Science.gov

Sample records for bran oil diet

  1. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  2. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. Aim In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. Materials and Methods A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student ‘t-’ test. Results The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice

  3. Growth performance of lambs fed diet supplemented with rice bran oil as such or as calcium soap.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Karim, S A; Sahoo, A; Shinde, A K

    2013-06-01

    Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old) were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks) and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group) was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05) in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05), organic matter (p≤0.05) and crude protein (p≤0.05) was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05) content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap) while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001) of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05) and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05) total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05) and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05). It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  4. Long-term supplementation of high pigmented rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L.) on amelioration of oxidative stress and histological changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet; Riceberry bran oil.

    PubMed

    Posuwan, Juthathip; Prangthip, Pattaneeya; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Surasiang, Ruethaithip; Charoensiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem. Searching for alternative natural antioxidants is considered important strategy to manage diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of Riceberry bran oil (RBBO) supplementation on oxidative stress and organ histology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat (HF) diet. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with hyperglycemia were divided into four groups: DM group fed a HF diet alone; DMRL group fed a HF diet and 5% RBBO; DMRM group fed a HF diet and 7.5% RBBO; DMRH group fed a HF diet and 15% RBBO. Normal rats were used as normal control and were divided into NC and NR group fed a normal diet containing either 5% corn oil or 5% RBBO, respectively. After 12 weeks, RBBO significantly decreased malondialdehyde and restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, coenzyme Q(10) and ORAC levels in diabetic rats. RBBO additionally improved the regenerative changes of the pancreas, kidneys, heart and liver. These findings indicate that pigmented RBBO could provide beneficial effect on diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and recovering organ histology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoxidation of Fish Oil Blended with Rice Bran Oil.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shigeo; Takai, Marie; Hayashi, Chieko; Tsuno, Takuo; Endo, Yasushi

    2017-06-01

    Effects of rice bran oil on the oxidative and flavor stability of fish oil were investigated by the gas liquid chromatography-head space method. When fish oil blending with different ratio of rice bran oils was oxidized at room temperature in the dark, volatile compounds produced during autoxidation was measured by gas liquid chromatography. The amounts of volatile compounds were decreased with increased the ratio of blended rice bran oil as well as peroxide value. The level of propanal and acrolein which gave unpleasant flavor was also decreased with increased the ratio of blended rice bran oil. Especially, the level of propanal and acrolein and peroxide value were remarkably decreased when blending more than 75% of rice bran oil. Blending of rice bran oil improved the oxidative and flavor stabilities of fish oil.

  6. Rice bran oil and human health.

    PubMed

    Sugano, M; Tsuji, E

    1996-09-01

    The available data in humans suggest that rice bran oil (RBO) is an edible oil of preference for improving plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles similar to more commonly used vegetable oils. The observation that blending RBO with safflower oil at a specific proportion magnifies the hypocholesterolemic efficacy is of particular interest with regard to utilization of this oil. The occurrence of peculiar components such as gamma-oryzanol and tocotrienols in RBO might be responsible for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  7. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Basavanta; Gloridoss, R. G.; Singh, K. Chandrapal; Prabhu, T. M.; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B. N.; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency. PMID:27047096

  8. Influence of iron on oat-bran and wheat-bran diets in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Moak, S.; Cary, N.; Scott, J.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of oat-bran and wheat-bran fibers on serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin (Hg), and hematocrit (Hct) were studied in 12 adult males during a 35 day metabolic study. One week was an adjustment period. Subjects were then divided into two groups. Group 1 was fed oat-bran and group 2 was fed wheat-bran in addition to the basal diets for 2 weeks. In a second period, oat and wheat-bran were reduced to half and fed the subjects for another 2 weeks. Fasting venous blood was drawn in vacutainers for a total of 6 drawings. Serum was used to determine SI and TIBC. Hg and Hct were measured in whole blood. No significant differences on Hg and Hct were observed. SI was decreased 11.9% in oat-bran group and 32.1% in wheat-bran group from initial value during high bran period. When brans were reduced, SI values increased in both groups (38.5% in oat group and 7.8% in wheat group). TIBC values in oat groups increased slightly during the high bran period, but the increase was higher (30.0%) during the low bran period. Similar trends were shown in wheat-bran group. The percent of saturation was decreased 12.2% in oat and 34.0% in wheat groups during the high bran period. When brans were reduced to half, the percent of saturation increased 6.5% in oat group and -7.1% in wheat group. The percent saturation appeared to have a greater influence on wheat-bran than oat-bran group.

  9. Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Suresh; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Fat-soluble nutraceuticals of cereals are known for number of disease preventive activities. Hence wheat bran oil (WBO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) were extracted from wheat bran and germ which yielded 3.35 % and 7.35 % of oil, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (64 %, 61.2 %) respectively. Both oils contained tocopherols and carotenoids, which were higher in wheat germ oil (273 mg/100 g, 12.23 mg/100 g) than wheat bran oil (190 mg/100 g, 2.21 mg/100 g). Steryl ferulates were also present in both the oils, but their content was eight-fold higher in WBO than in WGO. Three major steryl ferulates identified by HPLC were campesteryl ferulate and sitostenyl ferulate, campestanyl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate as in γ-oryzanol and another ferulate, viz., sitostanyl ferulate. A strong IC50 value of 7.5 mg/mL and 21.6 mg/mL DPPH free radicals scavenging for wheat germ oil for wheat bran oil was observed. NMR ((13)C and (1)H) profile explored the evidence of distribution of antioxidant molecules in the unsaponifiable matter of wheat derived oil. Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending such oils with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries like India may be useful to provide health benefits.

  10. Solvent fractionation of rice bran oil to produce a spreadable rice bran product

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran oil is becoming increasingly popular as a functional ingredient, due to its high stability and health benefits. We detail here a new extraction procedure for the production of a spreadable product derived from rice bran oil. Four different experimental conditions for extraction yielded f...

  11. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  12. Evaluation of stabilized rice bran as an ingredient in dry extruded dog diets.

    PubMed

    Spears, J K; Grieshop, C M; Fahey, G C

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the palatability of stabilized rice bran (SRB) when included in a dry canine diet, and to determine the effects of SRB on food intake, digestion, fecal characteristics, blood lipid characteristics, and selected immune mediators. Experiment 1 tested the palatability of SRB. Diets contained poultry fat in Test 1 and soybean oil in Test 2, in conjunction with either 12% SRB or 12% defatted rice bran (DRB, as-fed basis), and were fed to 20 dogs. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). Food intake data were collected and intake ratios calculated (grams of SRB diet consumed divided by total consumed of both diets). Intake ratios were 0.73 for Test 1 (P < 0.01) and 0.61 for Test 2 (P < 0.14) for SRB diets. Diets in Exp. 2 contained 12% SRB or DRB (as-fed basis), and poultry fat, beef tallow, or poultry fat:soybean oil (50:50) as the main fat sources, and were fed to 36 beagles. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). The effects of SRB and DRB were determined on food intake, digestibility, fecal characteristics, and blood fatty acid, phospholipid, and eicosanoid concentrations. No differences were noted in food intake, digestibility, or fecal characteristics. Fat sources contributed much more to dietary fat than rice bran source; therefore, fat source profiles overwhelmed the rice bran source contribution. Dogs consuming a DRB diet had lower (P < 0.050) plasma phospholipid total monounsaturated fatty acids compared with those consuming a SRB diet (-1.17 vs. 0.95%, respectively), whereas plasma fatty acid concentrations tended (P < 0.119) to decrease more than with SRB diets. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid SFA tended (P < 0.15) to be greater in dogs consuming a beef tallow-containing diet compared with those consuming a poultry fat or poultry fat:soybean oil diet. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid PUFA and n-6 PUFA tended to be greater

  13. Properties of rice bran oil-derived functional ingredients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipid ingredients that demonstrate high stability and positive health profiles without the use of trans-fats are needed in the food supply. Rice bran oil can be fractionated at low temperatures to create a series of spreads that show promise as functional ingredients. A rice bran oil-derived spread ...

  14. Assessment of the quality of bran and bran oil produced from some Egyptian rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Salem, Eglal G; El Hissewy, Ahmed; Agamy, Neveen F; Abd El Barry, Doaa

    2014-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the

  15. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  16. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Rice Bran Oil -the Technology, Manufacture, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.

  17. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  18. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  19. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  20. Enhancement of phosphorus utilization in growing pigs fed phytate-rich diets by using rye bran.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A

    1991-03-01

    Some cereal by-products, such as bran, exhibit a high phytase activity that may enhance phytate P digestibility. This was studied in growing pigs fed a phytase-rich (1,200 IU/kg) diet containing 20% rye bran. The trial involved 12 animals; six were fed a control diet and six were fed a diet containing rye bran for 2 mo. Both diets contained the same levels of energy, protein, Ca (.7%) and total P (.4%). No inorganic P was added; thus, the dietary P was mainly phytic. Pigs fed the control diet, in contrast to those fed the diet containing rye bran, developed a P deficiency, as indicated by hypophosphatemia, hypophosphaturia, hyperhydroxyprolinuria, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria. Phosphorus from the rye bran diet was more completely absorbed (55 vs 36%) and retained (50 vs 36%) than that from the control diet. Calcium absorption was equal for the two diets, but Ca retention was higher in pigs fed rye bran than in controls. Pigs fed the rye bran diet showed greater bone density, ash content, and bending moments than controls. In conclusion, high dietary phytase levels or phytase-rich by-products increased phytate P availability and consequently improved bone scores.

  1. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  2. Antioxidant and sensory properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds that confer health benef...

  3. Heavy metals screening of rice bran oils and its relation to composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran oil contains beneficial compounds that contribute to the high stability of the oil itself, as well as the health of consumers. As a result, rice bran oil has been growing in popularity and is now widely used in many countries. However, concerns have surfaced in recent years related to the ...

  4. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  5. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  6. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  7. Characteristics of esterified rice bran oil converted by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Roh, Myong-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Uk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, esterified rice bran oil (ERBO) was characterized using enzymatic esterification to improve stability, prevent acidification, enhance health-promoting biological activity and generate ω-3 PUFA-rich rice bran oil (RBO). Esterification reactions using RBO and ethanol were performed at 50°C under 200 bar with 3% lipozyme TL-IM (Thermomuces lanuginosa immobilized on silica gel) or RM-IM (Rhizomucor miehei immobilized on ion exchange resin) for 3 hr under supercritical CO2. The molar ratios of ethanol to RBO were 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively. Total lipid contents and acid values decreased (maximum 83.75%),but γ-oryzanol content increased (maximum 41.33%) in esterified RBO (ERBO) prepared using TL-IM or RM-IM. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activity of ERBO prepared by RM-IM atan ethanol to RBO molar ratio of 3 was 0.02 µg µl(-1), which was 63-fold higher than that of α-tocopherol (IC50 =1.25 µg µl(-1)). The anti-inflammatory effect of RM-IM 1:3 hydrolysate of RBO was verified showing its suppressive effect towards iNOS and Cox-2mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, ERBO is a promising source of functional food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Characterization of a rice bran oil structured lipid.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brenda H; Akoh, Casimir C

    2009-04-22

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was enzymatically modified in a continuous packed bed bioreactor to incorporate caprylic acid with Lipozyme RM IM as biocatalyst. The reaction product was purified by short-path distillation. Rice bran oil structured lipid (RBOSL) contained 32.1 mol % caprylic acid. Positional analysis revealed 0.7 mol % caprylic acid at the sn-2 position and 47.8 mol % caprylic acid at the sn-1,3 positions. Composition of free fatty acids and smoke point of RBO and RBOSL were not significantly different. Saponification value, iodine value, and viscosity of RBO were significantly different from those of RBOSL. The color of RBOSL was darker, more yellow and less green than RBO. Volatile compounds in RBO and RBOSL were determined by GC-MS. Melting onset temperatures of RBO and RBOSL were not significantly different, while melting end point temperatures and melting enthalpies were significantly different. This characterization study results will help determine potential food applications of RBOSL.

  9. Hydrolysis of rice bran oil using an immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa in isooctane.

    PubMed

    Murty, V Ramachandra; Bhat, Jayadev; Muniswaran, P K A

    2004-04-01

    The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil in isooctane by immobilized Candida rugosa lipase in a batch reactor showed competitive inhibition by isooctane with a dissociation constant, K1, of 0.92 M. Continuous hydrolysis of rice bran oil was performed in recycling, packed bed reactor with 4352 U of immobilized lipase; the optimum recycle ratio was 9 and the operational half-life was 360 h without isooctane but 288 h with 25% (v/v) isooctane in rice bran oil.

  10. Lipid profile of rats fed blends of rice bran oil in combination with sunflower and safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, T; Manorama, R; Rukmini, C

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of blended oils, i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich vegetable oils like safflower oil (SFO) and sunflower oil (SNO) with the unconventional and hypocholesterolemic rice bran oil (RBO) on the serum lipid profile of rats. Rats fed RBO+SNO/SFO at 70:30 ratio for a period of 28 days showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in animals fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) and cholesterol free diet (CFD). Liver total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were also reduced. Fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was increased with use of RBO blends. RBO, which is rich in tocopherols and tocotrienols, may improve the oxidative stability of the blends. Tocotrienols are known to inhibit 3-hydroxy, 3-methyl, glutaryl CoA (HMG-COA) reductase (rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis), resulting in hypocholesterolemia. In addition to improving the lipid profile by lowering TC, TG and LDL-C and increasing HDL-C, blending of RBO with other oils can result in an economic advantage of lower prices.

  11. Effect of corn bran and steep inclusion in finishing diets on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance.

    PubMed

    Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W

    2013-08-01

    One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P < 0.01). Total tract DM and OM digestibility were greater for heifers fed CON than the by-product diets (P < 0.01). Dry matter and NDF ruminal disappearance (%/h) of corn bran were numerically less for cattle fed the CON diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P < 0.01). However, in Exp. 3, no differences in percent N loss were detected among treatments (P = 0.16), but more N was removed in the manure from pens where steers were fed by-products (P = 0.01). Although steep did not improve diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.

  12. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  13. Elephant grass, sugarcane, and rice bran in diets for confined sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; do Carmo, Danilo Moreira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Mezzomo, Rafael; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of diets, based on elephant grass or sugarcane as roughage and corn meal or rice bran as energy concentrate, on performance and body composition in terms of diet intake and digestibility. A total of 30 Santa Ines crossbreds (SIC), castrated male sheep with 19.8 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight (BW) were used. Six animals were slaughtered at the onset of the experiment to estimate the initial body composition for the other animals. The remaining 24 animals were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, with four treatments (two roughages and two concentrates) and six replicates. The sheep were slaughtered when they reached 30.0 kg BW. Elephant grass diets provided higher intake and digestibility than sugarcane diets for the following contents: dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre, minerals, total carbohydrates (TC), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Among the concentrates, corn meal diets were associated with higher intakes than rice bran diets for the following contents: DM, OM, CP, TC, and TDN. Animals from all of the treatments exhibited low average daily weight gain and low protein and high fat and energy body levels. Sugarcane and rice bran can be used as ingredients in diets for sheep with low weight gain potential. Regardless of roughage or concentrate types used in diets for confined SIC sheep, performance and body composition remained unaltered.

  14. Anti-complement activity of essential oils from red and black rice bran.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yeo, Min-A; Kim, Sun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-05-01

    The volatile essential oils from red and black rice bran were obtained by hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus, and the components of that oil were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The present study involved characterizing the chemical compositions, their amounts and the anti-complement activities of red and black rice bran. The red rice bran essential oils yield was 0.031%, and GC-MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were (E)-β-ocimene (3.12%), nonanal (11.32%), (2E, 4E)-decadienal (2.54%), myristic acid (41.32%), geranyactone (2.41%) and methyl oleate (2.46%). The black rice bran essential oils yield was 0.053%, and GC-MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were nonanal (8.31%), acrylic acid (3.21%), 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde (2.81%), pelargonic acid (4.21%) and myrisitc acid (28.07%). The essential oils showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 246 ppm (red rice bran) and 193 ppm (black rice bran). Also, myristic acid, nonanal, (E)-β-ocimene and pelargonic acid were tested against complement system. Pelargonic acid was shown to moderate activity (50% inhibitory concentration = 132 μM).

  15. Impact of novel sorghum bran diets on DSS-induced colitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Repeated bouts of inflammation are known to promote colon cancer. We have reported that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets decrease formation of colon aberrant crypt foci, however, little is known regarding their effect during colonic inflammation. Objective. We hypothesized that sorgh...

  16. Variable development rate and survival of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on wheat bran diet and almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of laboratory and field studies were conducted using three lines of navel orangeworm (NOW) reared on wheat bran diet, pistachios, and almonds at constant and fluctuating temperature. The duration of development, measured in degree-days Celsius (DD°C) differed significantly among the three ...

  17. Influence of rice bran stearin on stability, properties and encapsulation efficiency of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR)-stabilized water-in-rice bran oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Prichapan, Nattapong; McClements, David Julian; Klinkesorn, Utai

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, rice bran stearin was used to improve the physical stability and encapsulation efficiency of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions fabricated from rice bran oil and polyglycerol polyricinoleate ester (PGPR). In the absence of rice bran stearin, the emulsions were highly unstable to phase separation with an oil layer forming on their surfaces. Phase separation was delayed by increasing the PGPR concentration because this reduced the water droplet size. Phase separation could be completely inhibited by replacement of 30 to 45wt% of rice bran oil with rice bran stearin due to the formation of a semi-solid fat crystal network that prevented droplet movement. Moreover, addition of rice bran stearin delayed the release of ferrous sulfate from the W/O emulsions. These results demonstrate that rice bran stearin can be used to improve the stability and encapsulation efficiency of W/O emulsions and reduce the level of PGPR required to stabilize them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (P<0.05) in the myristic, palmitic and stearic acid composition was observed during the repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  19. Biobutanol production from rice bran and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    PubMed

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2012-06-01

    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.

  20. Effects of rice bran oil enriched with n-3 PUFA on liver and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajni; Sambaiah, Kari

    2009-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare different structured lipids (SL) from rice bran oil (RBO) by replacing some of the fatty acids with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from linseed oil (LSO) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from cod liver oil (CLO). In one SL, the ALA content was 20% whereas in another the long chain n-3 PUFA content was 10%. Most of the n-3 PUFA were incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol. The influence of SL with RBO rich in ALA and EPA + DHA was studied on various lipid parameters in experimental animals. Rats fed RBO showed a decrease in total serum cholesterol by 10% when compared to groundnut oil (GNO). Similarly structured lipids with CLO and LSO significantly decreased total serum cholesterol by 19 and 22% respectively compared to rice bran oil. The serum TAGs level of rats fed SLs and blended oils were also significantly decreased by 14 and 17% respectively compared to RBO. Feeding of an n-3 PUFA rich diet resulted in the accumulation of long chain n-3 PUFA in various tissues and a reduction in the long chain n-6 PUFA. These studies indicate that the incorporation of ALA and EPA + DHA into RBO can offer health benefits.

  1. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Fractional extraction of rice-bran oil and its esters with supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Norio; Ikushima, Yutaka; Hatakeda, Kiyotaka; Ito, Shota; Asano, Takashi; Goto, Tomio )

    1993-04-01

    The fractional extraction of rice-bran oil and its esters with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied at 313-373 K and 8.2-19.8 MPa, using an entrainer or a separation column. A column was effective for fractionating the fatty acids in the extracted rice-bran oil, while an entrainer enhanced the extraction efficiency of the rice-bran oil. No significant difference existed in the fatty acid composition of the oils extracted with supercritical CO[sub 2] alone and supercritical CO[sub 2] containing an entrainer. The degree of fractionation of the fatty acid esters from rice-bran oil increased with the temperature in the column. At 343 K, the proportion of palmitate in the extracts reached a maximum of 86% in the early fractions, but oleate and linoleate were not fractionated. The use of a column packed with silica gel-supported silver nitrate was extremely effective for fractionating fatty acid esters. Palmitate and oleate, which constituted 94% and 91% of the fatty acid esters in the initial rice-bran oil esters, were recovered in 91% and 81% purity, respectively, but the degree of recovery and the purity were both lower with linoleate than with oleate.

  3. Fatty acid composition of lymphocytes and macrophages from rats fed fiber-rich diets: a comparison between oat bran- and wheat bran-enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Felippe, C R; Calder, P C; Vecchia, M G; Campos, M R; Mancini-Filho, J; Newsholme, E A; Curi, R

    1997-06-01

    The effect of oat bran- (OBD) and wheat bran-enriched diets (WBD) on fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids of rat lymphocytes and macrophages was investigated. In neutral lipids of lymphocytes, OBD reduced the proportion of palmitoleic acid (48%), whereas WBD reduced by 43% palmitoleic acid and raised oleic (18%), linoleic (52%), and arachidonic (2.5-fold) acids. In neutral lipids of macrophages, OBD increased palmitic (16%) and linoleic (29%) acids and slightly decreased oleic acid (15%). The effect of WBD, however, was more pronounced: It reduced myristic (60%), stearic (24%) and arachidonic (63%) acids, and it raised palmitic (30%) and linoleic (2.3-fold) acids. Neither OBD nor WBD modified the composition of fatty acids in phospholipids of lymphocytes. In contrast, both diets had a marked effect on composition of fatty acids in macrophage phospholipids. OBD raised the proportion of myristic (42%) and linoleic (2.4-fold) acids and decreased that of lauric (31%), palmitoleic (43%), and arachidonic (29%) acids. WBD increased palmitic (18%) and stearic (23%) acids and lowered palmitoleic (35%) and arachidonic (78%) acids. Of both cells, macrophages were more responsive to the effect of the fiber-rich diets on fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The high turnover of fatty acids in macrophage membranes may explain the differences between both cells. The modifications observed due to the effects of both diets were similar in few cases: an increase in palmitic and linoleic acids of total neutral lipids occurred and a decrease in palmitoleic and arachidonic acids of phospholipid. Therefore, the mechanism involved in the effect of both diets might be different.

  4. Effects of rice bran oil on the blood lipids profiles and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Ya-Yen; Chang, Jui-Hung; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rice bran oil consumption on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a placebo group or a rice bran oil group. The placebo group consumed 250 mL soybean oil-modified milk (18 g soybean oil) daily for 5 weeks, and the rice bran oil group consumed 250 mL rice bran oil modified milk (18 g rice bran oil) daily for 5 weeks. At week 0 and week 5, anthropometric measurements, hematology tests, and an oral-glucose-tolerance test were conducted. The results showed that the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the area under the curve for postprandial serum insulin, and serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increased significantly in the placebo group. In the rice bran oil group, fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose concentrations and the area under the curve for postprandial plasma glucose increased significantly; however, total serum cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly. However, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance was not significantly different. Consumption of 18 g rice bran oil modified milk daily for 5 weeks significantly decreased total serum cholesterol concentrations and tended to decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, no significant influence on insulin resistance was observed.

  5. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-05-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil.

  6. Degradation of tocopherols in rice bran oil submitted to heating at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bruscatto, M H; Zambiazi, R C; Sganzerla, M; Pestana, V R; Otero, D; Lima, R; Paiva, F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the stability of alpha-, (gamma+beta)-, and delta-tocopherols in rice bran oil chemically refined submitted to heating in a heater without air circulation and shielded from light, at temperatures of 100 degrees C and 180 degrees C. The collection of samples took place after 48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 336, and 432 h of heating and were stored in amber-colored flasks and frozen (-18 degrees C). The analyses of tocopherols took place in accordance with the method by Chen and Bergman (2005), with slight modifications, utilizing a system of high efficiency system of liquid chromatography. It was observed that the alpha-tocopherol is present at higher concentration in rice bran oil (328.4 mg/kg), followed by (gamma+beta)-tocopherol (99.1 mg/kg), and delta-tocopherol (7.7 mg/kg). The alpha-tocopherol in rice bran oil submitted to 100 degrees C showed a reduction of 28.65% at the end of 432 h of heating whereas when submitted to 180 degrees C temperature; its reduction was of 100% at the end of 240 h of heating. The contents of (gamma+beta)- and delta-tocopherol in rice bran oil at the end of 432 h of heating at 100 degrees C was of 79.9 and 6.4 mg/100 g, respectively.

  7. Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Agil, Rania; Patterson, Zachary R.; Mackay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso; Hosseinian, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects. PMID:28231100

  8. Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking characteristics, texture properties, and viscosity of low-fat meat batters were analyzed. The moisture, protein, ash content, uncooked and cooked pH values, b(∗)-value, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and viscosity of meat batters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control. In addition, batters supplemented with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber had lower cooking loss and better emulsion stability. Low-fat meat batters with reduced pork fat content (10%) and 10% vegetable oil plus rice bran fiber had improved characteristics relative to the regular fat control.

  9. Comparative Studies between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Extraction for Rice Bran Oil.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Himanshu S; Pratap, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer.

  10. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  11. Experimental study on identifying main component in rice bran oil with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Zhao, Xiao-li; Li, Jian-rui

    2009-07-01

    The absorption spectra of rice bran oil in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz timedomain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room temperature in nitrogen atmosphere. It is found that hexadecanoidc acid and octadecanoic acid contained in rice bran oil has the spectral response to terahertz waves in this frequency region. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using DFT methods with the aid of Gaussian03. The experimental spectra are well comparable with the calculated spectra and these results mutually validated both approaches. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results. The research results prove the feasibility of applying THz-TDS technique to detect and identify of main component of edible oil. Furthermore, the result s provided in this paper will help us to study the THz application to food quality evaluation or safety inspection further.

  12. [Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis of Rice Bran Oil Adulteration Based on Laser Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Song, Zhi-qiang; Zheng, Xiao; Zeng, Lu-lu; Yin, Cheng; He, Dong-ping; Qi, Pei-shi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to have qualitative-quantitative analysis on the adulteration in rice bran oil by near-infrared spectroscopy analytical technology combined with chemo metrics methods. The author configured 189 adulterated oil samples according to the different mass ratios by selecting rice bran oil as base oil and choosing soybean oil, corn oil, colza oil, and waste oil of catering industry as adulterated oil. Then, the spectral data of samples was collected by using near-infrared spectrometer, and it was pre-processed through the following methods, including without processing, Multiplicative Scatter Correction(MSC), Orthogonal Signal Correction(OSC), Standard Normal Variate and Standard Normal Variate transformation DeTrending(SNV_DT). Furthermore, this article extracted characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from the pre-processed date by Successive Projections Algorithm(SPA), established qualitatively classified calibration methods of adulterated oil through classification method of Support Vector Machine(SVM), optimized model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal process condition. In extracting characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from pretreatment by Backward interval Partial Least Squares(BiPLS) and SPA, quantitatively classified calibration models of adulterated oil through Partial Least Squares(PLS) and Support Vector Machine Regression(SVR) was established respectively. In the end, the author optimized the combination of model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal parameter model. According to the analysis, the accuracy of prediction set and calibration set for SVC model reached 95% and 100% respectively. Compared with the prediction of the adulteration oil content of rice bran oil which was established by the PLS model, the SVR model is the better one, although both of them could implement the content prediction. Furthermore, the correlation

  13. Antioxidant activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cheetangdee, Nopparat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2015-05-01

    Recently, utilization of natural antioxidants in food processing has been of growing interest, owing to the concerns of health hazards of synthetic agents. Protein hydrolysates are a potent candidate for this purpose. In this work, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with various degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were prepared, and their antioxidant activities in soybean oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion were examined. With increasing DH, RBPH showed increasing antioxidant activities, as evidenced by the increases in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous chelating activity (P < 0.05). The improved activity was associated with increasing surface hydrophobicity (SoANS). After hydrolysis for 60 min, the content of hydrophobic amino acids was increased. When RBPH with various DH were incorporated into bulk soybean oil and O/W emulsion stored at 37 °C for up to 15 days, lipid oxidation was successfully retarded, especially when DH increased. The efficiency in prevention of oxidation was dose dependent (0-10 g L(-1)), as indicated by the lower peroxide value and thiobarbituric reactive substances. The present work suggests that RBPH might be potently employed as a natural antioxidant in both bulk oil and emulsion models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  15. Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S.; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8 h), and reaction temperatures (60–120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

  16. Minor Constituents in Rice Bran Oil and Sesame Oil Play a Significant Role in Modulating Lipid Homeostasis and Inflammatory Markers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yalagala, Poorna C R; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Ramaprasad, Talahalli Ravichandra; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of feeding rats with groundnut oil (GNO), rice bran oil (RBO), and sesame oil (SESO) on serum lipids, liver lipids, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10 wt% of GNO, RBO, and SESO in the form of native (N) and minor constituent-removed (MCR) oils. Rats given RBO and SESO showed significant reduction in serum and liver lipids, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, cytokines in liver, and eicosanoids in leukocytes as compared with the rats given GNO and MCR oils. The rats fed with native oils of RBO and SESO showed an upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and downregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These effects of native oil were significantly compromised when rats were given MCR oils. In conclusion, the minor constituents significantly support the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties of RBO and SESO.

  17. Nanoencapsulation of rice bran oil increases its protective effects against UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; da Silva, Cássia Regina; de Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Cabreira, Thaíssa Nunes; de Bona da Silva, Cristiane; Ferreira, Juliano; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2015-06-01

    Excessive UV-B radiation by sunlight produces inflammatory and oxidative damage of skin, which can lead to sunburn, photoaging, and cancer. This study evaluated whether nanoencapsulation improves the protective effects of rice bran oil against UVB radiation-induced skin damage in mice. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing rice bran oil were prepared, and had mean size around 200 nm, negative zeta potential (∼-9 mV), and low polydispersity index (<0.20). In order to allow application on the skin, a hydrogel containing the nanoencapsulated rice bran oil was prepared. This formulation was able to prevent ear edema induced by UVB irradiation by 60 ± 9%, when compared with a hydrogel containing LNC prepared with a mixture of medium chain triglycerides instead of rice bran oil. Protein carbonylation levels (biomarker of oxidative stress) and NF-κB nuclear translocation (biomarker of pro-inflammatory and carcinogenesis response) were reduced (81% and 87%, respectively) in animals treated with the hydrogel containing the nanoencapsulated rice bran oil. These in vivo results demonstrate the beneficial effects of nanoencapsulation to improve the protective properties of rice bran oil on skin damage caused by UVB exposure.

  18. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO3 and NH4H2PO4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (An-) and anaerobic (A0-) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, An- and early A0-stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A0-stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  19. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  20. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    PubMed

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  1. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:21952107

  2. Determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Zigoneanu, I G; Williams, L; Xu, Z; Sabliov, C M

    2008-07-01

    Rice bran oil was extracted by microwave-assisted extraction with isopropanol and hexane using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w). The experiments were done in triplicate at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 degrees C with a total extraction time of 15 min/sample. The oil components were separated by normal-phase HPLC and quantified with a fluorescence detector. The radical scavenging capability of the oil was tested with DPPH and was expressed as mumol Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Activity. The increase in total vitamin E with temperature from 40 to 120 degrees C was 59.63% for isopropanol and 342.01% for hexane. Isopropanol was the best solvent for the extraction of gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol as compared with hexane for both microwave-assisted and conventional solvent extraction. Isopropanol was better for oil yield extraction at high temperatures. Samples extracted with isopropanol at 120 degrees C had higher antioxidant activity. No differences in oil yield, total vitamin E, and antioxidant activity of oil was noticed between the two methods (microwave-assisted and solvent extractions), at 40 degrees C. No degradation of alpha-tocopherol was noticed during the process.

  3. Crystallization kinetics of organogels prepared by rice bran wax and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Lakmali Samuditha K; Kodali, Dharma R; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran wax (RBX) obtained during rice bran oil purification can form organogels in edible oils. The kinetics of crystallization and the viscous properties of RBX organogels were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscosity changes with varying temperature, hardness measurements by penetrometry, and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). The organogels were prepared by RBX in concentrations of 1%, 3%, 6%, and 10% on a weight basis in salad oil, olive oil, and camellia oil. The liquid oil type had no significant effect on the melting and crystallization temperatures of the RBX. However, the viscosity and the texture of the organogels differed with liquid oil type, temperature, and RBX concentration. Changes in the viscosity of the RBX organogels were monitored during cooling from 80°C to 20°C. Drastic viscosity changes occurred in accordance with the onset of crystallization in DSC thermographs obtained at a rate of 5°C/min. RBX in the olive oil and camellia oil mixtures had higher viscosity than RBX in the salad oil mixture, which correlates with the hardness obtained in texture measurements at 20°C. SR-XRD was used to clarify the crystal structures of the building blocks of the RBX organogels in salad oil. It was found that the RBX formed crystals with a long spacing of 7.3 ± 1 nm and short spacings of 0.41 ± 1 nm and 0.37 ± 1 nm. The intensity of the long-spacing pattern was remarkably weaker than that of the short-spacing patterns, which demonstrated strong anisotropy in the crystal growth of RBX crystal particles.

  4. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products.

  5. Physico-chemical changes in rice bran oil during heating at frying temperature.

    PubMed

    Latha, Rangaswamy Baby; Nasirullah, D R

    2014-02-01

    Rice bran oil was subjected to static heating at 180 + 2°C in a domestic fryer for 8 h in this process 150 ml of the heated oil samples were drawn, at intervals of every 2 h, to study the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics. Results indicated that the peroxide value and free fatty acid content increased gradually from 0.2 to 2.9 Meq.O2/kg of oil and 0.25 to 0.63% respectively. The oil became darker as given by the colour value (5R + Y) 63 Lovibond units. Tocopherol content was found to decrease from 48 mg/100gram to 5 mg/100gram at the end of 8 h of heating whereas, oryzanol was fairly stable (1.59 to 1.40%). The p-anisidine value and Total polar compound (TPC) increased from 5.04 to 18.30 and 1.0 to1.8% respectively, showing the formation of secondary oxidation products. Rice bran oil is a non-Newtonian fluids having shear thinning behavior. Heating was found to cause an increase in the flow behavior index. Fatty acid composition did not show significant changes except for the linoleic acid content which decreased from 29.4 to 27.1%.

  6. Rice bran prevents high-fat diet-induced inflammation and macrophage content in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Justo, Maria Luisa; Claro, Carmen; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M; Herrera, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory process associated with obesity mainly arises from white adipose tissue (WAT) alterations. In the last few years, nutritional-based strategies have been positioned as promising alternatives to pharmacological approaches against these pathologies. Our aim was to determine the potential of a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE)-supplemented diet in the prevention of metabolic, biochemical and functional adipose tissue and macrophage changes associated with a diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat diet (HF), 1 and 5 % RBEE-supplemented high-fat diet (HF1 % and HF5 %, respectively) and standard diet as control. Serum cardiometabolic parameters, adipocytes size and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and macrophage polarization-related genes from WAT and liver were evaluated. RBEE administration significantly decreased insulin resistance in obese mice. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and nitrites from treated mice were partially restored, mainly by 1 % RBEE-enriched diet. The incremented adipocytes size observed in HF group was reduced by RBEE treatment, being 1 % more effective than 5 % RBEE. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers in WAT such as IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly decreased in RBEE-treated mice. Adiponectin, PPARγ, TNF-α, Emr1 or M1/M2 levels were significantly restored in WAT from HF1 % compared to HF mice. RBEE-supplemented diet attenuated insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and morphological and functional alterations of adipose tissue in DIO mice. These benefits were accompanied by a modulating effect in adipocytes secretion and some biomarkers associated with macrophage polarization. Therefore, RBEE may be considered an alternative nutritional complement over metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  7. Biological activities and chemical content of Sung Yod rice bran oil extracted by expression and soxhlet extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Uttama, Sakuntala; Itharat, Arunpomrn; Rattarom, Rujiluk; Makchuchit, Sunita; Panthong, Sumalee; Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch

    2014-08-01

    Sung Yod rice is a red-violet pigmented rice and grown in the southern part of Thailand. Its rice bran oil has attracted the attention ofscientists who have described anti-oxidant properties ofsome ingredients in Sung Yod rice bran oil. Normally, extraction methods ofcommercial product from rice bran oil are by expression or soxhlet extraction with hexane. Thus, biological activities of Sung Yod rice bran oil related to health and chemical content ofrice bran oilfrom the two methods should be studied. The objectives of this research were to investigate for biological activities and chemical content ofSung Yod rice bran oil obtainedfrom expression or soxhlet extraction method. Biological activities such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were investigated. Sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines: lung (COR-L23), cervical (HeLa), prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) and normal human lung cells (MRC-5). The inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RA W264. 7 cell lines was usedfor the determination of anti-inflammatory effect. DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assay were carried outfor antioxidant activity. Total phenolic compound was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. y-oryzanol and vitamin E content were determined by HPLC. Sung Yod rice bran oil was produced by expression method (EX) or by soxhlet extraction method using hexane (SXH-I). The percentage ofyield ofSung Yod rice bran oil by EX and SXH were 2.16 and 15.23 %w/w, respectively. Only EX showed the selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells (PC-3), (IC50 = 52.06±1.60 μg/ml). It also exhibited high inhibitory effects on NO production (IC50 = 30.09 μg/ml). In contrast, SXH had no anti-inflammatory effect and cytotoxic activity against any of the cancer cells. EXshowed higher antioxidant activity determined using DPPH compared to SXH. It also showed higher amount of yoryzanol and

  8. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  9. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  10. Microvascular disorders in obese Zucker rats are restored by a rice bran diet.

    PubMed

    Justo, M L; Claro, C; Vila, E; Herrera, M D; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R

    2014-05-01

    Nutritional-based approaches aimed to prevent microvascular dysfunction associated to obesity present potential advantages over pharmacological strategies. Our aim was to test whether a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE)-supplemented diet could attenuate microvascular alterations in obese rats. Lean and obese Zucker rats were fed standard diet supplemented or not with 1% and 5% RBEE for 20 weeks. Functional studies were performed in small mesenteric arteries in isometric myograph. Immunoblotting and fluorescence studies were made in arterial homogenates and arterial sections, respectively. RBEE-supplementation restored microvascular function in obese rats through a marked increase in NO and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor contribution by up-regulation of eNOS and calcium-activated potassium channels expression, respectively, in association to a substantial reduction of microvascular inflammation and superoxide anion formation. These data agrees with the beneficial actions of RBEE on dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension in obesity. The multi-factorial properties of RBEE-diet, especially for restoring the function of small resistance arteries shows this dietary-based approach to be a promising candidate for prevention of microvascular alterations in obesity, which are crucial in cardiovascular events in obese subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rice bran enzymatic extract-supplemented diets modulate adipose tissue inflammation markers in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Candiracci, Manila; Justo, Maria Luisa; Castaño, Angelica; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipokine production deregulation. Obesity also is characterized by oxidative stress related to inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dietary supplementation with a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE), rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties, would ameliorate the inflammatory state existing in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats. Obese Zucker rats and their littermate controls, lean Zucker rats ages 8 wk, were daily fed an enriched diet with either 1% or 5% RBEE supplementation over 20 wk. Measurement of adipocyte size and mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules from visceral abdominal/epididymal tissue was performed. An RBEE-supplemented diet decreased the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the overproduction of IL-6 and iNOs in visceral abdominal adipose tissue and visceral epididymal adipose tissue, respectively. An RBEE-supplemented diet modified the adipocyte-size distribution pattern in both abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue, shifting it toward smaller cell sizes. Chronic administration of a novel water-soluble RBEE, rich in polyphenols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol, could be a suitable treatment to ameliorate the obesity-associated proinflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzyme use in kibble diets formulated with wheat bran for dogs: effects on processing and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sá, F C; Vasconcellos, R S; Brunetto, M A; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there is an interest in technologies that favour the use of coproducts for animal nutrition. The effect of adding two enzyme mixtures in diets for dogs formulated with wheat bran (WB) was evaluated. Two foods with similar compositions were formulated: negative control (NC; without WB) and test diet (25% of WB). The test diet was divided into four treatments: without enzyme (positive control), enzyme mixture 1 (ENZ1; added before extrusion β-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, glucoamylase, phytase); enzyme mixture 2 (ENZ2; added before extrusion the ENZ1 more α-amylase); enzyme mixture 2 added after the extrusion (ENZ2ex). ENZ1 and ENZ2 were used to evaluate the enzyme effect on extruder pre-conditioner (processing additive) and ENZ2ex to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation for the animal. Digestibility was measured through total collection of faeces and urine. The experiment followed a randomized block design with five treatments (diets) and six dogs per diet, totalling 30 dogs (7.0 ± 1.2 years old and 11.0 ± 2.2 kg of body weight). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test and orthogonal contrasts (p < 0.05). Reducing sugars showed an important reduction after extrusion, suggesting the formation of carbohydrate complexes. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid-hydrolysed fat and energy was higher in NC than in diets with WB (p < 0.001), without effects of enzyme additions. WB diets resulted in higher faecal production and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and reduced pH and ammonia concentration (p < 0.01), with no effect of enzyme addition. The enzyme addition did not result in improved digestibility of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides; however, only ATTD was measured and nutrient fermentation in the large intestine may have interfered with the results obtained. WB modified fermentation product formation in the colon of dogs

  13. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  14. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  15. Textural and viscoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran, and walnut.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Xiong, Y L; Castillo, M; Payne, F A; Garrido, M D

    2012-09-01

    Textural, rheological and microstructural properties of frankfurters made with 20% pork backfat, 20% canola or 20% canola-olive (3:1) oils, including rice bran (RB) and walnut extract (WE) as macronutrients (2.5%) were investigated. Textural parameters, including hardness, gumminess and rupture-force, were highly (P<0.05) influenced by the fat-oil composition. Addition of RB or WE in vegetable oil emulsions improved textural consistency (P<0.05). However, RB addition reduced gelling capacity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between fiber and oil droplets. Vegetable oil addition favored gel network formation, and, when combined with WE, showed the highest improvement of gel elasticity. These textural and gelling properties were corroborated by frankfurter micrographs, which revealed interactions between vegetable oils, RB, or WE with protein matrix and fat globules affecting these parameters. The results suggest that functional plant-derived ingredients can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved nutrition and as well as textural quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. PMID:25182282

  17. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  18. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  19. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    PubMed

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  20. GC-TOF-MS-based serum metabolomic investigations of naked oat bran supplementation in high-fat-diet-induced dyslipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiaojiao; Jing, Lulu; Ma, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Guo, Qianying; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to explore the metabolic response of oat bran consumption in dyslipidemic rats by a high-throughput metabolomics approach. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: N group (normal chow diet), M group (dyslipidemia induced by 4-week high-fat feeding, then normal chow diet), OL group and OH group (dyslipidemia induced, then normal chow diet supplemented with 10.8% or 43.4% naked oat bran). Intervention lasted for 12weeks. Gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify serum metabolite profiles. Results confirmed the effects of oat bran on improving lipidemic variables and showed distinct metabolomic profiles associated with diet intervention. A number of endogenous molecules were changed by high-fat diet and normalized following supplementation of naked oat bran. Elevated levels of serum unsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (Log2Fold of change=0.70, P=.02 OH vs. M group), palmitoleic acid (Log2Fold of change=1.24, P=.02 OH vs. M group) and oleic acid (Log2Fold of change=0.66, P=.04 OH vs. M group) were detected after oat bran consumption. Furthermore, consumption of oat bran was also characterized by higher levels of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine. Pathway exploration found that most of the discriminant metabolites were involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis and metabolism of amino acids, microbial metabolism in diverse environments and biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. These results point to potential biomarkers and underlying benefit of naked oat bran in the context of diet-induced dyslipidemia and offer some insights into the mechanism exploration.

  1. Production of trans-free margarine stock by enzymatic interesterification of rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Akoh, Casimir C; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2010-03-15

    Trans-free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a spreadable margarine stock. Rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil were used as substrates for lipase-catalyzed reaction. After interesterification, 137-150 g kg(-1) medium-chain fatty acid was incorporated into the triacylglycerol (TAG) of the interesterified fats. Solid fat contents at 25 degrees C were 15.5-34.2%, and slip melting point ranged from 27.5 to 34.3 degrees C. POP and PPP (beta-tending TAG) in palm stearin decreased after interesterification. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the interesterified fats contained mostly beta' polymorphic forms, which is a desirable property for margarines. The interesterified fats showed desirable physical properties and suitable crystal form (beta' polymorph) for possible use as a spreadable margarine stock. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans fatty acid could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  2. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P < .001), nifedipine alone (P < .001), and combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). We demonstrate for the first time that using a blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National

  3. Fermented and extruded wheat bran in piglet diets: impact on performance, intestinal morphology, microbial metabolites in chyme and blood lipid radicals.

    PubMed

    Kraler, Manuel; Schedle, Karl; Schwarz, Christiane; Domig, Konrad J; Pichler, Martin; Oppeneder, Alexander; Wetscherek, Wolfgang; Prückler, Michael; Pignitter, Marc; Pirker, Katharina F; Somoza, Veronika; Heine, Daniel; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of native, fermented and extruded wheat bran on the performance and intestinal morphology of piglets. Additionally, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), biogenic amines, ammonia, lactic acid, pH as well as E. coli and lactic acid bacterial counts were analysed in digesta samples from three gut sections. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential in blood samples was evaluated based on the lipid radicals formed. For this purpose, 48 newly weaned piglets (28 d old) were allocated to one of the four different dietary treatment groups: no wheat bran (Control), native wheat bran, fermented wheat bran as well as extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran variants were included at 150 g/kg into the diets. All diets were mixed to reach the calculated isonitrogenic nutrient contents. Gut tissue and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, the terminal ileum and the colon ascendens, blood samples directly at slaughter. Although none of the dietary interventions had an impact on performance parameters, the amount of goblet cells in the ileum was increased upon feeding native and extruded wheat bran, compared to fermented bran (p < 0.05). The E. coli counts in colonic chyme were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the Control group compared to the groups fed with wheat bran. The concentration of SCFA showed differences for minor compounds (p < 0.05), while linear contrast analyses revealed a reduced concentration of total SCFA in the colon following the feeding of modified wheat bran compared to native wheat bran. This may suggest that several compounds are more easily digested already in the ileum, resulting in a reduced nutrient flow into the large intestine and therefore less unexploited digesta is available as substrate for the microorganisms there. Fermentation also resulted in a significant decrease of methylamine in the colon (p < 0.05), while other biogenic amines in the ileum and colon showed no

  4. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  5. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  6. Attenuation of atherosclerotic complications by modulating inflammatory responses in hypercholesterolemic rats with dietary Njavara rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Pushpan, Chithra K; V, Shalini; G, Sindhu; Rathnam, Parvathy; A, Jayalekshmy; A, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The role of inflammation in atherosclerosis is well established, with all stages of disease progression being assessed as inflammatory response to injury. Preventive treatments and drugs identified so far are based on lipid lowering strategies which also involves functional foods and dietary supplementation. The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of Njavara rice bran oil (NjRBO), extracted from a medicinal rice variety, to high cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats on atherosclerosis by attenuating the inflammatory responses in PBMCs, aortic endothelial cells and macrophages. Adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 100-120g) were grouped into 3 of six rats each. Group I served as control, Group II were fed high cholesterol diet (HCD) and Group III were fed a HCD and NjRBO (100mg/kg body weight). The experimental duration was 60days. Activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase, expression of Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-6, Interferon γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 were found to be decreased on NjRBO supplementation which were increased in HCD fed rats. Expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in aortic endothelial cells was decreased significantly in NjRBO treatment than HCD fed rats. This attenuations were mainly due to inhibition in translocation of NF-κB into nucleus in aortic endothelial cells. Also, NjRBO treatment significantly decreased the gene expressions of TLR-2, TLR-4, and CD36 in both macrophages and endothelial cells than HCD fed rats indicates its anti-inflammatory effect via TLR - NF-κB signaling pathway. NjRBO has thereby shown to possess anti-atherogenic property by effectively modulating inflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional and biochemical aspects of the hypolipidemic action of rice bran oil: a review.

    PubMed

    Rukmini, C; Raghuram, T C

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, we review the effects of rice bran oil (RBO), an unconventional oil recently introduced onto the Indian market for human use. RBO contains oleic acid (38.4%), linoleic acid (34.4%), and linolenic acid (2.2%) as unsaturated fatty acids, and palmitic (21.5%) and stearic (2.9%) acids as saturated fatty acids. The unsaponifiable fraction (4.2%) has total tocopherols (81.3 mg%), gamma-oryzanol (1.6%), and squalene (320 mg%). Oryzanol is a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols such as cycloartenol (CA) (106 mg%) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (494 mg%). Studies on experimental rats demonstrated a hypolipidemic effect of RBO. The unsaponifiable fraction of RBO lowers cholesterol levels. Feeding phytosterols, CA, and 24-methylene cycloartanol in amounts present in RBO to hypercholesterolemic rats for 8 weeks indicates that CA alone reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly. Endogenous sterol excretion increases in animals given CA. The accumulation of CA in the liver inhibits cholesterol esterase activity, which in turn leads to reduction in circulating cholesterol levels. CA is structurally similar to cholesterol and may compete with the binding sites of cholesterol and sequestrate cholesterol, which is metabolized to its derivatives. RBO, which is rich in tocopherols and tocotrienols, may improve oxidative stability. Tocotrienols inhibit HMG CoA reductase, resulting in hypocholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic effect of RBO has also been established in human subjects. Thus, RBO could be a suitable edible oil for patients with hyperlipidemia.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  9. Modulation of piglets' microbiota: differential effects by a high wheat bran maternal diet during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leblois, Julie; Massart, Sébastien; Li, Bing; Wavreille, José; Bindelle, Jérôme; Everaert, Nadia

    2017-08-07

    Reaching a beneficial intestinal microbiota early in life is desirable for piglets, as microbiota will impact their future health. One strategy to achieve this is the addition of prebiotics to sows' diet, as their microbiota will be transferred. Transmission of microbiota to the offspring occurs at birth and during lactation but a transfer might also occur during gestation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether and when (before and/or after birth) a maternal transfer of the microbiota occurs, and to observe the impact of wheat bran (WB) in sows' diet on their faecal microbiota, their offspring's microbiota and fermentation profile. Sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood, meconium, sows' faeces and piglets' colon content. Short-chain fatty acid production was determined in piglets' distal gut. Different bacteria (mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes) were found in the umbilical cord blood, suggesting a maternal transfer occurring already during gestation. Less butyrate was produced in the caecum of WB piglets and a lower concentration of valerate was observed in all intestinal parts of WB piglets. Maternal wheat bran supplementation affected microbiota of sows and piglets differently.

  10. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Tan, Chin Ping; Zainudin, Mohd Asraf Mohd; Fang, Evelyn Koh Wee

    2014-07-10

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  11. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  12. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of rice bran polysaccharide and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ying; Luo, Feijun; Wang, Long; Yang, Tao; Shi, Limin; Li, Xinhua; Shen, Junjun; Xu, Wei; Guo, Ting; Lin, Qinlu

    2017-09-04

    Hyperlipidemia occurs very often in modern society along with a high calorie intake and is regarded as one of the greatest risk factors for the prevalence of cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the rice bran polysaccharides (RBP) and its mechanism in a high fat diet animal model. 60 ICR mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, which included Control, HFD (high fat diet) and HFD + RBP, and each group included 20 mice. The control group was fed with a standard diet while the other two groups were fed with HFD. In addition, the HFD + RBP group was fed with 500 mg kg(-1) of rice bran polysaccharides by intragastric administration while the other two groups were intragastrically administered with water. The results showed that RBP treatment for 10 weeks obviously decreased the body weight, liver weight and adipose tissues of mice; and it decreased the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) in the plasma. H&E staining of the liver tissues showed that RBP treatment decreased the size of fat droplets compared with the HFD group. Microarray analysis revealed that RBP treatment results in 80 genes being up-regulated while 72 genes were down-regulated in the tissues of liver. IPA software analysis suggested that NF-κB may play a vital role in the lipid-lowering effect of RBP. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that the mRNA levels of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, PPAR-δ, SREBP-1C, FASN, ACC, SIRT and CD36, which are related to lipid metabolism, were significantly regulated by RBP supplementation compared to HFD. The western blot analysis further confirmed these altered expressions after RBP treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the oral administration of RBP exerts lipid-lowering in high fat diet mice via regulating the lipid metabolism-related gene expression.

  13. Sorghum bran in the diet dose dependently increased the excretion of catechins and microbial-derived phenolic acids in female rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Rooney, Lloyd; Prior, Ronald L

    2007-06-27

    Sorghum bran is concentrated with procyanidins (predominately polymers), which may be beneficial for health in humans; however, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well-understood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN93G diet containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40% Hi-tannin sorghum bran (n = 5-7 for each group) for 50 days. Sorghum bran contained 23.3 mg/g of procyanidins. The urinary excretions of catechin, epicatechin, methylated catechins, and phenolic acids were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sorghum bran dose dependently increased the urinary excretion of catechin (0-2.2 nmol/day) and 3'-O-methylcatechin (0-9.5 nmol/day). Their serum concentrations also increased with dose (range of 0-14 nM for 3'-O-methylcatechin). Among the 14 phenolic acids analyzed, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid dominated in the serum (1.8-8 micromol/L). In the urine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid dominated and their excretion increased significantly with the level of sorghum bran in the diet. The summed phenolic acid excretion was 0.8 micromol/day in the control group and increased to 23 micromol/day for 40% sorghum bran group. The hippuric acid excretion ranged from 2.2 to 16.2 micromol/day and peaked in the 10% sorghum bran group. On the basis of chromic oxide, a nonabsorbable marker, total procyanidins and polymers disappeared progressively, and significant degradation occurred in the cecum and colon. Catechins and procyanidins in sorghum were bioavailable; however, bacteria-derived phenolic acids were the predominant metabolites of procyanidins. Procyanidins degraded in the gastrointestinal tract. Depolymerization was not observed.

  14. Compositional study on rice bran oil after lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis and solvent fractionations.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yu, F; Vu, P L; Choi, M S; Akoh, C C; Lee, K T

    2007-04-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was modified through lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis. After 48 h reaction, the reactant (RBO-G, solved in hexane) containing 0.14 mg/mL of MAG, 0.19 mg/mL of DAG, and 0.93 mg/mL of TAG was obtained. Extending the reaction to 72 h resulted in 0.37 mg/mL of DAG with concomitant reduction in TAG (0.68 mg/mL). Two solvent fractionation methods, independent and sequential fractionation, were performed with acetone and hexane at 0, -8, -14, or -35 degrees C. The fraction with most unsaturated fatty acids (Sigma UFA) was liquid fraction from independent fractionation at -35 degrees C (-35 In) from hexane, showing 88.3%Sigma UFA content. Nevertheless, when yield (wt%) was considered, the highest amount of UFA was obtained from 0 In (liquid fraction from independent fractionation at 0 degrees C) with hexane, resulting in 82.3%Sigma UFA with 97.9 wt% recovery. Normal-phase HPLC was conducted for the compositional study of RBO-G. Overall, solid fractions from sequential fractionation at 0 degrees C (0 SeSo) and independent fractionation at -35 degrees C (-35 InSo) with hexane contained the high concentration of total MAG and DAG, ranging from 0.94 to 1.35 (mg/mL).

  15. Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Uk; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.

  16. Novel fractionation method for squalene and phytosterols contained in the deodorization distillate of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Naoko; Kanda, Ayato; Nakano, Teruyuki; Nakamura, Takahiro; Igusa, Hisao; Hara, Setsuko

    2010-01-01

    Since deodorization distillate, a by-product of rice bran oil production, contains squalene (ca. 8%) and phytosterols (ca. 4%) as unsaponifiable components, the concentration of those materials for their use in the cosmetics and food industries is desirable. In the present work, a novel fractionation method of concentrating squalene and phytosterols from deodorization distillate or the unsaponifiable components of the deodorization distillate without oxidative deterioration was examined. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated under the following conditions: temperature, 30 degrees C; pressure, 100 kg/cm(2); flow rate of carbon dioxide, 7 mL/min. Under these conditions, squalene was effectively concentrated to 25% with nearly quantitative recovery, and then a more highly concentrated squalene (ca. 50% purity) was obtained by using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with silica gel packed into the extraction vessel. In addition, squalene with ca. 68% purity could be obtained by repeating the SFC twice. After the saponification of the deodorization distillate, followed by solvent fractionation with hexane, highly purified phytosterols (97% purity) could be obtained, and highly purified squalene (81% and 100% purity) could be also obtained by using SFC combined with the solvent fractionation technique for the unsaponifiable materials. Therefore, it is considered that the present fractionation method combined with SFC and solvent fractionation is an effective means of concentrating squalene and phytosterols.

  17. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads.

  18. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  19. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  20. Optimization of replacing pork back fat with grape seed oil and rice bran fiber for reduced-fat meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Ju-Woon; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% and partially substituting the pork fat with a mix of grape seed oil (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) and 2% rice bran fiber were investigated based on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, and viscosity of reduced-fat meat batters. For reduced-fat meat batters containing grape seed oil and rice bran fiber the moisture and ash contents, uncooked and cooked pH values, yellowness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility were higher than in the control samples. The reduced-fat samples with increasing grape seed oil concentrations had lower cooking loss, emulsion stability, and apparent viscosity. The incorporation of grape seed oil and rice bran fiber successfully reduced the animal fat content in the final products while improving other characteristics.

  1. Effects of surfactants and aging time on solidification of rice bran oil at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nukit, Natchanok; Setwipattanachai, Prasert; Chaiseri, Siree; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of rice mono- and diacylglycerol (rice MDG) and commercial MDG on solid structure formation of rice bran oil (RBO) and RBO-anhydrous milk fat (AMF) blends after the crystallized blends were aged at 5°C for 12 or 24 h and stored at 30°C for 12 or 24 h. The rice MDG was prepared using a pilot-scale molecular distillation (MD) unit to evaporate out the free fatty acids from deodorizer distillate (DD) at 120, 140 and 160°C at 0.1 Pa. It was found that increasing the distillation temperature during MD process from 120°C to 140°C resulted in higher contents of rice MDG and γ-oryzanol in the unevaporated fraction (UMD) compared to those in DD. Although UMD increased solid fat content in RBO-UMD blend, it could not stabilize the solid fat phase in the RBO-UMD or RBO-AMFUMD oleogel at 30°C storage. In the presence of UMD, RBO-AMF-UMD blends remained in a liquid state although it contained a high content (38.54%) of saturated fatty acids. On the other hand, with the addition of commercial MDG rich in palmitic acid, RBO-MDG and RBO-AMF-MDG blends were able to retain the volume of solid fat phase in the oleogels provided that the RBO-MDG and RBO-AMF-MDG oleogels were aged at 5°C for at least 12 h. This study implicated that the presence of 1% MDG surfactant having different acyl chains from the major fatty acids in the bulk oil phase, as well as aging regime, could be used to assist solid structure forming process of RBO and RBO-AMF oleogels.

  2. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  3. Utilization of the Fine Particles Obtained from Cold Pressed Vegetable Oils: A Case Study in Organic Rice Bran, Sunflower and Sesame Oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Poungsampao, Phuttan; Phuong, Nguyen Thi

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles obtained from the physical refining of organic cold pressed vegetable oils which are normally discarded as a process waste can be utilized as cosmetic and food ingredients. This paper demonstrated the use of the fine particles from rice bran (Thai Jasmine and Riceberry varieties), sunflower and sesame oils as the ingredient in body mask and as dietary fiber. It was found that the fine particles from rice brans exhibited better antioxidant properties than those of sunflower and sesame. The mixed fine particles were added to body mask formula. The addition of the fine particles affected the physical properties and stability of the body mask especially viscosity and pH. Total dietary fiber recovered from the fine particles ranged from 17.91-23.83 g/100g dry sample. Dietary fiber from Riceberry exhibited the best antioxidant properties as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power.

  4. Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the

  5. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" ...

  6. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    PubMed

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  7. Comparison of gamma-oryzanol contents in crude rice bran oils from different sources by various determination methods.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Ayano; Kanda, Ayato; Nakamura, Takahiro; Igusa, Hisao; Hara, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Although there are various determination methods for gamma -oryzanol contained in rice bran oil by absorptiometry, normal-phase HPLC, and reversed-phase HPLC, their accuracies and the correlations among them have not been revealed yet. Chloroform-containing mixed solvents are widely used as mobile phases in some HPLC methods, but researchers have been apprehensive about its use in terms of safety for the human body and the environment.In the present study, a simple and accurate determination method was developed by improving the reversed-phase HPLC method. This novel HPLC method uses methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid (52/45/3 v/v/v), a non-chlorinated solvent, as the mobile phase, and shows an excellent linearity (y = 0.9527x + 0.1241, R(2) = 0.9974) with absorptiometry. The mean relative errors among the existing 3 methods and the novel method, determined by adding fixed amounts of gamma-oryzanol into refined rice salad oil, were -4.7% for the absorptiometry, -6.8% for the existing normal-phase HPLC, +4.6% for the existing reversed-phase HPLC, and -1.6% for the novel reversed-phase HPLC method. gamma -Oryzanol content in 12 kinds of crude rice bran oils obtained from different sources were determined by the four methods. The mean content of those oils were 1.75+/-0.18% for the absorptiometry, 1.29+/-0.11% for the existing normal-phase HPLC, 1.51+/-0.10% for the existing reversed-phase HPLC, and 1.54+/-0.19% for the novel reversed-phase HPLC method.

  8. Rice Bran Oil Decreases Total and LDL Cholesterol in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Jolfaie, N R; Rouhani, M H; Surkan, P J; Siassi, F; Azadbakht, L

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a concerning health problem because of its increasing prevalence. Vegetable oils such as rice bran oil may improve blood lipids, risk factors for CVD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and quantify the effects of rice bran oil on lipid profiles in humans. Literature databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Proquest, Ovid, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched until the end of November 2015, with no restrictions regarding study design, time, or language. The variables extracted for the meta-analysis included low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-C, apoA, apoB, Lp(a), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C. From 415 identified articles, 11 randomized controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included in our review. Rice bran oil consumption resulted in a significant decrease in concentrations of LDL-C (-6.91 mg/dl, 95% CI, -10.24 to -3.57; p<0.001) and TC (-12.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, -18.04 to -7.27; p<0.001). The increase in HDL-C levels were considerable only in men (6.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, 2.38-10.92; p=0.002). Results of our meta-analysis provided no evidence of a significant effekt of rice bran oil on other lipid profile components. In conclusion, consumption of rice bran oil can reduce LDL-C and TC concentrations, which may lead to prevention and control of CVD. It also has favorable effects on HDL-C concentrations in men. However, changes related to other lipid profile components are not considerable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. LDL-cholesterol lowering activity of a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) in patients with hyperlipidaemia: a proof of concept, double blind, controlled, randomised parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Malve, Harshad; Kerkar, Prafulla; Mishra, Nidheesh; Loke, Sanjita; Rege, N N; Marwaha-Jaspal, Ankita; Jainani, Kiran J

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as major health burden worldwide in recent times. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serves as the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases. Reports suggest that rice bran oil has antihyperlipidaemic properties. However, current evidence suggests that no single oil can provide the recommended dietary fat ratio. Hence the present study was undertaken in patients with hyperlipidaemia to study effects of substitution of the cooking oil with a blend of 80% rice bran oil and 20% safflower oil on LDL-C levels. The selected patients (n = 73) were randomly assigned either to the study oil group (blend under study) or control oil group (the oil which the patient was using before). The lipid profile was monitored monthly in these patients for 3 months during which they consumed the oil as per the randomisation. At each follow up, LDL-C levels showed a significant reduction from baseline in the study oil group and reduction was more than that observed in the control group. It was also observed that the percentage of the respondents was higher in the study oil group. At the end of the study period, 82% patients from this group had LDL levels less than 150 mg% as against 57% in the control group. Thus, the substitution of usual cooking oil with a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) was found to exert beneficial effects on the LDL-C levels shifting them to low-risk lipid category.

  10. Effects of sodium alginate bead encapsulation on the storage stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; Laddomada, Barbara; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2012-10-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of encapsulation on the storage stability of oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide from a micronized durum wheat bran fraction. Wheat bran oil was encapsulated in 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads. Encapsulated and unencapsulated oil samples were stored at 4 or 25 °C, in daylight or darkness, over 90 days, and, at defined time points, subjected to stability evaluation based on fatty acid hydroperoxide production and tocopherol (α, β, and γ forms), tocotrienol (α, β, and γ forms) and carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene) degradation. The encapsulation of the oil into alginate beads significantly increased stability, optimally when stored at 4 °C, maintaining high levels of isoprenoids and low content of fatty acid hydroperoxides over 30 days of storage.

  11. Processing and functionality of rice bran protein and peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran comprises approximately 10% of the rough rice kernel. Its germ is a rich source of oil; while defatted bran consists of proteins, minerals, vitamins and fibers, or the indigestible carbohydrates. About 61% of the minerals are located in the bran. The rice bran proteins have shown great pot...

  12. Rice Bran: Production, Composition, Functionality and Food Applications, Physiological Benefits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal and human studies show cholesterol-lowering with rice bran in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Specific rice bran fractions showing hypocholesterolemic activity include rice bran oil, unsaponifiable matter, dietary fiber and protein. There is a dose response to the level of rice bran and r...

  13. Effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates on the physicochemical stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cheetangdee, Nopparat

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of proteins from rice bran was studied, comparing alkaline- and carbohydrase-aided extraction. It was found that protein extractability could be effectively improved using carbohydrases (Viscozyme L and α-amylase), especially when mechanical force was incorporated. Then, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH), and employed to stabilize soybean O/W emulsion. Improved colloidal stability of the emulsions could be achieved using RBPH, especially at higher DH level, as indicated by an increase in the emulsifying activity index and better long-term dispersibility. The present work novelty suggested the efficiency of RBPH to improve oxidative stability of the emulsions. The most potent antioxidant activity was exhibited by RBPH with DH of 6.4 and 7.6%. With their efficiency to promote physicochemical stability of the emulsions, RBPH might be potently employed as a natural additive in emulsified food products, which is significant to value addition of rice bran for further industrial application.

  14. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. PMID:24138155

  15. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells – a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that haven been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition, and the antioxidative, anti-inf...

  16. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  17. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer.

    PubMed

    Colomer, Ramón; Menéndez, Javier A

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the "Mediterranean diet" and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the cancer-preventing effects of olive oil can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer actions of olive oil may relate to the ability of its monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) to specifically regulate cancer-related oncogenes. Supporting our hypothesis, exogenous supplementation of cultured breast cancer cells with physiological concentrations of OA was found to suppress the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erbB-2), a well-characterized oncogene playing a key role in the etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas. OA treatment was also found to synergistically enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody binding with high affinity to the ectodomain (ECD) of the Her2-coded p185(HER2) oncoprotein. Moreover, OA exposure significantly diminished the proteolytic cleavage of the ECD of HER2 and, consequently, its activation status, a crucial molecular event that determines both the aggressive behavior and the response to trastuzumab of Her2-overexpressing breast carcinomas. Our most recent findings further reveal that OA exposure may suppresses HER2 at the transcriptional level by up-regulating the expression of the Ets protein PEA3 -a DNA-binding protein that specifically blocks HER2 promoter activity- in breast, ovarian and stomach cancer cell lines. This anti-HER2 property of OA offers a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism by which olive oil may regulate the malignant behavior of cancer cells. From a clinical perspective, it could provide an effective means of influencing the outcome of Her-2/neu-overexpressing human carcinomas with poor prognosis

  19. Rice bran proteins: properties and food uses.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J

    1996-07-01

    Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods.

  20. Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-03-01

    The effects of substituting olive, grape seed, corn, canola, or soybean oil and rice bran fiber on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters were investigated. Ten percent of the total fat content of frankfurters with a total fat content of 30% (control) was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils to reduce the pork fat content by 10%. The moisture and ash content of low-fat frankfurters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters had reduced-fat content, energy values, cholesterol and trans-fat levels, and increased pH, cooking yield and TBA values compared to the controls (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters with reduced-fat content plus rice bran fiber had sensory properties similar to control frankfurters containing pork fat. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.05]. The size of IDL, VLDL, and LDL subfractions did not differ between the diets, whereas a significantly higher number (apolipoprotein B concentration) and lipid content of the larger and medium-sized LDL subfractions were observed after the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Total HDL cholesterol concentration did not differ significantly, but HDL(2a) cholesterol was higher after olive oil and rapeseed oil compared with sunflower oil (ANOVA, P < 0.05).In conclusion, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  2. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100..mu..Ci of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium.

  3. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  4. Enzyme-treated wheat bran alters gut microbiota and liver metabolome in mice fed a high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has been shown to decrease body fat and modify the gut microbiome. However, it is not clear how these microbiome changes impact peripheral tissue metabolism. We hypothesized that supplementation with ETWB would change gut-derived...

  5. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (p<0.05) from the corresponding sunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  7. Enzymatic and chemical interesterification of rice bran oil, sheaolein, and palm stearin and comparative study of their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Hu, Peng

    2012-12-01

    Total of 3 different mixtures of rice bran oil (RBO), sheaolein (SO), and palm stearin (PS) (RBO : SO : PS, 40 : 35 : 25; 15 : 40 : 45; 10 : 35 : 55) were modified by enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using TLIM as a bio-catalyst. After interesterification, a physicochemical properties of selected ratio (10 : 35 : 55; RBO : SO : PS) was compared with chemical interesterification (CIE). CIE sample showed higher SFC than EIE in each measured temperature. DAG content was lower in CIE than EIE sample. Besides, each EIE or CIE products were compared with blends, where higher SFC, longer induction time was observed in the blends. Oxidative stability was measured based on Rancimat and peroxide value (PV) where EIE sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to CIE sample. Further, EIE sample was selected for oxidation studies and kept at 60 °C for 22 d after the addition of antioxidants (EGCG, rosemary) where induction time was significantly increased compared to control. EGCG containing sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to rosemary containing sample.

  8. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  9. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm stearin and rice bran oil blends for preparation of zero trans shortening with bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Reshma, M V; Saritha, S S; Balachandran, C; Arumughan, C

    2008-07-01

    Palm stearin (PS) and rice bran oil (RBO) blends of varying proportions were subjected to enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using a 1,3 specific immobilized lipase. The interesterified blends were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and bioactive phytochemical contents using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The blends of PS and RBO in different proportions (40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30) had saturated fatty acid content and unsaturated fatty acid content in the range of 37.6-52.0% and 48.0-62.4%, respectively. The blends 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 showed a considerable reduction in their highest melt peak temperature (TP) and solid fat content (SFC) on EIE. The interesterified blends retained bioactive phytochemicals like tocols (839-1172 ppm), sterols (4318-9647 ppm), oryzanols (3000-6800ppm) and carotene (121-180 ppm). XRD studies demonstrated that the interesterified blends contained beta and beta' polymorphic forms.

  10. Cycloartenyl ferulate, a component of rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, attenuates mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Fujimoto, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

    2010-02-01

    IgE-targeting therapy could provide significant progress in the treatment of allergic inflammation. In this study, we examined the effect of cycloartenyl ferulate (cycloartenol ferulic acid ester; CAF), a natural product from rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, on allergic reaction. When CAF and gamma-oryzanol were injected intradermally with anti-DNP IgE into the dorsal skin of rats, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by DNP-HSA was attenuated. CAF and gamma-oryzanol also inhibited the degranulation of DNP-IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells stimulated with anti-DNP-HSA. IgE conjugated with CAF could not be detected by anti-IgE antibody in the ELISA analysis. Although incubation of IgE with CAF did not decrease the amount of IgE, it was possible to precipitate IgE by centrifugation. These results demonstrate that CAF captures IgE, prevents it from binding to FcepsilonRI, and attenuates mast cell degranulation.

  11. Production of rhamnolipids in solid-state cultivation using a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn bran supplemented with glycerol and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Bugay, Cryshelen; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Joslin, Talita; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2011-03-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants are attracting attention due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good ecological acceptability. However, production in submerged culture is made difficult by severe foaming problems. Solid-state cultivation (SSC) is a promising alternative production method. In the current work, we report the optimization of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UFPEDA 614 on a solid substrate containing sugarcane bagasse and corn bran. The best rhamnolipid production, 45 g/l of impregnating solution used, was obtained with a 50:50 (m/m) mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn bran supplemented with an impregnating solution containing 6% (v/v) of each of glycerol and soybean oil. This level is comparable with those of previous studies undertaken in solid-state cultivation; the composition of the biosurfactant is similar, but our medium is cheaper. Our work therefore provides a suitable basis for future studies of the development of an SSC-based process for rhamnolipid production.

  12. Sesame Oil and Rice Bran Oil Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Distinguishing the Role of Minor Components and Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Nayana Venugopal; Sadashivaiah; Ramaiyan, Breetha; Acharya, Pooja; Belur, Lokesh; Talahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra

    2016-12-01

    Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis. Oxidative stress, markers of RA, eicosanoids, cytokines, paw swelling and joint integrity were measured in experimental and control rats. Results demonstrated that native SO and RBO but not SO and RBO stripped of their minor components decreased severity of paw inflammation, oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide), RA markers (RF and CRP), inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2, LTB4 and LTC4) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) compared to control rats. Native SO and RBO inhibited hydrolytic enzymes (collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase) in the synovial tissue compared to SO and RBO without minor components. The arthritic scores assessed based on the digital and X-ray images indicated that native oils but not those without their minor components reduced the paw swelling and bone loss. Our results indicated that minor components of SO and RBO possess a significant degree of an anti-arthritic effect and are responsible for down regulating inflammation in the experimentally induced arthritis in rats.

  13. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  14. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  15. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock.

  16. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  17. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Enzymatic production of trans-free hard fat stock from fractionated rice bran oil, fully hydrogenated soybean oil, and conjugated linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P; Shin, J-A; Lee, J-H; Hu, J-N; Hwang, K T; Lee, K-T

    2009-03-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was fractionated into 2 phases, solid (S-RBO) and liquid (L-RBO), using acetone at -18 degrees C and the weight yield of each S-RBO and L-RBO was 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Then, trans-free hard fat was synthesized from trans-free substrate of S-RBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different molar ratios (S-RBO : FHSBO; 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) with Lipozyme TL IM lipase (10% of total substrate). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 20% of total substrate) was used as functional fatty acids for the production of trans-free hard fat. After fatty acid analysis, CLA (12.2% to 14.2%) was found on the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone of the interesterified products along with stearic (37.6% to 49%), palmitic (15% to 17.9%), and oleic acids (13.3% to 19.2%). The interesterified product contained higher level of saturated fatty acid (62.6% to 70.1%) at sn-2 position. Total tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-; 1.4 to 2.6 mg/100 g) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol; 220.5 to 362.7 mg/100 g) were found in the interesterified products. From DSC results, solid fat contents of the interesterified products (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) at 25 degrees C were 23.1%, 27%, 30.1%, and 44.9%. The interesterified products consisted mostly of beta' form crystal with a small portion of beta form. The interesterified product (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1.5) was softer than the physical blend but slightly harder than commercial shortenings as measured by texture analyzer. Thus, trans-free hard fat stock, which may have a potential functionality could be produced with various physical properties.

  19. The effects of intra-particle concentration gradient on consecutive adsorption-desorption of oryzanol from rice bran oil in packed-column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, Ari Diana; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Wirawan, Sang Kompiang; Budhijanto

    2017-05-01

    Utilization of valuable trace components in agriculture by product such as rice bran oil is interesting to be explored. Among the valuables, oryzanol, a healthy nutrition for cardiovascular prevention, is the most promising one. Literature studies suggest that adsorption-desorption is a prospective method for oryzanol isolation. Design of commercial scale adsorption-desorption system for oryzanol needs a quantitative description of the phenomena involved. In this study, quantitative modeling of the consecutive adsorption-desorption in packed column has been proposed and verified through experimental data. The offered model takes into account the intra-particle concentration gradient in the adsorbent particle. In this model, the rate of mass transfer from the bulk of the liquid to the surface of the adsorbent particle or vice versa is expressed by film theory. The mass transfer of oryzanol from the liquid in the pore of the particle to the adjacent pore surface is assumed to be instantaneous, so solid-liquid equilibrium on the surface of the pores is always attained. For simplicity, the adsorption equilibrium model applied was coefficient distribution approach. The values of the parameters implicated in the model were obtained by curve fitting to the experimental data. It verified that the model proposed works well to quantitatively describe the consecutive adsorption-desorption of oryzanol from rice bran oil in packed column.

  20. Research note: utilizing hazelnut kernel oil meal in layer diets.

    PubMed

    Ozen, N; Erener, G

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing hazelnut kernel oil meal (HKOM) in layer diets as a replacement for soybean oil meal (SBM). Two hundred and sixteen brown egg layers raised in contiguous wire cages were used. The duration of the experiment was 24 wk consisting of six periods of 4 wk. In the trial, six diets containing different levels of HKOM replacing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of SBM protein, respectively, were utilized as the treatments. Differences among the diets in terms of egg yield, feed consumption, feed efficiency ratio, egg weight, egg yolk and albumen ratios, shell thickness, shell weight, and Roche color values of the yolk were not statistically significant (P greater than .01). Results indicated that SBM could be replaced totally by HKOM in layer diets. However, replacement of more than 40% of SBM with HKOM is not recommended.

  1. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  2. Administration of loperamide and addition of wheat bran to the diets of weaner pigs decrease the incidence of diarrhoea and enhance their gut maturation.

    PubMed

    Molist Gasa, Francesc; Ywazaki, Mauro; Gómez de Segura Ugalde, Arantza; Hermes, Rafael Gustavo; Gasa Gasó, Josep; Pérez Hernández, José Francisco

    2010-03-01

    The influence of fibre inclusion and transit time regulation on the performance, health status, microbial activity and population, physico-chemical characteristics of the hindgut digesta and intestinal morphology in early weaned pigs were examined. For these experiments, wheat bran (WB) was used as fibre source and loperamide as a drug (LOP) to increase the digesta transit time. In Expt 1, a total of 128 early weaned pigs were randomly distributed in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of WB inclusion (0 v. 40 g/kg) and LOP administration (0 v. 0.07 mg/kg body weight) during 13 d. For Expt 2, a total of twenty-four piglets were allotted to three dietary treatments for 15 d with the same basal diet (control diet) as Expt 1; a diet with 80 g/kg of WB and the combination of WB and LOP. In Expt 1, LOP improved the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the animals (P = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively). The same result was obtained when WB was combined with LOP. The WB-LOP group also showed a higher concentration of SCFA (P = 0.013), acetic acid (P = 0.004) and propionic acid (P = 0.093). On the other hand, WB inclusion reduced the organic matter and crude protein digestibility (P = 0.001) and tended to decrease the enterobacteria population (P = 0.089). In Expt 2, WB increased the butyric acid concentration (P = 0.086). We concluded that the inclusion of WB to modify the intestinal microbiota activity combined with LOP may be beneficial to animal health and performance.

  3. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  4. Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

  5. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  6. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  7. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  8. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  9. Influence of biopolymer emulsifier type on formation and stability of rice bran oil-in-water emulsions: whey protein, gum arabic, and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Charoen, Ratchanee; Jangchud, Anuvat; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Harnsilawat, Thepkunya; Naivikul, Onanong; McClements, David Julian

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health, flavor, and functional attributes. We investigated the effects of biopolymer emulsifier type and environmental stresses on the stability of RBO emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions (5% RBO, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI), gum arabic (GA), or modified starch (MS) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization. The new MS used had a higher number of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) groups per starch molecule than conventional MS. The droplet diameters produced by WPI and MS were considerably smaller (d < 300 nm) than those produced by GA (d > 1000 nm). The influence of pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatment (30 to 90 °C) on the physical stability of the emulsions was examined. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred in WPI-stabilized emulsions around their isoelectric point (4 < pH < 6), at high salt (> 200 mM, pH 7), and at high temperatures (>70 °C, pH 7, 150 mM NaCl), which was attributed to changes in electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between droplets. There was little effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on emulsions stabilized by GA or MS, which was attributed to strong steric stabilization. In summary: WPI produced small droplets at low concentrations, but they had poor stability to environmental stress; GA produced large droplets and needed high concentrations, but they had good stability to stress; new MS produced small droplets at low concentrations, with good stability to stress. Practical Application: This study showed that stable rice bran oil-in-water emulsions can be formed using biopolymer emulsifiers. These emulsions could be used to incorporate RBO into a wide range of food products. We compared the relative performance of whey protein, GA, and a new MS at forming and stabilizing the emulsions. The new OSA MS was capable of forming small stable droplets at relatively low

  10. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  11. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  12. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  13. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  14. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  16. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:20587038

  17. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  18. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (p<0.05). The suitable amount ATE powder added in RBC was 0.5%. The consumer acceptance (n=200) of final product showed the sensory scores in the range of 6.3-6.8, with the percentages of acceptance and purchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  20. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  1. Toxicological evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Abodunrin, T P; Yakubu, M T

    2010-03-01

    The effects of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet on the growth performance and some biochemical constituents of rat tissues was investigated following a feeding period of 6 weeks. The results revealed that the volume of water taken, the amount of feed consumed and the weight gained by the animals maintained on the nut oil-based diet were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed on soybean oil-based diet. The reduction in the activities of ALP, GOT and GPT in the liver and heart of animals fed on the nut oil-based diet was accompanied by increase in the serum enzymes. The nut oil-based diet significantly reduced (P<0.05) serum concentrations of total cholesterol and HDL-C whereas triglycerides and atherogenic index increased. The serum LDL-C level of the nut oil-based diet fed animals compared well with those of soybean oil-based diet. These alterations suggested that adverse effects have occurred, possibly by altered membrane permeability of the hepatocytes and cardiac cells. Similar alterations in the serum lipids of animals maintained on nut oil-based diet also portends cardiovascular risk. Although, T. conophorum nut oil did not adversely affect growth performance and the feeding appetite of the animals, it is not completely 'safe' for consumption. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  3. Sympathetic activity is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Shimomura, Y; Saitoh, S; Tokuyama, K; Takeuchi, H; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    Effects of dietary fats consisting of different fatty acids on sympathetic activity and body fat accumulation were studied in rats. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either beef tallow or safflower oil for 8 weeks. Carcass fat content was greater (P < .05) in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet. Norepinephrine (NE) turnover rate was significantly lower (P < .05) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and pancreas in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet, resulting in a decreased (P < .05) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and an increased (P < .05) serum insulin concentration in the former. To confirm the effects of dietary fats on sympathetic activity in relation to body fat accumulation, rats were chemically sympathectomized. Sympathectomy abolished the differences in body fat accumulation, DIT, and serum insulin concentration between the two dietary groups. These results suggest that the beef tallow diet promotes body fat accumulation by reducing sympathetic activity as compared with intake of the safflower oil diet.

  4. Fish oil and flax seed oil supplemented diets increase FFAR4 expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Senatorov, Ilya S; Kandi, Praveen; Singh, Monalisa; Britt, April; Hayslett, Renee; Moniri, Nader H

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggest that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated. One such receptor, free-fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), previously described as GPR120, has been shown to modulate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects in response to PUFA such as ALA and DHA. Additionally, FFAR4 stimulates secretion of the insulin secretagogue glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the GI tract and acts as a dietary sensor to regulate energy availability. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on FFAR4 expression in the rat colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control soybean oil diets or alternatively, diets supplemented with either fish oil, which is enriched in DHA and EPA, or flaxseed oil, which is enriched in ALA, for 7 weeks. GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly and at the end of the study period, expression of FFAR4 and the inflammatory marker TNF-α was assessed. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were unaffected by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, however, animals that were fed fish or flaxseed oil-supplemented diets had significantly heightened colonic FFAR4 and actin expression, and reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α compared to animals fed control diets. These results suggest that similar to ingestion of other fats, dietary-intake of omega-3 fatty acids can alter FFAR4 expression within the colon.

  5. Genetically determined body weight loss in mice fed diets containing salmon oil.

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, R C; Veldee, M S

    1993-03-01

    Several reports describe adverse effects of dietary fish oil. We examined the influence of dietary salmon oil (138 g/kg diet) fed without or with 5 g supplemental cholesterol/kg diet on body weight and plasma lipid concentrations of inbred mice. Salmon oil contained 0.17 g naturally occurring cholesterol/kg diet. Mice used were BALB/c, C57BL/6 and seven recombinant inbred strains derived from BALB/c and C57BL/6 (CXB). Parental strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 maintained or gained body weight when fed both salmon oil diets. Mice of recombinant inbred strains showed weight gain except for CXB-E and -H mice. Although CXB-E mice lost approximately 12% of initial body weight after 10 d of consuming either salmon oil diet, no further reductions in body weight were seen. CXB-H mice maintained or gained weight when fed the salmon oil-high cholesterol diet but showed a steady decline in body weight (up to 30% of initial weight) while consuming the salmon oil-low cholesterol diet. The biochemical basis for weight loss in CXB-H mice was studied and results suggest effects of diet on satiety and/or lipid utilization. Because nonparental body weight phenotypes were observed among recombinant inbred strains, body weight response to salmon oil feeding is controlled by multiple genes.

  6. Rice bran constituents: immunomodulatory and therapeutic activities.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-03-22

    Rice bran, one of the most abundant and valuable byproducts produced during the rice milling process, is of steadily growing interest in recent years due to its potential health benefits. Evidence is rapidly accumulating for the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals. However, the potential benefits of rice bran are found in several of its bioactive ingredients including oils, polysaccharides, proteins, and micronutrients. In addition, a significant advantage of rice bran is that it contains more than 100 antioxidants and several categories of bioactive phytonutrients, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, B vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals. As an immunomodulator, rice bran has beneficial constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, and oils. Numerous studies also reported that potent antioxidants in rice bran included immune system enhancing compounds, such as phytosterols, polysaccharides, minerals and trace minerals including magnesium, selenium, zinc, vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids and several other phytonutrients. We believe that this review will be a valuable resource for more studies on rice barn as a dietary source.

  7. Rice bran nutraceutics: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Rakha, Allah; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawad; Rashid, Summer

    2017-11-22

    Agro-industry yields ample quantity of several byproducts with considerable importance. These byproducts are mostly under-utilized, often used as animal feed or rejected as waste; hence their true potential is not harnessed. The use of such superfluous resources is of not only economic significance but also a form of commercial recycling. Rice bran is an important byproduct of rice milling industry with a global potential of 29.3 million tons annually. It is gaining great attention of the researchers due to its nutrient-rich composition, easy availability, low cost, high antioxidant potential, and promising effects against several metabolic ailments. Bioactive components of rice bran, mainly γ-oryzanol, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer activities. Rice bran oil contains appreciable quantities of bioactive components and has attained the status of "Heart oil" due to its cardiac-friendly chemical profile. Nutraceutics have successfully been extracted from rice bran using several extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Current paper is an attempt to highlight bioactive moieties of rice bran along with their extraction technologies and health benefits.

  8. Fish oil diet may reduce inflammatory levels in the liver of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingqiu; Zhao, Fan; Wu, Qiayu; Li, Mengjie; Zhu, Yingying; Song, Shangxin; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Yafang; Li, He; Shi, Xuebin; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-07-24

    The impact of dietary soybean oil, lard and fish oil on physiological responses in middle age is little studied. In this study, we investigated the changes of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, telomere length, and age-related gene expression in the liver of middle-aged rats in response to the above three fat diets. Male Sprague Dawley rats (12 months old) were fed AIN-93M diets for 3 months, in which soybean oil was equivalently replaced by lard or fish oil. As compared to the lard diet, intake of fish oil diet significantly decreased body weight gain, white blood cell count, and levels of hepatic triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fat accumulation, low-density lipoprotein, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05), but increased telomere length (P < 0.05). On the other hand, lard diet and soybean oil diet showed great similarity in the above variables. PCR array analysis further indicated that fish oil diet significantly down-regulated gene expression related to inflammatory response, apoptosis, DNA binding, proteostasis and telomere attrition. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in the complement and coagulation cascades pathways. Such physiological and molecular responses could be due to different fatty acid composition in fish oil, lard and soybean oil.

  9. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  10. Garlic oil attenuates the cardiac apoptosis in hamster-fed with hypercholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Chang, Mu-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Fan, Chung-Chen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, James A; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-02-15

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for cardiac cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of garlic oil on cardiac apoptosis induced by a hypercholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden-Syrian hamsters at 3 months of age were randomly divided into three groups, control, cholesterol and garlic oil groups received a chow diet, chow diet with 2% cholesterol, and chow diet with 2% cholesterol and 1% garlic oil for 8 weeks, respectively. The TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, and several apoptotic proteins were significantly induced in the excised left ventricle in cholesterol group, whereas significant reduction was observed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. The IGFI receptor dependent survival pathway was inhibited in cholesterol group whereas it was obviously reversed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. Our results suggest that administration of garlic oil shows protective effects on cardiac apoptosis in rats with high cholesterol intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Charoonratana, Tossaton; Songsak, Thanapat; Sakunpak, Apirak; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Charoenchai, Laksana

    2015-09-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil (RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw compression method. The LC-MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2.10 program before evaluating with principal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC-MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible; short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis (PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao-Hom-Pathum was more suitable than Khao-Hom-Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ-oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this information can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  12. Suppressive ability of defatted rice bran against lipid oxidation in cookies containing iron.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Kazue; Omori, Ayako; Uda, Yasutaka; Nomura, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Cookies containing iron, defatted rice bran, and several oils were prepared, and their oxidative stability evaluated. Oxidation was suppressed by the defatted rice bran, but a limit to the suppressive effect was observed. The maximum peroxide values obtained with defatted rice bran were low, and similar, regardless of the degree of unsaturation of the oils. A chemical analysis suggested that proteins and polyphenols in the defatted rice bran contributed to the suppressive effect. Cookies without the defatted rice bran showed decreasing maximum peroxide value as the relative humidity increased. No such dependence was observed for the cookies containing defatted rice bran. The water sorption isotherm of defatted rice bran indicated that the weak dependence was due to low water sorption.

  13. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  14. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma.

  15. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  16. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  17. Evaluation of the cancer chemopreventive efficacy of rice bran in genetic mouse models of breast, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Verschoyle, R D; Greaves, P; Cai, H; Edwards, R E; Steward, W P; Gescher, A J

    2007-01-01

    Brown rice is a staple dietary constituent in Asia, whereas rice consumed in the Western world is generally white, obtained from brown rice by removal of the bran. We tested the hypothesis that rice bran interferes with development of tumours in TAg, TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) or ApcMin mice, genetic models of mammary, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis, respectively. Mice received rice bran (30%) in AIN-93G diet throughout their post-weaning lifespan. In TAg and TRAMP mice, rice bran did not affect carcinoma development. In TRAMP or wild-type C57Bl6/J mice, dietary rice bran increased kidney weight by 18 and 20%, respectively. Consumption of rice bran reduced numbers of intestinal adenomas in ApcMin mice by 51% (P<0.01), compared to mice on control diet. In parallel, dietary rice bran decreased intestinal haemorrhage in these mice, as reflected by increased haematocrit. At 10% in the diet, rice bran did not significantly retard ApcMin adenoma development. Likewise, low-fibre rice bran (30% in the diet) did not affect intestinal carcinogenesis, suggesting that the fibrous constituents of the bran mediate chemopreventive efficacy. The results suggest that rice bran might be beneficially evaluated as a putative chemopreventive intervention in humans with intestinal polyps. PMID:17211473

  18. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. PMID:26301251

  20. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  1. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  3. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil improves metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, David; Castillo, Joseph J; Arora, Surpreet L; Richardson, Lisa M; Garver, William S

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil or olive oil, fed to C57BL/6J mice for an extended period, on metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes. Mice were fed one of four diets for 30 wk: a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet supplemented with lard, a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil, or a high-fat diet supplemented with olive oil. Phenotypic and metabolic analysis were determined at 15 and 25 to 30 wk, thereby providing comparative analysis for weight gain, energy consumption, fat distribution, glucose and insulin tolerance, and hepatic/plasma lipid analysis. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil had improved glucose tolerance after an extended period compared with mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with lard. Moreover, mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil had significantly decreased concentrations of liver cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, and triacylglycerol compared with mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either lard or olive oil. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil improved metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes such as impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  6. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  7. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  8. Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Henderson, Angela; Forster, Genevieve M; Goodyear, Andrew W; Weir, Tiffany L; Leach, Jan E; Dow, Steven W; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2012-07-04

    Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 (p < 0.05) as well as increased colonization of native Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed the ability of rice bran extracts to reduce Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.

  9. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Nadia Saleh; Abu Araki, Huda A

    2013-02-21

    In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected.

  10. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  11. Effect of evening primrose oil on platelet aggregation in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, J P; Martín-Romero, M; Carmona, J A; Villalobos, M A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1997-07-01

    Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a rich source of omega-6 series fatty acids. We report here the effects of dietary supplementation with evening primrose oil (EPO) on platelet aggregation as the main factor in arterial thrombus formation in an experimental model of atherogenesis in rabbits. A total of 40 male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 animals/group): 1: normal diet, 2: atherogenic diet (ATD), 3: normal diet enriched with 15% EPO, 4: ATD + EPO. Each group was kept on the diet for 6 weeks. We determined serum lipid profile, platelet aggregation in whole blood, platelet thromboxane B2 production and platelet lipid peroxides. The atherogenic diet increased platelet aggregation (135% when ADP was used, and 185% when collagen was used as the inducer). Evening primrose oil reduced hyperaggregation to the values obtained in rabbits fed with the normal diet. Thromboxane synthesis was increased from 0.18 to 2.28 nmol/10(9) platelets); EPO reduced this value to 1.38 nmol/10(9) platelets. Lipid peroxides were increased by ATD from 0.27 to 0.81 nmol/10(8) platelets; EPO prevented this increase (0.35 nmol/10(8) platelets). In conclusion, EPO reduced platelet hyperaggregability in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

  12. Canola oil rich in oleic acid improves diastolic heart function in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Raj, Pema; Louis, Xavier Lieben; Perera, Danielle; Yamanagedara, Prasanga; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Netticadan, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control. Echocardiography was performed to assess the cardiac structure and function in all rats at 12 weeks. OP rats fed the HF diet showed significant impairment in diastolic function compared to control rats. The HF diet containing high oleic canola oil significantly improved diastolic function of OP rats compared to the HF diet with lard. In conclusion, canola oil rich in oleic acid, when incorporated into an HF diet, prevents the development of diastolic dysfunction in DIO rats.

  13. Comparative evaluation of rice bran wax as an ointment base with standard base.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P M; Lakhotiya, C L

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases.

  14. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  15. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in fattening pig diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-10-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from the chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, therefore, their overall nutritive value, which might lead to an increased deposition of SFA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in fattening pig diets, studying their effects on fatty acid apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, growth performance, carcass-fat depots and fatty acid composition of backfat. Seventy-two crossbred boars and gilts (average weight of 24.7 ± 2.55 kg) were blocked by initial BW (nine blocks of BW for each gender), housed in adjacent individual boxes, and fed one of the four dietary treatments, which were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 4% (as-fed basis) of native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- and diacylglycerols (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (PEH). Regarding results from the digestibility balance, PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high, FFA content of the former. However, re-esterified palm oils (both PEL and PEH) showed a higher apparent absorption of total FA than did their corresponding native and acid oils (P0.05). We conclude that re-esterified oils are interesting fat sources to be considered in fattening pigs.

  16. Rice bran phytonutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), oryzanol fractions, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants that are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer...

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation and Urinary Oxalate Excretion in Normal Subjects on a Low-oxalate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jessica N.; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Easter, Linda; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if fish oil supplementation reduces endogenous oxalate synthesis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen healthy non–stone-forming adults participated in this study. Subjects first abstained from using vitamins, medications, or foods enriched in omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. Next, they collected two 24-hour urine specimens while consuming a self-selected diet. Subjects consumed an extremely low-oxalate and normal-calcium diet for 5 days and collected 24-hour urine specimens on the last 3 days of this diet. Next, the subjects took 2 fish oil capsules containing 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 450-mg docosahexaenoic acid twice daily for 30 days. They consumed a self-selected diet on days 1–25 and the controlled diet on days 26–30. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 28–30. Excretion levels of urinary analytes including oxalate and glycolate were analyzed. RESULTS Although there was a significant reduction in urinary oxalate, magnesium, and potassium excretions and an increase in uric acid excretion during the controlled dietary phases compared with the self-selected diet, there were no significant differences in their excretion during controlled diet phases with and without fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION These results suggest that fish oil supplementation does not reduce endogenous oxalate synthesis or urinary oxalate excretion in normal adults during periods of extremely low oxalate intake. However, these results do not challenge the previously described reduction in urinary oxalate excretion demonstrated in normal subjects consuming a moderate amount of oxalate in conjunction with fish oil. PMID:25102784

  18. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  19. [Is a fish oil enriched diet therapeutically beneficial?].

    PubMed

    Machura, E; Kalaciński, W; Brus, R

    1995-07-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and significance of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of asthma are presented in this article. The effect of a diet containing eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of a variety of diseases is discussed as well.

  20. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p < .01) with experimental week. Although higher α-tocopherol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were in OEO group spermatozoa, feeding diet with 500 mg/kg OEO resulted in elevation in seminal TAC, decrease in sperm ROS, MDA and 8-OHdG than control group (p < .05). Overall, these results support the view that oregano essential oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  1. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  2. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities.

  3. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; R León, Ileana; Kulej, Katarzyna; Sprenger, Richard R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Christensen, Bjørn J; Berge, Rolf K; Jensen, Ole N; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-06-12

    Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein centric based on 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and LC-MS(E) based peptide centric approach. As a result we provide evidence that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate that fatty acid metabolism; lipid oxidation, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are involved in fish oil and TTA action. Evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided. Additionally we postulate that down regulation of components of complexes I and II contributes to the strong antioxidant properties of TTA. This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate in a large scale that fatty acid metabolism and lipid oxidation are affected by fish oil and TTA, a phenomenon already known from more directed molecular biology studies. Our approach, however, shows additionally that amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are also strongly affected by TTA and also to some extent by fish oil administration. Strong evidence for the

  5. Microbial ecology of the rumen evaluated by 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing is affected by starch and oil supplementation of diets.

    PubMed

    Zened, Asma; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Bouchez, Olivier; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Enjalbert, Francis

    2013-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive examination of the bacterial diversity in the rumen content of cows fed different diets, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. Four rumen fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four periods: the low-starch diet (22% starch, 3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, 3% fat); the low-starch plus oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% fat) and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% fat). Samples were taken after 12 days of adaptation, 5 h postfeeding. Whatever the diet, bacterial community of sieved rumen contents was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rikenellaceae families were highly present and were clearly affected by cow diet. The highest abundance of Prevotellaceae and the lowest abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Rikenellaceae were found with the high-starch plus oil diet. Dietary starch increased the relative abundance of only three genera: Barnesiella, Oribacterium and Olsenella, but decreased the relative abundances of several genera, with very significant effects for Rikenellaceae_RC9 and Butyrivibrio-Pseudobutyrivibrio. Oil alone had a limited effect, but interestingly, starch plus oil addition differently affected the bacterial populations compared to starch addition without oil.

  6. Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana Pereira; de Lima, Stélio Bezerra Pinheiro; Ferreira, Guilherme José Bolzani de Campos; Farias, Leonardo Atta; de Sousa, Francinete Alves; Acácio, Raian Malta; Silva, Danilo Rodrigo Silva e

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2) factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate), and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process. PMID:26807917

  7. Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El Rabey, Haddad A.; Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Amer, Hanan M.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male Albino rats (Rattus rattus) was studied. Twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. The first group (G1) is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (G2) was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (G3) fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (G4) was fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% barley bran. Feeding rats on 1% cholesterol significantly increased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride and decreased serum high density lipoprotein. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase was increased, and lipid peroxide was increased, whereas catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased. Kidney functions parameters in the cholesterol supplemented group were elevated compared with the negative control. In addition, histological alteration in kidney, liver, heart, and testes was observed, compared with the negative control. Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with oat bran and barley bran showed significant decrease in lipid parameters, significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, improved antioxidant enzyme, and improved histopathology of kidney, liver, heart, and testes. In conclusion, both oat bran and barley bran had protective effects against induced hyperlipidemia and improved histological alterations. Oat bran appeared more efficient than barley bran in lowering the lipid profile levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:23984330

  8. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Grasso, V; Izquierdo, M S; Ganga, R; Real, F; Tort, L; Caballero, M J; Acosta, F

    2008-02-01

    The use of vegetable oils in fish nutrition has been extensively studied; and recent work has focused attention on replacing fish oil with alternative fatty acid sources and their effect on the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of these oils on immune parameters such as the fish interferon system. In this study we evaluate the effect of two vegetable oils (linseed and soybean) on gilthead sea bream Mx expression and other innate immune parameters. Experimental diets were formulated where fish oil was totally replaced by vegetable oils or for a mixture of them (50% linseed and 50% soybean). Another diet prepared with pure fish oil was used as a control. Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate growth, feed utilization, serum alternative complement pathway activity, serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes as well as Mx expression in the liver. In the first experiment fish were fed with experimental diets for 6 months and then, growth and feed utilization as well as immune parameters were analyzed. In the second experiment, fish from the previous feeding trial were injected with either a sub-lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (94/99) or a synthetic dsRNA (Poly I:C) in order to stimulate an Mx response. The results show that total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils decreased the growth of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Furthermore, both phagocytic activity and serum alternative complement pathway activity were significantly reduced by the inclusion of either vegetable oil individually in the sea bream diets, but the diet with mixed vegetable oils had no significant effect. There was no effect on serum lysozyme levels but the basal constitutive levels of Mx transcript expression in the liver were elevated in the fish fed the vegetable oil diets. The time-course of the Mx response to injection of Poly I:C was shorter in the fish fed the fish oil diet and the fish fed the diet based

  9. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...The mice were weighed and randomly assigned to receive a custom diet with either coconut oil or milk fat. Both diets were formulated to have the...significant differences were seen between knockout and wildtype mice in aorta score regardless of diet, and in liver score with coconut oil diet

  10. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (p<0.005, respectively). Higher levels of α-tocopherol were found in the butter groups than in the safflower oil groups (p<0.05) and in the casein groups than in the soy protein groups (p<0.01). In comparison with the safflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (p<0.005). The ratios of n-3/n-6 PUFA in the butter groups in serum, 0.26 and 0.18, and in the hearts, 0.37 and 0.36, (butter-casein diet and butter-soy protein diet, respectively) were higher than those of the safflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (p<0.005). In the soy protein groups, higher n-3 PUFA contents in the hearts were found than those of the casein groups (p<0.05). This study suggested that the butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and a higher n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the safflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  11. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Eduardo Lucas Terra; Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luiz; Dos Santos Moura, Elizabeth; Pereira, Elzânia Sales; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; de Carvalho, Larissa Nóbrega; Pires, Kássia Amariz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM) base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5) design, were used. There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total carbohydrates (TCH), and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC). There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE). The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE), nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration.

  12. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Eduardo Lucas Terra; Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luiz; dos Santos Moura, Elizabeth; Pereira, Elzânia Sales; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; de Carvalho, Larissa Nóbrega; Pires, Kássia Amariz

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Methods Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM) base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5) design, were used. Results There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total carbohydrates (TCH), and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC). There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE). The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. Conclusion It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE), nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration. PMID:26954203

  13. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  14. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. Objective To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Methods Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. Results With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected. PMID:23497544

  15. Physicochemical, functional, and nutritional characteristics of stabilized rice bran form tarom cultivar.

    PubMed

    Rafe, Ali; Sadeghian, Alireza; Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyedeh Zohreh

    2017-05-01

    Extrusion is a multistep thermal process which has been utilized in a wide spectrum of food preparations. The effect of extrusion processing on the physicochemical, nutritional, and functional properties of Tarom cultivar rice bran was studied. However, the color of rice bran was improved by extrusion processing, but the protein content was reduced in the stabilized rice bran, which can be related to the denaturation of protein. Extrusion had also a reduction significant effect on the phytic acid as well as vitamin E in rice bran. However, the content of niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid remained unchanged, but the dietary fiber was enhanced which has beneficial health effect on human consumption. In comparison with unstabilized rice bran, water holding capacity was enhanced, but the oil absorption capacity was reduced. Foaming capacity and foaming stability of extruded rice bran was more than that of untreated rice bran, although they were less than that of rice bran protein concentrate/isolate. In general, the extrusion process improves some functional and nutritional properties of rice bran which are valuable to industrial applications and have potential as ingredient in food to improve consumer health.

  16. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  17. Soybean oil and beef tallow in dry extruded diets for adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Marx, Fábio Ritter; Trevizan, Luciano; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of two different fat sources (soybean oil (SO) and beef tallow (BT)) in dry extruded dog diets on the intake of food and metabolizable energy (ME), on faecal characteristics and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Ten adult dogs of different breeds were used in a Latin square design. Five experimental diets were designed from a basal diet. A Control diet was coated with 1% SO and four other diets were obtained by coating the basal diet with 6.5% and 13% of SO or BT. The Control, 6.5% and 13% coated diets contained approximately 8.5%, 15% and 20% fat, respectively. The dogs had similar dry matter (DM) intakes and, consequently, higher ME intakes with an increased fat content for both sources (p < 0.05). Fat digestibility was highest for Diet SO13% (p < 0.05). The ATTD of DM and organic matter was highest (p < 0.05) for Diets SO13% and BT13%. Fat coating improved the faecal score, especially for Diet BT13%. The dietary ratios of protein:fat:carbohydrate [% of ME] were close to AAFCO's estimates. For SO a higher ATTD (99.1%) and ME content (38.88 MJ/kg) was estimated than for BT (ATTD 92.9% and 36.37 MJ ME/kg). Both SO and BT can comprise up to 13% of the diet. However, SO was more susceptible to leaking from the kibbles with the coating method applied.

  18. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  20. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  3. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  4. Antitumor effects of dietary black and brown rice brans in tumor-bearing mice: relationship to composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: We investigated the effects of oral feeding of a mouse diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) pigmented black bran from the rice variety Oryza sativa cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1 and 10% (w/w) nonpigmented brown bran from the commercial rice Oryza sativa cv. Chuchung as an internal control on the growth of t...

  5. Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Moazzami, Ali A; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Aman, Per; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Sven-Olof

    2011-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in the Western world and the second most important cancer causing male deaths, after lung cancer, in the United States and Britain. Lifestyle and dietary changes are recommended for men diagnosed with early-stage PC. It has been shown that a diet rich in whole grain (WG) rye reduces the progression of early-stage PC, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study sought to identify changes in the metabolic signature of plasma in patients with early-stage PC following intervention with a diet rich in WG rye and rye bran product (RP) compared with refined white wheat product (WP) as a tool for mechanistic investigation of the beneficial health effects of RP on PC progression. Seventeen PC patients received 485 g RP or WP in a randomized, controlled, crossover design during a period of 6 wk with a 2-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, plasma was collected after fasting and used for (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. A metabolomics analysis of plasma showed an increase in 5 metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and dimethyl sulfone, after RP. To understand these metabolic changes, fasting plasma homocysteine, leptin, adiponectin, and glucagon were measured separately. The plasma homocysteine concentration was lower (P = 0.017) and that of leptin tended to be lower (P = 0.07) after RP intake compared to WP intake. The increase in plasma 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone after RP suggests a shift in energy metabolism from anabolic to catabolic status, which could explain some of the beneficial health effects of WG rye, i.e., reduction in prostate-specific antigen and reduced 24-h insulin secretion. In addition, the increase in betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine and the decrease in homocysteine show a favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism after RP

  7. Nutritive and economic values of high oil corn in layer diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, B D; Kim, D J; Leet, S J

    2001-11-01

    Two layer feeding trials were conducted to demonstrate the nutritive and economic values of recently developed high oil corn (HOC) in Korea. A corn-soybean meal-based commercial layer diet was chosen as the control diet. The yellow dent corn in the control diet was replaced with HOC to give an isocaloric diet, or replaced with HOC on a 1:1 basis to give a high energy diet. In Trial 1, 510 23-wk-old ISA Brown layers were allotted to three dietary treatments with five replicates per treatment. In Trial 2, 600 38-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were allotted to three dietary treatments, again with five replicates per treatment. Both trials were conducted for 15 wk. To measure the ME values of typical corn and HOC, two metabolism trials were performed with layers and adult roosters. The HOC used in this trial contained approximately 94% higher crude fat (6.60% as-fed basis) compared with typical corns. The gross energy, AMEn, and TME values of HOC, are 5.7 to 7.7% higher than those of typical corns, indicating that the energy use of each corn were similar. Oil from the HOC contains 6.5 to 8.3% more oleic acid and 6 to 7% less linoleic acid than oil from typical corns. HOC feeding, on an isocaloric basis or on 1:1 replacement with typical corn, did not exert any effect on various laying performances, including the physical quality of egg. This result reflects the quality of the commercial diet chosen as the control diet, which was already fairly good, such that the performance was already maximal. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content in yolk from hens fed HOC was higher than that from hens fed typical corns, reflecting higher linoleic acid content in the HOC. HOC feeding decreased the saturated fatty acid content in the yolk, due primarily to decreased palmitic acid. If used alone replacing typical corn completely in a layer diet, the acceptance price of HOC was estimated to be 154 won/kg when the price of typical corn was 131 won/kg (118:100). When both corns were

  8. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-05

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  9. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  10. A fish-oil-rich diet reduces vascular oxidative stress in apoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Casós, Kelly; Zaragozá, María C; Zarkovic, Neven; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Andrisic, Luka; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Cacabelos, Daniel; Mitjavila, María T

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to lipid peroxidation and decreases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in atherosclerosis. While long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are easily oxidized in vitro, they improve endothelial function. Hence, this study postulates that long-chain (n-3) PUFA decrease atherogenic oxidative stress in vivo. To test this, apoE(-/-) mice were fed a corn oil- or a fish oil (FO)-rich diet for 8, 14 or 20 weeks and parameters related to NO and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) plus markers of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative damage in the aortic root were evaluated. The FO-rich diet increased NO production and endothelial NO synthase (NOS) expression and lowered inducible NOS, p22(phox) expression and O(2)(.-)production after 14 and 20 weeks of diet. Protein lipoxidative damage (including 4-hydroxynonenal) was decreased after a long-term FO-diet. This supports the hypothesis that a FO-rich diet could counteract atherogenic oxidative stress, showing beneficial effects of long-chain (n-3) PUFA.

  11. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  12. Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; Sargent, John R

    2004-03-01

    Five groups of salmon, of initial mean weight 127 +/- 3 g, were fed increasing levels of dietary linseed oil (LO) in a regression design. The control diet contained capelin oil (FO) only, and the same oil was blended with LO to provide the experimental diets. After an initial period of 40 wk, all groups were switched to a finishing diet containing only FO for a further 24 wk. Growth and flesh lipid contents were not affected by dietary treatment. The FA compositions of flesh total lipids were linearly correlated with dietary FA compositions (r2 = 0.88-1.00, P < 0.0001). LO included at 50% of added dietary lipids reduced flesh DHA and EPA (20:5n-3) concentrations to 65 and 58%, respectively, of the concentrations in fish fed FO. Feeding 100% LO reduced flesh DHA and EPA concentrations to 38 and 30%, respectively, of the values in fish fed FO. Differences between diet and flesh FA concentrations showed that 16:0, 18:1n-9, and especially DHA were preferentially retained in flesh, whereas 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 22:1n-11 were selected against and presumably utilized for energy. In fish previously fed 50 and 100% LO, feeding a finishing diet containing FO for 16 wk restored flesh DHA and EPA concentrations, to approximately 80% of the values in fish fed FO throughout. Flesh DHA and EPA concentrations in fish fed up to 50% LO were above recommended intake values for humans for these EFA. This study suggests that LO can be used as a substitute for FO in seawater salmon feeds and that any reductions in DHA and EPA can be largely overcome with a finishing diet high in FO before harvest.

  13. Effect of Supplementing Diets of Anglo-Nubian Goats with Soybean and Flaxseed Oils on Lactational Performance.

    PubMed

    Kholif, Ahmed E; Morsy, Tarek A; Abd El Tawab, Ahmed M; Anele, Uchenna Y; Galyean, Michael L

    2016-08-10

    We studied the effect of soybean or flaxseed oil feeding in the diets of lactating Anglo-Nubian goats. A total of 20 goats (33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into four treatments and fed a basal diet of berseem clover and concentrates (40:60 DM basis; control) or the control diet supplemented with either 20 mL/day of flaxseed oil or soybean oil or 10 mL of soybean oil plus 10 mL of flaxseed oil per day for 12 weeks (i.e., 22 to 23 g per kg of DM intake). Oil inclusion decreased ruminal pH (P < 0.05), and acetate but increased (P < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate and blood glucose (P < 0.01). In addition, increased milk yield and decreased milk-fat contents were evident (P < 0.05) with oil supplementation. Diets containing oil increased (P < 0.05) unsaturated fatty acids (FA), conjugated linoleic acid, and the athrogenicity index of milk fat but decreased saturated FA concentrations. It is concluded that soybean-oil or flaxseed-oil supplementation of goats at 20 mL/day increased feed utilization and milk production.

  14. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  15. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  16. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  17. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  18. Effect of high-oil corn on growth performance, diet digestibility, and energy content of finishing diets fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Andrae, J G; Hunt, C W; Duckett, S K; Kennington, L R; Feng, P; Owens, F N; Soderlund, S

    2000-09-01

    Sixty crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 412 kg) were used in a 83-d finishing study to determine the effect of feeding dry rolled high-oil corn on performance and total-tract digestibility of finishing diets. Steers were allotted by weight to the following dietary treatments: 1) control corn (C; 82% normal corn, 12% triticale silage), 2) high-oil corn (HO; 82% high-oil corn, 12% silage), and 3) high-oil corn formulated to be isocaloric to C (ISO; 74% high-oil corn, 20% silage). Total lipid content was 4.9% (DM basis) for normal corn and 7.0% for high-oil corn. Steers were individually fed using electronic gates. Quantity of feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Fecal samples were collected on d 63 to 66 of the trial to determine digestibility. Chromic oxide was fed as an indigestible marker for 7 d before fecal collection began. Planned contrasts of HO vs C and ISO vs C were used to assess treatment differences. Dry matter intake was greater for steers fed C vs HO (P < 0.01) or C vs ISO (P < 0.01), but daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Digestibility of DM, OM, starch, and GE was greater (P < 0.05) for the HO diet than the C diet, but lipid digestibility did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05). The combined effect of greater GE content and digestibility resulted in greater (P < 0.01) DE content for the HO than for the C diet. Calculated DE of the corn was 8.3% greater (3.74 Mcal/kg; P < 0.01) for the HO diet and 6.5% greater (3.67 Mcal/kg; P < 0.01) for the ISO diet than the corn in the C diet (3.25 Mcal/kg). Dry matter and GE digestibility did not differ (P > 0.05) between the C and ISO diets. Steers consuming ISO had greater (P < 0.05) starch digestibility than steers fed the C diet. Although HO had higher DE, DE intake was similar (P > 0.05) for HO and C due to lower DMI for HO. These results indicate that available energy is greater from high-oil corn than from typical corn, but depressed voluntary feed intake

  19. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    PubMed Central

    Gebrelul, Sebhatu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. PMID:26904643

  20. Simultaneous determination of carotenoids, tocopherols, and gamma-oryzanol in crude rice bran oil by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometric detection employing silica C30 stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Wolfgang; Huck, Christain; Wongyai, Surapote; Scherz, Heimo; Bonn, Günther

    2005-09-01

    Crude rice bran oil contains tocopherols (vitamin E), carotenoids (vitamin A), and phytosterols, which possess antioxidant activities and show promising effects as preventive and therapeutic agents. The aim of this work was to establish methods and to compare C18 and C30 silica stationary phases in order to separate and detect tocopherols, carotenoids, and gamma-oryzanol in one single run. Comparing RP-LC on silica C18 and C30, higher resolution between all target compounds was obtained using the C30 stationary phase. Methanol was used as eluent and the elution strength was increased by the addition of tert-butyl methyl ether for highly hydrophobic analytes such as gamma-oryzanol. Detection was accomplished by diode array detection from 200 to 500 nm. Absorbance maxima were found at 295 nm for tocopherols, 324 nm for gammaoryzanol, and 450 nm for carotenoids. Furthermore, compounds were characterized and identified on the basis of their UV-spectra. Both RP systems were coupled to MS (LC-MS) by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface.

  1. Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: effects on blood lipids.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, I; Tomasson, H; Kiely, M; Martinéz, J A; Bandarra, N M; Morais, M G; Thorsdottir, I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effects of fish (lean or oily) and fish oil consumption on blood lipid concentration during weight loss. Randomized, controlled 8-week trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content. Subjects, 324 men and women, aged 20-40 years, body mass index 27.5-32.5 kg m(-2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland, were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood), (2) cod diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (3) salmon diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups were single-blinded. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and end point. The difference in logTG lowering between the control group and the cod diet, salmon diet and fish oil from baseline to end point was -0.036 (95% CI -0.079 to 0.006), -0.060 (-0.101 to -0.018) and -0.037 (-0.079 to 0.006), respectively. Reduction in TC was about 0.2 mmol l(-1) greater in the fish groups (cod and salmon) than in the control group, but only of borderline significance when adjusting for weight loss. HDL tended to decrease less in the diet groups consuming a significant amount of n-3 fatty acids (salmon and fish oil). Weight-loss diet including oily fish resulted in greater TG reduction than did a diet without fish or fish oil. Controlled trials using whole fish as a test meal are encouraged to be able to elucidate the role of different constituents of fish for human health.

  2. The use of high oil corn in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J A; Gernat, A G; Murillo, J G; Araba, M

    1999-06-01

    We examined the effect of substituting conventional corn (CC; 3.5% crude fat) with high oil corn (HOC; 8.81 and 6.75% crude fat) on broiler performance. In Experiment 1, 100 chicks were assigned to 16 experimental pens consisting of two treatments. Treatment 1, the control group used CC, whereas in Treatment 2, CC was totally replaced with HOC containing 8.81% crude fat. In Experiment 2, 52 chicks were assigned to each of 16 experimental pens divided also into two treatments. Treatment 1 was the control group using CC and in Treatment 2 CC was totally replaced by HOC (6.75% crude fat). Body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed efficiency were determined weekly for each pen from 7 to 42 d of age. Carcass weight and percentage yield were determined prechill. Results in Experiment 1 showed no significant differences for any parameter measured. In Experiment 2, body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds fed HOC at 42 d of age. There were no significant differences among treatments for the remaining parameters. These results indicate that comparable performance of broilers can be obtained when CC is substituted with HOC.

  3. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties.

  4. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5–2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg−1 body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg−1 body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg−1 ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties. PMID:21792359

  5. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Casner, Caroline; Ramos, Jeremiah; Serafine, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to negative health consequences, including obesity and insulin resistance. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish oil) prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Eating a high fat diet also enhances sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of drugs that act on dopamine systems (e.g. quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist). To test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhanced sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg), male rats ate standard laboratory chow, high fat chow, standard chow with fish oil, or high fat chow with fish oil (20% w/w). After 5 weeks, rats eating high fat chow were more sensitive (e.g. leftward shift of the quinpirole dose-response curve) than rats eating standard chow to yawning induced by quinpirole. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented this effect. That is, quinpirole dose-response curves were not different between rats eating high fat chow supplemented with fish oil and standard chow fed controls. These data add to a growing literature showing the complex relationship between diet and dopamine systems, and the health benefits of fish oil.

  6. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  7. Coconut oil and beef tallow, but not tricaprylin, can replace menhaden oil in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) without adversely affecting growth or fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1995-12-01

    The ability of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to utilize medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and other saturated dietary lipids was investigated in two 6-wk feeding experiments. Diets contained solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal to which menhaden fish oil (control), coconut oil, corn oil, beef tallow or various levels of MCT as tricaprylin (30, 46, 65 and 80% of total lipid) were added. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum in aquaria containing brackish (6%) water. In the first feeding experiment, red drum fed the control diet had the greatest weight gains and feed efficiencies. Weight gain, but not feed was slightly, of fish fed corn oil and fish fed coconut oil was slightly (P < 0.05) lower. In the second feeding experiment, fish fed coconut oil and those fed beef tallow had significantly higher weight gains and feed efficiencies than did fish fed the control diet. Fish fed the diets containing tricaprylin at all inclusion levels in both feeding experiments had significantly lower weight gains and feed efficiencies and higher levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma. Fish fed diets with high levels of MCT also had lower (n-3) and greater (n-6) fatty acid levels in the neutral lipid fraction of muscle tissue compared with fish fed the control diet. Coconut oil and beef tallow consistently resulted in greater liver lipid deposition but had variable effects on other tissue indices. Saturated dietary lipids had variable effects on fatty acid composition of muscle polar and neutral lipid fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  9. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  10. Antioxidant potential of dietary chia seed and oil (Salvia hispanica L.) in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary chia seed and oil on plasma and liver oxidative status in diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided in six groups (6 animals each): control group was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; HFF group was fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFF) diet; chia seed short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia seed; chia oil short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia oil. Plasma and hepatic biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems and antioxidant capacity were determined. HFF diet induced weight gain, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of animals. Compared to HFF group chia seed and chia oil (12 and 6weeks) intake increased plasma reduced thiol (GSH) levels, plasma catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. In the liver glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was enhanced, while CAT and GPx activities did not change. There were no differences in plasma and liver superoxide dismutase activity among chia diets and HFF group. Chia (seed and oil) intake did not modify liver lipid peroxidation, but was able to reduce plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostane levels increased by HFF group. Plasma and hepatic antioxidant capacity values were increased in chia seed and oil groups about 35% and 47%, respectively, compared to HFF group. Chia groups presented similar antioxidant potential, regardless of treatment time. Dietary chia seed and oil reduced oxidative stress in vivo, since it improved antioxidant status and reduced lipid peroxidation in diet-induced obese rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of different concentrations of linseed oil or fish oil in the maternal diet on the fatty acid composition and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Missotten, J; Raes, K; De Smet, S

    2015-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for foetal development. Hence, including n-3 PUFA in the sow diet can be beneficial for reproduction. Both the amount and form (precursor fatty acids vs. long chain PUFA) of supplementation are important in this respect. Furthermore, including n-3 PUFA in the diet can have negative effects, such as decreased arachidonic acid (ARA) concentration and increased oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the efficacy to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in the piglet, when different concentrations of linseed oil (LO, source of precursor α-linolenic acid) or fish oil (FO, source of EPA and DHA) were included in the maternal diet. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet including 0.5% or 2% LO or FO from day 45 of gestation until weaning. Linoleic acid (LA) was kept constant in the diets to prevent a decrease in ARA, and all diets were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate (150 mg/kg) and organic selenium (0.4 mg/kg) to prevent oxidative stress. Feeding 0.5% LO or 0.5% FO to the sows resulted in comparable EPA concentrations in the 5-day old piglet liver, but both diets resulted in lower EPA concentrations than when 2% LO was fed. The highest EPA concentration was obtained when 2% FO was fed. The DHA level in the piglet liver could only be increased when FO, but not LO, was fed to the sows. The 2% FO diet had no advantage over the 0.5% FO diet to increase DHA in the piglet. Despite the constant LA concentration in the sow diet, a decrease in ARA could not be avoided when LO or FO were included in the diet. Feeding 2% FO to the sows increased the malondialdehyde concentration (marker for lipid peroxidation) in sow plasma, but not in piglets.

  12. An n-3 PUFA-rich microalgal oil diet protects to a similar extent as a fish oil-rich diet against AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    van Beelen, Vincent A; Spenkelink, Bert; Mooibroek, Hans; Sijtsma, Lolke; Bosch, Dirk; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2009-02-01

    The chemopreventive effects of high fat microalgal oil diet on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male Fischer 344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. These effects were compared to the effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets to determine whether microalgal oil is a good alternative for fish oil regarding protection against colorectal cancer. Despite the difference in fatty acid composition and total amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) between microalgal oil and fish oil, both these oils gave the same 50% reduction of AOM-induced ACF when compared to corn oil. To determine whether oxidative stress could play a role in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by n-3 PUFAs, feces and caecal content were examined using the TBA assay. The results showed that lipid peroxidation does occur in the gastrointestinal tract. As several lipid peroxidation products of n-3 PUFAs can induce phase II detoxifying enzymes by an EpRE-mediated pathway, the in vivo results suggest that this route may contribute to n-3 PUFA-mediated chemoprevention. All in all, n-3 PUFA-rich oil from microalgae is as good as fish oil regarding chemoprevention in the colon of the rat.

  13. Bran: may irritate irritable bowel.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M J; Whorwell, P J

    1998-05-01

    The irritable gut is known to be hypersensitive, and it is reasonable to suspect that patients with the disorder might be hyperreactive to agents that stimulate or irritate it. This appears to be a possible explanation for the adverse effects of bran on hospital patients with this disorder, but we do not yet know how this product affects community IBS sufferers. We cannot ignore the fact that fiber and bran have major beneficial effects in other areas, not least in the reduction of colonic carcinoma. In conclusion, it is probably best to recommend that patients with IBS be left to judge for themselves whether bran helps or exacerbates their symptoms, but there is enough evidence to suggest that the current dogma of routinely treating all IBS sufferers with bran should be challenged. Proprietary sources of fiber, such as ispaghula, may be more appropriate for those IBS subjects (for example, constipated) for whom fiber supplementation is believed justified.

  14. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  15. Rats allowed to self-select zinc-deficient lard and fish-oil diets did not develop a preference for fish-oil diet.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akie; Nakashima, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn)-deficiency causes a reduction in food intake and alters adipose metabolism. The effect of zinc restriction in rats on the selection of fish-oil and lard was studied during a period of reduced appetite. The reduction of appetite was caused by an experimentally induced Zn-deficiency. Four-week-old male rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups: Zn-adequate (ZnA, 30.9 mg Zn/kg), marginal Zn-deficient (ZnM, 5.9 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-deficient (ZnD, 0.9 mg Zn/kg). The three groups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the ZnA-fish-oil diet (ZnA-FD) and the ZnA-lard diet (ZnA-LD), the ZnM-FD and the ZnM-LD or the ZnD-FD and the ZnD-LD, respectively for 24 d. The amount of the FD intake in the ZnD group decreased to 0.5 g/d after day 4-6 of self-selecting on the LD and the FD and no significant increase in the FD intake in the group was observed during the self-selection period. However, after day 7-9 and 13-15, the FD intake of the ZnA and the ZnM groups increased, respectively, and at the end of the self-selection period the ZnM and the ZnA rats consumed about 2.0 g FD/d and 4.5 g FD/d, respectively. The FD intake ratio [FD intake (g)/total intake (g)] in the ZnD rats during the self-selection period was the lowest and that in the ZnA rats was the highest of three groups. In conclusion, we showed that zinc status alters fish-oil and lard selection patterns and ZnD rats did not show a preference for fish-oil.

  16. Fish oil diet modulates epididymal and inguinal adipocyte metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of different high-fat diets containing fish oil on adiposity and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in mice, comparing the effects on epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots. For this, we used C57BL/6 male mice fed four types of diets for eight weeks: standard chow (SC), high-fat lard (HF-L), high-fat lard plus fish oil (HF-L + FO), and high-fat fish oil (HF-FO). The HF-L group had a greater body mass (BM) gain, insulin resistance, increased gene expression related to lipogenesis (CD36, aP2, SREBP1c, and FAS), decreased gene expression of perilipin in both eWAT and sWAT, and reduced expression of genes related to beta-oxidation (CPT-1a) and to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1alpha, NRF1, and TFAM) in eWAT and sWAT. On the other hand, the HF-L + FO and HF-FO groups showed a smaller BM gain and adiposity, and normalization of insulin resistance and lipogenic genes in both eWAT and sWAT. These animals also showed decreased perilipin gene expression and elevated expression of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in eWAT and sWAT. 'Beige' adipocytes were identified in sWAT of the HF-FO animals. In conclusion, fish oil intake has anti-obesity effects through modulation of both eWAT and sWAT metabolism in mice and is relevant in diminishing the BM gain, adiposity, and insulin resistance even in combination with a high-fat lard diet in mice.

  17. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum.

  18. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  19. Influence of weed seed oil contamination on the nutritional quality of diets containing low erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus, Tower cultivar) oil when fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Rose, S P; Bell, J M; Wilkie, I W; Schiefer, H B

    1981-02-01

    Oils from three samples of rapeseed screenings and a sample of stinkweed seeds (Thlaspi arvense) were added to Tower rapeseed oil at three levels (5, 10 and 15%). The contaminated Tower oils were fed at 20% (w/w) of a purified diet to male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks. The screenings oils caused no increase in the focal myocardial lesion index or lipidosis of the rat hearts. Stinkweed oil gave a significant increase in myocardial lipidosis and a non-significant increase of the myocarditis index. These were attributed to an imbalance in the fatty acid composition of the Tower oil for the specific requirements of the growing rat. Screenings oil contamination had no significant effects on the feed intake or growth of the animals. The growth of rats fed stinkweed oil-contaminated diets was significantly lower than other treatments when it was adjusted for feed intake by analysis of covariance. No treatment effects on body organ weights nor on blood lipid parameter were observed. The presence of week seed oils, at the highest levels likely to be encountered in low erucic acid rapeseed oil, was concluded to have a significant influence on its nutritional value.

  20. Influence of juniper (Juniperus communis) oil on growth performance and meat quality as a natural antioxidant in quail diets.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Cengiz, S S; Cetin, I; Meral, Y; Biricik, H

    2014-01-01

    1. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper oil on growth performance and meat quality in quails to determine its use as a safe and natural method to reduce overdependence on the use of antibiotic. 2. A total of 1000 1-d-old Pharaoh (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) quails, including both males and females, were divided into 4 groups containing 250 quails and treated as follows: (1) a control group with 0 mg volatile oil/kg diet; (2) 100 mg/kg juniper oil; (3) 150 mg/kg juniper oil and (4) 200 mg/kg juniper oil. The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experiment was carried out for 42 d. 3. The results of the study showed that supplementation with juniper oil (100 and 150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in live weight, live weight gain and carcass yields during the growing and finishing periods. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by treatments. 4. The quails given rations containing juniper oil had reduced thiobarbituric acid levels in raw thigh meat samples at different storage times. Juniper oil was found to have significant antioxidant activity and prevented lipid oxidation in stored meat. 5. In conclusion, natural antioxidants such as a juniper oil can be used instead of synthetic antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in animal diets to improve meat product quality and animal performance.

  1. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  2. Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on zinc absorption in man.

    PubMed

    Nävert, B; Sandström, B; Cederblad, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of leavening of bread containing bran on the phytic acid content and on zinc absorption in man was studied. Twenty breads with leavening times varying from 0 to 120 h were prepared. The breads contained 250 g wheat bran/kg flour. The phytic acid content was determined after baking. The phytic acid content of bread containing bran was reduced to about 40% after 2 h of leavening and to 15% after 2 d. No further decrease was observed. Zn absorption from single meals was determined using a radioisotope technique. Forty-two students volunteered for these studies. They were served a breakfast of milk, butter, bread and 10, 16 or 30 g bran served either raw or baked into the bread with fermentation times of 15 min, 45 min, 3 h or 16 h. One meal contained no bran, but phytate and Zn were added in amounts equivalent to the content of 10 g bran. The amount and percentage of Zn absorbed increased at each bran level as fermentation was prolonged. The percentage of Zn absorbed was reduced by increased bran content in the meal. It is concluded that the fermentation of bread containing bran reduces the phytic acid content and increases Zn absorption from such bread. This may be of importance to people subjected to diets with a high cereal content, especially in combination with a low animal-protein intake.

  3. Possibility of fat addition in the rabbit diets.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, A M

    1989-01-01

    Baladi rabbits were fed on five-similar-experimental diets, except the replacement for starch in the 1st diet, cattle tallow in the 2nd, cotton seed oil in the 3rd, and hydrogenated palm oil in the 4th instead of 2% more wheat bran in the 5th (control) diet. All other husbandry conditions were the same for all groups of animals during the experimental period of 7 weeks. The cattle tallow in the second diet caused significant increase of feed intake, growth rate, relative weights of kidneys, lungs and heart and calcium of the tibia bone. This diet had tendency to diminish significantly blood contents of total nitrogen and cholesterol as well as vitamin A in the liver and tibia contents of silica, phosphorus and magnesium. Diet number 3 included cottonseed oil lowered blood contents of glucose, phosphorus, cholesterol and enzyme activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase in the serum and specific gravity of tibia bone. On the other hand, it elevated significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01) stored vitamin A in the liver than on all other experimental diets. Feeding rabbits on diet including hydrogenated palm oil subsided liver contents of dry matter, ash and vitamin A and raised ether extract of the liver significantly. It reduced also dry matter content of the femoral muscle. Substitution for starch (instead of 2% of the diet fats or bran) increased blood content of haemoglobin and haematocrit (insignificant) but values of glucose and phosphorus as well as liver content of dry matter, content of femoral muscle of dry matter and ether extract and content of tibia bone of silica and phosphorus were significantly higher than the other experimental diets. It decreased relative weights of different organs (significantly) and liver contents of ether extract and vitamin A (insignificantly) than on control diet. It could be said that the addition of cattle tallow and cottonseed oil would be recommended to be included in rabbit diets after more studies to determine

  4. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  5. DNA Methylation Changes Induced by a High-Fat Diet and Fish Oil Supplementation in the Skeletal Muscle of Mice.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Catia L; Crisma, Amanda R; Masi, Laureane N; Martins, Amanda R; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the global changes in DNA methylation and methylation of the promoter region of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcript variant 2 (Pparg2) gene resulting from a high-fat diet (HFD) and/or fish oil supplementation. Fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, or water was orally administered to male mice for 12 weeks. After the first 4 weeks, the animals were fed a control diet or an HFD until the end of the experimental protocol, when the epididymal fat, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were excised. Pparg2 mRNA expression was upregulated by obesity and downregulated by fish oil supplementation in the liver. In the gastrocnemius muscle, diet-induced obesity increased global DNA methylation. Fish oil prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation induced by obesity in the gastrocnemius muscle. Regardless of the diet given, fish oil supplementation increased Pparg2 promoter methylation at CpG-263 in muscle and adipose tissue. HFD and fish oil modified global and Pparg2 promoter DNA methylation in a tissue-specific manner. Fish oil supplementation attenuated body weight gain, abolished the increase in Pparg2 expression in the liver and prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation in the muscle induced by the HFD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  7. Physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and toxicological evaluation of the oil-based diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Shoremekun, K L; Yakubu, M T

    2009-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and the toxicological effect of the oil-based diet on some biochemical parameters of selected rat tissues and serum were studied. The smoke, flash, and fire points as well as peroxide, iodine, and acid values of the fruit oil were significantly lower (P < .05), whereas the specific gravity, relative density, saponification, and ester values compared well with soybean oil. The fruit oil yield was 20.02%. The oil consisted of 22.22% saturated, 56.43% monounsaturated, and 21.35% polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is richer than soybean oil in behenic, palmitoleic, oleic, gadoleic, erucic, and 9,12-eicosanoic acids by 15.70%, 0.89%, 7.22%, 12.05%, 8.27%, and 21.35%, respectively. The liver- and kidney-body weight ratios as well as the serum concentrations of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the rats maintained on diet formulated with the oil from the fruit of B. sapida increased significantly (P < .05), but the triglyceride and atherogenic index decreased (P < .05). The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and the heart-body weight ratio of the rats fed with the fruit oil diet compared well (P > .05) with those on soybean oil-based diet. Animals fed with the fruit oil-based diet had their activities of liver glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase as well as alkaline phosphatase activities of the liver and kidney decreased with corresponding increase in the serum enzymes. These results suggest that oil from B. sapida fruit could be edible and may be explored as raw materials in the paint, margarine, and soap industries. The oil is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk, but may labilize the plasma membrane of the hepatocytes and nephrons. It may also have a negative effect on the metabolism and regulation of amino acid in the animals. Therefore, the oil from B. sapida fruit may not be completely safe for

  8. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  9. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  10. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  11. Protective effects of wheat bran against diquat toxicity in male Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masashi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Kawasaki, Naomi; Hamaoka, Keiji; Watabiki, Sho; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    2007-07-01

    After injection with 0.1 mmol diquat/kg body weight, survival time was markedly shorter in Fischer-344 rats fed a purified diet than in rats fed a regular diet, and much more severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in the former than in the latter. The longer the feeding period on the purified diet, the shorter the survival time after diquat administration. These results indicate that the purified diet lacked components present in the regular diet that had protective effects against diquat toxicity. These two diets had nearly the same composition and content of vitamins and minerals. We tested the ingredients of the regular diet to determine which ones reduce diquat toxicity. We found that wheat bran had a protective effect, but that rice bran and bean-curd refuse (okara) did not.

  12. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  13. Mice fed fish oil diet and upregulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Silva-e-Silva, Anna Carolina Alves Gomes; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) elicits diverse beneficial effects. Reduction in or prevention of body mass (BM) gain in animal models may be associated with modulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We aimed to evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets with FO on BAT metabolism and thermogenic markers. C57BL/6 male mice (3-month-old) were fed different diets during 8 weeks: standard-chow diet (SC 10% fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L 50% fat), high-fat lard plus FO diet (HF-L+FO 50% fat), and high-fat FO diet (HF-FO 50% fat). We evaluated BM and performed an oral glucose tolerance test. At euthanasia, plasma was collected for leptin, and triacylglycerol measurement and interscapular BAT was dissected and stored for molecular analyses. HF-L group showed elevated BM; glucose intolerance associated with diminished TC10 and GLUT4 expressions; hypertriglyceridemia associated with increased CD36 and diminished CPT1 expression; elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and reduced PPAR expression. Furthermore, these animals showed hyperleptinemia with increased expression of thermogenic markers (beta3-AR, PGC1alpha, and UCP1). Conversely, HF-L+FO and HF-FO groups showed reduced BM gain with regularization of glucose tolerance and triglyceridemia, GLUT4, TC10, CD36, CPT1, and cytokines expressions. Both groups exhibited elevated PPAR and thermogenic markers expression in a dose-dependent way. FO improves metabolic profile and upregulates thermogenic markers, suggesting an elevated thermogenesis that leads to reduced BM gain.

  14. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  15. Steatosis recovery after treatment with a balanced sunflower or olive oil-based diet: Involvement of perisinusoidal stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Raquel; Martínez-Lara, Esther; Cañuelo, Ana; del Moral, Mª Luisa; Blanco, Santos; Siles, Eva; Jiménez, Ana; Pedrosa, Juan Ángel; Peinado, Mª Ángeles

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between perisinusoidal stellate cell (PSC) activation and the dietary fat quantity and composition in the treatment of hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Using an experimental rat model of steatosis based on the intake of a hyperlipidic diet (14% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, HL-O and HL-S, respectively), we analyzed the liver’s capability of recovery after the treatment with a normal-lipidic diet (5% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, NL-O and NL-S, respectively) by immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in PSCs, collagen quantification and serum aminotransferase determination. RESULTS: The fatty infiltration in the steatotic livers decreased after the treatment with both NL diets, indicating liver recovery. This decrease was accompanied with a lower collagen deposition and aminotransferase level as well as changes in the PSC population that increased the GFAP expression. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced in animals fed on NL-O based diet. CONCLUSION: Treatment with a balanced diet enriched in olive oil contributes to the liver recovery from a steatotic process. The PSC phenotype is a marker of this hepatic-recovery model. PMID:16437720

  16. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Rice bran stabilization using alternative techniques (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilization of rice bran, a by-product of rice milling characterized with a high economic value, is severely restricted by the activity of endogenous enzymes which typically deteriorate the bran quality. There is a great need to develop alternative techniques for stabilizing rice bran and at the sam...

  19. Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Boonnak, Theewara; Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn Devakul; Thirawarapan, Suwan

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) has a lipid-lowering action in both normal and diabetic animals. Because OS leaves are rich in oil, the present study was conducted to explain the anti-hyperlipidemic and organ-protective effect of OS fixed oil in rats fed with a high fat (HF) diet. OS fixed oil was extracted by hexane and the fatty acids composition identified by GC-MS. Four groups of male Wistar rats included a normal control group, a high fat fed-diet (HF) group, a HF group treated with OS fixed oil, and a HF group treated with a reference drug simvastatin. The results show that OS fixed oil contains five kinds of fatty acids, of which alpha-linolenic acid was the major fatty acid. OS fixed oil depressed high serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and AI, whereas no significant effect on HDL-C was observed. OS fixed oil also suppressed high levels of liver cholesterol and triglyceride with no significant effect on both lipids in feces. In addition, OS fixed oil normalized the high serum levels of LDH and CK-MB but no significant effect on high serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP was obtained. We conclude that treatment with OS fixed oil during the last three weeks of HF diet feeding decreased the high serum lipid profile and expressed antiartherogenic and cardioprotective actions against hyperlipidemia. The anti-hyperlipidemic action of OS fixed oil was mainly resulted from the suppression of liver lipid synthesis. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid contained in OS fixed oil were possibly responsible for both lipid-lowering and cardiac protective action against hyperlipidemia.

  20. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  1. Effects of adding essential oil to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  2. Consumption of rice bran increases mucosal immunoglobulin A concentrations and numbers of intestinal Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Angela J; Kumar, Ajay; Barnett, Brittany; Dow, Steven W; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2012-05-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue maintains mucosal homeostasis by combating pathogens and inducing a state of hyporesponsiveness to food antigens and commensal bacteria. Dietary modulation of the intestinal immune environment represents a novel approach for enhancing protective responses against pathogens and inflammatory diseases. Dietary rice bran consists of bioactive components with disease-fighting properties. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the effects of whole dietary rice bran intake on mucosal immune responses and beneficial gut microbes. Mice were fed a 10% rice bran diet for 28 days. Serum and fecal samples were collected throughout the study to assess total immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations. Tissue samples were collected for cellular immune phenotype analysis, and concentrations of native gut Lactobacillus spp. were enumerated in the fecal samples. We found that dietary rice bran induced an increase in total IgA locally and systemically. In addition, B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches of mice fed rice bran displayed increased surface IgA expression compared with lymphocytes from control mice. Antigen-presenting cells were also influenced by rice bran, with a significant increase in myeloid dendritic cells residing in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Increased colonization of native Lactobacillus was observed in rice bran-fed mice compared with control mice. These findings suggest that rice bran-induced microbial changes may contribute to enhanced mucosal IgA responses, and we conclude that increased rice bran consumption represents a promising dietary intervention to modulate mucosal immunity for protection against enteric infections and induction of beneficial gut bacteria.

  3. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries.

  4. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.

  5. The effect of diets supplemented with fish broth and fish oil on the health of weaners.

    PubMed

    Bakuła, T; Lis, Ł; Iwaniuk, Z; Ordyński, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish-based feed materials, as a source of readily available protein contained in fish broth and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil, on the health of piglets and rearing results. The experiment was conducted on a commercial pig fattening farm. The study involved a total of 80 weaners with an approximate body weight of 15 kg. The experiment was carried out over a period of 40 days. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Blood samples were collected from experimental group animals to determine serum biochemical and immunological parameters. The body weight gains of weaners, mortality rates and average feed intake per animal were calculated for the entire experimental period. The addition of fish broth and fish oil significantly improved the n3:n6 fatty acid ratio in diets. The presence of EPA and DHA in the experimental diet could have had a positive health effect on piglets, comparable with that exerted by therapeutic doses of zinc often administered to pigs of this age group. During the experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR) gain was considerably reduced in the experimental group, with similar daily gains in the control and experimental group.

  6. Chromium in basic foods of the Spanish diet: seafood, cereals, vegetables, olive oils and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lendinez, E; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C

    2001-10-20

    In the present study, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to determine the content of total chromium in some basic foods of the Spanish diet. The seafood samples, vegetables and olive oils were mineralized previously with HNO3 and V2O5. A procedure of slurries with Triton X-100 was applied to dairy products. The temperature-time program was optimized for every type of sample. An assessment of the analytical characteristics of the method verifies their reliability. The content of Cr ranged between 0.004 and 0.079 microg/g in seafood (fresh wt.), from 0.007 to 0.456 microg/g in cereals and vegetables (fresh wt.), between not detectable and 0.625 microg/g in dairy products and between not detectable and 0.040 microg/g in olive oils. The high consumption of these products conditions the fact that they should be significant sources of Cr in the diet.

  7. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  8. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  9. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Fish oil improves obesity and its comorbidities, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of a diet rich in fish oil in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation pathways, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To achieve our aims, four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed different diets: standard chow diet (SC; 10% energy from fat), SC+fish oil diet (SC-FO; 10% energy from fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L; 50% energy from lard) and HF fish oil diet (HF-FO; 50% energy from fish oil). We evaluated body mass, epididymal fat pad mass, food intake and glucose tolerance. In WAT, we assessed adipocyte hypertrophy, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 immunofluorescence, and gene and protein expression of insulin signaling, inflammation, MAPKs, RAS, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In relation to the results, the HF-L group, as expected, showed elevated body mass and adiposity, glucose intolerance and hypertrophied adipocytes. In WAT, we found a defect in insulin signaling, infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory markers with the associated activation of MAPKs and local RAS. On the contrary, the HF-FO group did not present increased body mass, adiposity or glucose intolerance. In this group, insulin signaling, macrophage infiltration and inflammation were reduced in WAT in comparison with the HF-L group. We also observed decreases of MAPKs and local RAS and elevation of PPAR and AMPK. In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  11. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  12. Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently in connection with endotoxin receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Debard, Cyrille; Daira, Patricia; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O; Simonet, Claire; Lefils-Lacourtablaise, Jennifer; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Bodennec, Jacques; Peretti, Noël; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2012-02-01

    Low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies revealed that this would be linked to gut-derived endotoxemia during fat digestion in high-fat diets, but nothing is known about the effect of lipid composition. The study was designed to test the impact of oil composition of high-fat diets on endotoxin metabolism and inflammation in mice. C57/Bl6 mice were fed for 8 wk with chow or isocaloric isolipidic diets enriched with oils differing in fatty acid composition: milk fat, palm oil, rapeseed oil, or sunflower oil. In vitro, adipocytes (3T3-L1) were stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) and incubated with different fatty acids. In mice, the palm group presented the highest level of IL-6 in plasma (P < 0.01) together with the highest expression in adipose tissue of IL-1β and of LPS-sensing TLR4 and CD14 (P < 0.05). The higher inflammation in the palm group was correlated with a greater ratio of LPS-binding protein (LBP)/sCD14 in plasma (P < 0.05). The rapeseed group resulted in higher sCD14 than the palm group, which was associated with lower inflammation in both plasma and adipose tissue despite higher plasma endotoxemia. Taken together, our results reveal that the palm oil-based diet resulted in the most active transport of LPS toward tissues via high LBP and low sCD14 and the greatest inflammatory outcomes. In contrast, a rapeseed oil-based diet seemed to result in an endotoxin metabolism driven toward less inflammatory pathways. This shows that dietary fat composition can contribute to modulate the onset of low-grade inflammation through the quality of endotoxin receptors.

  13. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    PubMed

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  16. Synergistic effects of fish oil diet and dimethylthiourea in acute adriamycin nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Milner, L S; Wei, S; Kazakoff, P; Watkins, L; Houser, M T

    1994-11-01

    The synergistic effects of combining fish oil (FO) diet, which reduces thromboxane A production, with the free radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), were evaluated in acute adriamycin nephrosis, because proteinuria in adriamycin nephrosis is mediated by increased renal thromboxane A and free radical production. The effects of combined evening primrose oil (EPO) and DMTU were compared with the DMTU + FO combination because EPO increases prostaglandin E but not thromboxane A. After 7, 14, and 21 days, proteinuria was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in rats receiving either DMTU + corn oil (CO) or DMTU + FO compared with untreated control rats. However, after 21 days, rats receiving DMTU + FO had significantly reduced urine protein excretion compared with those receiving DMTU + CO (103.9 +/- 20 mg daily vs 351.8 +/- 29.8 mg daily; P < 0.05). In contrast to FO, rats receiving EPO + DMTU had similar urine protein excretion to rats receiving DMTU + CO after 21 days (170.2 +/- 20.34 mg daily vs 179.45 +/- 26.38 mg daily). The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (195.2 +/- 23.8 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (377.9 +/- 28.5 mg/dL). Serum triglyceride levels also were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (52.5 +/- 26.4 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (100.5 +/- 36.9 mg/dL). No significant differences in serum cholesterol concentrations or triglycerides occurred between rats receiving DMTU + CO and DMTU + EPO. Renal glutathione content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 23% in normal rats receiving FO diet and by 34% in rats receiving combined DMTU + FO compared with CO alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Shi, C. X.; Liu, Z. Y.; Shi, M.; Li, P.; Zeng, Z. K.; Liu, L.; Huang, C. F.; Zhu, Z. P.; Li, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals). The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg). The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84) MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31) MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values. PMID:25656179

  18. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  20. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  1. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  2. Pre-calving feeding of rumen-protected rice bran to multiparous dairy cows improves recovery of calcaemia after calving.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Martens, Holger; Deiner, Carolin; van Laar, Harmen; den Hartog, Leo A; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows can have different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving. Lowering dietary Ca availability before calving can prevent it. Rice bran, treated for lower rumen degradability of phytic acid can reduce dietary availability of Ca. During 3 periods of 3 weeks, 113 multiparous cows calved in a single close-up group, which was fed first a control diet, then 140 g/kg DM of rumen-protected rice bran, and at last the control diet again. Cows joined the group 3 weeks before expected calving date and left it at calving. Blood samples were taken weekly before parturition and 0, 6 and 12 h after calving, as well as 3 and 28 d in lactation. Serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, and P. Rice bran introduction produced a transient serum Ca decrease. Rice bran feeding reduced serum P and its withdrawal reduced serum Mg. Serum Ca at calving, nadir of serum Ca and serum Ca the first 3 d after calving was higher in cows calving during rice bran feeding. Serum P decreased less and recovered faster after calving when cows had been fed rice bran. Rumen-protected rice bran reduced dietary availability of Ca and induced adaptation of Ca metabolism resulting in improved Ca and P homoeostasis at calving.

  3. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  4. Fish Oil Finishing Diet Maintains Optimal n-3 Long-Chain Fatty Acid Content in European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Tarvainen, Marko; Kallio, Heikki; Airaksinen, Susanna

    2017-08-31

    This study examined the effect of substituting vegetable oil for fish oil in feed, with subsequent re-introduction of fish oil-rich feed (finishing feeding) in late stages of growth, on the fatty acids of cultivated European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Restorative finishing feeding with fish oil-rich feed for 15 and 25 weeks was sufficient to change the total content of nutritionally valuable long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), to correspond to that of fish fed the fish oil-rich feed throughout their lifespan. Under natural conditions, 15 and 25 weeks correspond to weight gains of 75% and 100% (i.e. doubling), respectively. Also, the fatty acid profile of the fish was restored after finishing periods of 15 and 25 weeks. Limiting the use of fish oil by lowering the overall fat content of the feed (no vegetable oil added) resulted in a decrease in the long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Based on the results, after receiving a vegetable oil-rich diet, restorative fish oil-rich feeding in the last stages of growth in European whitefish is nutritionally justified in order to balance nutritional gain for consumers with sustainable use of finite marine oils. The results encourage commercial efforts to further utilize and optimize finishing feeding practices.

  5. Early development of essential fatty acid deficiency in rats: Fat-free vs. hydrogenated coconut oil diet

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pei-Ra; De Leon, Charlotte E.; Le, Hau; Puder, Mark; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of feeding an essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) diet either without fat or with added hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) on fatty acid profiles in rats. Both diets induced equivalent biochemical evidence of EFAD reflected by the triene/tetraene ratio in plasma phospholipids within 2 weeks. However, the HCO diet led to larger increases of 16:1n7 and 18:1n9 in muscle but smaller increases in fat tissue and plasma triglycerides than the fat-free diet, suggesting greater increases in hepatic de novo lipogenesis with the latter. In addition, the HCO diet led to larger decreases of some 18:3n3 metabolites, particularly 22:6n3, in muscle, fat and brain tissues than the fat-free diet, presumably related to lesser stimulation of elongation and desaturation. Thus, these secondary effects of an EFAD diet on fatty acid metabolism can be modified by the saturated fat in the diet while the primary impact of both diets on development of EFAD is unaffected. PMID:20675109

  6. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Tomasson, H; Gunnarsdottir, I; Gisladottir, E; Kiely, M; Parra, M D; Bandarra, N M; Schaafsma, G; Martinéz, J A

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded. A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland. Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight). An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% CI, 3.14-3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% CI, 3.94-4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% CI, 4.13-4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% CI, 4.53-5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41-0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight. In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in approximately 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.

  7. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  8. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring.

  9. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  10. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO). Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:21663699

  11. Influence of a diet rich in fish oil on blood pressure, body weight and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    von Au, D; Brändle, M; Rupp, H; Jacob, R

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a diet rich in fish oil on arterial blood pressure, body weight, left ventricular weight and heart rate have been investigated in 8 month old spontaneously hypertensive male rats (SHR) as compared to age-matched hypertensive controls. A diet containing 10% fish oil decreased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg within 20 days of starting the experiment, and this effect persisted over the observation period of 80 days. Permitting the animals free access to food, the body weight of the diet group increased by 25%. The degree of hypertrophy as evaluated by relating left ventricular weight to tibial length was significantly reduced (10%) in the diet fed group. Heart rate was increased by 53%. The study demonstrates that a diet rich in fish oil can lower arterial blood pressure over several weeks without a recognizable loss in function despite a considerable increase in body weight. It can be assumed that a more marked regression of left ventricular hypertrophy is counteracted by a reflex increase in sympathetic efferentation to the heart.

  12. [Effect of microcrystalline cellulose and wheat bran on growth rates and on biological value, assimilated protein and lipid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Baĭgarin, E K

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of indicators of biological value and protein and lipid digestibility content of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood serum of rats treated for 4 weeks semisynthetic diet with elevated the levels of microcrystalline cellulose and wheat bran. The content of microcrystalline cellulose in the diet of animals in the 0.2 and 2.0 grams per 100 grams of dry food, and wheat bran in the amount of 0.2 grams per 100 grams of dry food leads to a significant decrease in the true biological value protein. The introduction of the diet 0.2 and 2.0 grams of microcrystalline cellulose observed a significant increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood serum. And with the introduction of the diet 0.2 and 2.0 grams of wheat bran, a significant increase in the content of triglycerides in serum.

  13. Feeding value of supplemental curcas crude oil in finishing diets for feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, < 0.01), and dietary net energy (linear effect, < 0.01) and decreased (linear effect, < 0.01) the ratio of observed/expected DMI. At low levels (20 g/kg diet dry matter) of supplementation, the net energy (NE) value of JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.

  14. [Effect of wheat bran fiber on vitamin status of weaning rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V; Baturina, V A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of wheat bran on the vitamin status of rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 32 male Wistar weaning rats (initial body mass--49-67g) were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100 or 20% of vitamin mixture with or without addition of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) for 35 days. The animals of the control group received 100% of vitamin mixture without adding of wheat bran; 2 group--received those diet with wheat bran; 3 deficient group--20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2; 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and wheat bran. The inclusion of wheat bran in full semi-synthetic diet has been accompanied by significant decrease of alpha-tocopherol liver content on 17% (p = 0.006), significant increase of vitamin B1 liver level on the 16% (p = 0.027) and blood plasma vitamin D elevation on 19% (p = 0.017), as well as a tendency (p = 0.059) to increase the liver level of vitamin B2. Indicators of vitamin A status as well as plasma vitamin E concentration, liver and blood plasma MDA levels were not changed in this group rats. The 5-fold reduction of the vitamin mixture quota and the exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2 resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) 1.6-1.8 fold decreased in animal body weight and liver mass and the manifestation of the deep external signs of vitamin deficiency. Young animals were more sensitive than adult animals to a lack of vitamins in the diet. Vitamin A (retinol palmitate) liver content in rats from this group was 25.1-fold reduced, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)--2.1-fold, vitamins B1 and B2--by 57 and 38% compared with animals received a complete control diet (p < 0.05). Blood plasma concentration of vitamins A, E, D was 19-34% decreased. Adding of bran in vitamin deficit diet led to increased consumption of vitamin B--on 40%, vitamins B2 and E--21%, both due to their natural content in the bran, and as a

  15. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  16. Effect of supplementation of fish and canola oil in the diet on milk Fatty Acid composition in early lactating holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Toktam S; Naserian, Abbas A; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  17. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  18. Blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR after diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Moritz, V; Wirth, M; Berger, I; Forster, D

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4 weeks of age were fed a diet supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during and after FO, EPO and EPO + FO, whereas the lower level after SO was not significant when compared with the controls. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were lowest after EPO followed FO. The combination of both EPO and FO resulted in unexpected high values of triglycerides and cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was likewise highest after EPO + FO. The results indicate a quantitatively different depression of blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

  19. Performance of commercial laying hens when six percent corn oil is added to the diet at various ages and with different levels of tryptophan and protein.

    PubMed

    Antar, R S; Harms, R H; Shivazad, M; Faria, D E; Russell, G B

    2004-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of corn oil in the diet of commercial layers as a method of increasing egg weight. In the first experiment, the performance of commercial layers receiving 6% added corn oil beginning at 18 to 30 wk at 2-wk intervals was evaluated. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between performance of young and old commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to the diet. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects upon commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to diets varying in Trp content. In experiment 1, egg weights increased during the first 2 wk that corn oil was added to the diet. During this time, the intake of Trp was greater than or equal to the hen requirements. However, during the last 2 wk of the experiment, when Trp intakes were low, egg weights decreased when corn oil was added to the diet. In experiment 2, egg weights from young and old hens increased during the first 2 wk after corn oil was added to the diet. During the last 2 wk, egg weights from young hens decreased, whereas egg weights from old hens increased. In experiment 3, egg weight was not affected when the diet contained 0.166 or 0.176% Trp. However, egg weights significantly increased when corn oil was added to the diet containing 0.193% Trp. The data in these experiments indicate that the diet of a laying hen must contain a high level of Trp to get an increase in egg weight from the addition of corn oil to the diet. Also the need for other amino acids must be met. Therefore, the hen eats to meet her energy requirement for maximum egg production, and her amino acid intake determines the egg weight.

  20. Upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in rat aorta after ingestion of fish oil-rich diet.

    PubMed

    López, Diego; Orta, Xavier; Casós, Kelly; Sáiz, M Puy; Puig-Parellada, Pere; Farriol, Mireia; Mitjavila, M Teresa

    2004-08-01

    A previous study with aortic segments isolated from rats fed a fish oil-rich diet indicated an increase in acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (.NO)-mediated relaxation. However, it remained to be elucidated whether a fish oil-rich diet affects the vascular activity per se and the point of the.NO-cGMP pathway at which fish oil acts. For this purpose, two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% lipids, either corn oil (CO) or menhaden oil (MO), for 8 wk. We studied the mRNA and protein levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and NOS activity. The bioavailability of vascular.NO was assessed directly by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The levels of cGMP, l-arginine, and l-citrulline were also evaluated in homogenates. Superoxide anion (O(2)(-).) production and related antioxidant activities were also studied in aortic segments. The aortic content of eNOS mRNA was increased in rats fed the MO-rich diet. This resulted in increases in both eNOS protein levels (70% relative to the rats fed the CO-rich diet) and NOS activity (102%);.NO production increased by 90%, cGMP levels increased by 100%, and l-arginine decreased by 30%. No change in aortic O(2)(-). production was caused by dietary MO. The upregulation of the eNOS-cGMP pathway induced by dietary MO may contribute to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and explain its beneficial effect in the prevention of arterial diseases.

  1. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  2. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  3. Effect of two experimental diets (protein and lipid vegetable oil blends) on the volatile profile of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) muscle.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Soares, S; Valente, L M P; Castro-Cunha, M; Cunha, L M; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine differences among volatile compounds composition of Senegalese sole muscle fed with extruded diets containing different plant protein (PP) and vegetable oil (VO) sources. Two set of experiments were performed on growing sole. One growth trial used a control diet containing fish meal (FM) as the main protein source and different PP-based diets. Another growth trial compared a control diet containing fish oil (FO) as the main lipid source and different VO-based diets; after a period, all sole were fed with the FO diet. Results showed that the incorporation of PP sources up to 75% allowed the production of a similar content of major volatile compounds to the control diet. In VO-based diets, some significant differences were found in the levels of some volatile compounds in sole muscle; however, no significant differences were obtained through sensory evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p < 0.05) for the MCT and soya bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p < 0.05) for the diets containing MCT and soya bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  5. Corn bran versus corn grain at 2 levels of forage: Intake, apparent digestibility, and production responses by lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of substituting corn bran (CB) for dried ground corn grain (CG) in the supplement portion of high-forage (HF) and low-forage (LF) diets. Twelve multiparous and 12 primiparous Holsteins were assigned to 4 diets using six 4 x 4 Latin squares with...

  6. Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil Consumption as Part of a Weight Loss Diet Does Not Lead to an Adverse Metabolic Profile When Compared to Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Bosarge, Aubrey; Goree, Laura Lee T.; Darnell, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Objective Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) consumption may have a beneficial impact on weight management, however, some studies point to a negative impact of MCT oil consumption on cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined the effects of MCT oil consumption, as part of a weight loss diet, on metabolic risk profile compared to olive oil. Design Thirty-one men and women, age 19–50 y and body mass index 27–33 kg/m2, completed this randomized, controlled, 16-week weight loss program. Oils were consumed at a level of ~12% of the subjects’ prescribed energy intakes in the form of muffins and liquid oil. Results After controlling for body weight, there was a significant effect of time on fasting serum glucose (P = 0.0177) and total cholesterol (P = 0.0386) concentrations, and on diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0413), with reductions in these variables occurring over time; there was no time-by-diet interaction for any of the parameters studied. Two of the 3 subjects in the MCT oil group with evidence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline did not have metabolic syndrome at endpoint. In the olive oil group, 6 subjects had the metabolic syndrome at baseline; 2 subjects no longer had metabolic syndrome at endpoint, 1 person developed metabolic syndrome, and 4 subjects did not have any change in their metabolic syndrome status. Conclusions Our results suggest that MCT oil can be incorporated into a weight loss program without fear of adversely affecting metabolic risk factors. Distinction should be made regarding chain length when it comes to discussing the effects of saturated fats on metabolic risk factors. PMID:18845704

  7. Isolation of functional components from red rice bran for evaluating their colon-specific health benefits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole-grain pigmented rice products can contribute diverse functional components to the diet to promote improved gastrointestinal health in humans. We are isolating feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides and proanthocyanidin polymers from red-pigmented rice bran to evaluate individual and synergisti...

  8. Evaluation of feeding value of forage soybean silage as a substitute for wheat bran in sheep.

    PubMed

    Touno, Eiko; Kaneko, Makoto; Uozumi, Sunao; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Deguchi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Twelve sheep were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of substituting wheat bran with forage soybean silage in the diet on apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance. Forage soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) was cultivated in a no-till, no-herbicide cropping system with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) as a living mulch. Forage soybean and Italian ryegrass were wilted and ensiled in round bales without additives, respectively. The experimental diets were based on corn silage supplemented with protein sources (tow silages or wheat bran). The crude protein and the acid detergent insoluble protein contents of forage soybean silage were the highest among the protein sources. The apparent digestibility of crude protein and the nitrogen balance did not significantly differ among the diets. In addition, the phytoestrogen content of forage soybean silage was below the level at which animal reproductive performance would be negatively affected. These results suggest that forage soybean silage has comparable feeding value to wheat bran, and can be given at an inclusion level of 17% (dry matter basis) as an alternative protein source to wheat bran without adverse effects on digestion or nitrogen balance in sheep fed a corn silage-based diet.

  9. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  10. Diets with corn oil and/or low protein increase acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity compared to diets with beef tallow in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinah

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We tested the hypothesis that diets rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) would affect acute liver injury after acetaminophen injection and that protein restriction might exacerbate the liver injury. We examined effects of feeding diets with either 15% (wt/wt) corn oil or 14% beef tallow and 1% corn oil for six weeks with either 6 or 20 g/100 g protein on acute hepatotoxicity. After the feeding period, liver injury was induced by injecting either with 600 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen suspended in gum arabic-based vehicle, or with vehicle alone during fasting status. Samples of liver and plasma were taken for analyses of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and liver-specific enzymes [(Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)], respectively. Whereas GSH level was significantly lower in only group fed 15% corn oil with 6 g/100 g protein among acetaminophen-treated groups, activities of GPT and GOT were significantly elevated in all groups except the one fed beef tallow with 20 g/100 g protein, suggesting low protein might exacerbate drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The feeding regimens changed the ratio of 18:2n-6 to oleic acid (18:1n-9) in total liver lipids approximately five-fold, and produced modest changes in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). We conclude that diets with high 18:2n-6 promote acetaminophen-induced liver injury compared to diets with more saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, protein restriction appeared to exacerbate the liver injury.

  11. Diets Based on Virgin Olive Oil or Fish Oil but Not on Sunflower Oil Prevent Age-Related Alveolar Bone Resorption by Mitochondrial-Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C.; Ochoa, Julio J.; Cordero, Mario D.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L.; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Methods/Findings Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. Conclusions The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis. PMID:24066124

  12. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C; Ochoa, Julio J; Cordero, Mario D; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L

    2013-01-01

    Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  13. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    PubMed

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  14. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  15. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  16. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  17. Wheat bran protects Fischer-344 rats from diquat-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant system: selenium as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masashi; Oshida, Junichi; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    Wheat bran had a protective effect against diquat toxicity in rats fed a purified diet (PD). We studied the effects of wheat bran on the antioxidant system in the liver of rats treated with saline and diquat. Although feeding wheat bran did not affect the concentration of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryl or the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the saline-injected rats, these values were significantly higher in the rats fed PD containing wheat bran (W-PD) than in rats fed only PD after administering diquat. The glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities were significantly elevated by wheat bran in the saline-injected rats. Although the glutathione peroxidase activity was unchanged in both the PD-fed rats and W-PD-fed rats after the diquat treatment, the glutathione reductase activity was significantly decreased in both the PD-fed and W-PD-fed rats. Feeding the rats with PD containing 0.15 ppm selenium as well as with W-PD elevated the activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and attenuated the diquat toxicity. These results indicate that wheat bran protected against diquat toxicity by activating the hepatic antioxidant system, and that selenium was the key antioxidant in wheat bran.

  18. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-03-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil

    PubMed Central

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg−1 silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed.

  2. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  3. Intestinal Fluid and Glucose Transport in Wistar Rats following Chronic Consumption of Fresh or Oxidised Palm Oil Diet

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Agona O.; Owu, Daniel U.; Okwari, Obem O.; Antai, Atim B.; Osim, Eme E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil causes functional derangement of various tissues. This study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of chronic ingestion of thermoxidized and fresh palm oil diets on intestinal fluid and glucose absorption in rats using the everted sac technique. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats per group. The first group was the control and was fed on normal rat chow while the second (FPO) and third groups (TPO) were fed diet containing either fresh or thermoxidized palm oil (15% wt/wt) for 14 weeks. Villus height and crypt depth were measured. The gut fluid uptake and gut glucose uptake were significantly (P < .001) lower in the TPO group than those in the FPO and control groups, respectively. The villus height in the TPO was significantly (P < .01) lower than that in FPO and control. The villus depth in TPO was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in FPO and control groups, respectively. These results suggest that ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil and not fresh palm oil may lead to distortion in villus morphology with a concomitant malabsorption of fluid and glucose in rats due to its harmful free radicals. PMID:21991537

  4. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  7. Effects of whole cottonseed, cottonseed oil or animal fat on digestibility of wheat straw diets by steers.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A; Swingle, R S; Hale, W H

    1986-10-01

    Two completely random digestion trials were conducted, each with 12 beef steers (325 kg initial weight), to measure changes in digestibilities of fat and of forage components when fat was added to diets containing 62 to 76% wheat straw. Trial 1 diets contained either no added fat or 6.3% added fat from whole cottonseed (30% of the diet), cottonseed oil or animal fat; diets were formulated to contain equal levels of cottonseed hulls and cottonseed meal. Trial 2 diets contained 0, 2, 4 or 8% added animal fat. In all forms and at all levels, added fat increased apparent digestibility of dietary lipid (P less than .05). However, estimated true digestibility of lipid decreased (from 94 to 71%) as added fat was increased from 0 to 8% (P less than .05). Up to 6.3% added fat increased digestible energy (DE) content of the diet. Fat additions of 2 and 4% increased daily DE intake (P less than .05) and did not depress digestibility of diet components (P greater than .05). Fat additions of 6.3% or greater, either as free fats or as whole cottonseed, reduced (P less than .05) mean acid detergent fiber digestibility from 40 to 28%. In addition to depressing fiber digestibility, 8% added fat reduced (P less than .05) digestibilities of dry matter (from 54 to 47%), organic matter (60 to 52%) and gross energy (60 to 51%). Oil fed as whole cottonseed caused digestibility depressions similar to free fat addition at the same level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Virgin olive oil and nuts as key foods of the Mediterranean diet effects on inflammatory biomakers related to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Casas, Rosa; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Romero-Mamani, Edwin Saúl; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Llorach, Rafael; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-06-01

    Previous epidemiological and feeding studies have observed that adherence to Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Since atherosclerosis is nowadays considered a low-grade inflammatory disease, recent studies have explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a Med-Diet intervention on serum and cellular biomarkers related to atherosclerosis. In two sub-studies of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial, we analyzed the effects at 3 months of two Med-Diet interventions supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts compared with a control low-fat diet (LFD). Both Med-Diets showed an anti-inflammatory effect reducing serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL6) and endothelial and monocytary adhesion molecules and chemokines (P<0.05; all), whereas these parameters increased after the LFD intervention (P<0.05; all). In another substudy, we evaluated the long-term (1 year) effects of these interventions on vascular risk factors in 516 high-risk subjects, as well as the effect of different Med-Diet components in the reduction of these biomarkers. At 1 year, the Med-Diet groups had significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL6, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 60 and TNFR80 (P<0.05), while intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), TNFR60 and TNFR80 concentrations increased in the LFD group (P<0.002). In addition, those allocated in the highest tertile of VOO and vegetables consumption had a significant diminution of plasma TNFR60 concentration compared with those in tertile 1 (P<0.02). In conclusion, Med-Diet exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on cardiovascular system since it down-regulates cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers related to atherogenesis in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

  9. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  10. Vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2012-12-15

    Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile.

  11. Comment on 'New Brans-Dicke wormholes'

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, Arunava; Simaciu, Ion; Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-06-15

    It is shown that the recently claimed two new Brans-Dicke wormhole solutions [F. He and S-W. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 65, 084022 (2002)] are not really new solutions. They are just the well known Brans-Dicke solutions of Class I and II in a different conformal gauge.

  12. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; P<.001) and equal to the increase seen in the same subjects with wheat fiber in a previous study. A chocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  13. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-08-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish.

  14. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  16. Effect of microparticulated wheat bran on the physical properties of bread.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Keun; Cho, Ah-Ra; Chun, Yong-Gi; Park, Dong-June

    2013-02-01

    Wheat bran and flour mixtures were used in a bread formulation to improve its quality characteristics. Wheat bran was microparticulated using a jet mill, and this microparticulated wheat bran (MWB) was substituted for a portion of wheat flour. As the MWB content increased, water-holding capacity, hardness and springiness increased while the swelling property decreased slightly. The hardness of bread containing MWB was lower than that made with commercial whole wheat flour (WWF). Bread containing 7% MWB had a higher specific volume (8.3%) than that of WWF bread. Enthalpy of dough decreased with increasing MWB content, and peak viscosity and breakdown decreased with increasing setback. Inner crust structures of bread containing MWB showed a slight reduction in gelatinization and gluten development in comparison with wheat bread. These results indicate that MWB could be used as a diet-enriching bread ingredient while maintaining bread quality.

  17. Use of combinations of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation, in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Guardiola, F; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    Re-esterified oils contain higher proportions of mono- and diacylglycerols, and also higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) at the sn-2 position of acylglycerol molecules than does a native oil with the same degree of saturation, which enhances the apparent absorption of SFA. Moreover, as happens with native oils, their nutritive value could be further improved by blending re-esterified oils of extreme degrees of saturation. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of increasing the dietary unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio (UFA:SFA) by adding re-esterified soybean oil in replacement of re-esterified palm oil, on fatty acid (FA) apparent absorption and its consequences on growth performance, carcass fat depots, and FA composition of abdominal adipose tissue. For this purpose, one hundred twenty 1-day-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 30 cages. The 2 pure re-esterified oils, together with 3 re-esterified oil blends, were included in the basal diet at 6%. The increasing dietary UFA:SFA ratio resulted in an improved total FA apparent absorption (linear effect for the starter period, P = 0.001; quadratic effect for the grower-finisher period, P = 0.006) and, therefore, an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the overall period (linear effect, P = 0.003). In the starter period, the improved fat absorption was due to the growing presence of linoleic acid and the enhanced absorption of SFA, mono- and polyunsaturated FA (associative effects among FA; P < 0.05). In the growing-finishing period, however, the absorption of mono- and polyunsaturated FA was not affected (P > 0.05). The UFA:SFA ratio of the abdominal adipose tissue varied in the same direction, but to a lesser extent than that of the diet. Whilst the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of polyunsaturated FA remained relatively constant as the dietary UFA:SFA ratio increased, the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of SFA increased, and that of monounsaturated

  18. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  19. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet.

  20. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  1. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  2. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  3. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  4. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  5. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  6. Effect of diet supplementation with sunflower oil on milk production, fatty acid profile and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Gonzalo; Luna, Pilar; Mantecón, Angel R; Castañares, Natalia; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela; Frutos, Pilar

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the nutritional quality of ewe milk fat by increasing potentially healthy fatty acids (FA) through diet supplementation with unprotected oil rich in linoleic acid, and without detrimental effects on animal performance. Twenty-four ewes were assigned to two high concentrate diets, control or supplemented with 6% sunflower oil (SO), for 4 weeks. No differences between treatments were found in milk production and dry matter intake. Although the SO diet increased milk fat percentage and tended to reduce milk protein concentration, it did not affect milk fat, protein or total solid yield. Most of the modifications in milk FA composition were addressed toward a potentially healthier profile: a decrease in C12:0 to C16:0 and a remarkable increase in the contents of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 (from 0.94 to 3.60 g/100 g total FA) and trans-11 C18:1 (from 2.23 to 8.61 g/100 g total FA). Furthermore, the levels reached were maintained throughout the period monitored. However, the SO diet increased other trans C18:1 isomer percentages, too. The lack of differences between treatments in the in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters, studied with batch cultures of rumen microorganisms, would indicate no negative effects on ruminal fermentation.

  7. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  8. Brans-Dicke cylindrical wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-10-15

    Static axisymmetric thin-shell wormholes are constructed within the framework of the Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Examples of wormholes associated with vacuum and electromagnetic fields are studied. All constructions must be threaded by exotic matter, except in the case of geometries with a singularity of finite radius, associated with an electric field, which can have a throat supported by ordinary matter. These results are achieved with any of the two definitions of the flare-out condition considered.

  9. Brans-Dicke cylindrical wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-10-01

    Static axisymmetric thin-shell wormholes are constructed within the framework of the Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Examples of wormholes associated with vacuum and electromagnetic fields are studied. All constructions must be threaded by exotic matter, except in the case of geometries with a singularity of finite radius, associated with an electric field, which can have a throat supported by ordinary matter. These results are achieved with any of the two definitions of the flare-out condition considered.

  10. Functional properties of protein isolates extracted from stabilized rice bran by microwave, dry heat, and parboiling.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saima Hafeez; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Sameen, Ayesha; Mumtaz, Semee; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2011-03-23

    Protein isolates extracted from differently stabilized rice bran were analyzed to work out the food use potential. Bulk density remained higher for isolates obtained from heat stabilized bran, the treatments were found to have positive impact on the oil absorption properties, while the water absorption was slightly impaired owing to some possible configurational changes. Surface hydrophobicity and emulsion properties were improved with bran stabilization. Isolates exhibited better foaming properties owing to the flexible nature of protein molecules, with less intensive disulfide bonding, that were slightly affected by the stabilization treatment. Nitrogen solubility index followed a curved pattern with the least value near isoelectric point that showed an increasing trend toward basic pH, and parboiled protein isolates exhibited better gelling properties among the isolates.

  11. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  12. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%). PMID:26340625

  13. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  14. Plasma enterolactone or intestinal Bifidobacterium levels do not explain adenoma formation in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice fed with two different types of rye-bran fractions.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, S; Heinonen, S; Karppinen, S; Mättö, J; Adlercreutz, H; Poutanen, K; Mutanen, M

    2003-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate whether two types of rye-bran fractions result in distinct bifidogenic effect or enterolactone production in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice and whether these parameters are associated with intestinal tumorigenesis in this animal model. The experimental diets were a non-fibre diet (control), a rye-bran diet, and diets containing either the soluble extract or the insoluble fraction prepared from rye bran. The main result on adenoma formation in these experiments was the observation that the soluble extract increased number (P=0.012) and size (P=0.008) of adenomas in the distal small intestine when compared with the non-fibre group. All rye-supplemented diets supported similarly the in vivo growth of Bifidobacterium (10(8)-10(9) colony forming units/g) in Min mice, whereas the non-fibre diet lowered intestinal Bifidobacterium below the level of detection. The results show that water solubility does not affect the bifidogenicity of rye bran. Mean plasma enterolactone concentration was highest in the rye-bran group (30.0 nmol/l; P=0.002), which along with the soluble-extract group (16.2 nmol/l; P=0.024) differed significantly from the non-fibre diet group (7.5 nmol/l). Thus, the mice fed with the rye bran were the best enterolactone producers. In conclusion, rye bran and rye fractions influence adenoma formation in Min mice to a varying degree but plasma enterolactone levels or the production of bifidogenic bacteria do not mediate the effect.

  15. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  16. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  17. A maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in rats decreases breast cancer risk in the female offspring.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Feng

    2010-11-01

    The timing of dietary fat intake may modify breast cancer risk. In addition, n-3 fatty acids reduce, and n-6 fatty acids increase, the risk of breast cancer and a maternal high n-6 fat diet results in a greater risk of breast cancer in the female offspring. We hypothesized that the timing of n-3 fatty acid-enriched fish oil supplementation would be important for reducing the risk of breast cancer. Female rats were fed to a high n-6 fat diet containing 20% of the sunflower oil by weight during pregnancy and lactation, and the female offspring were exposed to fish oil by oral gavage either during the perinatal period via maternal intake or during puberty or adulthood. Exposure during the perinatal period to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in the female offspring compared to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with no fish oil supplementation or fish oil supplementation later in life (P=.0228 by Cox proportional hazards model). We found that a maternal high n-6 fat diet during pregnancy is more important in increasing the risk of mammary tumors in the female offspring than a maternal high n-6 fat diet during lactation. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation during the perinatal period decreases the effect of a maternal high n-6 fat diet on subsequent carcinogen-induced mammary tumor risk, whereas fish oil supplementation during puberty or adulthood does not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil and nuts enhance plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and decrease xanthine oxidase activity in people with metabolic syndrome: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Martorell, Miquel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Marti, Amelia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea] study). Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phase II prospective randomized trial of a low-fat diet with fish oil supplementation in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Aronson, William J; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R James; Henning, Susanne; Huang, Min; Jardack, Patricia M; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control Western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for four to six weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2, and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil versus Western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki-67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, four to six weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses, the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. 2011 AACR

  20. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  1. A chemoprotective fish oil- and pectin-containing diet temporally alters gene expression profiles in exfoliated rat colonocytes throughout oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Hyemee; Turner, Nancy D; Mann, John C; Wei, Jiawei; Taddeo, Stella S; Davidson, Laurie A; Wang, Naisyin; Vannucci, Marina; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    We have demonstrated that fish oil- and pectin-containing (FO/P) diets protect against colon cancer compared with corn oil and cellulose (CO/C) by upregulating apoptosis and suppressing proliferation. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby FO/P diets induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation during the tumorigenic process, we analyzed the temporal gene expression profiles from exfoliated rat colonocytes. Rats consumed diets containing FO/P or CO/C and were injected with azoxymethane (AOM; 2 times, 15 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously). Feces collected at initiation (24 h after AOM injection) and at aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (7 wk postinjection) and tumor (28 wk postinjection) stages of colon cancer were used for poly (A)+ RNA extraction. Gene expression signatures were determined using Codelink arrays. Changes in phenotypes (ACF, apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor incidence) were measured to establish the regulatory controls contributing to the chemoprotective effects of FO/P. At initiation, FO/P downregulated the expression of 3 genes involved with cell adhesion and enhanced apoptosis compared with CO/C. At the ACF stage, the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation was modulated by FO/P and the zone of proliferation was reduced in FO/P rats compared with CO/C rats. FO/P also increased apoptosis and the expression of genes that promote apoptosis at the tumor endpoint compared with CO/C. We conclude that the effects of chemotherapeutic diets on epithelial cell gene expression can be monitored noninvasively throughout the tumorigenic process and that a FO/P diet is chemoprotective in part due to its ability to affect expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation throughout all stages of tumorigenesis.

  2. A fish oil diet induces mitochondrial uncoupling and mitochondrial unfolded protein response in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Shylesh; Unnikrishnan, Archana; Ranjit, Rojina; Qaisar, Rizwan; Pharaoh, Gavin; Matyi, Stephanie; Kinter, Michael; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S

    2017-07-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT). Mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD), saturated fat diet (SFD) or fish oil (unsaturated fat diet, UFD) and assessed changes in eWAT mitochondria. Compared to mice fed a LFD, SFD-fed mice have reduced mitochondrial biogenesis markers, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes and TCA cycle enzymes, suggesting an impaired mitochondrial function that could contribute to increased fat mass. In contrast, isocaloric UFD-fed mice have increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes suggesting that elevated mitochondrial uncoupling and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation could contribute to the reduction in fat mass. Interestingly, expression of UPR(mt)-associated proteins caseinolytic peptidase (ClpP) and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) are induced by UFD, whereas SFD reduced the expression of ClpP. Based on our data, we propose that induction of UPR(mt) helps to preserve a functional mitochondria and efficient utilization of fat by UFD whereas a dampened UPR(mt) response might impair mitochondrial function and promote fat accumulation by SFD. Thus, our findings suggest a potential role of UPR(mt) in mediating the beneficial effects of fish oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils with different levels of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Wolynetz, M S; Jones, G; Rock, G A

    1994-12-01

    To test if linolenic acid (18:3n-3) from vegetable oils would affect bleeding times and platelet counts in newborns, piglets were used as a model fed milk replacer diets containing 25% (by wt) vegetable oils or oil mixtures for 28 d and compared to sow-reared piglets. The oils tested included soybean, canola, olive, high oleic sunflower (HOAS), a canola/coconut mixture and a mixture of oils mimicking canola in fatty acid composition. All piglets fed the milk replacer diets showed normal growth. Bleeding times increased after birth from 4-6 min to 7-10 min by week 4 (P < 0.001), and were higher in pigs fed diets containing 18:3n-3, as well as in sow-reared piglets receiving n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the milk, as compared to diets low in 18:3n-3. Platelet numbers increased within the first week in newborn piglets from 300 to 550 x 10(9)/L, and remained high thereafter. Milk replacer diets, containing vegetable oils, generally showed a transient delay in the rise of platelet numbers, which was partially associated with an increased platelet volume. The oils showed differences in the length of delay, but by the third week of age, all platelet counts were > 500 x 10(9)/L. The delay in rise in platelet counts appeared to be related to the fatty acid composition of the oil, as the effect was reproduced by a mixture of oils with a certain fatty acid profile, and disappeared upon the addition of saturated fatty acids to the vegetable oil. There were no alterations in the coagulation factors due to the dietary oils. Blood plasma, platelets and red blood cell membranes showed increased levels of 18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 PUFA in response to dietary 18:3n-3. The level of saturated fatty acids in blood lipids was generally lower in canola and HOAS oil-fed piglets as compared to piglets fed soybean oil or reared with the sow. The results suggest that consumption of milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils rich in 18:3n-3 does not represent a bleeding risk

  4. Cosmic acceleration and Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M. Waheed, S.

    2012-10-15

    We study the accelerated expansion of the universe by exploring the Brans-Dicke parameter in different eras. For this, we take the FRW universe model with a viscous fluid (without potential) and the Bianchi type-I universe model with a barotropic fluid (with and without a potential). We evaluate the deceleration parameter and the Brans-Dicke parameter to explore cosmic acceleration. It is concluded that accelerated expansion of the universe can also be achieved for higher values of the Brans-Dicke parameter in some cases.

  5. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:24562331

  6. Differential effects of high-fish oil and high-lard diets on cells and cytokines involved in the inflammatory process in rat insulin-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-02-20

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation.

  7. Accumulation of cadmium from wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, carrots and cadmium chloride in the liver and kidneys of mice.

    PubMed

    Lind, Y; Engman, J; Jorhem, L; Glynn, A W

    1998-08-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption and organ distribution of Cd after exposure for 9 weeks to three fibre-rich foodstuffs (wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre and carrots) were determined in mice. Groups of eight mice were given a diet containing 0.05 mg Cd/kg from wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, carrots or CdCl2 mixed in a semi-synthetic, low-Cd (< 0.007 mg/kg) feed. A control group was fed on the low-Cd semi-synthetic feed. The water consumption, food consumption and the weight of the animals were monitored throughout the study. The feed was changed once weekly and Cd was analysed in the feed at each change. myo-Inositol phosphates (hexa-, penta-, tetra- and tri-) and Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca were also analysed in the diets. After 9 weeks, the mice were killed and liver and kidneys were sampled and analysed for Cd. The group receiving the wheat-bran diet had significantly lower fractional Cd accumulation (% total Cd intake) in the liver and kidneys than the other groups, indicating a lower fractional absorption of Cd. The wheat-bran diet had markedly higher levels of inositol hexa- and pentaphosphates (phytates) and a Zn level that was twice as high as those in the other diets. The higher levels of myo-inositol hexa- and pentaphosphates in the wheat-bran diet most probably contributed more to the lower fractional absorption of Cd than the elevated Zn level, due to the formation of insoluble Cd-phytate complexes. Compared with the wheat-bran diet, the sugar-beet-fibre and carrot diets contained very low levels of myo-inositol penta- and hexaphosphates, and consequently the fractional Cd absorption from these diets was higher.

  8. Effect of feeding rumen protected rice bran on calcium homeostasis of non-lactating multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; van Puijenbroek, R; van Vuuren, A M; van Laar, H; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-04-01

    Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by activating Ca homeostasis before calving. Homeostatic adaptation can be achieved by reducing dietary Ca availability. Formaldehyde-treated rice bran was studied to supply rumen protected phytic acid to reduce Ca availability. Twelve multiparous dry cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square change-over design with 5-day periods to test three dietary treatments. Diets consisted of a forage mix (maize silage, grass silage and hay), being 77% of ration dry matter, supplemented with three concentrates: Control (no formaldehyde-treated rice bran), T1 (100% formaldehyde-treated rice bran) and T2 (99.5% formaldehyde-treated rice bran with 0.6% Ca carbonate, to equal Ca content of Control). Dietary treatments did not affect urine pH (8.14, 8.13 and 8.11 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively) or dry matter intake (13.9, 13.7 and 13.8 kg for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). Including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in the diet resulted in lower urinary Ca/creatinine ratio (0.970, 0.457 and 0.618 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). A sudden increase of urinary Ca excretion took place after withdrawal of T1 and T2 at introduction of Control, peaking on the first day and coming back down progressively in the second and third days. Peak was greatest after T1 and was not observed in transitions between rice bran treatments. This is understood as indirect evidence of activation of intestinal Ca absorption during formaldehyde-treated rice bran feeding, because renal adaptations to changes in blood Ca clearance are immediate and intestinal adaptations delay 2 days. It was concluded that including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in rations before calving may represent a dietary strategy to prevent milk fever without reducing dry matter intake. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  10. Hydrolysis of wheat bran, rice bran and jute powder by immobilized enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Roy, P K; Roy, U; Vora, V C

    1993-03-01

    The stability of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina improved on immobilization and was 1.5 to 2-fold more active against pre-treated wheat bran, rice bran or jute powder. The hydrolysis efficiency of the catalyst increased with a decrease in its particle size. About 80% (w/v) of the sugar obtained from wheat bran was assimilated by Saccharomyces sp., whereas the corresponding values for rice bran and jute powder were about 70 and 50% (w/v), respectively.

  11. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  12. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  13. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics for feedlot goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2017-08-22

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8+ 0.46 kg BW) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits studied which goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0, 2, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, LM area, WBSF, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of dry matter in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  14. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain. PMID:28621759

  15. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  16. Supplementation of coconut oil from different sources to the diet induces cellular damage and rapid changes in fatty acid composition of chick liver and hepatic mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gil-Villarino, A; Torres, M I; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-07-01

    Supplementation of 20% coconut oil from two commercial sources pharmaceutical ("Pharmacy") and cooking ("Pastry") use, to the chick diet for 14 days produced a clear damage to the hepatic mitochondria, accompanied by an accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets in the hepatocyte cytoplasm. These effects may be accounted for the high proportion of fat supplemented to the diets (20%). Pharmacy coconut oil induced a high percentage of cellular death when administered for 14 days. Fatty acid profiles in liver and hepatic mitochondria rapidly changed (24 hr) after both coconut oils supplementation to the diet. The accumulation of shorter chain fatty acids (12:0 and 14:0) was always higher after Pharmacy than after Pastry diet feeding. This fact may contribute, at least in part, to the cellular damage mentioned above especially after Pharmacy diet feeding. Mitochondrial ratios of saturated/unsaturated and saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids rapidly changed in parallel to these ratios in both diets. Most of the mitochondrial parameters measured tend to recuperate the control values when diets were supplied for 5-14 days. Nevertheless, the maintenance of the mentioned ratios after 14-days Pharmacy diet feeding at significantly higher levels than those observed in control, seems to suggest the lack of the homeostatic mechanism in these membranes and could be also related with the high percentage of cellular death observed after this dietary manipulation.

  17. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (p<0.05) improved the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, and cation exchange capacities. The improvement of the above properties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  18. Relationship of components in wheat bran and spinach to iron bioavailability in the anemic rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D T; Chao, L S

    1984-03-01

    Components found in wheat bran and spinach were evaluated as to their affect on the bioavailability of ferrous iron (i.e., FeSO4) by using the criteria of hemoglobin regeneration in anemic rats. The relative biological value (RBV) of iron in wheat bran and spinach (FeSO4 = 100%) were determined to be 124 and 53%, respectively. Control diets with graded levels of FeSO4 did not contain dietary fiber (i.e., cellulose). Adding cellulose (1.74%) or phytic acid (0.66%) at levels contained in the wheat bran diet, significantly increased (P less than 0.05) the RBV f the ferrous iron to 126 and 124%, respectively. The addition of 2.10% oxalic acid, the amount in the spinach diet, caused the highest increase in RBV to 164%. Combining these dietary components, plus lignin (0.67%) and pectin (0.63%), in various combinations, resulted in RBVs equivalent or significantly higher than 100%. The bioavailability of iron in plant foods appears to be dependent on how this nutrient is presented to the mucosa. Cellulose, phytate or oxalate added to a purified diet containing ferrous iron significantly enhanced the bioavailability of this element. Relative biological values for iron were also calculated based on food intake and growth rate. The latter parameters are believed to have greater utility in determining RBV when food intake and/or growth rate may vary among animals consuming different sources of test iron.

  19. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  20. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  1. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  2. Fish oil diet in pregnancy and lactation reduces pup weight and modifies newborn hepatic metabolic adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maria J; Bocos, Carlos; Panadero, Maribel; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effects of a diet containing fish oil (FD) during pregnancy and lactation in rats on the metabolic adaptations made by the offspring during early extrauterine life and to compare it to an olive oil diet (OD). Rats were mated and randomly allocated to OD or FD containing 10 % of the corresponding oil. During lactation, litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam. Fetuses of 20 days and pups of 0, 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of age were studied. Body weight and length were lower in pups of the FD group from birth. The diet, milk, pups' plasma and liver of FD group had higher proportions of n-3 LCPUFA, but the content of arachidonic acid (ARA) was lower. Plasma glucose was higher, but unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), 3-hydroxybutyrate and liver TAG in 1-day-old pups were lower in the FD group, and differences in some of these variables were also found in pups up to 30 days old. Liver lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA expression, and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl-CoA synthase increased more at birth in pups of the FD group, but the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and Δ6-desaturase mRNA was lower in the FD group. Maternal intake of high n-3 LCPUFA retards postnatal development, which could be the result of impaired ARA synthesis, and affects hepatic metabolic adaptations to extrauterine life.

  3. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  4. Krill Oil Supplementation Improves Dyslipidemia and Lowers Body Weight in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Goowon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangsu; Kwak, Dongyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2016-12-01

    Krill oil is a novel, commercially available marine oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Compared with fish oil, the effects of krill oil supplementation on human health and its underlying action mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of krill oil supplementation on metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Krill oil supplementation in mice fed a HFD for 10 weeks resulted in an ∼15% lower body weight gain and a dramatic suppression of hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with significantly lower serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. We further uncovered a novel underlying mechanism, showing that AMP-activated protein kinase, a master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, mediates the beneficial effects of krill oil.

  5. Shrimp Oil Extracted from the Shrimp Processing Waste Reduces the Development of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Phenotypes in Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandhya; Gagnon, Jacques; Pelletier, Claude; Tchoukanova, Nadia; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H Stephen; Ewart, Vanya; Jiao, Guangling; Wang, Yanwen

    2017-03-31

    Diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress represent the main features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of shrimp oil on glucose homeostasis in obese rats. Male CD rats fed a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) and 20% fructose-drinking water were divided into four groups and treated with the dietary replacement of 0, 10% (SO10), 15% (SO15), or 20% (SO20) of lard with shrimp oil for 10 weeks. Age-matched rats fed a low-fat diet (10 kcal% fat) were used as the normal control. Rats on the high-fat diet showed impaired (p < 0.05) glucose tolerance and insulin resistance compared with rats fed the low-fat diet. Shrimp oil improved (p < 0.05) oral glucose tolerance, insulin response and homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, decreased serum insulin, leptin and hemoglobin A1c and free fatty acids, and increased adiponectin. Shrimp oil also increased (p < 0.05) antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The results demonstrated that shrimp oil dose-dependently improved glycemic control in obese rats through multiple mechanisms.

  6. Mechanisms of increased survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice consuming olive oil-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Leite, Milane S; Pacheco, Patrícia; Gomes, Rachel N; Guedes, Alexandre T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Patrícia T; Koatz, Vera Lúcia G

    2005-02-01

    We examined the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. C57Bl/6J mice were fed for 6 weeks with a commercial laboratory chow (CC) or with test chows containing 7% (w/w) canola oil (CO), sesame oil (SeO), soybean oil (SO), or virgin olive oil (OO). The increase in body weight and energy consumption were similar for all diets tested. In the sixth week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 400 microg of bacterial LPS to induce endotoxic shock. LPS induced a massive neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity and an increase in lipid body (LB) formation in leukocytes recovered from the peritoneal fluid of mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO. In addition, there were increases in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), leukotriene B4 (LTB(4)), and cytokines IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in peritoneal lavage, as well as in plasma TNF-alpha. In contrast, mice fed with OO exhibited reduced neutrophil accumulation and LB formation, and also had lower levels of PGE(2), LTB(4), MCP-1, and TNF-alpha. All mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO died within 48 to 72 h after LPS injection. Interestingly, mice fed with the OO diet were resistant to endotoxic shock, with 60% survival at 168 h. These data indicate that intake of OO may have a beneficial role, reducing the magnitude of the inflammatory process triggered by endotoxic shock through modulation of LB formation and of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  7. Identification and ruminal outflow of long-chain fatty acid biohydrogenation intermediates in cows fed diets containing fish oil.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, Piia; Toivonen, Vesa; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2011-07-01

    The abundance of 20- to 24-carbon fatty acids in omasal digesta of cows fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0 (Control) and 250 g/day of fish oil (FO) was examined to investigate the fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. Complimentary argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives prepared from fish oil and omasal digesta enabled the structure of novel 20- to 22-carbon fatty acids to be elucidated. Compared with the Control, the FO treatment resulted in the formation and accumulation of 27 novel 20- and 22-carbon biohydrogenation intermediates containing at least one trans double bond and the appearance of cis-14 20:1, 20:2n-3, 21:4n-3 and 22:3n-6 not contained in fish oil. No conjugated ≥ 20-carbon fatty acids were detected in Control or FO digesta. In conclusion, fish oil in the diet results in the formation of numerous long-chain biohydrogenation intermediates in the rumen of lactating cows. Comparison of the intake and flow of 20-, 21- and 22-carbon fatty acids at the omasum in cows fed the Control and FO treatments suggests that the first committed steps of 20:5n-3, 21:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 hydrogenation in the rumen involve the reduction and/or isomerisation of double bonds closest to the carboxyl group.

  8. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs' Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg(-1) DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn't. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  9. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs’ Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg-1 DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn’t. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  10. Inclusion of an emulsifier to the diets containing different sources of fats on performances of Khaki Campbell ducks.

    PubMed

    Zosangpuii; Patra, A K; Samanta, G

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of an emulsifier (glycerol polyethylene glycol ricinoleate: GPGR) and different sources of fat on the performance of Khaki Campbell ducks. Ducks were assigned into five groups with three replicates (10 ducks/ replicate) in each group. Treatments were a control diet (C1: without added oil and emulsifier), control diet added with 2% soybean oil (C2). For the other three groups, maize was replaced with rice bran and added with 2% soybean oil plus emulsifier (T1), 2% palm oil plus emulsifier (T2), and 2% lard plus emulsifier (T3). Feed intakes were not affected (P>0.1) by any dietary treatment. There were also no effects (P>0.1) of dietary treatment on body weight gain and feed efficiency except for T3 group, where body weight gain was lower compared with other treatments, and feed efficiency was lower than C2, T1, and T2. The metabolizability of dry matter tended (P=0.08) to decrease in T1, T2 and T3 groups than in C1 and C2 groups. Apparent metabolizable energy contents were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the C2 group than in the C1 group, but were similar among C1, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The metabolizability of fat and other nutrients were not affected (P>0.10) by dietary treatments. Major carcass traits were unaffected (P>0.10) among the treatments. In conclusion, soybean oil and palm oil with GPGR as emulsifier could be added in the diets containing high amount of rice bran without affecting the performance; whereas lard may adversely affect the performance of ducks.

  11. Inclusion of an emulsifier to the diets containing different sources of fats on performances of Khaki Campbell ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zosangpuii; Patra, A. K.; Samanta, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of an emulsifier (glycerol polyethylene glycol ricinoleate: GPGR) and different sources of fat on the performance of Khaki Campbell ducks. Ducks were assigned into five groups with three replicates (10 ducks/ replicate) in each group. Treatments were a control diet (C1: without added oil and emulsifier), control diet added with 2% soybean oil (C2). For the other three groups, maize was replaced with rice bran and added with 2% soybean oil plus emulsifier (T1), 2% palm oil plus emulsifier (T2), and 2% lard plus emulsifier (T3). Feed intakes were not affected (P>0.1) by any dietary treatment. There were also no effects (P>0.1) of dietary treatment on body weight gain and feed efficiency except for T3 group, where body weight gain was lower compared with other treatments, and feed efficiency was lower than C2, T1, and T2. The metabolizability of dry matter tended (P=0.08) to decrease in T1, T2 and T3 groups than in C1 and C2 groups. Apparent metabolizable energy contents were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the C2 group than in the C1 group, but were similar among C1, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The metabolizability of fat and other nutrients were not affected (P>0.10) by dietary treatments. Major carcass traits were unaffected (P>0.10) among the treatments. In conclusion, soybean oil and palm oil with GPGR as emulsifier could be added in the diets containing high amount of rice bran without affecting the performance; whereas lard may adversely affect the performance of ducks. PMID:27175168

  12. Diet enriched with korean pine nut oil improves mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Hoan; Shin, Sunhye; Tu, Thai Hien; Kim, Chu-Sook; Kang, Ji-Hye; Tsuyoshi, Goto; Teruo, Kawada; Han, Sung Nim; Yu, Rina

    2012-12-05

    In this study, we investigated effects of pine nut oil (PNO) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD with 15% energy from lard and 30% energy from either soybean oil (SBO-HFD) or PNO (PNO-HFD) for 12 weeks. The PNO-HFD resulted in less weight gain and intramuscular lipid accumulation than the SBO-HFD and was accompanied by upregulation of transcripts and proteins related to oxidative metabolism and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as molecules selectively expressed in type I and type IIa muscle fibers. In addition, uncoupling protein-1 was upregulated in BAT. These beneficial metabolic effects were partly associated with the dual ligand activity of pinolenic acid, which is abundant in PNO, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ. Our findings suggest that PNO may have potential as a dietary supplement for counteracting obesity and metabolic dysregulation.

  13. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  15. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p < 0.05) in the animals fed sunflower oil. The pigs fed the sunflower oil diet showed higher apparent digestibilities (p < 0.05) of the sum of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA, but had a lower digestibility (p < 0.05) of stearic acid. The intakes of individual digestible FA were derived feed intake data, FA contents of the diets and the digestibility of individual FA. For the entire feeding period of 13 weeks, the ratio of deposition in carcass to intake of digestible FA was increased (p < 0.05) for palmitic and stearic acid in the pigs fed sunflower oil, but the ratios for oleic acid and linoleic acid were decreased (p < 0.001). In the pigs fed sunflower oil instead of beef tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p < 0.001), but diminished for the MUFA (p < 0.05). The calculated minimum de novo synthesis of SFA was increased (p < 0.05) and that of MUFA decreased (p < 0.05) in the pigs fed sunflower oil. It is concluded that the feeding of a diet with sunflower oil instead of beef tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  16. A Mediterranean Diet Enriched with Olive Oil Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Osteocalcin Levels in Elderly Men at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341

  17. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  18. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  19. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  20. Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: effect of acid–base induced modifications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The structural modifications of insoluble rice bran fiber (IRBF) by sequential regimes of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and their effects on the physicochemical attributes were studied. The increment of H2SO4 concentration resulted in decreased water holding capacity that ultimately enhanced the oil bindin...

  1. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  2. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  3. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  5. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response. PMID:26805879

  6. Influence of high dose of phytase and an emulsifier on performance, apparent metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broilers fed on diets containing soy oil or tallow.

    PubMed

    Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the

  7. Effect of dietary wheat bran and dehydrated citrus fiber on 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Mori, H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of dietary wheat bran and dehydrated citrus fiber on 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB)-induced colon and small intestinal carcinogenesis was studied in male F344 rats. Weanling rats were fed semipurified diets containing 5% alphacel, 5% alphacel + 15% wheat bran or 5% alphacel + 15% citrus fiber. At 7 weeks of age, all animals, except vehicle-treated controls, received weekly s.c. injections of 50 mg DMAB/kg body weight for 20 weeks. The DMAB- or vehicle-treated groups were autopsied 20 weeks after the last injection of DMAB. The animals fed the wheat bran diet and treated with DMAB had a lower incidence (number of animals with tumors) and multiplicity (number of tumors/tumor-bearing animal) of colon and small intestinal tumors than did those fed the control diet and treated with DMAB. Animals fed the diet containing citrus fiber developed fewer small intestinal tumors (incidence and multiplicity) than did the rats fed the control diet; the number of adenocarcinomas was reduced in rats fed the citrus fiber diet. This study thus indicates that diets containing wheat bran and citrus fiber reduce the risk for DMAB-induced intestinal cancer and that the protection against colon cancer depends on the type of fiber.

  8. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  9. Influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of minerals from bread with differing bran content.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.

  10. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P < 0.001; 17.7%) and serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels (P < 0.001; 18.0%). LDL-C and LDL-Apo B concentrations were higher (P < 0.001, 4.33+/-0.94 mmol/L and P < 0.01, 1.08+/-0.20 g/L, respectively) following this period than following the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet (3.56+/-0.85 mmol/L, 0.93+/-0.16g/L, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio between the two dietary periods. Serum and LDL-peroxides were lower (P < 0.01, 49.5%, and P < 0.001, 69.0%, respectively) after the palmolein diet than after the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet. The palmolein diet significantly increased TC, LDL-C, Apo B, VLDL-ApoB, LDL-ApoB in women with TC > or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but the increase in Apo B, LDL-C and LDL-Apo B was greater among the women with high TC. The palmolein diet increased HDL-C in women with high or with low TC but this rise was on the borderline of statistical significance (P = 0.06) only in normocholesterolemics. Serum and LDL

  11. Enhancement of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced large bowel tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice by corn, soybean, and wheat brans

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, N.K.; Henke, M.A.; London, J.F.; Shock, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of four well-characterized dietary brans on large bowel tumorigenesis induced in mice with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Eight-week-old barrier-derived male Balb/c mice were fed a semisynthetic diet with 20% bran added (either corn, soybean, soft winter wheat, or hard spring wheat) or a no-fiber-added control diet. Half of each group was given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/week, subcutaneously for 10 weeks) beginning at 11 weeks of age. Surviving mice were killed 40 weeks after the first DMH injection. Tumors were not found in mice not subjected to DMH. In DMH-treated mice, tumors were found almost exclusively in the distal colon. Tumor incidences were as follows: controls, 11%; soybean group, 44%; soft winter wheat group, 48%; hard spring wheat group, 58%; and corn group, 72%. Tumors per tumor-bearing mouse ranged from 1.4 to 1.6, except in the corn group, which had 2.1. A positive correlation was found between percentage of neutral detergent fiber in the brans and tumor incidences but not between the individual components of cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin. The enhancement of DMH-induced large bowel tumorigenesis by all four bran types may reflect a species and/or mouse strain effect that is bran-source related. These data emphasize the importance of using well-defined bran in all fiber studies.

  12. Comparative study of diets enriched with evening primrose, black currant, borage or fungal oils on blood pressure and pressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M

    1993-10-01

    The effects of oils enriched with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on blood pressure and pressor responses were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were fed purified diets containing evening primrose (EPO), black currant (BCO), borage (BOR) or fungal (FGO) oils for 7 weeks. Significant reductions in blood pressure were obtained in SHR rats maintained on diets enriched with GLA oils. The antihypertensive effect was not associated with enhanced pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine or angiotensin II. Moreover, no differences were found in blood pressure responses to the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. The results suggest that GLA-enriched oils inhibit the development of hypertension in the SHR rat. The blood pressure lowering effect is not mediated by altered pressor responses to vasoconstrictor hormones or intracellular calcium mechanisms.

  13. Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; McGhee, Fiona; Dick, James R; Porter, Allan; Smullen, Richard P; Sargent, John R

    2002-02-01

    Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that substitutes must be found that do not compromise fish health and product quality. In this study the suitability of crude palm oil (PO) as a replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four practical-type diets in which the added lipid was either 100% FO and 0% crude PO (0% PO); 75% FO and 25% PO (25% PO); 50% FO and 50% PO (50% PO); and 100% PO, for 30 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion ratio nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart or muscle. Lipid deposition was greatest in fish fed 0% PO and was significantly greater than in fish fed 50% and 100% PO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle total lipid were correlated with dietary PO inclusion such that the concentrations of 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), total saturated fatty acids and total monoenoic fatty acids increased linearly with increasing dietary PO. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] was reduced significantly with increasing levels of dietary PO but the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was significantly reduced only in fish fed 100% PO, compared with the other three treatments. Similar diet-induced changes were seen in liver total lipid fatty acid compositions. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities were approximately 10-fold greater in fish fed 100% PO than in those fed 0% PO. This study suggests that PO can be used successfully as a substitute for FO in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water. However, at levels of PO inclusion above 50% of dietary lipid, significant reductions in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio occur, resulting in reduced availability of these essential (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids to the consumer.

  14. Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits, and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Martin-Calvo, Nerea

    2016-11-01

    The recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016). Large observational prospective epidemiological studies with adequate control of confounding and two large randomized trials support the benefits of the Mediterranean dietary pattern to increase life expectancy, reduce the risk of major chronic disease, and improve quality of life and well-being. Recently, 19 new studies from large prospective studies showed - with nearly perfect consistency - strong benefits of the MedDiet to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, total mortality, heart failure, and disability. Interestingly, two large and well conducted cohorts reported significant cardiovascular benefits after using repeated measurements of diet during a long follow-up period. In addition, Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea, the largest randomized