumor excision. A novel spectroscopic technique, non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS), is being developed with the capabilities of obtaining high-resolution subsurface chemical-based images of underlying tumors. This novel technique combines the strengths of multiphoton tissue spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy into a diagnostic methodology that will, ultimately, provide unparalleled chemical information and images to provide the state of sub-surface tissues. The NMPPAS technique employs near-infrared light (in the diagnostic window) to excite ultraviolet and/or visible light absorbing species deep below the tissue's surface. Once a multiphoton absorption event occurs, non-radiative relaxation processes generates a localized thermal expansion and subsequent acoustic wave that can be detected using a piezoelectric transducer. Since NMPPAS employs an acoustic detection modality, much deeper diagnoses can be performed than that is possible using current state of the art high-resolution chemical imaging techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy. NMPPAS was employed to differentiate between excised brain tumors (astrocytoma III

  1. Blood Brain Barrier: A Challenge for Effectual Therapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Arijit; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. They have only a fair to poor prognosis and high relapse rate. One of the major causes of extreme difficulty in brain tumor treatment is the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises different molecular components and transport systems, which in turn create efflux machinery or hindrance for the entry of several drugs in brain. Thus, along with the conventional techniques, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle for treatment of brain tumors. In this review, we have elucidated some critical insights into the composition and function of BBB and along with it we have discussed the effective methods for delivery of drugs to the brain and therapeutic strategies overcoming the barrier. PMID:25866775

  2. Tumor detection in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.

    1992-12-01

    We describe a nonlinear detector which uses student's t-test to locate tumors occurring in anatomic background. The detector computes the significance of any observed difference between the mean of features extracted from a small, circular search window and the mean of features belonging to an outer, concentric background window. The t-test is applied to search windows at every pixel location in the image. The t-statistic computed from the sample means and variances of the inner and outer regions is thresholded at a chosen significance level to give a positive detection. The response of the detector peaks when the inner window coincides with a bright spot of the same size. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed, except for structure of the same size and shape as the tumors being sought. Because the t-statistic is a true measure of significance, it can be applied to any set of features which are likely to distinguish tumors. We apply the test to two features, one related to object intensity and the other to object shape. A final determination on the presence and location of tumors is made by a simple combination of the significance levels generated from each feature. Tests are performed using simulated tumors superimposed on clinical images. Performance curves resembling standard receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) plots show a slight improvement over the prewhitening matched filter. Unlike the matched filter, however, the t-test detector assumes nothing specific about the tumor apart from its size.

  3. Brain tumor segmentation in MR slices using improved GrowCut algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Shi, Zhifeng; Mao, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The detection of brain tumor from MR images is very significant for medical diagnosis and treatment. However, the existing methods are mostly based on manual or semiautomatic segmentation which are awkward when dealing with a large amount of MR slices. In this paper, a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain tumors in MR slices is presented. Based on the hypothesis of the symmetric brain structure, the method improves the interactive GrowCut algorithm by further using the bounding box algorithm in the pre-processing step. More importantly, local reflectional symmetry is used to make up the deficiency of the bounding box method. After segmentation, 3D tumor image is reconstructed. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on MR slices with synthetic tumors and actual clinical MR images. Result of the proposed method is compared with the actual position of simulated 3D tumor qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our automatic method produces equivalent performance as manual segmentation and the interactive GrowCut with manual interference while providing fully automatic segmentation.

  4. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of tumor-bearing mice treated with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Aicher, K P; Dupon, J W; White, D L; Aukerman, S L; Moseley, M E; Juster, R; Rosenau, W; Winkelhake, J L; Brasch, R C

    1990-11-15

    Pharmacological effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) were studied in a mouse fibrosarcoma model using magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with a macromolecular contrast agent, albumin(gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)35. TNF was administered i.v. in a dose of 150 micrograms/kg, 60 to 80 min prior to imaging. Contrast-enhanced and nonenhanced magnetic resonance images of TNF-treated (n = 10) and untreated (n = 8) Meth A fibrosarcomas were obtained at 2.0 Tesla using T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Serial images spanning an interval of 60 to 120 min after TNF administration showed that the TNF-treated tumors enhanced significantly more overall than did untreated tumors (43% versus 31%). The most marked differential tumor enhancement was observed in the tumor rim (59% versus 40%). Nontumorous tissue, including muscle and brain, revealed no significant enhancement differences between TNF-treated animals and controls. The observed tumor enhancement corresponded strongly with Evans blue staining; the TNF-treated tumors stained deep blue, while untreated tumors and normal tissues observed did not stain. The different enhancement and Evans blue staining patterns between TNF-treated tumors and untreated tumors are attributed to TNF-induced changes in tumor capillary integrity. The data indicate that TNF effects on tumors include an increased capillary permeability for macromolecules at early times after administration. The ability to detect changes in capillary permeability in vivo using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may prove to be clinically useful to monitor tumor response to TNF.

  5. Exosomes as Tools to Suppress Primary Brain Tumor.

    PubMed

    Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are small microvesicles released by cells that efficiently transfer their molecular cargo to other cells, including tumor. Exosomes may pass the blood-brain barrier and have been demonstrated to deliver RNAs contained within to brain. As they are non-viable, the risk profile of exosomes is thought to be less than that of cellular therapies. Exosomes can be manufactured at scale in culture, and exosomes can be engineered to incorporate therapeutic miRNAs, siRNAs, or chemotherapeutic molecules. As natural biological delivery vehicles, interest in the use of exosomes as therapeutic delivery agents is growing. We previously demonstrated a novel treatment whereby mesenchymal stromal cells were employed to package tumor-suppressing miR-146b into exosomes, which were then used to reduce malignant glioma growth in rat. The use of exosomes to raise the immune system against tumor is also drawing interest. Exosomes from dendritic cells which are antigen-presenting, and have been used for treatment of brain tumor may be divided into three categories: (1) exosomes for immunomodulation-based therapy, (2) exosomes as delivery vehicles for anti-tumor nucleotides, and (3) exosomes as drug delivery vehicles. Here, we will provide an overview of these three applications of exosomes to treat brain tumor, and examine their prospects on the long road to clinical use.

  6. Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2013-05-01

    Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors.

  7. Linking brain imaging signals to visual perception.

    PubMed

    Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    The rapid advances in brain imaging technology over the past 20 years are affording new insights into cortical processing hierarchies in the human brain. These new data provide a complementary front in seeking to understand the links between perceptual and physiological states. Here we review some of the challenges associated with incorporating brain imaging data into such "linking hypotheses," highlighting some of the considerations needed in brain imaging data acquisition and analysis. We discuss work that has sought to link human brain imaging signals to existing electrophysiological data and opened up new opportunities in studying the neural basis of complex perceptual judgments. We consider a range of approaches when using human functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain circuits whose activity changes in a similar manner to perceptual judgments and illustrate these approaches by discussing work that has studied the neural basis of 3D perception and perceptual learning. Finally, we describe approaches that have sought to understand the information content of brain imaging data using machine learning and work that has integrated multimodal data to overcome the limitations associated with individual brain imaging approaches. Together these approaches provide an important route in seeking to understand the links between physiological and psychological states.

  8. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Heimans, Jan J; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    2012-06-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The effect of a brain tumor on cerebral functioning is often more global than should be expected on the basis of the local character of the disease, and this is thought to be a consequence of disturbance of the cerebral network as a whole. Any network, whether it be a neural, a social or an electronic network, can be described in parameters assessing the topological characteristics of that particular network. Repeated assessment of neural network characteristics in brain tumor patients during their disease course enables study of the dynamics of neural networks and provides more insight into the plasticity of the diseased brain. Functional MRI, electroencephalography and especially magnetoencephalography are used to measure brain function and the signals that are being registered with these techniques can be analyzed with respect to network characteristics such as "synchronization" and "clustering". Evidence accumulates that loss of optimal neural network architecture negatively impacts complex cerebral functioning and also decreases the threshold to develop epileptic seizures. Future research should be focused on both plasticity of neural networks and the factors that have impact on that plasticity as well as the possible role of assessment of neural network characteristics in the determination of cerebral function during the disease course.

  9. Brain mapping in tumors: intraoperative or extraoperative?

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues

    2013-12-01

    In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery.

  10. Application of SLT contact laser in resection of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han-Jie; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Chan-Yuan

    1998-11-01

    28 cases of brain tumors were operated by SLT contact Nd:YAG laser from October 1995 to May 1997 in our hospital. Among these, 14 are menin-giomas, 5 are astrocytomas. Others are tumors such as acoustic neuromas, craniopharyngiomas, etc 21 cases underwent common craniotomy, 3, laser endoscopy operation; and 4, laser therapy under microscopy. Method of tumor resection: firstly, cutting and separating the tumor from brain tissues with GRP by 5-15w; secondly, vaporizing parenchyma of tumor with MTRL and sucking it, again, cutting and separating and so on, lastly removing the tumor entirely. The power of vaporization for glioma or tumors in ventricles is about 20-30w, but for meningiomas, 30-60w. MT was used on power of 15-20w to coagulate and homeostate the left cavity of tumor. According to our experience, laser operation can make bleeding reduced markedly, tumor resection become more thorough, and postoperative response and complications decrease obviously.

  11. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  12. Multi-fractal texture features for brain tumor and edema segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a fully automatic brain tumor and edema segmentation technique in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Different brain tissues are characterized using the novel texture features such as piece-wise triangular prism surface area (PTPSA), multi-fractional Brownian motion (mBm) and Gabor-like textons, along with regular intensity and intensity difference features. Classical Random Forest (RF) classifier is used to formulate the segmentation task as classification of these features in multi-modal MRIs. The segmentation performance is compared with other state-of-art works using a publicly available dataset known as Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2012 [1]. Quantitative evaluation is done using the online evaluation tool from Kitware/MIDAS website [2]. The results show that our segmentation performance is more consistent and, on the average, outperforms other state-of-the art works in both training and challenge cases in the BRATS competition.

  13. New approach to optical imaging of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2001-07-01

    Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

  14. Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with phenylacetate.

    PubMed

    Ram, Z; Samid, D; Walbridge, S; Oshiro, E M; Viola, J J; Tao-Cheng, J H; Shack, S; Thibault, A; Myers, C E; Oldfield, E H

    1994-06-01

    Phenylacetate is a naturally occurring plasma component that suppresses the growth of tumor cells and induces differentiation in vitro. To evaluate the in vivo potential and preventive and therapeutic antitumor efficacy of sodium phenylacetate against malignant brain tumors, Fischer 344 rats (n = 50) bearing cerebral 9L gliosarcomas received phenylacetate by continuous s.c. release starting on the day of tumor inoculation (n = 10) using s.c. osmotic minipumps (550 mg/kg/day for 28 days). Rats with established brain tumors (n = 12) received continuous s.c. phenylacetate supplemented with additional daily i.p. dose (300 mg/kg). Control rats (n = 25) were treated in a similar way with saline. Rats were sacrificed during treatment for electron microscopic studies of their tumors, in vivo proliferation assays, and measurement of phenylacetate levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with phenylacetate extended survival when started on the day of tumor inoculation (P < 0.01) or 7 days after inoculation (P < 0.03) without any associated adverse effects. In the latter group, phenylacetate levels in pooled serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples after 7 days of treatment were in the therapeutic range as determined in vitro (2.45 mM in serum and 3.1 mM in cerebrospinal fluid). Electron microscopy of treated tumors demonstrated marked hypertrophy and organization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating cell differentiation, in contrast to the scant and randomly distributed endoplasmic reticulum in tumors from untreated animals. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of the rate of tumor proliferation and restoration of anchorage dependency, a marker of phenotypic reversion. Phenylacetate, used at clinically achievable concentrations, prolongs survival of rats with malignant brain tumors through induction of tumor differentiation. Its role in the treatment of brain tumors and other cancers should be explored further.

  15. Magnetron surface coil for brain MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alfredo O

    2006-08-01

    A resonator surface coil was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and tested on a clinical imager. This resonator design was based on the cavity magnetron with an 8 slot-and-hole configuration. High-resolution brain images were obtained from a water-filled phantom and from a healthy volunteer brain. To compare coil performance, SNR-vs.-depth plots were computed for a single-loop coil and the magnetron prototype from phantom images. These experimentally acquired profiles show an important improvement in SNR. Thus, the magnetron surface coil can generate brain images with a high resolution and penetration capacity. The high sensitivity of this coil makes it a good candidate to be used in multicoil imaging sequences.

  16. Culture and Isolation of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-08-03

    Brain tumors are typically composed of heterogeneous cells that exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics and proliferative potentials. Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), possess an ability to differentiate along multiple lineages, self-renew, and initiate tumors in vivo. This unit describes protocols for the culture and isolation BTICs. We applied culture conditions and assays originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro to a variety of brain tumors. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the neural precursor cell surface marker CD133/CD15, BTICs can be isolated and studied prospectively. Isolation of BTICs from GBM bulk tumor will enable examination of dissimilar morphologies, self-renewal capacities, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic sensitivities. As cancer is also considered a disease of unregulated self-renewal and differentiation, an understanding of BTICs is fundamental to understanding tumor growth. Ultimately, it will lead to novel drug discovery approaches that strategically target the functionally relevant BTIC population.

  17. Evaluating Similarity Measures for Brain Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Razlighi, Q R; Kehtarnavaz, N; Yousefi, S

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of similarity measures for image registration is a challenging problem due to its complex interaction with the underlying optimization, regularization, image type and modality. We propose a single performance metric, named robustness, as part of a new evaluation method which quantifies the effectiveness of similarity measures for brain image registration while eliminating the effects of the other parts of the registration process. We show empirically that similarity measures with higher robustness are more effective in registering degraded images and are also more successful in performing intermodal image registration. Further, we introduce a new similarity measure, called normalized spatial mutual information, for 3D brain image registration whose robustness is shown to be much higher than the existing ones. Consequently, it tolerates greater image degradation and provides more consistent outcomes for intermodal brain image registration.

  18. Functional brain imaging across development.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2013-12-01

    The developmental cognitive neuroscience literature has grown exponentially over the last decade. This paper reviews the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature on brain function development of typically late developing functions of cognitive and motivation control, timing and attention as well as of resting state neural networks. Evidence shows that between childhood and adulthood, concomitant with cognitive maturation, there is progressively increased functional activation in task-relevant lateral and medial frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal brain regions that mediate these higher level control functions. This is accompanied by progressively stronger functional inter-regional connectivity within task-relevant fronto-striatal and fronto-parieto-temporal networks. Negative age associations are observed in earlier developing posterior and limbic regions, suggesting a shift with age from the recruitment of "bottom-up" processing regions towards "top-down" fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical connections, leading to a more mature, supervised cognition. The resting state fMRI literature further complements this evidence by showing progressively stronger deactivation with age in anti-correlated task-negative resting state networks, which is associated with better task performance. Furthermore, connectivity analyses during the resting state show that with development increasingly stronger long-range connections are being formed, for example, between fronto-parietal and fronto-cerebellar connections, in both task-positive networks and in task-negative default mode networks, together with progressively lesser short-range connections, suggesting progressive functional integration and segregation with age. Overall, evidence suggests that throughout development between childhood and adulthood, there is progressive refinement and integration of both task-positive fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical activation and task-negative deactivation, leading to

  19. Guiding Brain-Tumor Surgery via Blood-Brain-Barrier-Permeable Gold Nanoprobes with Acid-Triggered MRI/SERRS Signals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xihui; Yue, Qi; Liu, Zining; Ke, Mengjing; Zhou, Xingyu; Li, Sihan; Zhang, Jianping; Zhang, Ren; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying; Li, Cong

    2017-03-15

    Surgical resection is a mainstay in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Surgeons, however, face great challenges in distinguishing tumor margins due to their infiltrated nature. Here, a pair of gold nanoprobes that enter a brain tumor by crossing the blood-brain barrier is developed. The acidic tumor environment triggers their assembly with the concomitant activation of both magnetic resonance (MR) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) signals. While the bulky aggregates continuously trap into the tumor interstitium, the intact nanoprobes in normal brain tissue can be transported back into the blood stream in a timely manner. Experimental results show that physiological acidity triggers nanoparticle assembly by forming 3D spherical nanoclusters with remarkable MR and SERRS signal enhancements. The nanoprobes not only preoperatively define orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high sensitivity and durability in vivo, but also intraoperatively guide tumor excision with the assistance of a handheld Raman scanner. Microscopy studies verify the precisely demarcated tumor margin marked by the assembled nanoprobes. Taking advantage of the nanoprobes' rapid excretion rate and the extracellular acidification as a hallmark of solid tumors, these nanoprobes are promising in improving brain-tumor surgical outcome with high specificity, safety, and universality.

  20. Brain tumor vessel response to synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy: a short-term in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serduc, Raphaël; Christen, Thomas; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bouchet, Audrey; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Segebarth, Christoph; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; LeDuc, Géraldine; Bravin, Alberto; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work focuses on the description of the short-term response of a 9L brain tumor model and its vasculature to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat 9L gliosarcomas implanted in nude mice brains were irradiated by MRT 13 days after tumor inoculation using two orthogonal arrays of equally spaced 28 planar microbeams (25 µm width, 211 µm spacing and dose 500 Gy). At 1, 7 and 14 days after MRT, apparent diffusion coefficient, blood volume and vessel size index were mapped by MRI. Mean survival time after tumor inoculation increased significantly between MRT-treated and untreated groups (23 and 28 days respectively, log-rank test, p < 0.0001). A significant increase of apparent diffusion coefficient was observed 24 h after MRT in irradiated tumors versus non-irradiated ones. In the untreated group, both tumor size and vessel size index increased significantly (from 7.6 ± 2.2 to 19.2 ± 4.0 mm2 and +23%, respectively) between the 14th and the 21st day after tumor cell inoculation. During the same period, in the MRT-treated group, no difference in tumor size was observed. The vessel size index measured in the MRT-treated group increased significantly (+26%) between 14 and 28 days of tumor growth. We did not observe the significant difference in blood volume between the MRT-treated and untreated groups. MRT slows 9L tumor growth in a mouse brain but MRI results suggest that the increase in survival time after our MRT approach may be rather due to a cytoreduction than to early direct effects of ionizing radiation on tumor vessels. These results suggest that MRT parameters need to be optimized to further damage tumor vessels.

  1. New Methods for Direct Delivery of Chemotherapy for Treating Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Piepmeier, Joseph M.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnostic imaging and drug discovery, primary malignant brain tumors remain fatal. Median survival for patients with the most severe forms is rarely past eight months. The severity of the disease and the lack of substantial improvement in patient survival demand that new approaches be explored in drug delivery to brain tumors. Recently, local delivery of chemotherapy to brain tumors has provided a way to circumvent the blood-brain barrier, allowing delivery of chemotherapy drugs directly to malignant cells in the brain. Two methods of local delivery have been developed: polymeric-controlled release and convection-enhanced delivery. Controlled release utilizes degradable or non-degradable polymers as carriers of chemotherapy; polymer implants or microparticles are implanted locally to introduce a sustained source of drug for periods of days or months. Convection-enhanced delivery employs the bulk flow of drugs dissolved in fluid, which is introduced intracranially using a catheter and pump. The convective fluid flow is capable of delivering drugs great distances within the brain, potentially treating invasive cells at a distance from the catheter infusion site. These two new delivery strategies are capable of delivering both standard chemotherapeutic drugs and new methods of anti-cancer therapy. Taken individually, or used in tandem, they represent a potential revolution in brain cancer treatment. PMID:17940624

  2. Resting functional connectivity in patients with brain tumors in eloquent areas

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Juan; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne M.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent areas represents a challenge in neurosurgery. If maximal resection is desired without inducing postoperative neurological deficits, a detailed knowledge of the functional topography in and around the tumor is crucial. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the value of preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging of functional connectivity to predict the results of intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) mapping, the clinical gold standard for neurosurgical localization of functional areas. Methods Resting-state whole-cortex MEG recordings were obtained from 57 consecutive subjects with focal brain tumors near or within motor, sensory or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering algorithms, and the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and voxels in and around brain tumors were compared to the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and contralesional voxels as an index of functional connectivity. IES mapping was performed in all subjects. The cortical connectivity pattern near the tumor was compared to IES results. Results Maps with decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the entire tumor area had a negative predictive value of 100% for absence of eloquent cortex during IES. Maps showing increased resting-state functional connectivity within the tumor area had a positive predictive value of 64% for finding language, motor or sensory cortical sites during IES mapping. Interpretation Preoperative resting state MEG connectivity analysis is a useful noninvasive tool to evaluate the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors within eloquent areas, and could potentially contribute to surgical planning and patient counseling. PMID:21400562

  3. Clinical Evaluation of a Fully-automatic Segmentation Method for Longitudinal Brain Tumor Volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Raphael; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Information about the size of a tumor and its temporal evolution is needed for diagnosis as well as treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a fully-automatic segmentation method, called BraTumIA, for longitudinal brain tumor volumetry by comparing the automatically estimated volumes with ground truth data acquired via manual segmentation. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging data of 14 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma encompassing 64 MR acquisitions, ranging from preoperative up to 12 month follow-up images, was analysed. Manual segmentation was performed by two human raters. Strong correlations (R = 0.83–0.96, p < 0.001) were observed between volumetric estimates of BraTumIA and of each of the human raters for the contrast-enhancing (CET) and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments (NCE-T2). A quantitative analysis of the inter-rater disagreement showed that the disagreement between BraTumIA and each of the human raters was comparable to the disagreement between the human raters. In summary, BraTumIA generated volumetric trend curves of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments comparable to estimates of human raters. These findings suggest the potential of automated longitudinal tumor segmentation to substitute manual volumetric follow-up of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments.

  4. Circulating biomarker panels for targeted therapy in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Cristiana; Albulescu, Radu; Codrici, Elena; Popescu, Ionela Daniela; Mihai, Simona; Enciu, Ana Maria; Cruceru, Maria Linda; Popa, Adrian Claudiu; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Necula, Laura Georgiana; Mambet, Cristina; Neagu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    An important goal of oncology is the development of cancer risk-identifier biomarkers that aid early detection and target therapy. High-throughput profiling represents a major concern for cancer research, including brain tumors. A promising approach for efficacious monitoring of disease progression and therapy could be circulating biomarker panels using molecular proteomic patterns. Tailoring treatment by targeting specific protein-protein interactions and signaling networks, microRNA and cancer stem cell signaling in accordance with tumor phenotype or patient clustering based on biomarker panels represents the future of personalized medicine for brain tumors. Gathering current data regarding biomarker candidates, we address the major challenges surrounding the biomarker field of this devastating tumor type, exploring potential perspectives for the development of more effective predictive biomarker panels.

  5. Multilocus Genetic Analysis of Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Kohannim, Omid; Stein, Jason L.; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The quest to identify genes that influence disease is now being extended to find genes that affect biological markers of disease, or endophenotypes. Brain images, in particular, provide exquisitely detailed measures of anatomy, function, and connectivity in the living brain, and have identified characteristic features for many neurological and psychiatric disorders. The emerging field of imaging genomics is discovering important genetic variants associated with brain structure and function, which in turn influence disease risk and fundamental cognitive processes. Statistical approaches for testing genetic associations are not straightforward to apply to brain images because the data in brain images is spatially complex and generally high dimensional. Neuroimaging phenotypes typically include 3D maps across many points in the brain, fiber tracts, shape-based analyses, and connectivity matrices, or networks. These complex data types require new methods for data reduction and joint consideration of the image and the genome. Image-wide, genome-wide searches are now feasible, but they can be greatly empowered by sparse regression or hierarchical clustering methods that isolate promising features, boosting statistical power. Here we review the evolution of statistical approaches to assess genetic influences on the brain. We outline the current state of multivariate statistics in imaging genomics, and future directions, including meta-analysis. We emphasize the power of novel multivariate approaches to discover reliable genetic influences with small effect sizes. PMID:22303368

  6. The role of astrocytes in CNS tumors: pre-clinical models and novel imaging approaches

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emma R.; Howarth, Clare; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a significant clinical problem, yet the mechanisms governing tumor cell extravasation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and CNS colonization are unclear. Astrocytes are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of brain metastasis but in vitro work suggests both tumoricidal and tumor-promoting roles for astrocyte-derived molecules. Also, the involvement of astrogliosis in primary brain tumor progression is under much investigation. However, translation of in vitro findings into in vivo and clinical settings has not been realized. Increasingly sophisticated resources, such as transgenic models and imaging technologies aimed at astrocyte-specific markers, will enable better characterization of astrocyte function in CNS tumors. Techniques such as bioluminescence and in vivo fluorescent cell labeling have potential for understanding the real-time responses of astrocytes to tumor burden. Transgenic models targeting signaling pathways involved in the astrocytic response also hold great promise, allowing translation of in vitro mechanistic findings into pre-clinical models. The challenging nature of in vivo CNS work has slowed progress in this area. Nonetheless, there has been a surge of interest in generating pre-clinical models, yielding insights into cell extravasation across the BBB, as well as immune cell recruitment to the parenchyma. While the function of astrocytes in the tumor microenvironment is still unknown, the relationship between astrogliosis and tumor growth is evident. Here, we review the role of astrogliosis in both primary and secondary brain tumors and outline the potential for the use of novel imaging modalities in research and clinical settings. These imaging approaches have the potential to enhance our understanding of the local host response to tumor progression in the brain, as well as providing new, more sensitive diagnostic imaging methods. PMID:23596394

  7. Protein-based tumor molecular imaging probes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Xie, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging discipline which plays critical roles in diagnosis and therapeutics. It visualizes and quantifies markers that are aberrantly expressed during the disease origin and development. Protein molecules remain to be one major class of imaging probes, and the option has been widely diversified due to the recent advances in protein engineering techniques. Antibodies are part of the immunosystem which interact with target antigens with high specificity and affinity. They have long been investigated as imaging probes and were coupled with imaging motifs such as radioisotopes for that purpose. However, the relatively large size of antibodies leads to a half-life that is too long for common imaging purposes. Besides, it may also cause a poor tissue penetration rate and thus compromise some medical applications. It is under this context that various engineered protein probes, essentially antibody fragments, protein scaffolds, and natural ligands have been developed. Compared to intact antibodies, they possess more compact size, shorter clearance time, and better tumor penetration. One major challenge of using protein probes in molecular imaging is the affected biological activity resulted from random labeling. Site-specific modification, however, allows conjugation happening in a stoichiometric fashion with little perturbation of protein activity. The present review will discuss protein-based probes with focus on their application and related site-specific conjugation strategies in tumor imaging. PMID:20232092

  8. Remote Postoperative Epidural Hematoma after Brain Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho-Jung; Park, Jae-Sung; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A postoperative epidural hematoma (EDH) is a serious and embarrassing complication, which usually occurs at the site of operation after intracranial surgery. However, remote EDH is relatively rare. We report three cases of remote EDH after brain tumor surgery. All three cases seemed to have different causes of remote postoperative EDH; however, all patients were managed promptly and showed excellent outcomes. Although the exact mechanism of remote postoperative EDH is unknown, surgeons should be cautious of the speed of lowering intracranial pressure and implement basic procedures to prevent this hazardous complication of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26605271

  9. Interpreting WAIS-III performance after primary brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marta de A; Simões, Mário R; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The literature lacks information on the performance of patients with brain tumors on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. This study aimed to explore the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) performance profile of 23 consecutive patients with brain tumors and 23 matched controls selected from the Portuguese WAIS-III standardization sample, using the technical manual steps recommended for score interpretation. The control group was demographically matched to the tumor group regarding gender, age, education, profession, and geographic region. The technical manual steps recommended for score interpretation were applied. Patients with brain tumors had significantly lower performances on the Performance IQ, Full-Scale IQ, Perceptual Organization Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, Arithmetic, Object Assembly, and Picture Arrangement, though all scaled scores were within the normal range according to the manual tables. Only Vocabulary and Comprehension scatter scores were statistically different between groups. No strengths or weaknesses were found for either group. The mean discrepancy scores do not appear to have clinical value for this population. In conclusion, the study results did not reveal a specific profile for patients with brain tumors on the WAIS-III.

  10. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Kabeer, Mustafa H; Vu, Long T; Keschrumrus, Vic; Yin, Hong Zhen; Dethlefs, Brent A; Zhong, Jiang F; Weiss, John H; Loudon, William G

    2014-09-26

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for patients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution (i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  11. Diffusion in the extracellular space in brain and tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkman, A. S.

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion of solutes and macromolecules in the extracellular space (ECS) in brain is important for non-synaptic intercellular communication, extracellular ionic buffering, and delivery of drugs and metabolites. Diffusion in tumor ECS is important for delivery of anti-tumor drugs. The ECS in brain comprises ˜20% of brain parenchymal volume and contains cell-cell gaps down to ˜50 nm. We have developed fluorescence methods to quantify solute diffusion in the ECS, allowing measurements deep in solid tissues using microfiberoptics with micron tip size. Diffusion through the tortuous ECS in brain is generally slowed by ˜3-5-fold compared with that in water, with approximately half of the slowing due to tortuous ECS geometry and half due to the mildly viscous extracellular matrix (ECM). Mathematical modeling of slowed diffusion in an ECS with reasonable anatomical accuracy is in good agreement with experiment. In tumor tissue, diffusion of small macromolecules is only mildly slowed (<3-fold slower than in water) in superficial tumor, but is greatly slowed (>10-fold) at a depth of few millimeters as the tumor tissue becomes more compact. Slowing by ECM components such as collagen contribute to the slowed diffusion. Therefore, as found within cells, cellular crowding and highly tortuous transport can produce only minor slowing of diffusion in the ECS.

  12. Agnosias: recognition disorders in patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2012-06-01

    Two main varieties of recognition disorders are distinguished in neuropsychology: agnosias and semantic disorders. The term agnosias is generally used to denote recognition defects limited to a single perceptual modality (which is itself apparently intact), whereas the term semantic disorders is used to denote recognition defects involving all the sensory modalities in a roughly similar manner. Brain tumors can be one of the aetiologies underlying agnosias and semantic disorders. However, due to the heterogeneity and the rarity of recognition disorders, their investigation can be useful only to suggest or exclude the oncological nature of a brain lesion, but not to systematically monitor the clinical outcome in tumor patients. Furthermore, the relevance of recognition disorders as a hint toward a diagnosis of brain tumor varies according to the type of agnosia and of semantic disorder and the localization of the underlying brain pathology. The hypothesis that a variety of agnosia (or of semantic disorder) may be due to a neoplastic lesion can, therefore, be advanced if it is consistent with our knowledge about the usual localization and the growing patterns of different types of brain tumors.

  13. Convex Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Brain Tumor Delimitation from MRSI Data

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Martorell, Sandra; Lisboa, Paulo J. G.; Vellido, Alfredo; Simões, Rui V.; Pumarola, Martí; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Arús, Carles

    2012-01-01

    Background Pattern Recognition techniques can provide invaluable insights in the field of neuro-oncology. This is because the clinical analysis of brain tumors requires the use of non-invasive methods that generate complex data in electronic format. Magnetic Resonance (MR), in the modalities of spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), has been widely applied to this purpose. The heterogeneity of the tissue in the brain volumes analyzed by MR remains a challenge in terms of pathological area delimitation. Methodology/Principal Findings A pre-clinical study was carried out using seven brain tumor-bearing mice. Imaging and spectroscopy information was acquired from the brain tissue. A methodology is proposed to extract tissue type-specific sources from these signals by applying Convex Non-negative Matrix Factorization (Convex-NMF). Its suitability for the delimitation of pathological brain area from MRSI is experimentally confirmed by comparing the images obtained with its application to selected target regions, and to the gold standard of registered histopathology data. The former showed good accuracy for the solid tumor region (proliferation index (PI)>30%). The latter yielded (i) high sensitivity and specificity in most cases, (ii) acquisition conditions for safe thresholds in tumor and non-tumor regions (PI>30% for solid tumoral region; ≤5% for non-tumor), and (iii) fairly good results when borderline pixels were considered. Conclusions/Significance The unsupervised nature of Convex-NMF, which does not use prior information regarding the tumor area for its delimitation, places this approach one step ahead of classical label-requiring supervised methods for discrimination between tissue types, minimizing the negative effect of using mislabeled voxels. Convex-NMF also relaxes the non-negativity constraints on the observed data, which allows for a natural representation of the MRSI signal. This should help radiologists to accurately tackle one of the

  14. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  15. Combining cytotoxic and immune-mediated gene therapy to treat brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Curtin, James F; King, Gwendalyn D; Candolfi, Marianela; Greeno, Remy B; Kroeger, Kurt M; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2005-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a type of intracranial brain tumor, for which there is no cure. In spite of advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients die within a year of diagnosis. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this disease. Gene therapy, which is the use of genes or other nucleic acids as drugs, is a powerful new treatment strategy which can be developed to treat GBM. Several treatment modalities are amenable for gene therapy implementation, e.g. conditional cytotoxic approaches, targeted delivery of toxins into the tumor mass, immune stimulatory strategies, and these will all be the focus of this review. Both conditional cytotoxicity and targeted toxin mediated tumor death, are aimed at eliminating an established tumor mass and preventing further growth. Tumors employ several defensive strategies that suppress and inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting anti-tumor immune responses has identified promising targets for immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is designed to aid the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells in order to eliminate the tumor burden. Also, immune-therapeutic strategies have the added advantage that an activated immune system has the capability of recognizing tumor cells at distant sites from the primary tumor, therefore targeting metastasis distant from the primary tumor locale. Pre-clinical models and clinical trials have demonstrated that in spite of their location within the central nervous system (CNS), a tissue described as 'immune privileged', brain tumors can be effectively targeted by the activated immune system following various immunotherapeutic strategies. This review will highlight recent advances in brain tumor immunotherapy, with particular emphasis on advances made using gene therapy strategies, as well as reviewing other novel therapies that can be used in combination with immunotherapy. Another important

  16. Combining Cytotoxic and Immune-Mediated Gene Therapy to Treat Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; King, Gwendalyn D.; Candolfi, Marianela; Greeno, Remy B.; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a type of intracranial brain tumor, for which there is no cure. In spite of advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients die within a year of diagnosis. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this disease. Gene therapy, which is the use of genes or other nucleic acids as drugs, is a powerful new treatment strategy which can be developed to treat GBM. Several treatment modalities are amenable for gene therapy implementation, e.g. conditional cytotoxic approaches, targeted delivery of toxins into the tumor mass, immune stimulatory strategies, and these will all be the focus of this review. Both conditional cytotoxicity and targeted toxin mediated tumor death, are aimed at eliminating an established tumor mass and preventing further growth. Tumors employ several defensive strategies that suppress and inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting anti-tumor immune responses has identified promising targets for immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is designed to aid the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells in order to eliminate the tumor burden. Also, immune-therapeutic strategies have the added advantage that an activated immune system has the capability of recognizing tumor cells at distant sites from the primary tumor, therefore targeting metastasis distant from the primary tumor locale. Pre-clinical models and clinical trials have demonstrated that in spite of their location within the central nervous system (CNS), a tissue described as ‘immune privileged’, brain tumors can be effectively targeted by the activated immune system following various immunotherapeutic strategies. This review will highlight recent advances in brain tumor immunotherapy, with particular emphasis on advances made using gene therapy strategies, as well as reviewing other novel therapies that can be used in combination with immunotherapy. Another

  17. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-04-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO/sub 2/ laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references.

  18. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  19. Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticles across the blood-brain tumor barrier into malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Hemant; Kanevsky, Ariel S; Wu, Haitao; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Fung, Steve H; Sousa, Alioscka A; Auh, Sungyoung; Wilson, Colin M; Sharma, Kamal; Aronova, Maria A; Leapman, Richard D; Griffiths, Gary L; Hall, Matthew D

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain tumor barrier of malignant gliomas remains a challenge. This is due to our limited understanding of nanoparticle properties in relation to the physiologic size of pores within the blood-brain tumor barrier. Polyamidoamine dendrimers are particularly small multigenerational nanoparticles with uniform sizes within each generation. Dendrimer sizes increase by only 1 to 2 nm with each successive generation. Using functionalized polyamidoamine dendrimer generations 1 through 8, we investigated how nanoparticle size influences particle accumulation within malignant glioma cells. Methods Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging probes were conjugated to the dendrimer terminal amines. Functionalized dendrimers were administered intravenously to rodents with orthotopically grown malignant gliomas. Transvascular transport and accumulation of the nanoparticles in brain tumor tissue was measured in vivo with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Localization of the nanoparticles within glioma cells was confirmed ex vivo with fluorescence imaging. Results We found that the intravenously administered functionalized dendrimers less than approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter were able to traverse pores of the blood-brain tumor barrier of RG-2 malignant gliomas, while larger ones could not. Of the permeable functionalized dendrimer generations, those that possessed long blood half-lives could accumulate within glioma cells. Conclusion The therapeutically relevant upper limit of blood-brain tumor barrier pore size is approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm. Therefore, effective transvascular drug delivery into malignant glioma cells can be accomplished by using nanoparticles that are smaller than 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter and possess long blood half-lives. PMID:19094226

  20. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use. PMID:25254064

  1. Neural Underpinnings of Working Memory in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    King, Tricia Z; Na, Sabrina; Mao, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors are at risk for cognitive performance deficits that require the core cognitive skill of working memory. Our goal was to examine the neural mechanisms underlying working memory performance in survivors. We studied the working memory of adult survivors of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors using a letter n-back paradigm with varying cognitive workload (0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back) and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as neuropsychological measures. Survivors of childhood brain tumors evidenced lower working memory performance than demographically matched healthy controls. Whole-brain analyses revealed significantly greater blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation in the left superior / middle frontal gyri and left parietal lobe during working memory (2-back versus 0-back contrast) in survivors. Left frontal BOLD response negatively correlated with 2- and 3-back working memory performance, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT), and Digit Span Backwards. In contrast, parietal lobe BOLD response negatively correlated with 0-back (vigilance task) and ACT. The results revealed that adult survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumors recruited additional cognitive control resources in the prefrontal lobe during increased working memory demands. This increased prefrontal activation is associated with lower working memory performance and is consistent with the allocation of latent resources theory.

  2. Comparing implementations of magnetic-resonance-guided fluorescence molecular tomography for diagnostic classification of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) systems coupled to conventional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography provide unique opportunities to combine data sets and improve image quality and content. Yet, the ideal approach to combine these complementary data is still not obvious. This preclinical study compares several methods for incorporating MRI spatial prior information into FMT imaging algorithms in the context of in vivo tissue diagnosis. Populations of mice inoculated with brain tumors that expressed either high or low levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were imaged using an EGF-bound near-infrared dye and a spectrometer-based MRI-FMT scanner. All data were spectrally unmixed to extract the dye fluorescence from the tissue autofluorescence. Methods to combine the two data sets were compared using student's t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Bulk fluorescence measurements that made up the optical imaging data set were also considered in the comparison. While most techniques were able to distinguish EGFR(+) tumors from EGFR(-) tumors and control animals, with area-under-the-curve values=1, only a handful were able to distinguish EGFR(-) tumors from controls. Bulk fluorescence spectroscopy techniques performed as well as most imaging techniques, suggesting that complex imaging algorithms may be unnecessary to diagnose EGFR status in these tissue volumes.

  3. A Brain Tumor/Organotypic Slice Co-culture System for Studying Tumor Microenvironment and Targeted Drug Therapies.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Emily J; Yang, David P; Filbin, Mariella G; Mazzola, Emanuele; Sun, Yu; Behar, Oded; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Ligon, Keith L; Stiles, Charles D; Segal, Rosalind A

    2015-11-07

    Brain tumors are a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Developing new therapeutics for these cancers is difficult, as many of these tumors are not easily grown in standard culture conditions. Neurosphere cultures under serum-free conditions and orthotopic xenografts have expanded the range of tumors that can be maintained. However, many types of brain tumors remain difficult to propagate or study. This is particularly true for pediatric brain tumors such as pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. This protocol describes a system that allows primary human brain tumors to be grown in culture. This quantitative assay can be used to investigate the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth, and to test new drug therapies. This protocol describes a system where fluorescently labeled brain tumor cells are grown on an organotypic brain slice from a juvenile mouse. The response of tumor cells to drug treatments can be studied in this assay, by analyzing changes in the number of cells on the slice over time. In addition, this system can address the nature of the microenvironment that normally fosters growth of brain tumors. This brain tumor organotypic slice co-culture assay provides a propitious system for testing new drugs on human tumor cells within a brain microenvironment.

  4. A Brain Tumor/Organotypic Slice Co-culture System for Studying Tumor Microenvironment and Targeted Drug Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Emily J.; Yang, David P.; Filbin, Mariella G.; Mazzola, Emanuele; Sun, Yu; Behar, Oded; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Goumnerova, Liliana; Ligon, Keith L.; Stiles, Charles D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors are a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Developing new therapeutics for these cancers is difficult, as many of these tumors are not easily grown in standard culture conditions. Neurosphere cultures under serum-free conditions and orthotopic xenografts have expanded the range of tumors that can be maintained. However, many types of brain tumors remain difficult to propagate or study. This is particularly true for pediatric brain tumors such as pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. This protocol describes a system that allows primary human brain tumors to be grown in culture. This quantitative assay can be used to investigate the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth, and to test new drug therapies. This protocol describes a system where fluorescently labeled brain tumor cells are grown on an organotypic brain slice from a juvenile mouse. The response of tumor cells to drug treatments can be studied in this assay, by analyzing changes in the number of cells on the slice over time. In addition, this system can address the nature of the microenvironment that normally fosters growth of brain tumors. This brain tumor organotypic slice co-culture assay provides a propitious system for testing new drugs on human tumor cells within a brain microenvironment. PMID:26575352

  5. Intracranial foreign body granuloma simulating brain tumor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saeidiborojeni, Hamid Reza; Fakheri, Taravat; Iizadi, Babak

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial foreign body granulomas are rarely reported. Clinical symptoms caused by foreign body granulomas can be noticed from months to many years after surgical procedure. The most common reported etiology is suture material. A 45-year-old woman was presented with grand mal epilepsy. She was operated for brain tumor 19 years ago. In CT scan, a round radio-dense mass resembling a tumor at anterior fossa was seen. She underwent craniotomy and resected a granuloma with cotton fibers surrounded by yellow capsule without residual or recurrent tumor. Granuloma can mimic intracranial meningioma and special attention should be paid not to leave cotton pledgets during operations. PMID:22091258

  6. Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics. PMID:22593667

  7. Beyond a bigger brain: Multivariable structural brain imaging and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Corley, Janie; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Gow, Alan J; Royle, Natalie A; Pattie, Alison; Karama, Sherif; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    People with larger brains tend to score higher on tests of general intelligence (g). It is unclear, however, how much variance in intelligence other brain measurements would account for if included together with brain volume in a multivariable model. We examined a large sample of individuals in their seventies (n = 672) who were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery. Using structural equation modelling, we related six common magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain variables that represent normal and abnormal features-brain volume, cortical thickness, white matter structure, white matter hyperintensity load, iron deposits, and microbleeds-to g and to fluid intelligence. As expected, brain volume accounted for the largest portion of variance (~ 12%, depending on modelling choices). Adding the additional variables, especially cortical thickness (+~ 5%) and white matter hyperintensity load (+~ 2%), increased the predictive value of the model. Depending on modelling choices, all neuroimaging variables together accounted for 18-21% of the variance in intelligence. These results reveal which structural brain imaging measures relate to g over and above the largest contributor, total brain volume. They raise questions regarding which other neuroimaging measures might account for even more of the variance in intelligence.

  8. Biomaterial-based technologies for brain anti-cancer therapeutics and imaging.

    PubMed

    Orive, G; Ali, O A; Anitua, E; Pedraz, J L; Emerich, D F

    2010-08-01

    Treating malignant brain tumors represents one of the most formidable challenges in oncology. Contemporary treatment of brain tumors has been hampered by limited drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the tumor bed. Biomaterials are playing an increasingly important role in developing more effective brain tumor treatments. In particular, polymer (nano)particles can provide prolonged drug delivery directly to the tumor following direct intracerebral injection, by making them physiochemically able to cross the BBB to the tumor, or by functionalizing the material surface with peptides and ligands allowing the drug-loaded material to be systemically administered but still specifically target the tumor endothelium or tumor cells themselves. Biomaterials can also serve as targeted delivery devices for novel therapies including gene therapy, photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic and thermotherapy. Nanoparticles also have the potential to play key roles in the diagnosis and imaging of brain tumors by revolutionizing both preoperative and intraoperative brain tumor detection, allowing early detection of pre-cancerous cells, and providing real-time, longitudinal, non-invasive monitoring/imaging of the effects of treatment. Additional efforts are focused on developing biomaterial systems that are uniquely capable of delivering tumor-associated antigens, immunotherapeutic agents or programming immune cells in situ to identify and facilitate immune-mediated tumor cell killing. The continued translation of current research into clinical practice will rely on solving challenges relating to the pharmacology of nanoparticles but it is envisioned that novel biomaterials will ultimately allow clinicians to target tumors and introduce multiple, pharmaceutically relevant entities for simultaneous targeting, imaging, and therapy in a unique and unprecedented manner.

  9. Enhancing the Efficacy of Drug-loaded Nanocarriers against Brain Tumors by Targeted Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Brian C.; Kao, Gary D.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Harada, Takamasa; Swift, Joe; Chapman, Christina; Xu, Xiangsheng; Discher, Dennis E.; Dorsey, Jay F.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common, usually lethal disease with a median survival of only ~15 months. It has proven resistant in clinical trials to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel that are highly effective in vitro, presumably because of impaired drug delivery across the tumor's blood-brain barrier (BBB). In an effort to increase paclitaxel delivery across the tumor BBB, we linked the drug to a novel filomicelle nanocarrier made with biodegradable poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone-r-D,L-lactide) and used precisely collimated radiation therapy (RT) to disrupt the tumor BBB's permeability in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. Using a non-invasive bioluminescent imaging technique to assess tumor burden and response to therapy in our model, we demonstrated that the drug-loaded nanocarrier (DLN) alone was ineffective against stereotactically implanted intracranial tumors yet was highly effective against GBM cells in culture and in tumors implanted into the flanks of mice. When targeted cranial RT was used to modulate the tumor BBB, the paclitaxel-loaded nanocarriers became effective against the intracranial tumors. Focused cranial RT improved DLN delivery into the intracranial tumors, significantly improving therapeutic outcomes. Tumor growth was delayed or halted, and survival was extended by >50% (p<0.05) compared to the results obtained with either RT or the DLN alone. Combinations of RT and chemotherapeutic agents linked to nanocarriers would appear to be an area for future investigations that could enhance outcomes in the treatment of human GBM. PMID:23296073

  10. Assessing Region of Interest Schemes for the Corticospinal Tract in Patients With Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chen; Liu, Xin; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kun; Min, Zhigang; Wang, Maode; Li, Wenfei; Guo, Liping; Lin, Pan; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) techniques are widely used for identifying the corticospinal tract (CST) white matter pathways as part of presurgical planning. However, mass effects in patients with brain tumors tend to cause anatomical distortions and compensatory functional reorganization of the cortex, which may lead to inaccurate mapping of white matter tracts. To overcome these problems, we compared different region-of-interest (ROI) selection schemes to track CST fibers in patients with brain tumors. Our study investigated the CSTs of 16 patients with intracranial tumors. The patients were classified into 3 subgroups according to the spatial relationships of the lesion and the primary motor cortex (PMC)/internal capsule. Specifically, we investigated the key factors that cause distorted tractography in patients with tumors. We compared 3 CST tractography methods that used different ROI selection schemes. The results indicate that CST fiber tracking methods based only on anatomical ROIs could possibly lead to distortions near the PMC region and may be unable to effectively localize the PMC. In contrast, the dual ROI method, which uses ROIs that have been selected from both blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) activation and anatomical landmarks, enabled the tracking of fibers to the motor cortex. The results demonstrate that the dual ROI method can localize the entire CST fiber pathway and can accurately describe the spatial relationships of CST fibers relative to the tumor. These results illustrate the reliability of using fMRI-guided DTT in patients with tumors. The combination of fMRI and anatomical information enhances the identification of tracts of interest in brains with anatomical deformations, which provides neurosurgeons with a more accurate approach for visualizing and localizing white matter fiber tracts in patients with brain tumors. This approach enhances surgical performance and

  11. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  12. Dexamethasone alleviates tumor-associated brain damage and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc-; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage.

  13. Dexamethasone Alleviates Tumor-Associated Brain Damage and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc−; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage. PMID:24714627

  14. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to untargeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging.

  15. Functional data analysis in brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2010-01-01

    Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This paper discusses three statistically challenging problems utilizing FDA techniques in functional brain imaging analysis. These problems are dimension reduction (or feature extraction), spatial classification in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and the inverse problem in magneto-encephalography studies. The application of FDA to these issues is relatively new but has been shown to be considerably effective. Future efforts can further explore the potential of FDA in functional brain imaging studies.

  16. Imaging Brain Development: Benefiting from Individual Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Megha; Foster, Nicholas E.V.; Hyde, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Human brain development is a complex process that evolves from early childhood to young adulthood. Major advances in brain imaging are increasingly being used to characterize the developing brain. These advances have further helped to elucidate the dynamic maturational processes that lead to the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in both typical and atypical development. However, conventional approaches involve categorical group comparison models and tend to disregard the role of widespread interindividual variability in brain development. This review highlights how this variability can inform our understanding of developmental processes. The latest studies in the field of brain development are reviewed, with a particular focus on the role of individual variability and the consequent heterogeneity in brain structural and functional development. This review also highlights how such heterogeneity might be utilized to inform our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders and recommends the use of more dimensional approaches to study brain development. PMID:26648753

  17. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkon, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  18. Life Satisfaction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, life-long deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors’ physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggests some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population–based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors’ general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. PMID:25027187

  19. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  20. Genetic abnormality predicts benefit for a rare brain tumor

    Cancer.gov

    A clinical trial has shown that addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy leads to a near doubling of median survival time in patients with a form of brain tumor (oligodendroglioma) that carries a chromosomal abnormality called the 1p19q co-deletion.

  1. Gene therapy for brain tumors: basic developments and clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Assi, Hikmat; Candolfi, Marianela; Baker, Gregory; Mineharu, Yohei; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2012-10-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest of adult primary brain tumors. Due to its invasive nature and sensitive location, complete resection remains virtually impossible. The resistance of GBM against chemotherapy and radiotherapy necessitate the development of novel therapies. Gene therapy is proposed for the treatment of brain tumors and has demonstrated pre-clinical efficacy in animal models. Here we review the various experimental therapies that have been developed for GBM including both cytotoxic and immune stimulatory approaches. We also review the combined conditional cytotoxic immune stimulatory therapy that our lab has developed which is dependent on the adenovirus mediated expression of the conditional cytotoxic gene, Herpes Simplex Type 1 Thymidine Kinase (TK) and the powerful DC growth factor Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L). Combined delivery of these vectors elicits tumor cell death and an anti-tumor adaptive immune response that requires TLR2 activation. The implications of our studies indicate that the combined cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic strategies are effective strategies to combat deadly brain tumors and warrant their implementation in human Phase I clinical trials for GBM.

  2. Gene Therapy for Brain Tumors: Basic Developments and Clinical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Hikmat; Candolfi, Marianela; Baker, Gregory; Mineharu, Yohei; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest of adult primary brain tumors. Due to its invasive nature and sensitive location, complete resection remains virtually impossible. The resistance of GBM against chemotherapy and radiotherapy necessitate the development of novel therapies. Gene therapy is proposed for the treatment of brain tumors and has demonstrated pre-clinical efficacy in animal models. Here we review the various experimental therapies that have been developed for GBM including both cytotoxic and immune stimulatory approaches. We also review the combined conditional cytotoxic immune stimulatory therapy that our lab has developed which is dependent on the adenovirus mediated expression of the conditional cytotoxic gene, Herpes Simplex Type 1 Thymidine Kinase (TK) and the powerful DC growth factor Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L). Combined delivery of these vectors elicits tumor cell death and an anti-tumor adaptive immune response that requires TLR2 activation. The implications of our studies indicate that the combined cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic strategies are effective strategies to combat deadly brain tumors and warrant their implementation in human Phase I clinical trials for GBM. PMID:22906921

  3. Review on photoacoustic imaging of the brain using nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Depeng; Wu, Yun; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates rich optical contrasts with a high-ultrasonic spatial resolution in deep tissue. Among various imaging applications, PA neuroimaging is becoming increasingly important as it nicely complements the limitations of conventional neuroimaging modalities, such as the low-temporal resolution in magnetic resonance imaging and the low depth-to-resolution ratio in optical microscopy/tomography. In addition, the intrinsic hemoglobin contrast PA neuroimaging has also been greatly improved by recent developments in nanoparticles (NPs). For instance, near-infrared absorbing NPs greatly enhanced the vascular contrast in deep-brain PAT; tumor-targeting NPs allowed highly sensitive and highly specific delineation of brain tumors; and multifunctional NPs enabled comprehensive examination of the brain through multimodal imaging. We aim to give an overview of NPs used in PA neuroimaging. Classifications of various NPs used in PAT will be introduced at the beginning, followed by an overview of PA neuroimaging systems, and finally we will discuss major applications of NPs in PA neuroimaging and highlight representative studies. PMID:26740961

  4. Pulse Coupled Neural Networks for the Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Brain Images.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    RESONANCE BRAIN IMAGES L Introduction 1.1 Introduction Current technology enables the detection , diagnosis, and evaluation of many common and not so common...Thresholding is further used to segment the brain into regions. Edge detection methods are another approach to image segmentation. These meth- ods are...The FCM and AFCM displayed the best results for segmenting normal images while the FFCC provided better segmentation of tumorous regions. The FFCC

  5. Alterations of telomere length in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2011-09-01

    Telomeres at the ends of human chromosomes consist of tandem hexametric (TTAGGG)n repeats, which protect them from degradation. At each cycle of cell division, most normal somatic cells lose approximately 50-100 bp of the terminal telomeric repeat DNA. Precise prediction of growth and estimation of the malignant potential of brain tumors require additional markers. DNA extraction was performed from the 51 frozen tissues, and a non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay was used for Southern blotting. One sample t-test shows highly significant difference in telomere length in meningioma and astrocytoma with normal range. According to our results, higher grades of meningioma and astrocytoma tumors show more heterogeneity in telomere length, and also it seems shortening process of telomeres is an early event in brain tumors.

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Neil V.

    2016-01-01

    Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin's ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors. PMID:27807473

  7. High-resolution whole-brain DCE-MRI using constrained reconstruction: Prospective clinical evaluation in brain tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Lebel, R. Marc; Zhu, Yinghua; Lingala, Sajan Goud; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng; Nayak, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clinically evaluate a highly accelerated T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI technique that provides high spatial resolution and whole-brain coverage via undersampling and constrained reconstruction with multiple sparsity constraints. Methods: Conventional (rate-2 SENSE) and experimental DCE-MRI (rate-30) scans were performed 20 minutes apart in 15 brain tumor patients. The conventional clinical DCE-MRI had voxel dimensions 0.9 × 1.3 × 7.0 mm3, FOV 22 × 22 × 4.2 cm3, and the experimental DCE-MRI had voxel dimensions 0.9 × 0.9 × 1.9 mm3, and broader coverage 22 × 22 × 19 cm3. Temporal resolution was 5 s for both protocols. Time-resolved images and blood–brain barrier permeability maps were qualitatively evaluated by two radiologists. Results: The experimental DCE-MRI scans showed no loss of qualitative information in any of the cases, while achieving substantially higher spatial resolution and whole-brain spatial coverage. Average qualitative scores (from 0 to 3) were 2.1 for the experimental scans and 1.1 for the conventional clinical scans. Conclusions: The proposed DCE-MRI approach provides clinically superior image quality with higher spatial resolution and coverage than currently available approaches. These advantages may allow comprehensive permeability mapping in the brain, which is especially valuable in the setting of large lesions or multiple lesions spread throughout the brain. PMID:27147313

  8. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Gulbahce, Evin; McNally, Joseph; Buys, Saundra S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported. PMID:28203179

  9. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Kelsey; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Johansen, Mette L.; Basilion, James P.; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A.; Flask, Chris A.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

    2016-01-01

    Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents. PMID:27084431

  10. Semiquantitative Analysis Using Thallium-201 SPECT for Differential Diagnosis Between Tumor Recurrence and Radiation Necrosis After Gamma Knife Surgery for Malignant Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi; Takase, Hajime; Ohtake, Makoto; Tomura, Nagatsuki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Sonoda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Semiquantitative analysis of thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl SPECT) was evaluated for the discrimination between recurrent brain tumor and delayed radiation necrosis after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The medical records were reviewed of 75 patients, including 48 patients with metastatic brain tumor and 27 patients with high-grade glioma who underwent GKS in our institution, and had suspected tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis on follow-up neuroimaging and deteriorating clinical status after GKS. Analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT data used the early ratio (ER) and the delayed ratio (DR) calculated as tumor/normal average counts on the early and delayed images, and the retention index (RI) as the ratio of DR to ER. Results: A total of 107 tumors were analyzed with {sup 201}Tl SPECT. Nineteen lesions were removed surgically and histological diagnoses established, and the other lesions were evaluated with follow-up clinical and neuroimaging examinations after GKS. The final diagnosis was considered to be recurrent tumor in 65 lesions and radiation necrosis in 42 lesions. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated significant differences in DR (P=.002) and RI (P<.0001), but not in ER (P=.372), between the tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis groups, and no significant differences between metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas in all indices (P=.926 for ER, P=.263 for DR, and P=.826 for RI). Receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that RI was the most informative index with the optimum threshold of 0.775, which provided 82.8% sensitivity, 83.7% specificity, and 82.8% accuracy. Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT provides useful information for the differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis in metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas after GKS, and the RI may be the most

  11. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children? A risk ... Factors with uncertain, controversial, or unproven effects on brain tumor risk Cell phone use Cell phones give ...

  13. Exploratory Evaluation of MR Permeability with 18F-FDG PET Mapping in Pediatric Brain Tumors: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Ng, Sarah S.; Kocak, Mehmet; Gururangan, Sridharan; Kun, Larry E.; Poussaint, Tina Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of registering 18F-FDG PET with MR permeability images for investigating the correlation of 18F-FDG uptake, permeability, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in children with pediatric brain tumors and their relationship with outcome. Methods Twenty-four children with brain tumors in a phase II study of bevacizumab and irinotecan underwent brain MR and 18F-FDG PET within 2 wk. Tumor types included supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma (n = 7), low-grade glioma (n = 9), brain stem glioma (n = 4), medulloblastoma (n = 2), and ependymoma (n = 2). There were 33 cases (pretreatment only [n = 12], posttreatment only [n = 3], and both pretreatment [n = 9] and posttreatment [n = 9]). 18F-FDG PET images were registered to MR images from the last time point of the T1 perfusion time series using mutual information. Three-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) drawn on permeability images were automatically transferred to registered PET images. The quality of ROI registration was graded (1, excellent; 2, very good; 3, good; 4, fair; and 5, poor) by 3 independent experts. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess correlation of maximum tumor permeability (Kpsmax), maximum CBV (CBVmax), and maximum 18F-FDG uptake normalized to white matter (T/Wmax). Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations of these parameters with progression-free survival (PFS). Results The quality of ROI registration between PET and MR was good to excellent in 31 of 33 cases. There was no correlation of baseline Kpsmax with CBVmax (Spearman rank correlation =0.018 [P =0.94]) or T/Wmax (Spearman rank correlation = 0.07 [P = 0.76]). Baseline CBVmax was correlated with T/Wmax (Spearman rank correlation = 0.47 [P = 0.036]). Baseline Kpsmax, CBVmax, and T/Wmax were not significantly associated with PFS (P = 0.42, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90–1.045, and number of events [nevents] = 15 for Kpsmax; P = 0

  14. Radiation treatment of brain tumors: Concepts and strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has demonstrated clinical value for a multitude of CNS tumors. Application of the different physical modalities available has made it possible for the radiotherapist to concentrate the radiation in the region of the tumor with relative sparing of the surrounding normal tissues. Correlation of radiation dose with effect on cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor has shown increasing effect with increasing dose. By using different physical modalities to alter the distribution of radiation dose, it is possible to increase the dose to the tumor and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. Alteration of the volume irradiated and the dose delivered to cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor are strategies that have been effective in improving survival and decreasing complications. The quest for therapeutic gain using hyperbaric oxygen, neutrons, radiation sensitizers, chemotherapeutic agents, and BNCT has met with limited success. Both neoplastic and normal cells are affected simultaneously by all modalities of treatment, including ionizing radiation. Consequently, one is unable to totally depopulate a tumor without irreversibly damaging the normal tissues. In the case of radiation, it is the brain that limits delivery of curative doses, and in the case of chemical additives, it is other organ systems, such as bone marrow, liver, lung, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. Thus, the major obstacle in the treatment of malignant gliomas is our inability to preferentially affect the tumor with the modalities available. Until it is possible to directly target the neoplastic cell without affecting so many of the adjacent normal cells, the quest for therapeutic gain will go unrealized.72 references.

  15. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudoprogression, Radiation Necrosis and Brain Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Kashif; Parvez, Aatif; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality used in the treatment of patients with brain metastatic disease and malignant gliomas. Post-treatment surveillance often involves serial magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge faced by clinicians is in the diagnosis and management of a suspicious gadolinium-enhancing lesion found on imaging. The suspicious lesion may represent post-treatment radiation effects (PTRE) such as pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis or tumor recurrence. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic imaging modalities to assist in differentiating these entities. Surgical and medical interventions have also been developed to treat PTRE. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging modalities and provide an algorithm for the management of pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. PMID:24995696

  16. Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) for Tumor Imaging and Treatment Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Konofagou, Elisa E; Maleke, Caroline; Vappou, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Palpation is an established screening procedure for the detection of several superficial cancers including breast, thyroid, prostate, and liver tumors through both self and clinical examinations. This is because solid masses typically have distinct stiffnesses compared to the surrounding normal tissue. In this paper, the application of Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) for tumor detection based on its stiffness as well as its relevance in thermal treatment is reviewed. HMI uses a focused ultrasound (FUS) beam to generate an oscillatory acoustic radiation force for an internal, non-contact palpation to internally estimate relative tissue hardness. HMI studies have dealt with the measurement of the tissue dynamic motion in response to an oscillatory acoustic force at the same frequency, and have been shown feasible in simulations, phantoms, ex vivo human and bovine tissues as well as animals in vivo. Using an FUS beam, HMI can also be used in an ideal integration setting with thermal ablation using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), which also leads to an alteration in the tumor stiffness. In this paper, a short review of HMI is provided that encompasses the findings in all the aforementioned areas. The findings presented herein demonstrate that the HMI displacement can accurately depict the underlying tissue stiffness, and the HMI image of the relative stiffness could accurately detect and characterize the tumor or thermal lesion based on its distinct properties. HMI may thus constitute a non-ionizing, cost-efficient and reliable complementary method for noninvasive tumor detection, localization, diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  17. Hemorrhage detection in MRI brain images using images features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

    2013-11-01

    The abnormalities appear frequently on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of brain in elderly patients presenting either stroke or cognitive impairment. Detection of brain hemorrhage lesions in MRI is an important but very time-consuming task. This research aims to develop a method to extract brain tissue features from T2-weighted MR images of the brain using a selection of the most valuable texture features in order to discriminate between normal and affected areas of the brain. Due to textural similarity between normal and affected areas in brain MR images these operation are very challenging. A trauma may cause microstructural changes, which are not necessarily perceptible by visual inspection, but they could be detected by using a texture analysis. The proposed analysis is developed in five steps: i) in the pre-processing step: the de-noising operation is performed using the Daubechies wavelets; ii) the original images were transformed in image features using the first order descriptors; iii) the regions of interest (ROIs) were cropped from images feature following up the axial symmetry properties with respect to the mid - sagittal plan; iv) the variation in the measurement of features was quantified using the two descriptors of the co-occurrence matrix, namely energy and homogeneity; v) finally, the meaningful of the image features is analyzed by using the t-test method. P-value has been applied to the pair of features in order to measure they efficacy.

  18. An unusual manifestation of brain tumor: development of delayed hemiplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Kazuhiro; Hisahara, Manabu; Ando, Yusuke; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral swelling after cardiopulmonary bypass might trigger a critical cerebral consequence resulting from intracranial space-occupying lesion. We experienced a 75-year-old woman who suffered from a delayed left hemiplegia after mitral valve replacement. Urgent diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of a brain tumor with perifocal cerebral edema. Fluid shifts occurring within a few days after the cardiopulmonary bypass, manifesting the focal cerebral edema, played a key role in this unique clinical course.

  19. CT scan of the brain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAT scan (computed tomography) is a much more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray, allowing high definition not only of the bony structures, but of the soft tissues. Clear images of organs such as the brain, muscles, joint structures, veins ...

  20. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  1. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, N.R.; Duara, R.; Creasey, H.; Grady, C.L.; Haxby, J.V.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1984-09-01

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings.

  2. Normalized fluorescence lifetime imaging for tumor identification and margin delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Adria J.; Papour, Asael; Bhargava, Siddharth; Taylor, Zach; Grundfest, Warren S.; Stafsudd, Oscar M.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a technique that has been proven to produce quantitative and qualitative differentiation and identification of substances with good specificity and sensitivity based on lifetime extracted information. This technique has shown the ability to also differentiate between a wide range of tissue types to identify malignant from benign tissue in vivo and ex vivo. However, the complexity, long duration and effort required to generate this information has limited the adoption of these techniques in a clinical setting. Our group has developed a time-resolved imaging system (patent pending) that does not require the extraction of lifetimes or use of complex curve fitting algorithms to display the needed information. The technique, entitled Lifetime Fluorescence Imaging (LFI, or NoFYI), converts fluorescence lifetime decay information directly into visual contrast. Initial studies using Fluorescein and Rhodamine-B demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. Subsequent studies demonstrated the ability to separate collagen and elastin powders. The technique uses nanosecond pulsed UV LEDs at 375 nm for average illumination intensities of ~4.5 μW on the tissue surface with detection by a gated CCD camera. To date, we have imaged 11 surgical head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and brain cancer biopsy specimens including 5 normal and 6 malignant samples. Images at multiple wavelengths clearly demonstrate differentiation between benign and malignant tissue, which was later confirmed by histology. Contrast was obtained between fluorophores with 35 μm spatial resolution and an SNR of ~30 dB allowing us to clearly define tumor margins in these highly invasive cancers. This method is capable of providing both anatomical and chemical information for the pathologist and the surgeon. These results suggest that this technology has a possible role in identifying tumors in tissue specimens and detecting tumor margins

  3. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Walter; Mier, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this—visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. We conclude that the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine. PMID:26042013

  4. Intraoperative mass spectrometry mapping of an onco-metabolite to guide brain tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Eberlin, Livia S.; Norton, Isaiah; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Ide, Jennifer L.; Liu, Xiaohui; Wiley, Joshua S.; Vestal, Matthew L.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Orringer, Daniel A.; Gill, Kristen K.; Dunn, Ian F.; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Ligon, Keith L.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Cooks, R. Graham; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    For many intraoperative decisions surgeons depend on frozen section pathology, a technique developed over 150 y ago. Technical innovations that permit rapid molecular characterization of tissue samples at the time of surgery are needed. Here, using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) MS, we rapidly detect the tumor metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from tissue sections of surgically resected gliomas, under ambient conditions and without complex or time-consuming preparation. With DESI MS, we identify isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutant tumors with both high sensitivity and specificity within minutes, immediately providing critical diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information. Imaging tissue sections with DESI MS shows that the 2-HG signal overlaps with areas of tumor and that 2-HG levels correlate with tumor content, thereby indicating tumor margins. Mapping the 2-HG signal onto 3D MRI reconstructions of tumors allows the integration of molecular and radiologic information for enhanced clinical decision making. We also validate the methodology and its deployment in the operating room: We have installed a mass spectrometer in our Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite and demonstrate the molecular analysis of surgical tissue during brain surgery. This work indicates that metabolite-imaging MS could transform many aspects of surgical care. PMID:24982150

  5. MR imaging of primary tumors of trigeminal nerve and Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Yuh, W T; Wright, D C; Barloon, T J; Schultz, D H; Sato, Y; Cervantes, C A

    1988-09-01

    MR imaging features of 11 primary tumors of the trigeminal nerve and Meckel's cave were analyzed. The tumors consisted of two trigeminal schwannomas, five meningiomas, one lipoma, and three epidermoid tumors. The trigeminal schwannomas had homogeneously decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Three of the five meningiomas had signal intensity similar to that of surrounding brain on both T1- and T2-weighted images. One meningioma had decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The other had relatively low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images owing to heavy calcification demonstrated on CT. The lipoma had homogeneous signal intensity that was isointense with orbital and subcutaneous fat on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The epidermoid tumors had decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and markedly increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In addition, the epidermoids had an insinuating growth pattern and minimal mass effect. The extent of involvement in the trigeminal nerve distribution was well demonstrated in each case. Because of its multiplanar capability, exquisite anatomic detail, and characteristic tissue signal intensity, we conclude that MR is helpful in the differential diagnosis of primary tumors of the trigeminal nerve and Meckel's cave and in the evaluation of tumor involvement for preoperative planning.

  6. Segmentation of tumor and edema along with healthy tissues of brain using wavelets and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Ayşe; Toru, Mustafa; Guler, Inan

    2015-07-01

    Robust brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose tumor and edema in a quantitative way. In this study, we present a new tissue segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues is performed simultaneously with the diseased tissues because examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We used T1, T2, and FLAIR MR images of 20 subjects suffering from glial tumor. We developed an algorithm for stripping the skull before the segmentation process. The segmentation is performed using self-organizing map (SOM) that is trained with unsupervised learning algorithm and fine-tuned with learning vector quantization (LVQ). Unlike other studies, we developed an algorithm for clustering the SOM instead of using an additional network. Input feature vector is constructed with the features obtained from stationary wavelet transform (SWT) coefficients. The results showed that average dice similarity indexes are 91% for WM, 87% for GM, 96% for CSF, 61% for tumor, and 77% for edema.

  7. Comparison of unsupervised classification methods for brain tumor segmentation using multi-parametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Sauwen, N; Acou, M; Van Cauter, S; Sima, D M; Veraart, J; Maes, F; Himmelreich, U; Achten, E; Van Huffel, S

    2016-01-01

    Tumor segmentation is a particularly challenging task in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), as they are among the most heterogeneous tumors in oncology. An accurate delineation of the lesion and its main subcomponents contributes to optimal treatment planning, prognosis and follow-up. Conventional MRI (cMRI) is the imaging modality of choice for manual segmentation, and is also considered in the vast majority of automated segmentation studies. Advanced MRI modalities such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) have already shown their added value in tumor tissue characterization, hence there have been recent suggestions of combining different MRI modalities into a multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) approach for brain tumor segmentation. In this paper, we compare the performance of several unsupervised classification methods for HGG segmentation based on MP-MRI data including cMRI, DWI, MRSI and PWI. Two independent MP-MRI datasets with a different acquisition protocol were available from different hospitals. We demonstrate that a hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization variant which was previously introduced for MP-MRI tumor segmentation gives the best performance in terms of mean Dice-scores for the pathologic tissue classes on both datasets.

  8. Electroretinography and Visual Evoked Potentials in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Sari; Lenko, Hanna L; Oja, Sakari; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Pietilä, Timo; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the clinical value of electroretinography and visual evoked potentials in childhood brain tumor survivors. A flash electroretinography and a checkerboard reversal pattern visual evoked potential (or alternatively a flash visual evoked potential) were done for 51 survivors (age 3.8-28.7 years) after a mean follow-up time of 7.6 (1.5-15.1) years. Abnormal electroretinography was obtained in 1 case, bilaterally delayed abnormal visual evoked potentials in 22/51 (43%) cases. Nine of 25 patients with infratentorial tumor location, and altogether 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who did not have tumors involving the visual pathways, had abnormal visual evoked potentials. Abnormal electroretinographies are rarely observed, but abnormal visual evoked potentials are common even without evident anatomic lesions in the visual pathway. Bilateral changes suggest a general and possibly multifactorial toxic/adverse effect on the visual pathway. Electroretinography and visual evoked potential may have clinical and scientific value while evaluating long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and tumor treatment.

  9. Neurodegeneration in the Brain Tumor Microenvironment: Glutamate in the Limelight

    PubMed Central

    Savaskan, Nicolai E.; Fan, Zheng; Broggini, Thomas; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are characterized by destructive growth and neuronal cell death making them one of the most devastating diseases. Neurodegenerative actions of malignant gliomas resemble mechanisms also found in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent data demonstrate that gliomas seize neuronal glutamate signaling for their own growth advantage. Excessive glutamate release via the glutamate/cystine antiporter xCT (system xc-, SLC7a11) renders cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutics and create the tumor microenvironment toxic for neurons. In particular the glutamate/cystine antiporter xCT takes center stage in neurodegenerative processes and sets this transporter a potential prime target for cancer therapy. Noteworthy is the finding, that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and thereby TRP channels can potentiate glutamate release. Yet another important biological feature of the xCT/glutamate system is its modulatory effect on the tumor microenvironment with impact on host cells and the cancer stem cell niche. The EMA and FDA-approved drug sulfasalazine (SAS) presents a lead compound for xCT inhibition, although so far clinical trials on glioblastomas with SAS were ambiguous. Here, we critically analyze the mechanisms of action of xCT antiporter on malignant gliomas and in the tumor microenvironment. Deciphering the impact of xCT and glutamate and its relation to TRP channels in brain tumors pave the way for developing important cancer microenvironmental modulators and drugable lead targets. PMID:26411769

  10. Ex vivo micro-CT imaging of murine brain models using non-ionic iodinated contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bautista, N.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, J.; Franco-Pérez, J.; Calvillo-Velasco, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical investigation of brain tumors is frequently carried out by means of intracranial implantation of brain tumor xenografts or allografts, with subsequent analysis of tumor growth using conventional histopathology. However, very little has been reported on the use contrast-enhanced techniques in micro-CT imaging for the study of malignant brain tumors in small animal models. The aim of this study has been to test a protocol for ex vivo imaging of murine brain models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after treatment with non-ionic iodinated solution, using an in-house developed laboratory micro-CT. We have found that the best compromise between acquisition time and image quality is obtained using a 50 kVp, 0.5 mAs, 1° angular step on a 360 degree orbit acquisition protocol, with 70 μm reconstructed voxel size using the Feldkamp algorithm. With this parameters up to 4 murine brains can be scanned in tandem in less than 15 minutes. Image segmentation and analysis of three sample brains allowed identifying tumor volumes as small as 0.4 mm3.

  11. Heterogeneous Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability Determines Drug Efficacy in Experimental Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lockman, Paul R.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Taskar, Kunal S.; Rudraraju, Vinay; Gril, Brunilde; Bohn, Kaci A.; Adkins, Chris E.; Roberts, Amanda; Thorsheim, Helen R.; Gaasch, Julie A.; Huang, Suyun; Palmieri, Diane; Steeg, Patricia S.; Smith, Quentin R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastases of breast cancer appear to be increasing in incidence, confer significant morbidity, and threaten to compromise gains made in systemic chemotherapy. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is compromised in many brain metastases, however, the extent to which this influences chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy is unknown. Herein, we answer this question by measuring BTB passive integrity, chemotherapeutic drug uptake, and anticancer efficacy in vivo in two breast cancer models that metastasize preferentially to brain. Experimental Design Experimental brain metastasis drug uptake and BTB permeability were simultaneously measured using novel fluorescent and phosphorescent imaging techniques in immune compromised mice. Drug-induced apoptosis and vascular characteristics were assessed using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Analysis of >2000 brain metastases from two models (human 231-BR-Her2 and murine 4T1-BR5) demonstrated partial BTB permeability compromise in >89% lesions, varying in magnitude within and between metastases. Brain metastasis uptake of 14C- paclitaxel and 14C- doxorubicin was generally greater than normal brain but <15% of that of other tissues or peripheral metastases, and only reached cytotoxic concentrations in a small subset (~10%) of the most permeable metastases. Neither drug significantly decreased the experimental brain metastatic ability of 231-BR-Her2 tumor cells. BTB permeability was associated with vascular remodeling and correlated with over expression of the pericyte protein, desmin. Conclusions This work demonstrates that the BTB remains a significant impediment to standard chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy in experimental brain metastases of breast cancer. New brain permeable drugs will be needed. Evidence is presented for vascular remodeling in BTB permeability alterations. PMID:20829328

  12. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-21

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  13. Cellular phones and risk of brain