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Sample records for bran oil diet

  1. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. Aim In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. Materials and Methods A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student ‘t-’ test. Results The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice

  2. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  3. Influence of iron on oat-bran and wheat-bran diets in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Moak, S.; Cary, N.; Scott, J.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of oat-bran and wheat-bran fibers on serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin (Hg), and hematocrit (Hct) were studied in 12 adult males during a 35 day metabolic study. One week was an adjustment period. Subjects were then divided into two groups. Group 1 was fed oat-bran and group 2 was fed wheat-bran in addition to the basal diets for 2 weeks. In a second period, oat and wheat-bran were reduced to half and fed the subjects for another 2 weeks. Fasting venous blood was drawn in vacutainers for a total of 6 drawings. Serum was used to determine SI and TIBC. Hg and Hct were measured in whole blood. No significant differences on Hg and Hct were observed. SI was decreased 11.9% in oat-bran group and 32.1% in wheat-bran group from initial value during high bran period. When brans were reduced, SI values increased in both groups (38.5% in oat group and 7.8% in wheat group). TIBC values in oat groups increased slightly during the high bran period, but the increase was higher (30.0%) during the low bran period. Similar trends were shown in wheat-bran group. The percent of saturation was decreased 12.2% in oat and 34.0% in wheat groups during the high bran period. When brans were reduced to half, the percent of saturation increased 6.5% in oat group and -7.1% in wheat group. The percent saturation appeared to have a greater influence on wheat-bran than oat-bran group.

  4. Evaluation of stabilized rice bran as an ingredient in dry extruded dog diets.

    PubMed

    Spears, J K; Grieshop, C M; Fahey, G C

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the palatability of stabilized rice bran (SRB) when included in a dry canine diet, and to determine the effects of SRB on food intake, digestion, fecal characteristics, blood lipid characteristics, and selected immune mediators. Experiment 1 tested the palatability of SRB. Diets contained poultry fat in Test 1 and soybean oil in Test 2, in conjunction with either 12% SRB or 12% defatted rice bran (DRB, as-fed basis), and were fed to 20 dogs. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). Food intake data were collected and intake ratios calculated (grams of SRB diet consumed divided by total consumed of both diets). Intake ratios were 0.73 for Test 1 (P < 0.01) and 0.61 for Test 2 (P < 0.14) for SRB diets. Diets in Exp. 2 contained 12% SRB or DRB (as-fed basis), and poultry fat, beef tallow, or poultry fat:soybean oil (50:50) as the main fat sources, and were fed to 36 beagles. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). The effects of SRB and DRB were determined on food intake, digestibility, fecal characteristics, and blood fatty acid, phospholipid, and eicosanoid concentrations. No differences were noted in food intake, digestibility, or fecal characteristics. Fat sources contributed much more to dietary fat than rice bran source; therefore, fat source profiles overwhelmed the rice bran source contribution. Dogs consuming a DRB diet had lower (P < 0.050) plasma phospholipid total monounsaturated fatty acids compared with those consuming a SRB diet (-1.17 vs. 0.95%, respectively), whereas plasma fatty acid concentrations tended (P < 0.119) to decrease more than with SRB diets. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid SFA tended (P < 0.15) to be greater in dogs consuming a beef tallow-containing diet compared with those consuming a poultry fat or poultry fat:soybean oil diet. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid PUFA and n-6 PUFA tended to be greater

  5. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios.

  6. In vitro antioxidant assay of medium chain fatty acid rich rice bran oil in comparison to native rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2015-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich-rice bran oils in comparison with native rice bran oil. Different in vitro methods were used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation activity, reducing acitivity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and so on at different concentrations of the oils such as 10-100 μg/mL. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated measuring thiobarbituric acid responsive substance (TBARS) and conjugated diene formation. All the oils showed potent antioxidant activity at 100 μg/mL concentration. TBARS formation and conjugated diene formation was lower with MCFA rich oils i.e. the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more in MCFA rich oils than original rice bran oil. Caprylic acid rich rice bran oil showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to capric- and lauric acid rich rice bran oils. Overall the MCFA rich rice bran oils showed to be more potent antioxidant than rice bran oil due to their lower unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26243941

  7. Enriching oryzanol in rice bran oil using membranes.

    PubMed

    Manjula, S; Subramanian, R

    2008-12-01

    Oryzanol present in rice bran is associated with various physiological functions. However, these beneficial ferulate esters are lost to the extent of 87% during conventional refining of crude rice bran oil. In the present investigation, oryzanol enrichment in rice bran oil was attempted using nonporous polymeric membranes under undiluted as well as hexane-diluted conditions with different (crude, refined, and model oil) systems varying widely in their oryzanol content. During membrane processing, oryzanol content in the refined rice bran oil increased from 2,420 to 7,340 mg/kg (approximately threefold enrichment). While processing crude oil and model oil systems, the oryzanol content in the oil improved from 17,600 to 27,300 mg/kg and 20,400 to 30,300 mg/kg, respectively. The enrichment of oryzanol was due to its moderate rejection by the nonporous hydrophobic membrane owing to the hydrophilic nature of the ferulic esters. Hexane dilution improved the oil flux by one order of magnitude but reduced the selectivity. Enriched rice bran oil may find wider applications in the pharmaceutical, therapeutic, and dietary preparations as well as in producing standard cooking oil with guaranteed oryzanol content. PMID:18566757

  8. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  9. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. PMID:26471585

  10. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  11. Development and characterization of a emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  12. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  13. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents. PMID:27162385

  14. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  15. Bile acid metabolism in rats fed two levels of corn oil and brans of oat, rye and barley and sugar beet fiber.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, D D; Locket, P L; Gallaher, C M

    1992-03-01

    High concentrations of fecal bile acids are associated with a higher incidence of colon cancer. Dietary changes that alter bile acid metabolism are therefore of interest. Here, we report the effect of feeding diets containing four fiber sources and two fat levels for 7 wk on bile acid excretion and small intestinal bile acids (an index of pool size) in rats. The fiber sources were oat bran, rye bran, barley bran and sugar beet fiber. Fiber-containing diets were 8% dietary fiber and contained either 5 or 20% corn oil. All fiber sources caused significantly greater fecal output compared with the fiber-free basal diet. All fiber sources also resulted in significantly (P less than 0.05) lower fecal bile acid concentration compared with the fiber-free basal diet. Only rye bran resulted in significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total fecal bile acid excretion. Oat bran resulted in a slightly but significantly (P less than 0.05) higher quantity of small intestine bile acids compared with the other diets. Dietary fat level had no significant effect on fecal bile acid concentration or excretion or quantity of small intestinal bile acids. We conclude that all four fiber sources tested resulted in lower fecal bile acid concentration, by effectively causing greater fecal mass. Changes in dietary fat level as corn oil had no effect on fecal bile acids.

  16. Effects of Rice Bran Oil on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Isoflavones in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Hoshi, Chigusa; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of isoflavonoids and intestinal microbiota in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% RBO diet (RO group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% lard control diet (LO group) for 30 days. Urinary amounts of daidzein and dihydrodaidzein were significantly lower in the RO group than in the LO group. The ratio of equol/daidzein was significantly higher in the RO group (p < 0.01) than in the LO group. The amount of fecal bile acids was significantly greater in the RO group than in the LO group. The composition of cecal microbiota differed between the RO and LO groups. The occupation ratios of Lactobacillales were significantly higher in the RO group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlation (r = 0.591) was observed between the occupation ratios of Lactobacillales and fecal bile acid content of two dietary groups. This study suggests that dietary rice bran oil has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota. PMID:22949864

  17. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  18. Characterization of a rice bran oil structured lipid.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brenda H; Akoh, Casimir C

    2009-04-22

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was enzymatically modified in a continuous packed bed bioreactor to incorporate caprylic acid with Lipozyme RM IM as biocatalyst. The reaction product was purified by short-path distillation. Rice bran oil structured lipid (RBOSL) contained 32.1 mol % caprylic acid. Positional analysis revealed 0.7 mol % caprylic acid at the sn-2 position and 47.8 mol % caprylic acid at the sn-1,3 positions. Composition of free fatty acids and smoke point of RBO and RBOSL were not significantly different. Saponification value, iodine value, and viscosity of RBO were significantly different from those of RBOSL. The color of RBOSL was darker, more yellow and less green than RBO. Volatile compounds in RBO and RBOSL were determined by GC-MS. Melting onset temperatures of RBO and RBOSL were not significantly different, while melting end point temperatures and melting enthalpies were significantly different. This characterization study results will help determine potential food applications of RBOSL. PMID:19284800

  19. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  20. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  1. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (P<0.05) in the myristic, palmitic and stearic acid composition was observed during the repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  2. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (P<0.05) in the myristic, palmitic and stearic acid composition was observed during the repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying. PMID:24876639

  3. Fractional extraction of rice-bran oil and its esters with supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Norio; Ikushima, Yutaka; Hatakeda, Kiyotaka; Ito, Shota; Asano, Takashi; Goto, Tomio )

    1993-04-01

    The fractional extraction of rice-bran oil and its esters with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied at 313-373 K and 8.2-19.8 MPa, using an entrainer or a separation column. A column was effective for fractionating the fatty acids in the extracted rice-bran oil, while an entrainer enhanced the extraction efficiency of the rice-bran oil. No significant difference existed in the fatty acid composition of the oils extracted with supercritical CO[sub 2] alone and supercritical CO[sub 2] containing an entrainer. The degree of fractionation of the fatty acid esters from rice-bran oil increased with the temperature in the column. At 343 K, the proportion of palmitate in the extracts reached a maximum of 86% in the early fractions, but oleate and linoleate were not fractionated. The use of a column packed with silica gel-supported silver nitrate was extremely effective for fractionating fatty acid esters. Palmitate and oleate, which constituted 94% and 91% of the fatty acid esters in the initial rice-bran oil esters, were recovered in 91% and 81% purity, respectively, but the degree of recovery and the purity were both lower with linoleate than with oleate.

  4. Rice bran proteins and their hydrolysates modulate cholesterol metabolism in mice on hypercholesterolemic diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Gong, Lingxiao; Sun, Baoguo

    2016-06-15

    The hypolipidemic properties of defatted rice bran protein (DRBP), fresh rice bran protein (FRBP), DRBP hydrolysates (DRBPH), and FRBP hydrolysates (FRBPH) were determined in mice on high fat diets for four weeks. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) contents, and the hepatic total cholesterol content were reduced while fecal total cholesterol and total bile acid (TBA) contents were increased in the FRBPH diet group. The expression levels of hepatic genes for cholesterol biosynthesis HMG-CoAR and SREBP-2 were lowest in the FRBPH diet group. The mRNA level of HMG-CoAR was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic TG content (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of genes related to bile acid biosynthesis and cholesterol efflux, CYP7A1, ABCA1, and PPARγ were up-regulated in all test groups. The results suggest that FRBPH regulates cholesterol metabolism in mice fed the high fat and cholesterol diet by increasing fecal steroid excretion and expression levels of genes related to bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, and the down-regulation of the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27216972

  5. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  6. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    PubMed

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  7. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-05-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil.

  8. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-05-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil. PMID:25892815

  9. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  10. Degradation of tocopherols in rice bran oil submitted to heating at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bruscatto, M H; Zambiazi, R C; Sganzerla, M; Pestana, V R; Otero, D; Lima, R; Paiva, F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the stability of alpha-, (gamma+beta)-, and delta-tocopherols in rice bran oil chemically refined submitted to heating in a heater without air circulation and shielded from light, at temperatures of 100 degrees C and 180 degrees C. The collection of samples took place after 48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 336, and 432 h of heating and were stored in amber-colored flasks and frozen (-18 degrees C). The analyses of tocopherols took place in accordance with the method by Chen and Bergman (2005), with slight modifications, utilizing a system of high efficiency system of liquid chromatography. It was observed that the alpha-tocopherol is present at higher concentration in rice bran oil (328.4 mg/kg), followed by (gamma+beta)-tocopherol (99.1 mg/kg), and delta-tocopherol (7.7 mg/kg). The alpha-tocopherol in rice bran oil submitted to 100 degrees C showed a reduction of 28.65% at the end of 432 h of heating whereas when submitted to 180 degrees C temperature; its reduction was of 100% at the end of 240 h of heating. The contents of (gamma+beta)- and delta-tocopherol in rice bran oil at the end of 432 h of heating at 100 degrees C was of 79.9 and 6.4 mg/100 g, respectively.

  11. Experimental study on identifying main component in rice bran oil with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Zhao, Xiao-li; Li, Jian-rui

    2009-07-01

    The absorption spectra of rice bran oil in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz timedomain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room temperature in nitrogen atmosphere. It is found that hexadecanoidc acid and octadecanoic acid contained in rice bran oil has the spectral response to terahertz waves in this frequency region. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using DFT methods with the aid of Gaussian03. The experimental spectra are well comparable with the calculated spectra and these results mutually validated both approaches. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results. The research results prove the feasibility of applying THz-TDS technique to detect and identify of main component of edible oil. Furthermore, the result s provided in this paper will help us to study the THz application to food quality evaluation or safety inspection further.

  12. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  13. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO. PMID:22531051

  14. [Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis of Rice Bran Oil Adulteration Based on Laser Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Song, Zhi-qiang; Zheng, Xiao; Zeng, Lu-lu; Yin, Cheng; He, Dong-ping; Qi, Pei-shi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to have qualitative-quantitative analysis on the adulteration in rice bran oil by near-infrared spectroscopy analytical technology combined with chemo metrics methods. The author configured 189 adulterated oil samples according to the different mass ratios by selecting rice bran oil as base oil and choosing soybean oil, corn oil, colza oil, and waste oil of catering industry as adulterated oil. Then, the spectral data of samples was collected by using near-infrared spectrometer, and it was pre-processed through the following methods, including without processing, Multiplicative Scatter Correction(MSC), Orthogonal Signal Correction(OSC), Standard Normal Variate and Standard Normal Variate transformation DeTrending(SNV_DT). Furthermore, this article extracted characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from the pre-processed date by Successive Projections Algorithm(SPA), established qualitatively classified calibration methods of adulterated oil through classification method of Support Vector Machine(SVM), optimized model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal process condition. In extracting characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from pretreatment by Backward interval Partial Least Squares(BiPLS) and SPA, quantitatively classified calibration models of adulterated oil through Partial Least Squares(PLS) and Support Vector Machine Regression(SVR) was established respectively. In the end, the author optimized the combination of model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal parameter model. According to the analysis, the accuracy of prediction set and calibration set for SVC model reached 95% and 100% respectively. Compared with the prediction of the adulteration oil content of rice bran oil which was established by the PLS model, the SVR model is the better one, although both of them could implement the content prediction. Furthermore, the correlation

  15. Nanoencapsulation of rice bran oil increases its protective effects against UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; da Silva, Cássia Regina; de Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Cabreira, Thaíssa Nunes; de Bona da Silva, Cristiane; Ferreira, Juliano; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2015-06-01

    Excessive UV-B radiation by sunlight produces inflammatory and oxidative damage of skin, which can lead to sunburn, photoaging, and cancer. This study evaluated whether nanoencapsulation improves the protective effects of rice bran oil against UVB radiation-induced skin damage in mice. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing rice bran oil were prepared, and had mean size around 200 nm, negative zeta potential (∼-9 mV), and low polydispersity index (<0.20). In order to allow application on the skin, a hydrogel containing the nanoencapsulated rice bran oil was prepared. This formulation was able to prevent ear edema induced by UVB irradiation by 60 ± 9%, when compared with a hydrogel containing LNC prepared with a mixture of medium chain triglycerides instead of rice bran oil. Protein carbonylation levels (biomarker of oxidative stress) and NF-κB nuclear translocation (biomarker of pro-inflammatory and carcinogenesis response) were reduced (81% and 87%, respectively) in animals treated with the hydrogel containing the nanoencapsulated rice bran oil. These in vivo results demonstrate the beneficial effects of nanoencapsulation to improve the protective properties of rice bran oil on skin damage caused by UVB exposure.

  16. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  17. Effect of amaranth and oat bran on blood serum and liver lipids in rats depending on the kind of dietary fats.

    PubMed

    Grajeta, H

    1999-04-01

    The effect of amaranth and oat bran on the lipids of blood and liver in rats depending on the kind of fats in diet was the subject of our study. Sixty male Buffalo rats were fed for 28 days one of six diet containing 15% of fat (lard or sunflower oil), 20% of protein and 0.5% of cholesterol. Amaranth and oat bran added to diet provided 4-4.5% of dietary fiber, water soluble fraction of which amounted to 30%. Amaranth significantly decreased the level of total cholesterol in rats blood serum (by 10.7% in the case of diet with lard and by 14% with sunflower oil) and in liver (by 20% in the case of diet with lard and by 23% with sunflower oil). Similarly oat bran decreased the level of total cholesterol in the blood serum: by 19% in the case of diet with lard and by 22% with sunflower oil; and in liver by 22 and 27%, respectively. Amaranth and oat bran did not influence HDL-cholesterol in the blood of rats. The influence of amaranth and oat bran on the concentration of triglycerides in the blood serum depended on the kind of fats in a diet. The diets containing amaranth or oat bran with lard did not decrease the concentration of this lipids, however, the same diets but with sunflower oil decreased this concentration significantly (by 22%). In liver significant hypotriglyceridemic effect of amaranth and oat bran was observed for both of the diets: based on lard and sunflower. The decrease of triglycerides concentration under the influence of amaranth amounted to 10% (diet with lard) and 15% (diet with sunflower oil). Oat bran decreased the concentration of triglycerides in liver by 15% (diet with lard) and 20% (diet with sunflower oil). Sunflower oil added to the diets augmented the hypolipemic effect of amaranth and oat bran.

  18. Enzyme use in kibble diets formulated with wheat bran for dogs: effects on processing and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sá, F C; Vasconcellos, R S; Brunetto, M A; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there is an interest in technologies that favour the use of coproducts for animal nutrition. The effect of adding two enzyme mixtures in diets for dogs formulated with wheat bran (WB) was evaluated. Two foods with similar compositions were formulated: negative control (NC; without WB) and test diet (25% of WB). The test diet was divided into four treatments: without enzyme (positive control), enzyme mixture 1 (ENZ1; added before extrusion β-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, glucoamylase, phytase); enzyme mixture 2 (ENZ2; added before extrusion the ENZ1 more α-amylase); enzyme mixture 2 added after the extrusion (ENZ2ex). ENZ1 and ENZ2 were used to evaluate the enzyme effect on extruder pre-conditioner (processing additive) and ENZ2ex to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation for the animal. Digestibility was measured through total collection of faeces and urine. The experiment followed a randomized block design with five treatments (diets) and six dogs per diet, totalling 30 dogs (7.0 ± 1.2 years old and 11.0 ± 2.2 kg of body weight). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test and orthogonal contrasts (p < 0.05). Reducing sugars showed an important reduction after extrusion, suggesting the formation of carbohydrate complexes. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid-hydrolysed fat and energy was higher in NC than in diets with WB (p < 0.001), without effects of enzyme additions. WB diets resulted in higher faecal production and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and reduced pH and ammonia concentration (p < 0.01), with no effect of enzyme addition. The enzyme addition did not result in improved digestibility of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides; however, only ATTD was measured and nutrient fermentation in the large intestine may have interfered with the results obtained. WB modified fermentation product formation in the colon of dogs.

  19. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    PubMed

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  20. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:21952107

  1. Physico-chemical changes in rice bran oil during heating at frying temperature.

    PubMed

    Latha, Rangaswamy Baby; Nasirullah, D R

    2014-02-01

    Rice bran oil was subjected to static heating at 180 + 2°C in a domestic fryer for 8 h in this process 150 ml of the heated oil samples were drawn, at intervals of every 2 h, to study the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics. Results indicated that the peroxide value and free fatty acid content increased gradually from 0.2 to 2.9 Meq.O2/kg of oil and 0.25 to 0.63% respectively. The oil became darker as given by the colour value (5R + Y) 63 Lovibond units. Tocopherol content was found to decrease from 48 mg/100gram to 5 mg/100gram at the end of 8 h of heating whereas, oryzanol was fairly stable (1.59 to 1.40%). The p-anisidine value and Total polar compound (TPC) increased from 5.04 to 18.30 and 1.0 to1.8% respectively, showing the formation of secondary oxidation products. Rice bran oil is a non-Newtonian fluids having shear thinning behavior. Heating was found to cause an increase in the flow behavior index. Fatty acid composition did not show significant changes except for the linoleic acid content which decreased from 29.4 to 27.1%.

  2. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26396397

  3. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. IV. Effects of addition of fish meal and a microbial phytase to duckling diets on bird performance and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Martin, E A; Nolan, J V; Nitsan, Z; Farrell, D J

    1998-12-01

    1. Ducklings were given diets with vegetable protein (VP) and 0 or 600 g rice bran/kg; fish meal (60 g/kg) and a phytase (+, -) were added to the diets (VP + AP). An additional 40 g soyabean meal/kg was added to the diet with rice bran (VP ++). Amino acid digestibility and mineral retention were measured in the lower ileum of ducklings killed at 23 d of age. Acid insoluble ash was used as an inert marker. Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter. 2. Addition of soyabean meal (VP ++) to the diet with rice bran improved growth rate and food intake compared to the diet without (VP) and gave the same food intake and growth rate as the comparable basal diet (VP) without rice bran. Fish meal improved growth rate on the diets without rice bran and improved food intake on this diet (VP + AP). Rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); protein source affected growth rate, food intake and FCR; phytase increased food intake only. There were several interactions. 3. Determined total amino acid composition of the diets appeared to meet the essential amino acid requirements of ducklings. Rice bran depressed the ileal digestibility of virtually all amino acids and phytase had no direct effect, although there were interactions. Fish meal addition to diets with rice bran improved the apparent digestibility of several essential amino acids as well as that of dry matter and crude protein. 4. Ileal retention of some minerals and tibia ash content were reduced by rice bran. Fish meal and phytase inclusion increased P retention and ash in tibia. 5. Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without. Intestinal amylase activity was reduced in ducklings given rice bran, probably because of its low starch content. 6. The stimulating effect of fish meal on duckling performance was probably caused in part by

  4. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Beg, Zafarul H; Iqbal, Jahangir

    2005-05-01

    We investigated a dose-dependent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil on experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Feeding of atherogenic diet (5% hydrogenated fat, 0.5% cholic acid and 1% cholesterol) for three weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma triglyceride (3.3-fold) and total cholesterol (2.4-fold) levels. There was a 5-fold increase in the level of LDL cholesterol with only a small increase in HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly reduced in these animals. The formation of TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (86%) and conjugated dienes (78%) were also significantly higher in these rats compared to normals. After the induction of hyperlipidemia for three weeks, rats were supplemented with different doses of TRF for one week. TRF supplementation decreased the lipid parameters in a dose-dependent manner with an optimum effect at a dose of 8 mg TRF/kg/day. HMG-CoA reductase activity, which was increased after the withdrawal of atherogenic diet, remained significantly decreased during the TRF treatment. Feeding of TRF also decreased TBARS and conjugated dienes significantly. These results suggest that TRF supplementation has significant health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions that include various atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemia.

  5. GC-TOF-MS-based serum metabolomic investigations of naked oat bran supplementation in high-fat-diet-induced dyslipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiaojiao; Jing, Lulu; Ma, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Guo, Qianying; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to explore the metabolic response of oat bran consumption in dyslipidemic rats by a high-throughput metabolomics approach. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: N group (normal chow diet), M group (dyslipidemia induced by 4-week high-fat feeding, then normal chow diet), OL group and OH group (dyslipidemia induced, then normal chow diet supplemented with 10.8% or 43.4% naked oat bran). Intervention lasted for 12weeks. Gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify serum metabolite profiles. Results confirmed the effects of oat bran on improving lipidemic variables and showed distinct metabolomic profiles associated with diet intervention. A number of endogenous molecules were changed by high-fat diet and normalized following supplementation of naked oat bran. Elevated levels of serum unsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (Log2Fold of change=0.70, P=.02 OH vs. M group), palmitoleic acid (Log2Fold of change=1.24, P=.02 OH vs. M group) and oleic acid (Log2Fold of change=0.66, P=.04 OH vs. M group) were detected after oat bran consumption. Furthermore, consumption of oat bran was also characterized by higher levels of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine. Pathway exploration found that most of the discriminant metabolites were involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis and metabolism of amino acids, microbial metabolism in diverse environments and biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. These results point to potential biomarkers and underlying benefit of naked oat bran in the context of diet-induced dyslipidemia and offer some insights into the mechanism exploration.

  6. Fermented and extruded wheat bran in piglet diets: impact on performance, intestinal morphology, microbial metabolites in chyme and blood lipid radicals.

    PubMed

    Kraler, Manuel; Schedle, Karl; Schwarz, Christiane; Domig, Konrad J; Pichler, Martin; Oppeneder, Alexander; Wetscherek, Wolfgang; Prückler, Michael; Pignitter, Marc; Pirker, Katharina F; Somoza, Veronika; Heine, Daniel; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of native, fermented and extruded wheat bran on the performance and intestinal morphology of piglets. Additionally, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), biogenic amines, ammonia, lactic acid, pH as well as E. coli and lactic acid bacterial counts were analysed in digesta samples from three gut sections. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential in blood samples was evaluated based on the lipid radicals formed. For this purpose, 48 newly weaned piglets (28 d old) were allocated to one of the four different dietary treatment groups: no wheat bran (Control), native wheat bran, fermented wheat bran as well as extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran variants were included at 150 g/kg into the diets. All diets were mixed to reach the calculated isonitrogenic nutrient contents. Gut tissue and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, the terminal ileum and the colon ascendens, blood samples directly at slaughter. Although none of the dietary interventions had an impact on performance parameters, the amount of goblet cells in the ileum was increased upon feeding native and extruded wheat bran, compared to fermented bran (p < 0.05). The E. coli counts in colonic chyme were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the Control group compared to the groups fed with wheat bran. The concentration of SCFA showed differences for minor compounds (p < 0.05), while linear contrast analyses revealed a reduced concentration of total SCFA in the colon following the feeding of modified wheat bran compared to native wheat bran. This may suggest that several compounds are more easily digested already in the ileum, resulting in a reduced nutrient flow into the large intestine and therefore less unexploited digesta is available as substrate for the microorganisms there. Fermentation also resulted in a significant decrease of methylamine in the colon (p < 0.05), while other biogenic amines in the ileum and colon showed no

  7. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO).

  8. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO). PMID:19145058

  9. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations. PMID:18838832

  10. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  11. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. PMID:25182282

  12. Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Atefeh; Seifi, Saeed; Sayrafi, Reza; Sadighara, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated. Results: The changes in the liver enzymes activity were not statistically significant. There was significant decrease and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione level, respectively. It is suggested that RBO is a natural antioxidant source. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) also decreased. No abnormal findings were observed in the chickens. Conclusion: No toxic effect was observed following RBO administration in chicken embryos. This study showed that RBO is not a safety concern. PMID:27462559

  13. Production of vanillin from waste residue of rice bran oil by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhihao; Bai, Yanbing; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xinfu

    2007-03-01

    A new technology of transforming ferulic acid, which was from waste residue of rice bran oil, into vanillin was developed by a combination of fungal strains Aspergillus niger CGMCC0774 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. Various concentrations of ferulic acid were compared, and the highest yield reached 2.2 g l(-1) of vanillic acid by A. niger CGMCC0774 in a 25 l fermenter when concentration of ferulic acid was 4 g l(-1). The filtrate of A. niger CGMCC0774 culture was concentrated and vanillic acid in the filtrate was bio-converted into vanillin by P. cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. The yield of vanillin reached 2.8 g l(-1) when 5 g l(-1) of glucose and 25 g of HZ802 resin were supplemented in the bioconversion medium. The 13C isotope analysis indicated that delta13C(PDB) of vanillin prepared was much different from chemically synthesized vanillin. PMID:16782330

  14. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  15. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  16. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio. PMID:27066330

  17. Mutagenicity tests of cashewnut shell liquid, rice-bran oil and other vegetable oils using the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome system.

    PubMed

    Polasa, K; Rukmini, C

    1987-10-01

    In view of the shortage of edible oils in India, nutritional and toxicological evaluations have been carried out on some unconventional oils to determine whether they might be safe for human consumption. As part of these evaluations, eight unconventional oils were tested by the Ames mutagenicity assay, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation with S-9 mix prepared from the livers of rats pretreated with sodium phenobarbitone or Aroclor 1254. Of the oils tested, metsa oil (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cashewnut shell liquid were mutagenic with and without metabolic activation with S-9 of either source. No mutagenic activity (with or without S-9 of either source) was observed with any of the other oils tested (rice-bran oil, Cleome viscosa oil, mango-kernel oil, mahua oil, kapok oil and neem oil). PMID:3315902

  18. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  19. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  20. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads. PMID:19723230

  1. Novel fractionation method for squalene and phytosterols contained in the deodorization distillate of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Naoko; Kanda, Ayato; Nakano, Teruyuki; Nakamura, Takahiro; Igusa, Hisao; Hara, Setsuko

    2010-01-01

    Since deodorization distillate, a by-product of rice bran oil production, contains squalene (ca. 8%) and phytosterols (ca. 4%) as unsaponifiable components, the concentration of those materials for their use in the cosmetics and food industries is desirable. In the present work, a novel fractionation method of concentrating squalene and phytosterols from deodorization distillate or the unsaponifiable components of the deodorization distillate without oxidative deterioration was examined. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated under the following conditions: temperature, 30 degrees C; pressure, 100 kg/cm(2); flow rate of carbon dioxide, 7 mL/min. Under these conditions, squalene was effectively concentrated to 25% with nearly quantitative recovery, and then a more highly concentrated squalene (ca. 50% purity) was obtained by using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with silica gel packed into the extraction vessel. In addition, squalene with ca. 68% purity could be obtained by repeating the SFC twice. After the saponification of the deodorization distillate, followed by solvent fractionation with hexane, highly purified phytosterols (97% purity) could be obtained, and highly purified squalene (81% and 100% purity) could be also obtained by using SFC combined with the solvent fractionation technique for the unsaponifiable materials. Therefore, it is considered that the present fractionation method combined with SFC and solvent fractionation is an effective means of concentrating squalene and phytosterols. PMID:20103978

  2. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26396383

  3. Effects of surfactants and aging time on solidification of rice bran oil at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nukit, Natchanok; Setwipattanachai, Prasert; Chaiseri, Siree; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of rice mono- and diacylglycerol (rice MDG) and commercial MDG on solid structure formation of rice bran oil (RBO) and RBO-anhydrous milk fat (AMF) blends after the crystallized blends were aged at 5°C for 12 or 24 h and stored at 30°C for 12 or 24 h. The rice MDG was prepared using a pilot-scale molecular distillation (MD) unit to evaporate out the free fatty acids from deodorizer distillate (DD) at 120, 140 and 160°C at 0.1 Pa. It was found that increasing the distillation temperature during MD process from 120°C to 140°C resulted in higher contents of rice MDG and γ-oryzanol in the unevaporated fraction (UMD) compared to those in DD. Although UMD increased solid fat content in RBO-UMD blend, it could not stabilize the solid fat phase in the RBO-UMD or RBO-AMFUMD oleogel at 30°C storage. In the presence of UMD, RBO-AMF-UMD blends remained in a liquid state although it contained a high content (38.54%) of saturated fatty acids. On the other hand, with the addition of commercial MDG rich in palmitic acid, RBO-MDG and RBO-AMF-MDG blends were able to retain the volume of solid fat phase in the oleogels provided that the RBO-MDG and RBO-AMF-MDG oleogels were aged at 5°C for at least 12 h. This study implicated that the presence of 1% MDG surfactant having different acyl chains from the major fatty acids in the bulk oil phase, as well as aging regime, could be used to assist solid structure forming process of RBO and RBO-AMF oleogels. PMID:25296573

  4. Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the

  5. Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the

  6. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts.

  7. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs.

  8. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    PubMed

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  9. Rice Bran Oil Decreases Total and LDL Cholesterol in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Jolfaie, N R; Rouhani, M H; Surkan, P J; Siassi, F; Azadbakht, L

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a concerning health problem because of its increasing prevalence. Vegetable oils such as rice bran oil may improve blood lipids, risk factors for CVD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and quantify the effects of rice bran oil on lipid profiles in humans. Literature databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Proquest, Ovid, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched until the end of November 2015, with no restrictions regarding study design, time, or language. The variables extracted for the meta-analysis included low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-C, apoA, apoB, Lp(a), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C. From 415 identified articles, 11 randomized controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included in our review. Rice bran oil consumption resulted in a significant decrease in concentrations of LDL-C (-6.91 mg/dl, 95% CI, -10.24 to -3.57; p<0.001) and TC (-12.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, -18.04 to -7.27; p<0.001). The increase in HDL-C levels were considerable only in men (6.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, 2.38-10.92; p=0.002). Results of our meta-analysis provided no evidence of a significant effekt of rice bran oil on other lipid profile components. In conclusion, consumption of rice bran oil can reduce LDL-C and TC concentrations, which may lead to prevention and control of CVD. It also has favorable effects on HDL-C concentrations in men. However, changes related to other lipid profile components are not considerable. PMID:27311126

  10. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  11. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-01

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26247962

  12. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-01

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerol-enriched oil from high-acid rice bran oil in solvent-free system.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhihua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Li, Lei; Wang, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Ruijie

    2012-09-01

    The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) to catalyze the reaction of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) and monoglyceride (MG) for diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DG) preparation was investigated. The effects of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, time, and enzyme load on the respective content of free fatty acid (FFA) and DG in the final RBO-DG products was investigated. Enzyme screening on the reaction was also investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (50-70 °C), the enzyme load (2-6 %; relative to the weight of total substrates), and the reaction time (4-8 h) on the respective content of FFA and DG. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: MG/RBO, 0.25; temperature, 56 °C; enzyme load, 4.77 %; and reaction time, 5.75 h. Under the suggested conditions, the respective content of FFA and DG was 0.28 and 27.98 %, respectively. Repeated reaction tests indicated that Lipozyme RM IM could be used nine times under the optimum conditions with 90 % of its original catalytic activity still retained.

  15. Enzyme-treated wheat bran alters gut microbiota and liver metabolome in mice fed a high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has been shown to decrease body fat and modify the gut microbiome. However, it is not clear how these microbiome changes impact peripheral tissue metabolism. We hypothesized that supplementation with ETWB would change gut-derived...

  16. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  17. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  18. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  19. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  20. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  1. Enzymatic and chemical interesterification of rice bran oil, sheaolein, and palm stearin and comparative study of their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Hu, Peng

    2012-12-01

    Total of 3 different mixtures of rice bran oil (RBO), sheaolein (SO), and palm stearin (PS) (RBO : SO : PS, 40 : 35 : 25; 15 : 40 : 45; 10 : 35 : 55) were modified by enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using TLIM as a bio-catalyst. After interesterification, a physicochemical properties of selected ratio (10 : 35 : 55; RBO : SO : PS) was compared with chemical interesterification (CIE). CIE sample showed higher SFC than EIE in each measured temperature. DAG content was lower in CIE than EIE sample. Besides, each EIE or CIE products were compared with blends, where higher SFC, longer induction time was observed in the blends. Oxidative stability was measured based on Rancimat and peroxide value (PV) where EIE sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to CIE sample. Further, EIE sample was selected for oxidation studies and kept at 60 °C for 22 d after the addition of antioxidants (EGCG, rosemary) where induction time was significantly increased compared to control. EGCG containing sample showed longer induction time and lower PV compared to rosemary containing sample.

  2. Simplified Enzymatic Upgrading of High-Acid Rice Bran Oil Using Ethanol as a Novel Acyl Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Wang, Weifei; Durrani, Rabia; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-09-01

    One of the major challenges in the upgrading of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) is to efficiently reduce the amount of free fatty acids. Here we report a novel method for upgrading high-acid RBO using ethanol as a novel acyl acceptor in combination with a highly selective lipase from Malassezia globosa (SMG1-F278N). This process enabled an unprecedented deacidification efficiency of up to 99.80% in a short time (6 h); the immobilized SMG1-F278N used in deacidification exhibited excellent operational stability and could be used for at least 10 consecutive batches without detectable loss in activity. Scale-up was performed under optimized conditions to verify the applicability of this process, and low-acid (0.08%) RBO with a high level of γ-oryzanol (27.8 g/kg) and γ-oryzanol accumulation fold (1.5) was obtained after molecular distillation at lower temperature (120 °C). Overall, we report a simplified and efficient procedure for the production of edible RBO from high-acid RBO. PMID:27571030

  3. Report: Protective effects of rice bran oil in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia and serotonergic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-07-01

    Effect of administration of Rice bran oil (RBO) was evaluated on haloperidol elicited tardive dyskinesia in rats. Albino Wistar rats treated with haloperidol in drinking water at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/day and RBO by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day for 5 weeks. Motor coordination, VCMs and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline)[8-OH-DPAT] _syndrome were monitored. Striatal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC). Rats treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Co-administration of RBO prevented haloperidol_induced VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The intensity of 8-OH-DPAT_induced syndrome and decreased 5-HT metabolism were greater in water + haloperidol treated animals than RBO + haloperidol treated animals. The present study suggested that involvement of free radical in the development of TD and point to RBO as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic motor disorder. PMID:27592482

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (p<0.05) from the corresponding sunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  5. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  6. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  7. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock.

  8. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  9. α-Tocopherol Attenuates the Triglyceride- and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Rice Bran Tocotrienol in Rats Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akira; Kawakami, Yuki; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the ability of tocotrienol (T3) to lower levels of lipids, including cholesterol (Cho) and triglycerides (TG). Although α-tocopherol (α-Toc) reportedly inhibits the hypocholesterolemic effect of T3, there is no information about whether α-Toc influences the TG-lowering effect of T3 in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of α-Toc on the antihyperlipidemic effects (Cho- and TG-lowering) of rice bran tocotrienols (RBT3) in F344 rats fed a western diet. α-Toc attenuated both the Cho- and TG-lowering effects of RBT3 in vivo, whereas α-Toc alone exhibited no hypolipidemic effects. RBT3-induced Cpt-1a and Cyp7a1 gene expression was reduced by α-Toc. Furthermore, coadministration of α-Toc decreased liver and adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in F344 rats. These results indicate that α-Toc has almost no antihyperlipidemic effect in vivo, but abrogates the antihyperlipidemic effect of RBT3 by reducing tissue concentrations of tocotrienols and regulating expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Understanding the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of T3 on lipid metabolism and the interaction with α-Toc will be important for developing T3-based therapeutics.

  10. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet.

  11. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  12. Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

  13. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation. PMID:8774223

  14. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation.

  15. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  16. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  17. Comparative study on the hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects of fermented paste (doenjang) prepared from soybean and brown rice mixed with rice bran or red ginseng marc in mice fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-10-22

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  18. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  19. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  20. Preparation of Diacylglycerol-enriched Rice Bran Oil by Lipase-catalyzed Deacidification in Packed-bed Reactors by Continuous Dehydration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongyun; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Han, Wang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Jin, Qiangzhe; Li, Li; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DAG) was produced by deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) with glycerol (Gly) using Lipozyme RM IM by continuous dehydration by combination of two enzyme columns (column 1 and 3, used for deacidification) with one molecular sieves column (column 2, used for dehydration). The conditions for three columns were respectively optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of column 1. The content of DAG and conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) were used as indicators and the effects of the enzyme load (8-12 g), flow rate (0.3-0.6 mL/min), substrate molar ratio (4-6) and reaction temperature (55-75°C) were investigated. The content of DAG and conversion of FFA were significantly correlated to the flow rate and substrate molar ratio. Most desirable conditions of the reaction with respect to the maximal DAG content and FFA conversion was attained under the residence time of 40 min, substrate molar ratio of 5.52 (Gly: RBO) and temperature of 66°C. The conditions for column 2 were investigated by varying molecular sieves load and flow rate, and the maximal dehydration rate of 85.22% was obtained under the optimal conditions. For column 3, the optimum conditions were obtained as: flow rate, 0.2mL/min; temperature, 65°C, and the content of DAG and FFA were 38.99% and 3.04%, respectively under these conditions. The catalytic activity of the lipase was stable in twelve continuous operations with 83.22% of its original ability, demonstrating its potential in the continuous packed-bed reactors (PBRs) system. These results showed that packed-bed reactors combined with continuous deacidification and dehydration in one system had great value in industrial production for high-acid RBO with the improved conversion rate.

  1. Preparation of Diacylglycerol-enriched Rice Bran Oil by Lipase-catalyzed Deacidification in Packed-bed Reactors by Continuous Dehydration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongyun; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Han, Wang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Jin, Qiangzhe; Li, Li; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DAG) was produced by deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) with glycerol (Gly) using Lipozyme RM IM by continuous dehydration by combination of two enzyme columns (column 1 and 3, used for deacidification) with one molecular sieves column (column 2, used for dehydration). The conditions for three columns were respectively optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of column 1. The content of DAG and conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) were used as indicators and the effects of the enzyme load (8-12 g), flow rate (0.3-0.6 mL/min), substrate molar ratio (4-6) and reaction temperature (55-75°C) were investigated. The content of DAG and conversion of FFA were significantly correlated to the flow rate and substrate molar ratio. Most desirable conditions of the reaction with respect to the maximal DAG content and FFA conversion was attained under the residence time of 40 min, substrate molar ratio of 5.52 (Gly: RBO) and temperature of 66°C. The conditions for column 2 were investigated by varying molecular sieves load and flow rate, and the maximal dehydration rate of 85.22% was obtained under the optimal conditions. For column 3, the optimum conditions were obtained as: flow rate, 0.2mL/min; temperature, 65°C, and the content of DAG and FFA were 38.99% and 3.04%, respectively under these conditions. The catalytic activity of the lipase was stable in twelve continuous operations with 83.22% of its original ability, demonstrating its potential in the continuous packed-bed reactors (PBRs) system. These results showed that packed-bed reactors combined with continuous deacidification and dehydration in one system had great value in industrial production for high-acid RBO with the improved conversion rate. PMID:26833284

  2. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. I. The addition of food enzymes to target the non-starch polysaccharide fractions in diets of chickens and ducks gave no response.

    PubMed

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-09-01

    1. Three experiments were undertaken to test the efficacy of 2 enzymes targeting mainly the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in rice bran. 2. In experiment one, 400 g rice bran/kg depressed chick performance and there was a significant decline in growth rate and food intake with increasing inclusion of rice bran (0, 200, 400 g). Neither enzyme had any benefit. 3. In experiment two, rice bran (inclusion 200 and 400 g/kg), did not alter growth rate, food intake or food conversion ratio of duckling (3 to 17 d of age). Again enzyme addition gave no response. 4. In experiment three, 300 g rice bran/kg stimulated duck (19 to 35 d of age) growth while 600 g rice bran/kg depressed growth but not food intake. Enzymes gave no response. 5. Relative gut viscosity declined with increasing rice bran inclusion as did dry matter in ileal digesta. There were differences between ducklings and chickens. 6. It was concluded that NSPs were not a significant factor in altering the nutritive value of rice bran and the enzymes used were therefore unlikely to be of benefit.

  3. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  4. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:20587038

  5. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  6. The effects of olive oil, hydrogenated palm oil, and omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets on megakaryocytes and platelets.

    PubMed

    Schick, P K; Wojenski, C M; Walker, J

    1993-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are thought to prevent thrombotic and arteriosclerotic disease, whereas saturated fatty acids are thought to increase the incidence of these disorders. However, the effects of these diets on megakaryocytes and platelets are not well understood. We compared the effects of diets enriched with 8.4% olive oil, 8.4% hydrogenated palm oil, or 10.2% omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on guinea pig megakaryocytes and platelets. In plasma, changes in fatty acid composition reflected the composition of each diet. However, in platelets and megakaryocytes, hydrogenated palm oil induced a decrease in 16:0 and an increase in 18:2 while the olive oil diet caused a marked increase in 18:1 and a decrease in most other fatty acids. The differences in the effects of the diets on cellular versus plasma fatty acids suggest that megakaryocytes and platelets have an extensive capacity to regulate their fatty acid composition. Thrombocytosis occurred with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet: 12.9 +/- 1.78 x 10(5) compared with 7.45 +/- 1.08 x 10(5) platelets per microliter of platelet-rich plasma in control animals. There was an increase in megakaryocyte size, ploidy, and morphological stage (cytoplasmic maturation) with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet but not with the other diets. The omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet decreased platelet thromboxane production while the other diets had no effect. Platelet hypersensitivity was suggested in collagen aggregation studies with olive oil but not with the hydrogenated palm oil diet. Although saturated fatty acid diets are thought to be atherogenic, this diet had no affect on platelet function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  8. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  9. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  10. Fish oil and flax seed oil supplemented diets increase FFAR4 expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Praveen; Singh, Monalisa; Britt, April; Hayslett, Renee; Moniri, Nader H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggests that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated. One such receptor, free-fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), previously described as GPR120, has been shown to modulate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects in response to PUFA such as ALA and DHA. Additionally, FFAR4 stimulates secretion of the insulin secretagogue glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the GI tract and acts as a dietary sensor to regulate energy availability. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on FFAR4 expression in the rat colon. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control soybean oil diets or alternatively, diets supplemented with either fish oil, which is enriched in DHA and EPA, or flaxseed oil, which is enriched in ALA, for seven weeks. GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly and at the end of the study period, expression of FFAR4 and the inflammatory marker TNF–α was assessed. Results Our findings indicate that GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were unaffected by omega-3 supplementation, however, animals that were fed fish or flaxseed oil-supplemented diets had significantly heightened colonic FFAR4 and actin expression, and reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α compared to animals fed control diets. Conclusions These results suggest that similar to ingestion of other fats, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids can alter FFAR4 expression within the colon. PMID:26275932

  11. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and quaterphenyls in toxic rice-bran oil and in the blood and tissues of patients with PCB poisoning (Yu-Cheng) in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.H.; Wong, C.K.; Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.

    1985-02-01

    A mass outbreak of poisoning occurred in central Taiwan in 1979 due to the ingestion of rice-bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and quaterphenyls (PCQs). The incident was called PCB poisoning or Yu-Cheng in Taiwan. The major PCB and PCDF congeners in the toxic oil and in the blood and tissues of the poisoned patients were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using highly efficient glass capillary columns. The levels of toxic agents in the rice oil samples collected from the factory and school cafeterias and the families of the poisoned patients are in the range of 53 to 99 ppm, 0.18 to 0.40 ppm and 25 to 53 ppm for PCBs, PCDFs, and PCQs, respectively. The blood samples of 165 patients collected 9 to 18 months after the onset of poisoning contained 10 to 720 ppb of PCBs, with a mean value of 38 ppb. The blood samples of 10 patients collected 9 to 27 months after poisoning contained 0.02 to 0.20 ppb of PCDFs. Comparative rates of elimination of some PCB congeners from the blood of patients were studied. Various tissues from a patient who died 2 years after poisoning were analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs and PCQs. The intestinal fat contains the highest level of PCBs, while the liver contains the highest concentration of PCDFs. The major PCDF congeners retained in the tissues were 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachloro-DF, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF and 1,2,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF. The former two congeners, especially 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF, are very toxic PCDFs; they may play important roles in the etiology of Yu-Cheng.

  13. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  14. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  15. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  16. Suppressive ability of defatted rice bran against lipid oxidation in cookies containing iron.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Kazue; Omori, Ayako; Uda, Yasutaka; Nomura, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Cookies containing iron, defatted rice bran, and several oils were prepared, and their oxidative stability evaluated. Oxidation was suppressed by the defatted rice bran, but a limit to the suppressive effect was observed. The maximum peroxide values obtained with defatted rice bran were low, and similar, regardless of the degree of unsaturation of the oils. A chemical analysis suggested that proteins and polyphenols in the defatted rice bran contributed to the suppressive effect. Cookies without the defatted rice bran showed decreasing maximum peroxide value as the relative humidity increased. No such dependence was observed for the cookies containing defatted rice bran. The water sorption isotherm of defatted rice bran indicated that the weak dependence was due to low water sorption.

  17. [Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Charoonratana, Tossaton; Songsak, Thanapat; Sakunpak, Apirak; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Charoenchai, Laksana

    2015-09-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil (RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw compression method. The LC-MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2.10 program before evaluating with principal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC-MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible; short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis (PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao-Hom-Pathum was more suitable than Khao-Hom-Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ-oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this information can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars. PMID:26753285

  18. [Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Charoonratana, Tossaton; Songsak, Thanapat; Sakunpak, Apirak; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Charoenchai, Laksana

    2015-09-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil (RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw compression method. The LC-MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2.10 program before evaluating with principal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC-MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible; short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis (PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao-Hom-Pathum was more suitable than Khao-Hom-Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ-oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this information can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  20. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. PMID:26301251

  1. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, M; Suzuki, H

    1996-01-01

    The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells was studied. Adult male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed a fat-free semisynthetic diet supplemented with 5% (by weight) purified DHA ethyl ester, refined sardine oil, or palm oil. The mice received the DHA or palm oil diets for 7 days (groups 1 and 2) and the refined sardine oil or palm oil diets for 30 days (groups 3 and 4). There were significant ultrastructural changes in the jejunal absorptive cells between the mice fed on the palm oil diet and those receiving the DHA and sardine oil diets. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of some jejunal absorptive cells in the mice fed on the palm oil diet for 7 and 30 days developed vacuolation on the upper site of the nucleus. In contrast, many granules, which appeared to be lipid droplets, were observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the jejunal absorptive cells in the DHA and sardine oil diet groups. These results suggest that ultrastructural differences in the jejunal absorptive cells between mice in the omega-3 fatty acid and palm oil diet groups may be associated with the changes in lipid metabolism.

  2. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  3. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  4. Wheat bran intake can attenuate chronic cadmium toxicity in mice gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Liu, Kaiyong; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yehao

    2016-08-10

    Environmental exposure to pollutants such as heavy metals is responsible for various altered physiological functions that are detrimental to health. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most representative toxic, non-essential elements that can contaminate food and water. This study evaluated the protective effects of wheat bran, a selected prebiotic with good Cd binding ability, against Cd toxicity in mice. Thirty mice were divided into control and therapeutic groups. The control group was fed a low dietary fiber diet with no Cd for 8 weeks. In the therapeutic group, 100 mg L(-1) Cd was administered along with a diet of 10% wheat bran. First, the binding ability of wheat bran for Cd was measured along with the protection of cell growth in vitro by wheat bran. Second, the effectiveness of wheat bran in preventing Cd from entering mice organs was evaluated. Finally, restoration of gut microbiota from alterations caused by Cd was investigated. The results showed that wheat bran could bind most of the Cd ions and restore the growth rate of cells in vitro. The wheat bran treatment group showed that the bran effectively prevented Cd from entering mice organs. In addition, the bacterial community structure was restored because the toxicity of Cd to gut microbiota was eliminated by the wheat bran. Our results suggest that wheat bran is more effective against chronic Cd toxicity than traditional treatments because of its special physiological functions, and it can be considered as a new dietary, therapeutic strategy against Cd toxicity. PMID:27425201

  5. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  6. Effect of high-fiber and high-oil diets on the fecal flora of swine.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Moore, L V; Cato, E P; Wilkins, T D; Kornegay, E T

    1987-01-01

    Six pairs of pigs were fed a basal diet, a high-fiber diet, and a diet high in corn oil in different sequences to minimize the carry-over effect of diet. After 2 months on each diet, a fecal specimen from each pig was cultured on nonselective medium in roll tubes. Fifty colonies were randomly selected from each fecal sample, and isolates were characterized to identify a representative cross section of the fecal flora. The bacterial composition of the fecal flora differed between basal and high-fiber diets (P = 0.002) and between high-fiber and high-oil diets (P = 0.015). However, the floras were not significantly different between the basal and the high-oil diets (P = 0.135), nor were the floras of the 12 individual pigs (each on all three diets) statistically different (P = 0.103). Only 14 of the 160 observed taxa have been detected in the human fecal flora, and only 159 of 1,871 total isolates (8.5%) were members of described species. The most common isolate was a Streptococcus species similar to that reported by Robinson et al. (I. M. Robinson, S. C. Whipp, J. A. Bucklin, and M. J. Allison, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:964-969, 1984), which was found in 34 of 36 samples and which represented 27.5% of all isolates. Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, and Peptostreptococcus species were the next most common bacteria. Escherichia coli represented 1.7% of all fecal isolates, which is somewhat higher than the 0.1 to 0.6% observed in human feces cultured similarly with prereduced anaerobically sterilized media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2821900

  7. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  8. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P < .001) whereas glutathione was not changed (P = .382). Moreover, the camellia oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P < .001) compared with the control group. Furthermore, camellia oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P < .001) whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were not different (P = .079; P = .660, respectively) compared with the control group. These data indicate that the consumption of camellia oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  9. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P < .001) whereas glutathione was not changed (P = .382). Moreover, the camellia oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P < .001) compared with the control group. Furthermore, camellia oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P < .001) whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were not different (P = .079; P = .660, respectively) compared with the control group. These data indicate that the consumption of camellia oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703

  10. Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana Pereira; de Lima, Stélio Bezerra Pinheiro; Ferreira, Guilherme José Bolzani de Campos; Farias, Leonardo Atta; de Sousa, Francinete Alves; Acácio, Raian Malta; Silva, Danilo Rodrigo Silva e

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2) factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate), and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process. PMID:26807917

  11. Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases.

    PubMed

    Lima, Vânia Batista de Sousa; Dourado, Leilane Rocha Barros; Machado, Luciana Pereira; Biagiotti, Daniel; de Lima, Stélio Bezerra Pinheiro; Ferreira, Guilherme José Bolzani de Campos; Farias, Leonardo Atta; de Sousa, Francinete Alves; Acácio, Raian Malta; Silva e Silva, Danilo Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2) factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate), and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process.

  12. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Rice Bran Wax as an Ointment Base with Standard Base

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P. M.; Lakhotiya, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

  14. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Lewis, Edwin E; Tedders, W Louis

    2008-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency.

  15. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  16. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1994-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  17. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  18. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  1. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  2. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO.

  3. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  4. Suppression by diets rich in fish oil of very low density lipoprotein production in man.

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, P J; Connor, W E; Reardon, M F; Connor, S; Wong, S; Boston, R

    1984-01-01

    The highly polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils lower the plasma triglyceride concentration. We have studied the effect of a diet rich in fish oil on the rate of production of the triglyceride-transporting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Seven subjects, five normal and two with hypertriglyceridemia received up to 30% of daily energy needs from a fish oil preparation that was rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids with five and six double bonds, respectively. Compared with a diet similarly enriched with safflower oil (in which the predominant fatty acid is the omega-6 linoleic acid, with two double bonds), the fish oil diet lowered VLDL lipids and B apoprotein concentrations profoundly. High density lipoprotein lipids and A1 apoprotein were also lowered, but the effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was inconsistent. The daily production or flux of VLDL apoprotein B, calculated from reinjected autologous 125I-labeled lipoprotein, was substantially less in six subjects studied after 3 wk of fish oil, compared with after safflower oil. This effect on flux was more consistent than that on the irreversible fractional removal rate, which was increased in the four normolipidemic but inconsistent in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This suggests that fish oil reduced primarily the production of VLDL. The daily production of VLDL triglyceride, calculated from the kinetics of the triglyceride specific radioactivity-time curves after [3H]glycerol was injected, also showed very substantial reductions in five subjects studied. The marked suppression in VLDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride formation was found not to be due to diminished plasma total free fatty acid or plasma eicosapentaenoic flux, calculated during constant infusions of [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid and [3H]oleic acid in four subjects. In two subjects there was presumptive evidence for substantial independent influx of LDL during the fish oil diet

  5. Suppression by diets rich in fish oil of very low density lipoprotein production in man.

    PubMed

    Nestel, P J; Connor, W E; Reardon, M F; Connor, S; Wong, S; Boston, R

    1984-07-01

    The highly polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils lower the plasma triglyceride concentration. We have studied the effect of a diet rich in fish oil on the rate of production of the triglyceride-transporting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Seven subjects, five normal and two with hypertriglyceridemia received up to 30% of daily energy needs from a fish oil preparation that was rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids with five and six double bonds, respectively. Compared with a diet similarly enriched with safflower oil (in which the predominant fatty acid is the omega-6 linoleic acid, with two double bonds), the fish oil diet lowered VLDL lipids and B apoprotein concentrations profoundly. High density lipoprotein lipids and A1 apoprotein were also lowered, but the effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was inconsistent. The daily production or flux of VLDL apoprotein B, calculated from reinjected autologous 125I-labeled lipoprotein, was substantially less in six subjects studied after 3 wk of fish oil, compared with after safflower oil. This effect on flux was more consistent than that on the irreversible fractional removal rate, which was increased in the four normolipidemic but inconsistent in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This suggests that fish oil reduced primarily the production of VLDL. The daily production of VLDL triglyceride, calculated from the kinetics of the triglyceride specific radioactivity-time curves after [3H]glycerol was injected, also showed very substantial reductions in five subjects studied. The marked suppression in VLDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride formation was found not to be due to diminished plasma total free fatty acid or plasma eicosapentaenoic flux, calculated during constant infusions of [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid and [3H]oleic acid in four subjects. In two subjects there was presumptive evidence for substantial independent influx of LDL during the fish oil diet

  6. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  7. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  8. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  9. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  10. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  11. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (P<0.01) on HSO, HLO and MLO compared with the corresponding H or M control diets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0-16:0 and odd- and branched-chain fatty acid content and increased 18:0, trans-Delta(6-9,11-14,16)-18:1 (and their corresponding Delta-9 desaturase products), trans-7, trans-9-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-8, cis-10-CLA concentrations. Alterations in the distribution of cis-18:1, trans-18:1, -18:2 and CLA isomers in milk fat were related to plant oil composition and forage in the diet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  12. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties. PMID:21792359

  13. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum. PMID:27417228

  14. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (<0.7% of total fatty acid methyl esters) although HOSFO and RSFO diets increased it. The variations in the fatty acid profiles observed with the 4 diets, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid isomer contents, are extensively discussed. Compared with that in the control diet, the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance.

  15. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (<0.7% of total fatty acid methyl esters) although HOSFO and RSFO diets increased it. The variations in the fatty acid profiles observed with the 4 diets, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid isomer contents, are extensively discussed. Compared with that in the control diet, the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance. PMID:22032358

  16. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  17. The effect of different concentrations of linseed oil or fish oil in the maternal diet on the fatty acid composition and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Missotten, J; Raes, K; De Smet, S

    2015-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for foetal development. Hence, including n-3 PUFA in the sow diet can be beneficial for reproduction. Both the amount and form (precursor fatty acids vs. long chain PUFA) of supplementation are important in this respect. Furthermore, including n-3 PUFA in the diet can have negative effects, such as decreased arachidonic acid (ARA) concentration and increased oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the efficacy to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in the piglet, when different concentrations of linseed oil (LO, source of precursor α-linolenic acid) or fish oil (FO, source of EPA and DHA) were included in the maternal diet. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet including 0.5% or 2% LO or FO from day 45 of gestation until weaning. Linoleic acid (LA) was kept constant in the diets to prevent a decrease in ARA, and all diets were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate (150 mg/kg) and organic selenium (0.4 mg/kg) to prevent oxidative stress. Feeding 0.5% LO or 0.5% FO to the sows resulted in comparable EPA concentrations in the 5-day old piglet liver, but both diets resulted in lower EPA concentrations than when 2% LO was fed. The highest EPA concentration was obtained when 2% FO was fed. The DHA level in the piglet liver could only be increased when FO, but not LO, was fed to the sows. The 2% FO diet had no advantage over the 0.5% FO diet to increase DHA in the piglet. Despite the constant LA concentration in the sow diet, a decrease in ARA could not be avoided when LO or FO were included in the diet. Feeding 2% FO to the sows increased the malondialdehyde concentration (marker for lipid peroxidation) in sow plasma, but not in piglets.

  18. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  19. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs ... specific region. Others, like the DASH diet, were designed for people who have certain health problems. But ...

  20. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry.

  1. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry. PMID:1390597

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  3. Effects of feeding fish oil on the properties of lipoproteins isolated from rhesus monkeys consuming an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Soltys, P A; Mazzone, T; Wissler, R W; Vahed, S; Rangnekar, V; Lukens, J; Vesselinovitch, D; Getz, G S

    1989-04-01

    This study examined plasma lipids and lipoproteins of rhesus monkeys fed fish oil incorporated into a highly atherogenic diet containing saturated fat and cholesterol. The animals were fed diets containing 2% cholesterol and either 25% coconut oil (group I), 25% fish oil/coconut oil (1:1; group II), or 25% fish oil/coconut oil (3:1; group III) for 12 months (n = 8/group). Adding menhaden fish oil to the diet increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and decreased plasma linoleic acid in animals fed the fish oil containing diets. Plasma concentrations of all lipoprotein fractions were decreased in the fish oil groups. VLDL isolated from group I animals exhibited beta-mobility on agarose gels but the VLDL from groups II and III animals did not. The group I VLDL was more highly enriched in cholesteryl ester than was VLDL from groups II and III. Group I LDL had a small but significant increase in cholesteryl ester content compared to group III LDL. No differences in HDL composition were observed in the 3 groups. At least 6 times less apo E was recovered in VLDL, IDL, and LDL from group III animals than from group I animals. Assuming 1 molecule of apo B per lipoprotein particle, there were 50% fewer VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles in group III than in group I animals. Group III also had significantly lower molar ratios of apo E/apo B in VLDL, IDL, and LDL than did group I animals. When VLDL from all 3 groups were incubated with J774 macrophages at equal protein concentrations, only the VLDL from the group I animals stimulated cholesterol esterification. Thus, introducing fish oil into an atherogenic diet reduced the number of VLDL, IDL and LDL particles in plasma by as much as 50%, reduced the cholesteryl ester content of the circulating lipoprotein, and reduced the ability of the VLDL to stimulate cholesterol esterification in macrophages.

  4. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  5. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  6. Chronic intake of high fish oil diet induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Xia, Sheng; Li, Xiaoping; Cheng, Lu; Han, Mutian; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Xia; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Minghui; Shao, Qixiang; Qi, Ling

    2014-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fish oil exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in animal models with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), comprised of myeloid progenitors and precursors of myeloid cells, play vital roles in cancer. How fish oil affects the generation of MDSCs and the tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that dietary intake of high fish oil diet suppresses CD8(+) T cells activation and proliferation in vivo via elevated levels of MDSCs. Mechanistically, high fish oil diet induces the expression of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and promotes myelopoiesis in the spleen as well as other peripheral tissues. The immature myeloid cells in the spleen exhibit morphological and functional characteristics of MDSCs with the capability to downregulate CD8(+) T cells activation. Depletion of MDSCs using anti-Gr-1 antibody decreases the growth of subcutaneously transferred B16 melanoma in mice on high fish oil diet. Interestingly, diet-induced production of MDSCs is not solely dependent of the spleen, as splenectomy has no effect on the tumor progress. Our data show that the liver functions as an alternative extramedullary hematopoiesis organ to support MDSCs differentiation and maintain tumor growth. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the physiological effects of fish oil and points to MDSCs as a possible mediator linking dietary fish oil intake and immunosuppression in cancer immunosurveillance.

  7. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  8. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Q.; Su, Y. B.; Li, D. F.; Liu, L.; Huang, C. F.; Zhu, Z. P.; Lai, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran) and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively) on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg) and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg) were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran). Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), carbohydrates (CHO), gross energy (GE), and digestible energy (DE) decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (p<0.05). While only AID of CHO and ATTD of DM, ash, OM, CHO, GE, and DE content differed (p<0.05) when considering the BW effect. For the wheat bran ingredient, there was a wider variation effect (p<0.01) on the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV) of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively) fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that in 9.65% wheat bran inclusion level (2.56 and 2.12 MJ/kg of DM, respectively), which was also affected (p<0.05) by two growth stages

  9. Plasma lipid effects of three common vegetable oils in reduced-fat diets of free-living adults.

    PubMed

    Insull, W; Silvers, A; Hicks, L; Probstfield, J L

    1994-08-01

    We compared plasma lipid changes due to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil fed in reduced-fat diets (22-26% of total energy). Each oil was the dominant fat in isoenergetic diets of centrally prepared foods consumed by 26 male and 35 female normolipidemic, free-living individuals. Test diets were consumed double-blind, alternating with self-selected diets for 5 wk each. The ranges of proportions of total fat were: 4.7-9.7% polyunsaturated fat, 8.9-14.2% monounsaturated fat and 5.4-7.4% saturated fat. All three diets lowered (P < 0.0001) total cholesterol (11%), LDL cholesterol (13%), and HDL cholesterol (10%), without triglyceride changes. We conclude that PUFAs at approximately 6% of total energy result in clinically relevant plasma cholesterol-lowering and that the proportion of polyunsaturated fat must be an important consideration when planning reduced-fat, reduced-saturated-fat diets.

  10. Influence of weed seed oil contamination on the nutritional quality of diets containing low erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus, Tower cultivar) oil when fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Rose, S P; Bell, J M; Wilkie, I W; Schiefer, H B

    1981-02-01

    Oils from three samples of rapeseed screenings and a sample of stinkweed seeds (Thlaspi arvense) were added to Tower rapeseed oil at three levels (5, 10 and 15%). The contaminated Tower oils were fed at 20% (w/w) of a purified diet to male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks. The screenings oils caused no increase in the focal myocardial lesion index or lipidosis of the rat hearts. Stinkweed oil gave a significant increase in myocardial lipidosis and a non-significant increase of the myocarditis index. These were attributed to an imbalance in the fatty acid composition of the Tower oil for the specific requirements of the growing rat. Screenings oil contamination had no significant effects on the feed intake or growth of the animals. The growth of rats fed stinkweed oil-contaminated diets was significantly lower than other treatments when it was adjusted for feed intake by analysis of covariance. No treatment effects on body organ weights nor on blood lipid parameter were observed. The presence of week seed oils, at the highest levels likely to be encountered in low erucic acid rapeseed oil, was concluded to have a significant influence on its nutritional value. PMID:7463174

  11. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  12. Physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and toxicological evaluation of the oil-based diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Shoremekun, K L; Yakubu, M T

    2009-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and the toxicological effect of the oil-based diet on some biochemical parameters of selected rat tissues and serum were studied. The smoke, flash, and fire points as well as peroxide, iodine, and acid values of the fruit oil were significantly lower (P < .05), whereas the specific gravity, relative density, saponification, and ester values compared well with soybean oil. The fruit oil yield was 20.02%. The oil consisted of 22.22% saturated, 56.43% monounsaturated, and 21.35% polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is richer than soybean oil in behenic, palmitoleic, oleic, gadoleic, erucic, and 9,12-eicosanoic acids by 15.70%, 0.89%, 7.22%, 12.05%, 8.27%, and 21.35%, respectively. The liver- and kidney-body weight ratios as well as the serum concentrations of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the rats maintained on diet formulated with the oil from the fruit of B. sapida increased significantly (P < .05), but the triglyceride and atherogenic index decreased (P < .05). The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and the heart-body weight ratio of the rats fed with the fruit oil diet compared well (P > .05) with those on soybean oil-based diet. Animals fed with the fruit oil-based diet had their activities of liver glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase as well as alkaline phosphatase activities of the liver and kidney decreased with corresponding increase in the serum enzymes. These results suggest that oil from B. sapida fruit could be edible and may be explored as raw materials in the paint, margarine, and soap industries. The oil is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk, but may labilize the plasma membrane of the hepatocytes and nephrons. It may also have a negative effect on the metabolism and regulation of amino acid in the animals. Therefore, the oil from B. sapida fruit may not be completely safe for

  13. Physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and toxicological evaluation of the oil-based diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Shoremekun, K L; Yakubu, M T

    2009-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of the oil from the fruit of Blighia sapida and the toxicological effect of the oil-based diet on some biochemical parameters of selected rat tissues and serum were studied. The smoke, flash, and fire points as well as peroxide, iodine, and acid values of the fruit oil were significantly lower (P < .05), whereas the specific gravity, relative density, saponification, and ester values compared well with soybean oil. The fruit oil yield was 20.02%. The oil consisted of 22.22% saturated, 56.43% monounsaturated, and 21.35% polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is richer than soybean oil in behenic, palmitoleic, oleic, gadoleic, erucic, and 9,12-eicosanoic acids by 15.70%, 0.89%, 7.22%, 12.05%, 8.27%, and 21.35%, respectively. The liver- and kidney-body weight ratios as well as the serum concentrations of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the rats maintained on diet formulated with the oil from the fruit of B. sapida increased significantly (P < .05), but the triglyceride and atherogenic index decreased (P < .05). The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and the heart-body weight ratio of the rats fed with the fruit oil diet compared well (P > .05) with those on soybean oil-based diet. Animals fed with the fruit oil-based diet had their activities of liver glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase as well as alkaline phosphatase activities of the liver and kidney decreased with corresponding increase in the serum enzymes. These results suggest that oil from B. sapida fruit could be edible and may be explored as raw materials in the paint, margarine, and soap industries. The oil is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk, but may labilize the plasma membrane of the hepatocytes and nephrons. It may also have a negative effect on the metabolism and regulation of amino acid in the animals. Therefore, the oil from B. sapida fruit may not be completely safe for

  14. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.

  15. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on zinc absorption in man.

    PubMed

    Nävert, B; Sandström, B; Cederblad, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of leavening of bread containing bran on the phytic acid content and on zinc absorption in man was studied. Twenty breads with leavening times varying from 0 to 120 h were prepared. The breads contained 250 g wheat bran/kg flour. The phytic acid content was determined after baking. The phytic acid content of bread containing bran was reduced to about 40% after 2 h of leavening and to 15% after 2 d. No further decrease was observed. Zn absorption from single meals was determined using a radioisotope technique. Forty-two students volunteered for these studies. They were served a breakfast of milk, butter, bread and 10, 16 or 30 g bran served either raw or baked into the bread with fermentation times of 15 min, 45 min, 3 h or 16 h. One meal contained no bran, but phytate and Zn were added in amounts equivalent to the content of 10 g bran. The amount and percentage of Zn absorbed increased at each bran level as fermentation was prolonged. The percentage of Zn absorbed was reduced by increased bran content in the meal. It is concluded that the fermentation of bread containing bran reduces the phytic acid content and increases Zn absorption from such bread. This may be of importance to people subjected to diets with a high cereal content, especially in combination with a low animal-protein intake.

  17. Rice-bran products: phytonutrients with potential applications in preventive and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Jariwalla, R J

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews phytonutrients from rice bran that have shown promising disease-preventing and health-related benefits in experimental research studies. Candidate products studied and under investigation include: inositol and related compounds, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 or phytate), rice oil, ferulic acid, gamma-oryzanol, plant sterols, tocotrienols and RICEO, a new rice-bran-derived product. Diseases in which preventive and/or nutraceutical effects have been detected include: cancer, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, and heart disease. In addition, rice-bran products may have potential applications as nutritional ingredients in the context of their utility in functional foods.

  18. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  19. Oil-soluble dyes incorporated in meridic diet of Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as markers for adult dispersal studies.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Buschman, Lawrent L; Throne, James E; Ramaswamy, Sonny B

    2004-06-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments to study insect dispersal require the release of marked insects that can be easily identified among feral conspecifics. Oil-soluble dyes have been used successfully to mark various insect species. Two oil-soluble dyes, Sudan Red 7B (C.I. 26050) and Sudan Blue 670 (C.I. 61554), were added to diet of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, and evaluated against an untreated control diet. Survival, diet consumption, larval and pupal weight, development time, fecundity, longevity, and dry weight of the adults were measured. Adults reared on the three diets were also tested for mating success. Some minor effects were observed for southwestern corn borers reared on the marked diets. Eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were all reliably marked and readily identifiable. Adults retained color for their entire life span. Adults from each diet mated successfully with adults from the other diets. F1 progeny from the different mating combinations survived to the second instar but tended to lose the marker after 3-4 d on untreated diet. Both Sudan Red 7B and Sudan Blue 670 can be used to mark southwestern corn borer adults and thus should be useful for mark-release-recapture dispersal studies. The dyes will also be useful for short-term studies with marked larvae and oviposition behavior.

  20. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Fish oil improves obesity and its comorbidities, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of a diet rich in fish oil in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation pathways, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To achieve our aims, four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed different diets: standard chow diet (SC; 10% energy from fat), SC+fish oil diet (SC-FO; 10% energy from fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L; 50% energy from lard) and HF fish oil diet (HF-FO; 50% energy from fish oil). We evaluated body mass, epididymal fat pad mass, food intake and glucose tolerance. In WAT, we assessed adipocyte hypertrophy, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 immunofluorescence, and gene and protein expression of insulin signaling, inflammation, MAPKs, RAS, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In relation to the results, the HF-L group, as expected, showed elevated body mass and adiposity, glucose intolerance and hypertrophied adipocytes. In WAT, we found a defect in insulin signaling, infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory markers with the associated activation of MAPKs and local RAS. On the contrary, the HF-FO group did not present increased body mass, adiposity or glucose intolerance. In this group, insulin signaling, macrophage infiltration and inflammation were reduced in WAT in comparison with the HF-L group. We also observed decreases of MAPKs and local RAS and elevation of PPAR and AMPK. In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation.

  1. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, E.C.; Jascolka, T.L.; Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M.; Peluzio, M.C.G.; Alvarez-Leite, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr−/−, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action. PMID:22570088

  2. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). PMID:22953894

  3. Short communication: Effect of increasing levels of corn bran on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Janicek, B N; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2007-09-01

    Thirty-nine lactating Holstein cows (23 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a crossover design. Dietary treatments differed by the proportion of corn bran [10, 17.5, and 25% dry matter (DM); designated as low, medium, and high] replacing corn silage and alfalfa. The corn bran coproduct contained 8.2% moisture and 12.9% crude protein, 30.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 45.0% nonfiber carbohydrate, 9.9% ether extract, and 0.70% P (DM basis). The low treatment consisted of 15.8% NDF from forage (fNDF) and 33.1% total NDF; the medium treatment consisted of 12.9% fNDF and 32.5% total NDF; and the high diet contained 9.9% fNDF and 31.8% total NDF. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. The percent milk fat decreased by 0.26% with the inclusion of corn bran from 10 to 25% of the diet DM, but total milk fat yield was not affected. In comparison, corn bran increased yield of milk protein 0.12 kg/d when bran increased from 10 to 25% of the diet DM. Total milk yield tended to increase when bran increased from 10 to 25% of the diet DM, but no differences were observed on 3.5% fat-corrected milk. Lastly, feed conversion significantly improved with increasing inclusion: 1.39, 1.39, and 1.55 +/- 0.05 kg of milk/kg of DMI for low, medium, and high, respectively. Observed effects were likely due to the increase in energy intake associated with increasing levels of corn bran.

  4. Early development of essential fatty acid deficiency in rats: Fat-free vs. hydrogenated coconut oil diet

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pei-Ra; De Leon, Charlotte E.; Le, Hau; Puder, Mark; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of feeding an essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) diet either without fat or with added hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) on fatty acid profiles in rats. Both diets induced equivalent biochemical evidence of EFAD reflected by the triene/tetraene ratio in plasma phospholipids within 2 weeks. However, the HCO diet led to larger increases of 16:1n7 and 18:1n9 in muscle but smaller increases in fat tissue and plasma triglycerides than the fat-free diet, suggesting greater increases in hepatic de novo lipogenesis with the latter. In addition, the HCO diet led to larger decreases of some 18:3n3 metabolites, particularly 22:6n3, in muscle, fat and brain tissues than the fat-free diet, presumably related to lesser stimulation of elongation and desaturation. Thus, these secondary effects of an EFAD diet on fatty acid metabolism can be modified by the saturated fat in the diet while the primary impact of both diets on development of EFAD is unaffected. PMID:20675109

  5. Effect of thioacetamide and dexamethasone on serum lipids in rats fed on high-fat sunflower or olive oil diets.

    PubMed

    Esteban, F J; Sánchez-López, A M; Del Moral, M L; Camacho, M V; Hernández, R; Jiménez, A; Pedrosa, J A; Peinado, M A

    1999-04-01

    We have previously reported that high-fat diets develop hepatic steatosis and, depending on the fat quality, affect serum lipid levels differently (J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 1997, 43, 155-160). The aim of this work is to study the influence of high-fat diets (14% sunflower or olive oils) on serum lipids in a model of hepatic acute damage induced by thioacetamide, and their influence when dexamethasone is administered before thioacetamide injection. Serum lipids and hepatic collagen have been evaluated using biochemical methods, and the steatotic process by histological staining. The results showed that hepatic steatosis and fibrosis are developed either by high-fat diets or thioacetamide injection. Pretreatment with dexamethasone did not decrease the hepatic collagen content. Thioacetamide injection alone or pretreatment with dexamethasone produced increase in serum tryglicerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C in both high-fat diet groups, and a HDL-C increase in the olive-oil group, even though the atherogenic indices (HDL/TC and HDL/TG) were different depending on the enriched diet. The administration of high-fat diets to study the influence of the fat quality on health and disease should be interpreted carefully due to the ability of the diets themselves to cause hepatic damage. PMID:10450564

  6. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  7. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  8. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    PubMed

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Birds fed diets containing 0% and 10% CBM had significantly (p < 0.05) higher feed intake than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest feed intake was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The highest ADWG was observed in birds fed 0% CBM diet, but this was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p < 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 0%, 10% and 15% CBM diets had similar FCR and this was significantly (p < 0.05) lower and better than that of birds on 20% CBM diet. The least (p < 0.05) PER was observed in birds fed 20% CBM diet. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher packed cell volume (PCV) than birds on 10% and 15% CBM diets. Birds fed 0%, 10% and 15% CBM diets had similar (p > 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether

  9. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  10. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  11. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  12. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring.

  13. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  14. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  15. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  16. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  17. Effect of two experimental diets (protein and lipid vegetable oil blends) on the volatile profile of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) muscle.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Soares, S; Valente, L M P; Castro-Cunha, M; Cunha, L M; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine differences among volatile compounds composition of Senegalese sole muscle fed with extruded diets containing different plant protein (PP) and vegetable oil (VO) sources. Two set of experiments were performed on growing sole. One growth trial used a control diet containing fish meal (FM) as the main protein source and different PP-based diets. Another growth trial compared a control diet containing fish oil (FO) as the main lipid source and different VO-based diets; after a period, all sole were fed with the FO diet. Results showed that the incorporation of PP sources up to 75% allowed the production of a similar content of major volatile compounds to the control diet. In VO-based diets, some significant differences were found in the levels of some volatile compounds in sole muscle; however, no significant differences were obtained through sensory evaluation.

  18. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  19. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  20. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  1. Oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoprotein from rabbits fed atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Yap, S C; Choo, Y M; Hew, N F; Yap, S F; Khor, H T; Ong, A S; Goh, S H

    1995-12-01

    The oxidative susceptibilities of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from rabbits fed high-fat atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oil were investigated. New Zealand white rabbits were fed atherogenic semisynthetic diets containing 0.5% cholesterol and either (i) 13% coconut oil and 2% corn oil (CNO), (ii) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO), (iii) 15% crude palm olein (CPO), (iv) 15% soybean oil (SO), or (v) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein without cholesterol supplementation [RBDPO(wc)], for a period of twelve weeks. Total fatty acid compositions of the plasma and LDL were found to be modulated (but not too drastically) by the nature of the dietary fats. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased the plasma level of vitamin E and effectively altered the plasma composition of long-chain fatty acids in favor of increasing oleic acid. Oxidative susceptibilities of LDL samples were determined by Cu2(+)-catalyzed oxidation which provide the lag times and lag-phase slopes. The plasma LDL from all palm oil diets [RBDPO, CPO, and RBDPO(wc)] were shown to be equally resistant to the oxidation, and the LDL from SO-fed rabbits were most susceptible, followed by the LDL from the CNO-fed rabbits. These results reflect a relationship between the oxidative susceptibility of LDL due to a combination of the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.

  2. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  3. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. PMID:26686729

  4. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  5. Pre-calving feeding of rumen-protected rice bran to multiparous dairy cows improves recovery of calcaemia after calving.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Martens, Holger; Deiner, Carolin; van Laar, Harmen; den Hartog, Leo A; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows can have different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving. Lowering dietary Ca availability before calving can prevent it. Rice bran, treated for lower rumen degradability of phytic acid can reduce dietary availability of Ca. During 3 periods of 3 weeks, 113 multiparous cows calved in a single close-up group, which was fed first a control diet, then 140 g/kg DM of rumen-protected rice bran, and at last the control diet again. Cows joined the group 3 weeks before expected calving date and left it at calving. Blood samples were taken weekly before parturition and 0, 6 and 12 h after calving, as well as 3 and 28 d in lactation. Serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, and P. Rice bran introduction produced a transient serum Ca decrease. Rice bran feeding reduced serum P and its withdrawal reduced serum Mg. Serum Ca at calving, nadir of serum Ca and serum Ca the first 3 d after calving was higher in cows calving during rice bran feeding. Serum P decreased less and recovered faster after calving when cows had been fed rice bran. Rumen-protected rice bran reduced dietary availability of Ca and induced adaptation of Ca metabolism resulting in improved Ca and P homoeostasis at calving. PMID:27600961

  6. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

  7. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    PubMed

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of p<0.05. Both 19S and 19C groups showed higher body mass, length, and retroperitoneal fat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, p<0.0001). Independent of soybean or canola oil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  8. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p < 0.05) for the MCT and soya bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p < 0.05) for the diets containing MCT and soya bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  9. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  10. [Effect of wheat bran fiber on vitamin status of weaning rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V; Baturina, V A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of wheat bran on the vitamin status of rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 32 male Wistar weaning rats (initial body mass--49-67g) were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100 or 20% of vitamin mixture with or without addition of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) for 35 days. The animals of the control group received 100% of vitamin mixture without adding of wheat bran; 2 group--received those diet with wheat bran; 3 deficient group--20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2; 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and wheat bran. The inclusion of wheat bran in full semi-synthetic diet has been accompanied by significant decrease of alpha-tocopherol liver content on 17% (p = 0.006), significant increase of vitamin B1 liver level on the 16% (p = 0.027) and blood plasma vitamin D elevation on 19% (p = 0.017), as well as a tendency (p = 0.059) to increase the liver level of vitamin B2. Indicators of vitamin A status as well as plasma vitamin E concentration, liver and blood plasma MDA levels were not changed in this group rats. The 5-fold reduction of the vitamin mixture quota and the exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2 resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) 1.6-1.8 fold decreased in animal body weight and liver mass and the manifestation of the deep external signs of vitamin deficiency. Young animals were more sensitive than adult animals to a lack of vitamins in the diet. Vitamin A (retinol palmitate) liver content in rats from this group was 25.1-fold reduced, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)--2.1-fold, vitamins B1 and B2--by 57 and 38% compared with animals received a complete control diet (p < 0.05). Blood plasma concentration of vitamins A, E, D was 19-34% decreased. Adding of bran in vitamin deficit diet led to increased consumption of vitamin B--on 40%, vitamins B2 and E--21%, both due to their natural content in the bran, and as a

  11. A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) are believed to benefit cardiovascular system. The combined effect of FO and ASX on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated. Methods Astaxanthin was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 1g/kg (FO + ASX). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was lard (HFD) or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX (50 mg ASX/kg diet) or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX (100 mg ASX/kg diet) or FO + ASX (200 mg ASX/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Results The combination of FO and ASX significantly increased the antioxidant defense capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma. Evident decreases in the levels TG, TC and LDL-C contents, as well as IL-6 and CRP were also observed in plasma of FO and ASX fed rats. Conclusion The combination of FO and ASX can improve oxidative stress, lipid abnormalities and inflammation, providing evidence that the combination of FO and ASX could be a promising functional food in cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:24708887

  12. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  13. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil

    PubMed Central

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg−1 silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  14. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-03-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  15. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-03-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study.

  16. Virgin olive oil and nuts as key foods of the Mediterranean diet effects on inflammatory biomakers related to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Casas, Rosa; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Romero-Mamani, Edwin Saúl; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Llorach, Rafael; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-06-01

    Previous epidemiological and feeding studies have observed that adherence to Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Since atherosclerosis is nowadays considered a low-grade inflammatory disease, recent studies have explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a Med-Diet intervention on serum and cellular biomarkers related to atherosclerosis. In two sub-studies of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial, we analyzed the effects at 3 months of two Med-Diet interventions supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts compared with a control low-fat diet (LFD). Both Med-Diets showed an anti-inflammatory effect reducing serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL6) and endothelial and monocytary adhesion molecules and chemokines (P<0.05; all), whereas these parameters increased after the LFD intervention (P<0.05; all). In another substudy, we evaluated the long-term (1 year) effects of these interventions on vascular risk factors in 516 high-risk subjects, as well as the effect of different Med-Diet components in the reduction of these biomarkers. At 1 year, the Med-Diet groups had significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL6, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 60 and TNFR80 (P<0.05), while intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), TNFR60 and TNFR80 concentrations increased in the LFD group (P<0.002). In addition, those allocated in the highest tertile of VOO and vegetables consumption had a significant diminution of plasma TNFR60 concentration compared with those in tertile 1 (P<0.02). In conclusion, Med-Diet exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on cardiovascular system since it down-regulates cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers related to atherogenesis in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:22449789

  17. Diets Based on Virgin Olive Oil or Fish Oil but Not on Sunflower Oil Prevent Age-Related Alveolar Bone Resorption by Mitochondrial-Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C.; Ochoa, Julio J.; Cordero, Mario D.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L.; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Methods/Findings Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. Conclusions The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis. PMID:24066124

  18. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  19. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  20. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  1. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  2. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed.

  3. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet.

  4. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. PMID:25172744

  5. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO) rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF) rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005), epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005), fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (5.0 vs 13.6; P < 0.019), and serum cholesterol (167 vs 94 mg/dL; P < 0.05). When challenged with LPS, FO-fed mice had significantly lower serum IL-1β compared to SF-fed mice (2.0 vs 30.0 pg/mL; P < 0.001). After LPS-challenge, SF-fed mice had higher mortality, lost more body weight, and had greater decrease in blood glucose compared to FO-fed mice. Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice. PMID:21388548

  6. Preliminary assessment of avian stomach oils: a vector of contaminants to chicks and potential for diet analysis and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Foster, Karen L; Wang, Shiway W; Mackay, Don; Mallory, Mark L; Blais, Jules M

    2010-09-01

    Bird species from the order Procellariiformes or petrels, including the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), produce high lipid and high energy content stomach oils from the prey they consume, which enables them to exploit distant marine food sources. Stomach oils are also used as a food source for chicks and for defensive purposes. Samples of stomach oils from two Arctic colonies, St. George Island Alaska, USA and Cape Vera, Devon Island Nunavut, Canada, were collected and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. SigmaPCB concentrations ranged from 13 to 236 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and SigmaDDT concentrations from 5 to 158 ng g(-1) ww and were similar in both sites, though differences in chemical signatures were apparent. Stomach oils are a rich energy source; however, they may also provide a higher dose of contaminants per unit energy than the direct consumption of prey items, as illustrated using mass and energy balance calculations to estimate chick exposure to SigmaDDT for hypothetical stomach oil and whole prey diets. The results of this study suggest that stomach oils are an important vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and should be considered in future risk assessments of northern fulmars and other species of petrels. To our knowledge this is the first study of stomach oils as an overlooked vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and as a potentially valuable medium for dietary analysis and noninvasive biomonitoring both of petrel dietary exposure and of marine contaminant concentrations. PMID:20707316

  7. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague–Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23510587

  8. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  9. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat bran snack utilizing several varieties of bran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  10. Use of combinations of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation, in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Guardiola, F; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    Re-esterified oils contain higher proportions of mono- and diacylglycerols, and also higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) at the sn-2 position of acylglycerol molecules than does a native oil with the same degree of saturation, which enhances the apparent absorption of SFA. Moreover, as happens with native oils, their nutritive value could be further improved by blending re-esterified oils of extreme degrees of saturation. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of increasing the dietary unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio (UFA:SFA) by adding re-esterified soybean oil in replacement of re-esterified palm oil, on fatty acid (FA) apparent absorption and its consequences on growth performance, carcass fat depots, and FA composition of abdominal adipose tissue. For this purpose, one hundred twenty 1-day-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 30 cages. The 2 pure re-esterified oils, together with 3 re-esterified oil blends, were included in the basal diet at 6%. The increasing dietary UFA:SFA ratio resulted in an improved total FA apparent absorption (linear effect for the starter period, P = 0.001; quadratic effect for the grower-finisher period, P = 0.006) and, therefore, an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the overall period (linear effect, P = 0.003). In the starter period, the improved fat absorption was due to the growing presence of linoleic acid and the enhanced absorption of SFA, mono- and polyunsaturated FA (associative effects among FA; P < 0.05). In the growing-finishing period, however, the absorption of mono- and polyunsaturated FA was not affected (P > 0.05). The UFA:SFA ratio of the abdominal adipose tissue varied in the same direction, but to a lesser extent than that of the diet. Whilst the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of polyunsaturated FA remained relatively constant as the dietary UFA:SFA ratio increased, the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of SFA increased, and that of monounsaturated

  11. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

  12. Concentrations of oxysterols in meat and meat products from pigs fed diets differing in the type of fat (palm oil or soybean oil) and vitamin E concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eder, K; Müller, G; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Brandsch, C

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether concentrations of oxysterols in pig meat are affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. 48 growth-finishing pigs were fed diets with either palm oil or soybean oil and vitamin E concentrations of 15, 40 or 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of oxysterols were analyzed in fresh and heat-processed (180 °C, 20 min) meat (M. longissimus dorsi) and in boiled sausage prepared from meat and back fat of the animals. Concentrations of oxysterols in fresh muscle were below 5 nmol/g dry matter; they were independent of the dietary fat type and vitamin E concentration. Heating caused a large increase of oxysterol concentration (up to 55 nmol/g dry matter). This effect was reduced by increasing dietary vitamin E concentration but was independent of the dietary fat. Sausage from pigs fed soybean oil had higher concentrations of oxysterols than sausage from pigs fed palm oil; vitamin E reduced concentrations of oxysterols in sausage from pigs fed soybean oil, but not in sausage from pigs fed palm oil.

  13. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  14. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  15. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  16. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  17. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  18. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world.

  19. A chemoprotective fish oil- and pectin-containing diet temporally alters gene expression profiles in exfoliated rat colonocytes throughout oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Hyemee; Turner, Nancy D; Mann, John C; Wei, Jiawei; Taddeo, Stella S; Davidson, Laurie A; Wang, Naisyin; Vannucci, Marina; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    We have demonstrated that fish oil- and pectin-containing (FO/P) diets protect against colon cancer compared with corn oil and cellulose (CO/C) by upregulating apoptosis and suppressing proliferation. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby FO/P diets induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation during the tumorigenic process, we analyzed the temporal gene expression profiles from exfoliated rat colonocytes. Rats consumed diets containing FO/P or CO/C and were injected with azoxymethane (AOM; 2 times, 15 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously). Feces collected at initiation (24 h after AOM injection) and at aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (7 wk postinjection) and tumor (28 wk postinjection) stages of colon cancer were used for poly (A)+ RNA extraction. Gene expression signatures were determined using Codelink arrays. Changes in phenotypes (ACF, apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor incidence) were measured to establish the regulatory controls contributing to the chemoprotective effects of FO/P. At initiation, FO/P downregulated the expression of 3 genes involved with cell adhesion and enhanced apoptosis compared with CO/C. At the ACF stage, the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation was modulated by FO/P and the zone of proliferation was reduced in FO/P rats compared with CO/C rats. FO/P also increased apoptosis and the expression of genes that promote apoptosis at the tumor endpoint compared with CO/C. We conclude that the effects of chemotherapeutic diets on epithelial cell gene expression can be monitored noninvasively throughout the tumorigenic process and that a FO/P diet is chemoprotective in part due to its ability to affect expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation throughout all stages of tumorigenesis.

  20. The functional effectiveness of reprocessed rice bran as an ingredient in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel; Guraya, Harmeet; Champagne, Elaine

    2002-04-01

    Rice bran, as a coproduct of the rice milling industry, is yet to be efficiently utilized for human consumption. Despite its excellent nutrition, its hypoallergenicity and recently claimed nutraceutical properties, it is mainly utilized for animal feed or simply discharged. It is of interest to incorporate this healthy ingredient back into our diet. In these studies, rice bran was processed by drum-drying and pin-milling. This processing step increased hydration capacity and removed grittiness by decreasing mean particle size from 444 to 72 microns and producing a desirable monomodal size distribution. There are no reported studies addressing differences in rice bran composition in food applications and specifically their effect on bread quality. Thus, we were interested in examining the functional properties of bread made with processed full-fat (FFRB) and defatted (DFRB) bran from three cultivars (long, medium and short grain rice) and to compare them to a control. For 10% and 20% replacements of wheat flour, respectively, loaf volume increased 2% for FFRB and decreased 6% for DFRB and decreased by 6% for FFRB and 17% for DFRB. Loaf volume was highest with medium rice bran and this was attributed to its lowest fiber content and highest starch content among three varieties. Texture profile analysis showed no significant differences as far as cohesiveness and springiness, but bread hardness, gumminess and chewiness increased with increased levels of rice bran and was higher for DFRB bread than for FFRB. Measurements of texture determined that there was no detrimental effect in adding 10% FFRB to the bread and a very slight hardening of the loaves with the 20% FFRB, when compared to the control. It was found that FFRB gave better textural characteristics than DFRB overall and differences amongst different rice bran varieties were not significant.

  1. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:24562331

  2. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%). PMID:26340625

  3. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%). PMID:26340625

  4. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  5. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  6. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred.

  7. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils with different levels of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Wolynetz, M S; Jones, G; Rock, G A

    1994-12-01

    To test if linolenic acid (18:3n-3) from vegetable oils would affect bleeding times and platelet counts in newborns, piglets were used as a model fed milk replacer diets containing 25% (by wt) vegetable oils or oil mixtures for 28 d and compared to sow-reared piglets. The oils tested included soybean, canola, olive, high oleic sunflower (HOAS), a canola/coconut mixture and a mixture of oils mimicking canola in fatty acid composition. All piglets fed the milk replacer diets showed normal growth. Bleeding times increased after birth from 4-6 min to 7-10 min by week 4 (P < 0.001), and were higher in pigs fed diets containing 18:3n-3, as well as in sow-reared piglets receiving n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the milk, as compared to diets low in 18:3n-3. Platelet numbers increased within the first week in newborn piglets from 300 to 550 x 10(9)/L, and remained high thereafter. Milk replacer diets, containing vegetable oils, generally showed a transient delay in the rise of platelet numbers, which was partially associated with an increased platelet volume. The oils showed differences in the length of delay, but by the third week of age, all platelet counts were > 500 x 10(9)/L. The delay in rise in platelet counts appeared to be related to the fatty acid composition of the oil, as the effect was reproduced by a mixture of oils with a certain fatty acid profile, and disappeared upon the addition of saturated fatty acids to the vegetable oil. There were no alterations in the coagulation factors due to the dietary oils. Blood plasma, platelets and red blood cell membranes showed increased levels of 18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 PUFA in response to dietary 18:3n-3. The level of saturated fatty acids in blood lipids was generally lower in canola and HOAS oil-fed piglets as compared to piglets fed soybean oil or reared with the sow. The results suggest that consumption of milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils rich in 18:3n-3 does not represent a bleeding risk

  8. Comment on 'New Brans-Dicke wormholes'

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, Arunava; Simaciu, Ion; Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-06-15

    It is shown that the recently claimed two new Brans-Dicke wormhole solutions [F. He and S-W. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 65, 084022 (2002)] are not really new solutions. They are just the well known Brans-Dicke solutions of Class I and II in a different conformal gauge.

  9. Borage or primrose oil added to standardized diets are equivalent sources for gamma-linolenic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Raederstorff, D; Moser, U

    1992-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses and sources of dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition. Rats fed four different levels of GLA (2.3, 4.6, 6.4 and 16.2 g of GLA/kg diet) in the form of either borage oil or evening primrose oil during 6 wk were compared with animals fed corn oil. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA) and GLA showed a significant dose-related increase in liver, erythrocyte and aorta phospholipids. Moreover, the arachidonic acid/DHLA ratios in tissues decreased with increasing intake of dietary GLA. There was no significant difference in tissue GLA and DHLA levels within groups given equal amounts of dietary GLA either as borage oil or evening primrose oil. The amount of dietary GLA administered did not significantly influence prostaglandin E2 production in stimulated aortic rings and thromboxane B2 levels in serum; however, an increase in prostaglandin E1 derived from DHLA was observed in the supernatants of stimulated aorta.

  10. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  11. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  14. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  15. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26229968

  16. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  18. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  19. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration. PMID:27087091

  20. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  1. Inclusion of an emulsifier to the diets containing different sources of fats on performances of Khaki Campbell ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zosangpuii; Patra, A. K.; Samanta, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of an emulsifier (glycerol polyethylene glycol ricinoleate: GPGR) and different sources of fat on the performance of Khaki Campbell ducks. Ducks were assigned into five groups with three replicates (10 ducks/ replicate) in each group. Treatments were a control diet (C1: without added oil and emulsifier), control diet added with 2% soybean oil (C2). For the other three groups, maize was replaced with rice bran and added with 2% soybean oil plus emulsifier (T1), 2% palm oil plus emulsifier (T2), and 2% lard plus emulsifier (T3). Feed intakes were not affected (P>0.1) by any dietary treatment. There were also no effects (P>0.1) of dietary treatment on body weight gain and feed efficiency except for T3 group, where body weight gain was lower compared with other treatments, and feed efficiency was lower than C2, T1, and T2. The metabolizability of dry matter tended (P=0.08) to decrease in T1, T2 and T3 groups than in C1 and C2 groups. Apparent metabolizable energy contents were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the C2 group than in the C1 group, but were similar among C1, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The metabolizability of fat and other nutrients were not affected (P>0.10) by dietary treatments. Major carcass traits were unaffected (P>0.10) among the treatments. In conclusion, soybean oil and palm oil with GPGR as emulsifier could be added in the diets containing high amount of rice bran without affecting the performance; whereas lard may adversely affect the performance of ducks. PMID:27175168

  2. Inclusion of an emulsifier to the diets containing different sources of fats on performances of Khaki Campbell ducks.

    PubMed

    Zosangpuii; Patra, A K; Samanta, G

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of an emulsifier (glycerol polyethylene glycol ricinoleate: GPGR) and different sources of fat on the performance of Khaki Campbell ducks. Ducks were assigned into five groups with three replicates (10 ducks/ replicate) in each group. Treatments were a control diet (C1: without added oil and emulsifier), control diet added with 2% soybean oil (C2). For the other three groups, maize was replaced with rice bran and added with 2% soybean oil plus emulsifier (T1), 2% palm oil plus emulsifier (T2), and 2% lard plus emulsifier (T3). Feed intakes were not affected (P>0.1) by any dietary treatment. There were also no effects (P>0.1) of dietary treatment on body weight gain and feed efficiency except for T3 group, where body weight gain was lower compared with other treatments, and feed efficiency was lower than C2, T1, and T2. The metabolizability of dry matter tended (P=0.08) to decrease in T1, T2 and T3 groups than in C1 and C2 groups. Apparent metabolizable energy contents were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the C2 group than in the C1 group, but were similar among C1, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The metabolizability of fat and other nutrients were not affected (P>0.10) by dietary treatments. Major carcass traits were unaffected (P>0.10) among the treatments. In conclusion, soybean oil and palm oil with GPGR as emulsifier could be added in the diets containing high amount of rice bran without affecting the performance; whereas lard may adversely affect the performance of ducks. PMID:27175168

  3. Inclusion of an emulsifier to the diets containing different sources of fats on performances of Khaki Campbell ducks.

    PubMed

    Zosangpuii; Patra, A K; Samanta, G

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of an emulsifier (glycerol polyethylene glycol ricinoleate: GPGR) and different sources of fat on the performance of Khaki Campbell ducks. Ducks were assigned into five groups with three replicates (10 ducks/ replicate) in each group. Treatments were a control diet (C1: without added oil and emulsifier), control diet added with 2% soybean oil (C2). For the other three groups, maize was replaced with rice bran and added with 2% soybean oil plus emulsifier (T1), 2% palm oil plus emulsifier (T2), and 2% lard plus emulsifier (T3). Feed intakes were not affected (P>0.1) by any dietary treatment. There were also no effects (P>0.1) of dietary treatment on body weight gain and feed efficiency except for T3 group, where body weight gain was lower compared with other treatments, and feed efficiency was lower than C2, T1, and T2. The metabolizability of dry matter tended (P=0.08) to decrease in T1, T2 and T3 groups than in C1 and C2 groups. Apparent metabolizable energy contents were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the C2 group than in the C1 group, but were similar among C1, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The metabolizability of fat and other nutrients were not affected (P>0.10) by dietary treatments. Major carcass traits were unaffected (P>0.10) among the treatments. In conclusion, soybean oil and palm oil with GPGR as emulsifier could be added in the diets containing high amount of rice bran without affecting the performance; whereas lard may adversely affect the performance of ducks.

  4. Responses of growth performance and proinflammatory cytokines expression to fish oil supplementation in lactation sows' and/or weaned piglets' diets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed:gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression.

  5. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  6. Relationship of components in wheat bran and spinach to iron bioavailability in the anemic rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D T; Chao, L S

    1984-03-01

    Components found in wheat bran and spinach were evaluated as to their affect on the bioavailability of ferrous iron (i.e., FeSO4) by using the criteria of hemoglobin regeneration in anemic rats. The relative biological value (RBV) of iron in wheat bran and spinach (FeSO4 = 100%) were determined to be 124 and 53%, respectively. Control diets with graded levels of FeSO4 did not contain dietary fiber (i.e., cellulose). Adding cellulose (1.74%) or phytic acid (0.66%) at levels contained in the wheat bran diet, significantly increased (P less than 0.05) the RBV f the ferrous iron to 126 and 124%, respectively. The addition of 2.10% oxalic acid, the amount in the spinach diet, caused the highest increase in RBV to 164%. Combining these dietary components, plus lignin (0.67%) and pectin (0.63%), in various combinations, resulted in RBVs equivalent or significantly higher than 100%. The bioavailability of iron in plant foods appears to be dependent on how this nutrient is presented to the mucosa. Cellulose, phytate or oxalate added to a purified diet containing ferrous iron significantly enhanced the bioavailability of this element. Relative biological values for iron were also calculated based on food intake and growth rate. The latter parameters are believed to have greater utility in determining RBV when food intake and/or growth rate may vary among animals consuming different sources of test iron.

  7. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  8. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Reynolds, C K; Hervás, G; Griinari, J M; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E

    2006-02-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat CLA concentrations. Levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk can be increased by supplements of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO), but there is considerable variation in the response. Part of this variance may reflect time-dependent ruminal adaptations to high levels of lipid in the diet, which lead to alterations in the formation of specific biohydrogenation intermediates. To test this hypothesis, 16 late lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were used in a repeated measures randomized block design to examine milk fatty acid composition responses to FO and SO in the diet over a 28-d period. Cows were allocated at random to corn silage-based rations (8 per treatment) containing 0 (control) or 45 g of oil supplement/kg of dry matter consisting (1:2; wt/wt) of FO and SO (FSO), and milk composition was determined on alternate days from d 1. Compared with the control, the FSO diet decreased mean dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 17.9 kg/d), milk fat (47.7 vs. 32.6 g/kg), and protein content (36.1 vs. 33.3 g/kg), but had no effect on milk yield (27.1 vs. 26.4 kg/d). Reductions in milk fat content relative to the FSO diet were associated with increases in milk trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations (r(2) = 0.74, 0.57, and 0.80, respectively). Compared with the control, the FSO diet reduced milk 4:0 to 18:0 and cis 18:1 content and increased trans 18:1, trans 18:2, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 concentrations. The FSO diet caused a rapid elevation in milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content, reaching a maximum of 5.37 g/100 g of fatty acids on d 5, but these increases were transient, declining to 2.35 g/100 g of fatty acids by d 15. They remained relatively constant thereafter. Even though concentrations of trans-11 18:1 followed the same pattern of temporal

  9. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  10. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  11. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  12. Cosmic acceleration and Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M. Waheed, S.

    2012-10-15

    We study the accelerated expansion of the universe by exploring the Brans-Dicke parameter in different eras. For this, we take the FRW universe model with a viscous fluid (without potential) and the Bianchi type-I universe model with a barotropic fluid (with and without a potential). We evaluate the deceleration parameter and the Brans-Dicke parameter to explore cosmic acceleration. It is concluded that accelerated expansion of the universe can also be achieved for higher values of the Brans-Dicke parameter in some cases.

  13. Hydrolysis of wheat bran, rice bran and jute powder by immobilized enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Roy, P K; Roy, U; Vora, V C

    1993-03-01

    The stability of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina improved on immobilization and was 1.5 to 2-fold more active against pre-treated wheat bran, rice bran or jute powder. The hydrolysis efficiency of the catalyst increased with a decrease in its particle size. About 80% (w/v) of the sugar obtained from wheat bran was assimilated by Saccharomyces sp., whereas the corresponding values for rice bran and jute powder were about 70 and 50% (w/v), respectively.

  14. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  15. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  16. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  17. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet.

  18. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  19. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  20. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (p<0.05) improved the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, and cation exchange capacities. The improvement of the above properties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  1. Comparative study of diets enriched with evening primrose, black currant, borage or fungal oils on blood pressure and pressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M

    1993-10-01

    The effects of oils enriched with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on blood pressure and pressor responses were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were fed purified diets containing evening primrose (EPO), black currant (BCO), borage (BOR) or fungal (FGO) oils for 7 weeks. Significant reductions in blood pressure were obtained in SHR rats maintained on diets enriched with GLA oils. The antihypertensive effect was not associated with enhanced pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine or angiotensin II. Moreover, no differences were found in blood pressure responses to the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. The results suggest that GLA-enriched oils inhibit the development of hypertension in the SHR rat. The blood pressure lowering effect is not mediated by altered pressor responses to vasoconstrictor hormones or intracellular calcium mechanisms.

  2. Effect of feeding linseed oil in diets differing in forage to concentrate ratio: 2. Milk lactone profile.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Leacady; Gervais, Rachel; Lebeuf, Yolaine; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; Fortin, Jacinthe; Chouinard, P Yvan

    2014-02-01

    Lactones are important contributors to the flavour and aroma of milk and dairy products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary linseed oil (LO) and forage to concentrate ratio on milk lactone profile. Twenty four Holstein cows were used during a 4-week feeding trial in a randomised complete block design. Cows were fed diets containing 30% (LC) or 70% (HC) concentrate, and 0% (NLO) or 3% LO in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Milk lactone profile was evaluated using the solid phase microextraction technique. The highest levels of δ-lactones (δ-6:0, δ-8:0, δ-10:0, and δ-12:0) were found with the LC/NLO diet. These concentrations were then decreased when cows received either a high level of concentrate or supplemental LO, but these effects were not additive (interaction of LO by concentrate, P<0·01). An interaction of LO by concentrate (P<0·01) was also noted on milk γ-12:0 for which the highest concentration was observed when supplementing LO in HC diet, while no effect was apparent when LO was added in LC diet. Moreover, feeding HC increased the level of γ-12:1 in milk as compared with LC, while LO had no effect on this γ-lactone. Finally, γ-12:2 was not detected in any of the milk samples studied. Organoleptic properties of milk were evaluated in a triangle test showing that a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed LC/NLO as compared with milk from cows fed HC/LO. The sensory evaluation was completed by a ranking test where the intensities of fresh lactic, foreign and global flavours were not different between treatments. In conclusion, feeding LO in HC diet modified milk lactone profile with a shift toward more γ- and less δ-lactones as compared with LC diet not supplemented with LO. A difference was perceived in a triangle test between milk from these two treatments, but the sensory attributes responsible for this difference have not been identified in the current trial.

  3. Loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Artymowski, Michal; Ma, Yongge

    2013-04-01

    The spatially flat and isotropic cosmological model of Brans-Dicke theory with coupling parameter ω≠-(3)/(2) is quantized by the approach of loop quantum cosmology. An interesting feature of this model is that although the Brans-Dicke scalar field is nonminimally coupled with curvature, it can still play the role of an emergent time variable. In the quantum theory, the classical differential equation which represents cosmological evolution is replaced by a quantum difference equation. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology are also obtained, which lay a foundation for the phenomenological investigation to possible quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The effective equations indicate that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology.

  4. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  5. Characterisation of the Faecal Bacterial Community in Adult and Elderly Horses Fed a High Fibre, High Oil or High Starch Diet Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Geor, Raymond J.; Nielsen, Brian D.; Schott, Harold C.; Elzinga, Sarah; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from seventeen animals, each fed three different diets (high fibre, high fibre with a starch rich supplement and high fibre with an oil rich supplement). DNA was extracted and the V1–V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the faecal microbiome of the horse. The effect of age was also considered by comparing mature (8 horses aged 5–12) versus elderly horses (9 horses aged 19–28). A reduction in diversity was found in the elderly horse group. Significant differences between diets were found at an OTU level (52 OTUs at corrected Q<0.1). The majority of differences found were related to the Firmucutes phylum (37) with some changes in Bacteroidetes (6), Proteobacteria (3), Actinobacteria (2) and Spirochaetes (1). For the forage only diet,with no added starch or oil, we found 30/2934 OTUs (accounting for 15.9% of sequences) present in all horses. However the core (i.e. present in all horses) associated with the oil rich supplemented diet was somewhat smaller (25/3029 OTUs, 10.3% ) and the core associated with the starch rich supplemented diet was even smaller (15/2884 OTUs, 5.4% ). The core associated with samples across all three diets was extremely small (6/5689 OTUs accounting for only 2.3% of sequences) and dominated by the order Clostridiales, with the most abundant family being Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, forage based diets plus starch or oil rich complementary feeds were associated with differences in the faecal bacterial community compared with the forage alone. Further, as observed in people, ageing is associated with a reduction in bacterial diversity. However there was no change in the bacterial community structure in these healthy animals associated with age. PMID:24504261

  6. Characterisation of the faecal bacterial community in adult and elderly horses fed a high fibre, high oil or high starch diet using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A; Girdwood, Susan E; Pinloche, Eric; Geor, Raymond J; Nielsen, Brian D; Schott, Harold C; Elzinga, Sarah; Newbold, C Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from seventeen animals, each fed three different diets (high fibre, high fibre with a starch rich supplement and high fibre with an oil rich supplement). DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the faecal microbiome of the horse. The effect of age was also considered by comparing mature (8 horses aged 5-12) versus elderly horses (9 horses aged 19-28). A reduction in diversity was found in the elderly horse group. Significant differences between diets were found at an OTU level (52 OTUs at corrected Q<0.1). The majority of differences found were related to the Firmucutes phylum (37) with some changes in Bacteroidetes (6), Proteobacteria (3), Actinobacteria (2) and Spirochaetes (1). For the forage only diet,with no added starch or oil, we found 30/2934 OTUs (accounting for 15.9% of sequences) present in all horses. However the core (i.e. present in all horses) associated with the oil rich supplemented diet was somewhat smaller (25/3029 OTUs, 10.3% ) and the core associated with the starch rich supplemented diet was even smaller (15/2884 OTUs, 5.4% ). The core associated with samples across all three diets was extremely small (6/5689 OTUs accounting for only 2.3% of sequences) and dominated by the order Clostridiales, with the most abundant family being Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, forage based diets plus starch or oil rich complementary feeds were associated with differences in the faecal bacterial community compared with the forage alone. Further, as observed in people, ageing is associated with a reduction in bacterial diversity. However there was no change in the bacterial community structure in these healthy animals associated with age. PMID:24504261

  7. Essential oils as components of a diet-based approach to management of Helicobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bergonzelli, G E; Donnicola, D; Porta, N; Corthésy-Theulaz, I E

    2003-10-01

    An increased density of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa can be associated with more severe gastritis and an increased incidence of peptic ulcers. Therefore, people with asymptomatic gastritis would certainly benefit from a nutritional approach to help them manage the infection and therefore decrease the risk of development of associated pathologies. We analyzed the activities of 60 essential oils against H. pylori P1 and identified 30 oils that affected growth, with in vitro inhibition zones ranging between 0.7 and 6.3 cm in diameter. We further analyzed the effects of 16 oils with different activities on H. pylori P1 viability. Fifteen showed strong bactericidal activities, with minimal bactericidal concentrations after 24 h ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 g/liter at pH 7.4. Even though slight variations in activities were observed, the essential oils that displayed the strongest bactericidal potentials against H. pylori P1 were also active against other Helicobacter strains tested. Among the pure constituents of different essential oils tested, carvacrol, isoeugenol, nerol, citral, and sabinene exhibited the strongest anti-H. pylori activities. Although oral treatment of H. pylori SS1-infected mice with carrot seed oil did not result in significant decreases in the bacterial loads in the treated animals compared to those in the control animals, in all experiments performed, the infection was cleared in 20 to 30% of carrot seed oil-treated animals. Our results indicate that essential oils are unlikely to be efficient anti-Helicobacter agents in vivo. However, their effects may not be irrelevant if one plans to use them as food additives to complement present therapies.

  8. Essential Oils as Components of a Diet-Based Approach to Management of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bergonzelli, G. E.; Donnicola, D.; Porta, N.; Corthésy-Theulaz, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    An increased density of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa can be associated with more severe gastritis and an increased incidence of peptic ulcers. Therefore, people with asymptomatic gastritis would certainly benefit from a nutritional approach to help them manage the infection and therefore decrease the risk of development of associated pathologies. We analyzed the activities of 60 essential oils against H. pylori P1 and identified 30 oils that affected growth, with in vitro inhibition zones ranging between 0.7 and 6.3 cm in diameter. We further analyzed the effects of 16 oils with different activities on H. pylori P1 viability. Fifteen showed strong bactericidal activities, with minimal bactericidal concentrations after 24 h ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 g/liter at pH 7.4. Even though slight variations in activities were observed, the essential oils that displayed the strongest bactericidal potentials against H. pylori P1 were also active against other Helicobacter strains tested. Among the pure constituents of different essential oils tested, carvacrol, isoeugenol, nerol, citral, and sabinene exhibited the strongest anti-H. pylori activities. Although oral treatment of H. pylori SS1-infected mice with carrot seed oil did not result in significant decreases in the bacterial loads in the treated animals compared to those in the control animals, in all experiments performed, the infection was cleared in 20 to 30% of carrot seed oil-treated animals. Our results indicate that essential oils are unlikely to be efficient anti-Helicobacter agents in vivo. However, their effects may not be irrelevant if one plans to use them as food additives to complement present therapies. PMID:14506036

  9. A diet containing soybean oil heated for three hours increases adipose tissue weight but decreases body weight in C57BL/6 J mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous work showed that dietary oxidized linoleic acid given, as a single fatty acid, to LDL receptor knockout mice decreased weight gain as compared to control mice. Other studies have also reported that animals fed oils heated for 24 h or greater showed reduced weight gain. These observations, while important, have limited significance since fried foods in the typical human diet do not contain the extreme levels of oxidized lipids used in these studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet containing soybean oil heated for 3 h on weight gain and fat pad mass in mice. Additionally, because PPARγ and UCP-1 mediate adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis, respectively, the effect of this diet on these proteins was also examined. Findings Four to six week old male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into three groups and given either a low fat diet with heated soybean oil (HSO) or unheated soybean oil (USO) or pair fed for 16 weeks. Weight and food intake were monitored and fat pads were harvested upon the study’s termination. Mice consuming the HSO diet had significantly increased fat pad mass but gained less weight as compared to mice in the USO group despite a similar caloric intake and similar levels of PPARγ and UCP1. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a diet containing soybean oil heated for a short time increases fat mass despite a decreased weight gain in C57BL/6 J mice. The subsequent metabolic consequences of this increased fat mass merits further investigation. PMID:23510583

  10. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL and 20.3% patients <70 mg/dL). A total of 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  11. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL and 20.3% patients <70 mg/dL). A total of 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  12. Comparison of growth and fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing equal levels of gamma-linolenic acid from high gamma-linolenic acid canola oil or borage oil.

    PubMed

    Palombo, J D; DeMichele, S J; Liu, J W; Bistrian, B R; Huang, Y S

    2000-09-01

    We have utilized transgenic technology to develop a new source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) using the canola plant as a host. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth and fatty acid metabolism in rats fed equal amounts of GLA obtained from the transgenic canola plant relative to GLA from the borage plant. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were randomized and fed a purified AIN93G diet (10% lipid by weight) containing either a mixture of high GLA canola oil (HGCO) and corn oil or a control diet containing borage oil (BO) for 6 wk. GLA accounted for 23%, of the triglyceride fatty acids in both diets. Growth and diet consumption were monitored every 2-3 d throughout the study. At study termination, the fatty acid composition of the liver and plasma phospholipids was analyzed by gas chromatography. The growth and diet consumption of the HGCO group were similar to the BO group. There were no adverse effects of either diet on the general health or appearance of the rats, or on the morphology of the major organs. There was no significant difference between the diet groups for total percentage of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in either the total or individual phospholipid fractions of liver or plasma. The relative percentage of GLA and its main metabolite, arachidonic acid, in each phospholipid fraction of liver or plasma were also similar between groups. The percentage of 18:2n-6 in liver phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol/serine was higher (P < 0.05) and 22:5n-6 was lower in the HGCO group than the BO group. This finding could be attributed to the higher 18:3n-3 content in the HGCO diet than the BO diet. Results from this long-term feeding study of rats show for the first time that a diet containing transgenically modified canola oil was well-tolerated, and had similar biological effects, i.e., growth characteristics and hepatic metabolism of n-6 fatty acids, as a diet containing borage oil. PMID:11026618

  13. Comparison of growth and fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing equal levels of gamma-linolenic acid from high gamma-linolenic acid canola oil or borage oil.

    PubMed

    Palombo, J D; DeMichele, S J; Liu, J W; Bistrian, B R; Huang, Y S

    2000-09-01

    We have utilized transgenic technology to develop a new source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) using the canola plant as a host. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth and fatty acid metabolism in rats fed equal amounts of GLA obtained from the transgenic canola plant relative to GLA from the borage plant. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were randomized and fed a purified AIN93G diet (10% lipid by weight) containing either a mixture of high GLA canola oil (HGCO) and corn oil or a control diet containing borage oil (BO) for 6 wk. GLA accounted for 23%, of the triglyceride fatty acids in both diets. Growth and diet consumption were monitored every 2-3 d throughout the study. At study termination, the fatty acid composition of the liver and plasma phospholipids was analyzed by gas chromatography. The growth and diet consumption of the HGCO group were similar to the BO group. There were no adverse effects of either diet on the general health or appearance of the rats, or on the morphology of the major organs. There was no significant difference between the diet groups for total percentage of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in either the total or individual phospholipid fractions of liver or plasma. The relative percentage of GLA and its main metabolite, arachidonic acid, in each phospholipid fraction of liver or plasma were also similar between groups. The percentage of 18:2n-6 in liver phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol/serine was higher (P < 0.05) and 22:5n-6 was lower in the HGCO group than the BO group. This finding could be attributed to the higher 18:3n-3 content in the HGCO diet than the BO diet. Results from this long-term feeding study of rats show for the first time that a diet containing transgenically modified canola oil was well-tolerated, and had similar biological effects, i.e., growth characteristics and hepatic metabolism of n-6 fatty acids, as a diet containing borage oil.

  14. Influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of minerals from bread with differing bran content.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.

  15. Effects of essential oil supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhikai; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Panfeng; Li, Qingyun; Liu, Jundi; Piao, XiangShu

    2015-03-01

    A total of 144 weaned piglets were used to evaluate the effects of essential oil (EO) supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, small intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs. Pigs received a low-energy diet (negative control, NC, digestible energy = 3250 kcal/kg), NC plus 0.025% EO or a positive control diet (PC, digestible energy = 3400 kcal/kg) for 28 days. Growth performance was similar between the EO group and PC group. However, EO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Greater (P < 0.05) villus height and lower (P < 0.05) counts of Escherichia coli and total anaerobes in the rectum in the EO group were observed compared with NC or PC groups. Pigs fed EO diet had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of albumin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG and total antioxidant capacity and lower fecal score than pigs fed the PC and NC diets. Above all, this study indicates that supplementation of EO to a low-energy pig diet has beneficial results and obtains similar performance compared with normal energy (PC) diet.

  16. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  17. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats. PMID:24756125

  18. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  19. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  20. Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Matthew L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Jakaitis, Daniel R.; Lebrasseur, Nathan K.; Jensen, Michael D.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.; Zabielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in rodent models of insulin resistance. These beneficial effects have been linked with anti-inflammatory properties, but emerging data suggest that the mechanisms may also converge on mitochondria. We evaluated the influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial physiology and muscle lipid metabolites in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Mice were fed control diets (10% fat), HFD (60% fat), or HFD with fish oil (HFD+FO, 3.4% kcal from n-3 PUFAs) for 10 wk. Body mass and fat mass increased similarly in HFD and HFD+FO, but n-3 PUFAs attenuated the glucose intolerance that developed with HFD and increased expression of genes that regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite similar muscle triglyceride levels in HFD and HFD+FO, long-chain acyl-CoAs and ceramides were lower in the presence of fish oil. Mitochondrial abundance and oxidative capacity were similarly increased in HFD and HFD+FO compared with controls. Hydrogen peroxide production was similarly elevated in HFD and HFD+FO in isolated mitochondria but not in permeabilized muscle fibers, likely due to increased activity and expression of catalase. These results support a hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect glucose tolerance, in part by preventing the accumulation of bioactive lipid mediators that interfere with insulin action. Furthermore, the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria does not appear to be a major factor in sphingolipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, or the protective effects of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:23632634

  1. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  2. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  3. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  4. Using Sweet Bran instead of forage during grain adaptation in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huls, T J; Luebbe, M K; Watson, A K; Meyer, N F; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A; Erickson, G E

    2016-03-01

    Two trials evaluated adapting cattle to a finishing diet using wet corn gluten feed compared with traditional methods using forage. A 33-d grain adaptation metabolism trial (Exp. 1) compared decreasing wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran; Corn Milling unit, Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) while increasing corn inclusion (SB) and a traditional grain adaptation system decreasing alfalfa hay while increasing corn with no Sweet Bran inclusion (CON). Ruminal pH, intake characteristics, and 24-h in situ digestibility were evaluated using 8 ruminally fistulated steers (291 kg BW [SD 19]). Steers (4/treatment) were adapted to finishing diets across 4 periods consisting of 5, 7, 7, and 7 d and then fed a finishing diet for 7 d. No period × adaptation diet interactions were observed ( ≥ 0.12). Average ruminal pH decreased ( < 0.01) whereas time and area below a pH of 5.6 increased ( ≤ 0.02) for the SB adaptation system compared with the CON adaptation system. Cattle adapted using SB had greater DMI than cattle adapted using CON ( < 0.01). As steers were adapted to finishing diets, DMI increased ( = 0.01), average ruminal pH decreased ( = 0.05), and time and area below a pH of 5.6 increased ( ≤ 0.04) for both treatments. Ruminal pH for CON steers decreased from 6.59 to 6.12 across periods as corn replaced alfalfa hay whereas ruminal pH decreased from 6.00 to 5.79 for SB steers. Steers adapted using SB had greater ( ≤ 0.05) in situ digestion of adaptation diets than steers adapted using CON for adaptation periods 3, 4, and 5. The SB diets were more digestible than the CON diets when incubated in either CON- or SB-fed steers for adaptation periods 1 and 2 ( < 0.01). Experiment 2 used 240 finishing steers (273 kg BW [SD 14]) to determine performance impacts of using Sweet Bran instead of forage to adapt cattle to finishing diets. Steers were fed either decreasing Sweet Bran inclusion while increasing corn (SB) or decreasing alfalfa hay inclusion while increasing corn (CON

  5. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:26770909

  6. Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: effect of acid–base induced modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural modifications of insoluble rice bran fiber (IRBF) by sequential regimes of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and their effects on the physicochemical attributes were studied. The increment of H2SO4 concentration resulted in decreased water holding capacity that ultimately enhanced the oil bindin...

  7. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Leite, João Paulo Viana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. PMID:27418954

  8. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. PMID:27418954

  9. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint. PMID:24369033

  10. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P < 0.05) muscle thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Muscle fatty acid composition reflected dietary fatty acid profile. This is the first study to compare the deposition in fish tissues of the naturally occurring vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  11. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  12. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  13. Effect of oat bran muffins on calcium absorption and calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc balance in men.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H; Norris, C; Derler, J; Osis, D

    1991-12-01

    Metabolic balance studies were conducted in adult human males to investigate the effect of oat bran on the nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc balance, on the intestinal absorption of calcium and on the endogenous fecal calcium, using 47CaCl2 as the tracer. A 40-d control period preceded a 32-d experimental period in which subjects consumed four oat bran muffins daily as part of a constant metabolic diet. No significant changes in the calcium, magnesium or zinc balances were observed, but the nitrogen and phosphorus balances increased. The net or apparent absorption of nitrogen, magnesium and phosphorus expressed per milligram of intake increased significantly in the oat bran period due to the added content of these nutrients in the oat bran muffins. The intake of the oat bran muffins led to a significant increase in urinary phosphorus and significant decreases in urinary calcium and 47Ca excretions. The intestinal absorption of calcium, determined with 47Ca, did not change, whereas the endogenous fecal calcium increased slightly but significantly.

  14. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  15. Effects of previous diet and duration of soybean oil supplementation on light lambs carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bessa, R J B; Lourenço, M; Portugal, P V; Santos-Silva, J

    2008-12-01

    Forty Merino Branco ram lambs were used to study the effects of initial diet and duration of supplementation with a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promoting diet, on carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. The experimental period was 6 weeks. The experimental design involved 2 initial diets (commercial concentrate (C); dehydrated lucerne (L)), and 2 finishing periods (2 and 4 weeks) on dehydrated lucerne plus 10% soybean oil (O). Data were analysed as a 2×2 factorial arrangement with initial diet and time on finishing (CLA promoting) diet as the main factors. The lambs were randomly assigned to four groups: CCO; COO; LLO; LOO according to the lamb's diet fed in each period. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed higher hot carcass weights (11.2 vs 9.6kg) than lambs fed initially with lucerne. The increase of the duration of finishing period reduced the carcass muscle percentage (57.4% vs 55.5%) and increased the subcutaneous fat percentage (5.67% vs 7.03%). Meat colour was affected by initial diet. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed a lower proportion of CLA (18:2cis-9, trans-11 isomer) (0.98% vs 1.38% of total fatty acids) and most of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than lambs initially fed with lucerne. Initial diet did not compromise the response to the CLA-promoting diet and the proportion of 18:2cis-9, trans-11 in intramuscular fat increased with the duration of time on the CLA-promoting diet (1.02% vs 1.34% of total fatty acids).

  16. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  17. Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

  18. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

    PubMed

    Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

    2002-09-01

    Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

  19. Lipid Peroxidation in a Stomach Medium Is Affected by Dietary Oils (Olive/Fish) and Antioxidants: The Mediterranean versus Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Oren; Shpaizer, Adi; Kanner, Joseph

    2015-08-12

    Red meat is an integral part of the Western diet, and high consumption is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. Using a system that simulated the human stomach, red meat was interacted with different oils (olive/fish) and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). Olive oil decreased meat lipid peroxidation from 121.7 ± 3.1 to 48.2 ± 1.3 μM and from 327.1 ± 9.5 to 77.3 ± 6.0 μM as assessed by MDA and ROOH, respectively. The inhibitory effect of olive oil was attributed to oleic acid rather than its polyphenol content. In contrast, fish oils from tuna or an ω-3 supplement dramatically increased meat lipid peroxidation from 96.2 ± 3.6 to 514.2 ± 6.7 μM MDA. Vitamin E inhibited meat lipid peroxidation in the presence of olive oil but paradoxically increased peroxidation in the presence of fish oil. The inhibitory properties of oleic acid may play a key role in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  20. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  1. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  2. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria).

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van der Poel, A F B

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes, lycopene and gross energy were determined in penultimate instar and adult locusts, that had been fed three different diets. The locusts received a diet of grass or grass+wheat bran or grass+wheat bran+carrots. Adding wheat bran decreased the protein content and increased fat content (633 vs. 583 and 182 vs. 231 g/kg DM, respectively). Addition of carrots to the diet increased fat content further from 231 to 271 g/kg DM. Mineral concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, and Na, were significantly affected by diet. P, K, Cu, and Fe concentrations were significantly different in penultimate migratory locusts compared with adults. Wheat bran decreased the α-carotene content, which did not change by incorporating carrots in the diet. However, carrots did result in higher β-carotene concentrations. Retinol concentrations were increased by incorporating both wheat bran and carrots in the diet compared with the diet containing only grass. This study shows that the chemical composition of migratory locusts can be manipulated through the diet. As such, it enables nutritionists to adapt the chemical composition of live feeder insects to better meet the nutritional demands of predators.

  3. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... nutsbeans and seeds Millet Montina™ Potato starch Potato flour Quinoa Rice rice bran Sago Sorghum Soy (soya) Tapioca Teff ... weight gain. Constipation/diarrhea If only processed white rice is used in replacement of wheat flour, the low fiber diet may lead to constipation. ...

  4. Effects of decontaminated fish oil or a fish and vegetable oil blend on persistent organic pollutant and fatty acid compositions in diet and flesh of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Sprague, Matthew; Bendiksen, Eldar A; Dick, James R; Strachan, Fiona; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Berntssen, Marc H G; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0.78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17.36, 0.45 and 0.53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6.42, 0.34 and 0.41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.

  5. Linseed oil in the maternal diet increases long chain-PUFA status of the foetus and the newborn during the suckling period in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Quelen, Francine; Boudry, Gaëlle; Mourot, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    Linseed oil, being rich in 18 : 3n-3, represents an alternative source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet. However, little is known about the effect of this oil on the long chain n-3 PUFA composition of offspring, which are required for normal growth and maturation of numerous organs. The main objective of the experiment was therefore to investigate fatty acid composition of tissues from sows at the end of gestation and from piglets during the first week of postnatal life in response to maternal dietary linseed oil intake. Sows received either a lard (LAR)-based diet or a linseed oil (LSO)-based diet during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated in sow plasma, placenta and milk, and in different tissues of piglets on days 0, 3, 7, 21 and 32. The LSO diet increased the proportions of n-3 PUFA and especially 22 : 6n-3 in the placenta. The carcass of LSO piglets at birth contained greater proportions of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. The LSO sow milk exhibited greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3 compared with the LAR sow milk. The piglets suckling LSO sows had greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in plasma and carcass. The proportions of 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 were greater in the brain of LSO piglets than in that of LAR piglets during the suckling period. In conclusion, LSO in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation increases 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the placenta and in the foetus carcass, and it maintains 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the brain during the first week of postnatal life.

  6. Oxidative Stress Responses to Nigella sativa Oil Concurrent with a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Nazli; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Farajnia, Safar

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet on lipid peroxidation and oxidative status in obese women. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 50 volunteer obese (body mass index = 30-35 kg/m(2)) women aged 25-50 years old were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25) groups. They received a low-calorie diet with 3 g/day NS oil or low-calorie diet with 3 g/day placebo for 8 weeks. Forty-nine women (intervention group = 25; placebo group = 24) completed the trial. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight in the NS group compared to the placebo group (-4.80 ± 1.50 vs. -1.40 ± 1.90 kg; p < 0.01). Comparison of red blood cell superoxidase dismutase (SOD) indicated significant changes in the NS group compared to the placebo group at the end of the study (88.98 ± 87.46 vs. -3.30 ± 109.80 U/gHb; p < 0.01). But no significant changes in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity concentrations were observed. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight and increased SOD levels in obese women. However, more studies are suggested to confirm the positive effects of NS in obesity and its complications.

  7. Oxidative Stress Responses to Nigella sativa Oil Concurrent with a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Nazli; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Farajnia, Safar

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet on lipid peroxidation and oxidative status in obese women. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 50 volunteer obese (body mass index = 30-35 kg/m(2)) women aged 25-50 years old were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25) groups. They received a low-calorie diet with 3 g/day NS oil or low-calorie diet with 3 g/day placebo for 8 weeks. Forty-nine women (intervention group = 25; placebo group = 24) completed the trial. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight in the NS group compared to the placebo group (-4.80 ± 1.50 vs. -1.40 ± 1.90 kg; p < 0.01). Comparison of red blood cell superoxidase dismutase (SOD) indicated significant changes in the NS group compared to the placebo group at the end of the study (88.98 ± 87.46 vs. -3.30 ± 109.80 U/gHb; p < 0.01). But no significant changes in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity concentrations were observed. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight and increased SOD levels in obese women. However, more studies are suggested to confirm the positive effects of NS in obesity and its complications. PMID:26179113

  8. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN WAX AS OINTMENT BASE

    PubMed Central

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-01-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

  9. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  10. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  11. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat.

  12. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  13. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management. PMID:26900108

  14. The inhibitory effect of bran on iron absorption in man.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K M; Morris, E R; Cook, J D

    1981-08-01

    The effects of whole wheat bran and its components on the absorption of nonheme dietary iron were measured using a double isotope technique in human volunteers. When 12 g bran was added to a light meal, absorption decreased by 51 to 74%; this inhibitory effect of bran was shown for meals of both high and low iron availability. Inhibition was not explained by monoferric phytate, the major form of iron in bran, because labeled iron from monoferric phytate was absorbed at least as well as the common pool of nonheme dietary iron. Furthermore, removal of phytate from bran by endogenous phytase did not in itself alter the inhibitory effect of the bran on iron absorption. Studies in which dephytinized bran was separated into a soluble, phosphate-rich fraction and an insoluble, high-fiber fraction indicated that the soluble fraction was more inhibitory than the insoluble fraction. PMID:6267927

  15. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  16. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P < 0.05), which is evident from the increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in tissues. Concentration of reduced glutathione was also found to be increased significantly in liver (532.97 mM per 100 g liver), heart (15.77 mM per 100 g heart) and kidney (1.58 mM per 100 g kidney) of VCO fed rats compared to those fed with CO, OO and SFO (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of paraoxonase 1 was significantly increased in VCO fed rats compared to other oil fed groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, VCO administration prevented the oxidative stress, which is indicated by the decreased formation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products like malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and protein carbonyls in serum and tissues compared to other oil fed rats (P < 0.05). Wet processing of VCO retains higher amounts of biologically active unsaponifiable components like polyphenols (84 mg per 100 g oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  17. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon.

  19. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. PMID:26151346

  20. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Vakili, A R; Khorrami, B; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Parand, E

    2013-07-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  1. Vascular effects of the Mediterranean diet-part II: role of omega-3 fatty acids and olive oil polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Capurso, Cristiano; Capurso, Antonio; Massaro, Marika

    2014-12-01

    The lower occurrence of cardiovascular disease and cancer in populations around the Mediterranean basin as detected in the 1950s was correctly attributed to the peculiar dietary habits of those populations. Essentially, until the mid-20th century, typical Mediterranean diets were rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole-wheat bread, nuts, fish, and, as a common culinary trait, the routine use of extra-virgin olive oil. Nowadays, the regular adoption of such dietary patterns is still thought to result in healthful benefits. Such patterns ensure the assumption of molecules with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, among which ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), and phenolic compounds. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the vasculo-protective pathways mediated by ω-3 PUFAs and polyphenols in the context of the modern Mediterranean dietary habits, including the possible cross-talk and synergy between these typical components. This review complements a parallel one focusing on the role of dietary nitrates and alimentary fats.

  2. High-Lard and High-Fish-Oil Diets Differ in Their Effects on Function and Dynamic Behaviour of Rat Hepatic Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Sica, Raffaella; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Gaita, Marcello; De Filippo, Chiara; Zorzano, Antonio; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that frequently undergo fission and fusion processes, and imbalances in these processes may be involved in obesity and insulin resistance. Aims The present work had the following aims: (a) to evaluate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction present in the hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet is associated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics and morphology; (b) to evaluate whether effects on the above parameters differ between high-lard and high-fish-oil diets, as it has been suggested that fish oil may have anti-obesity and anti-steatotic effects by stimulating fatty acids utilisation. Methods The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance was monitored in rats fed a high-lard or high-fish-oil diet. Immunohistochemical and electronic microscopic observations were performed on liver sections. In isolated liver mitochondria, assessments of fatty acids oxidation rate, proton conductance and oxidative stress (by measuring H2O2 release and aconitase activity) were performed. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the presence of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (i.e., fusion and fission processes). To investigate the fusion process, mitofusin 2 and autosomal dominant optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) were analysed. To investigate the fission process, the presence of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1 protein (Fis1) was assessed. Results High-lard feeding elicited greater hepatic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, greater oxidative stress and a shift towards mitochondrial fission processes (versus high-fish-oil feeding, which had an anti-steatotic effect associated with increased mitochondrial fusion processes). Conclusions Different types of high-fat diets differ in their effect on mitochondrial function and dynamic behaviour, leading to different cellular adaptations to over-feeding. PMID:24663492

  3. Polyphenol-rich sorghum brans alter colon microbiota and impact species diversity and species richness after multiple bouts of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Sturino, Joseph M; Carroll, Raymond J; Rooney, Lloyd W; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-03-01

    The microbiota affects host health, and dysbiosis is involved in colitis. Sorghum bran influences butyrate concentrations during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, suggesting microbiota changes. We aimed to characterize the microbiota during colitis, and ascertain if polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets mitigate these effects. Rats (n = 80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced three times using 3% DSS for 48 h (40 rats, 2 week separation), and the microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in Cellulose DSS rats. Colonic injury negatively correlated with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus, and positively correlated with Unknown/Unclassified. Post DSS#2, richness was significantly lower in Sumac and Hi Tannin black. Post DSS#3 Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus were reduced, with no Clostridium identified. Diet significantly affected Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus post DSS#2 and #3. Post DSS#3 diet significantly affected all genus, including Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, and diversity and richness increased. Sumac and Hi Tannin black DSS had significantly higher richness compared to controls. Thus, these sorghum brans may protect against alterations observed during colitis including reduced microbial diversity and richness, and dysbiosis of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes.

  4. Polyphenol-rich sorghum brans alter colon microbiota and impact species diversity and species richness after multiple bouts of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Sturino, Joseph M; Carroll, Raymond J; Rooney, Lloyd W; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-03-01

    The microbiota affects host health, and dysbiosis is involved in colitis. Sorghum bran influences butyrate concentrations during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, suggesting microbiota changes. We aimed to characterize the microbiota during colitis, and ascertain if polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets mitigate these effects. Rats (n = 80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced three times using 3% DSS for 48 h (40 rats, 2 week separation), and the microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in Cellulose DSS rats. Colonic injury negatively correlated with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus, and positively correlated with Unknown/Unclassified. Post DSS#2, richness was significantly lower in Sumac and Hi Tannin black. Post DSS#3 Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus were reduced, with no Clostridium identified. Diet significantly affected Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus post DSS#2 and #3. Post DSS#3 diet significantly affected all genus, including Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, and diversity and richness increased. Sumac and Hi Tannin black DSS had significantly higher richness compared to controls. Thus, these sorghum brans may protect against alterations observed during colitis including reduced microbial diversity and richness, and dysbiosis of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. PMID:25764457

  5. Absence of effects of dietary wheat bran on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C; Lambadarios, J A; Newsholme, E A

    1986-03-01

    1. The effects of a 100 g/kg dietary substitution of wheat bran on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue were studied. 2. Wheat bran had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. 3. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). The activity of hepatic 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) increased but only when expressed on a body-weight basis. 4. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of adipose tissue glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase. 5. These results suggest that unlike guar gum and bagasse, wheat bran does not change the flux through some pathways of lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue when mice are given high-sucrose diets.

  6. Sensory quality and chemical composition of meat from lambs fed diets enriched with fish and rapeseed oils, carnosic acid and seleno-compounds.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Danuta; Czauderna, Marian; Przybylski, Wiesław; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate longissimus muscle quality in lambs fed diets including fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), carnosic acid (CA) and seleno-compounds. Lambs were fed one of diets: Group I - the basal diet (BD) with 3% RO; Group II - BD with 2% RO and 1% FO; Group III - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO and 0.1% CA; Group IV - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO, 0.1% CA and 0.35ppm Se as selenized-yeast; Group V - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO, 0.1% CA and 0.35ppm Se as selenate. The addition of FO and FO, CA and selenium in the inorganic form was characterized by lowest tenderness and juiciness (P<0.05). The lowest concentration of fatty acids (ΣFAs), atherogenic-FAs (A(SFA)) and thrombogenic-FAs (T(SFA)) in the muscle was found for Group V (P<0.05). Experimental diets decreased indexes of A(SFA) and T(SFA) in muscle. The lowest ratio (P<0.05) of n-6polyunsaturated-FAs to n-3polyunsaturated-FAs was obtained for Group III. PMID:27214277

  7. n-3 enrichment of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long-chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their influence on meat quality: fish oil.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, S; Baucells, M D; Barroeta, A C; Grashorn, M A

    2001-06-01

    We assessed the effect of a diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) on the performance, fatty acid (FA) composition, quality, and sensory traits of broiler meat. Diets enriched with 0, 2, or 4% FO plus tallow (T) up to 8% added fat (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) were given to the birds throughout a 38-d growth period. T3 was replaced by a mixture of FO, linseed oil (LO), and T (1, 3, and 4% respectively) for 1 wk (T4) or 2 wk (T5) before slaughter. Meat quality, taste, and FA profile were determined. Higher final weights were recorded for birds fed T3, although feed efficiency was not affected. Other performance or objective meat quality parameters did not show significant differences among treatments. High FO concentrations decreased the saturated and monoenoic FA contents in the thigh samples. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased when added to the diet (FO diets), mainly as long-chain n-3 FA [eicosapentaenoic fatty acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic fatty acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA)]. On the other hand, levels of total n-6 FA resulted in slight changes, mostly in linoleic acid (LA). By replacing the FO diet with the experimental mixture (T4, T5), the n-3 and n-6 FA contents increased, mainly in the form of linolenic acid and LA, respectively, only 1 wk later. After 1 wk of T4, the DHA levels in chicken decreased. Sensory panelists could not identify the meats from T4 and T5 as being different from the control diet (T1).

  8. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  9. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  10. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality. PMID:23904655

  11. High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Bell, J Gordon; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of fish oil (FO) replacement by vegetable oils (VO) was investigated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in a growth trial conducted for the duration of 8 months. Four isolipidic and isoproteic diets rich in plant proteins were supplemented with L-lysine (0.55 %) and soya lecithin (1 %). Added oil was either FO (control) or a blend of VO, replacing 33 % (33VO diet), 66 % (66VO diet) and 100 % (VO diet) of FO. No detrimental effects on growth performance were found with the partial FO replacement, but feed intake and growth rates were reduced by about 10 % in fish fed the VO diet. The replacement strategy did not damage the intestinal epithelium, and massive accumulation of lipid droplets was not found within enterocytes. All fish showed fatty livers, but signs of lipoid liver disease were only found in fish fed the VO diet. Muscle fatty acid profiles of total lipids reflected the diet composition with a selective incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids in polar lipids. The robustness of the phospholipid fatty acid profile when essential fatty acid requirements were theoretically covered by the diet was evidenced by multivariate principal components analysis in fish fed control, 33VO and 66VO diets.

  12. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that fatty acids derived from a diet high in saturated fat may negatively affect endothelial function more significantly than a diet high in unsaturated fat; nevertheless, the effects of the long-term ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function have been poorly studied. Methods To examine the chronic effects of monounsaturated (e.g., extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)) or saturated (e.g., margarine (M)) fatty acid-rich diets on the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in rats, three groups of rats were fed control, high-EVOO or high-M diets for 20 weeks. Body weight, energy consumption, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and in vitro vascular reactivity with and without metformin were assessed during the study period. Results Both high-fat diets produced obesity and insulin resistance. EVOO-fed rats showed smaller increases in total cholesterol and arterial lipid peroxidation when compared with M-fed rats. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was not modified, but the vasodilating effect of carbachol was especially reduced in the M-fed rats compared with the EVOO-fed or control groups. Metformin addition to the incubation media decreased the vascular response to phenylephrine; decrease that was lower in rats fed with both high fat diets, and increased the carbachol and nitroprusside effects, but the metformin-enhanced response to carbachol was lower in the M group. Conclusions Our results suggest that feeding rats with high quantities of EVOO, despite producing obesity and insulin resistance, produces low levels of circulating cholesterol and arterial lipoperoxidation compared to M fed rats and shows a preserved endothelial response to carbachol, effect that is significantly enhanced by metformin only in rats fed with control and EVOO diets. PMID:24330822

  13. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Bonnet, M; Leroux, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-12-01

    Lipid in the diet is known to enhance milk fat secretion and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats. In the current experiment, the contribution of peripheral tissue and mammary gland lipid metabolism to changes in milk fat composition from plant oils was examined. Fourteen Alpine goats in midlactation were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d experimental periods. Treatments comprised maize silage-based diets containing no additional oil (M), sunflower-seed oil (MSO; 6.1% of diet DM), or linseed oil (MLO; 6.2% of diet DM). Compared with the control, milk yield was greater in goats fed MSO (3.37 and 3.62 kg/d, respectively), whereas MLO enhanced milk fat content (+3.9 g/kg), resulting in a 14% increase in milk fat secretion. Both MSO and MLO increased milk lactose secretion by 12 and 8%, respectively, compared with M. Relative to the control, plant oils decreased C10 to C16 secretion (32 and 24%, respectively, for MSO and MLO) and enhanced C18 output in milk (ca. 110%). Diets MSO and MLO increased cis-9 18:1 secretion in milk by 25 and 31%, respectively, compared with M. The outputs of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in milk were increased 8.34- and 6.02-fold for MSO and 5.58- and 3.71-fold for MLO compared with M, and MSO increased trans-10 18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 18:2 secretion. Plant oils decreased milk fat cis-9 14:1/14:0; cis-9 16:1/16:0; cis-9 18:1/18:0; and cis-9, trans-11 18:2/trans-11 18:1 concentration ratios but had no effect on mammary stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA or activity. Furthermore, changes in milk fatty acid secretion were not associated with alterations in mammary acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and activity, abundance of mRNA encoding for lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase, or malic enzyme and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in mammary tissue. Mammary lipoprotein lipase activity was increased with MSO relative to MLO. Treatments had no effect on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme

  14. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Bonnet, M; Leroux, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-12-01

    Lipid in the diet is known to enhance milk fat secretion and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats. In the current experiment, the contribution of peripheral tissue and mammary gland lipid metabolism to changes in milk fat composition from plant oils was examined. Fourteen Alpine goats in midlactation were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d experimental periods. Treatments comprised maize silage-based diets containing no additional oil (M), sunflower-seed oil (MSO; 6.1% of diet DM), or linseed oil (MLO; 6.2% of diet DM). Compared with the control, milk yield was greater in goats fed MSO (3.37 and 3.62 kg/d, respectively), whereas MLO enhanced milk fat content (+3.9 g/kg), resulting in a 14% increase in milk fat secretion. Both MSO and MLO increased milk lactose secretion by 12 and 8%, respectively, compared with M. Relative to the control, plant oils decreased C10 to C16 secretion (32 and 24%, respectively, for MSO and MLO) and enhanced C18 output in milk (ca. 110%). Diets MSO and MLO increased cis-9 18:1 secretion in milk by 25 and 31%, respectively, compared with M. The outputs of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in milk were increased 8.34- and 6.02-fold for MSO and 5.58- and 3.71-fold for MLO compared with M, and MSO increased trans-10 18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 18:2 secretion. Plant oils decreased milk fat cis-9 14:1/14:0; cis-9 16:1/16:0; cis-9 18:1/18:0; and cis-9, trans-11 18:2/trans-11 18:1 concentration ratios but had no effect on mammary stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA or activity. Furthermore, changes in milk fatty acid secretion were not associated with alterations in mammary acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and activity, abundance of mRNA encoding for lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase, or malic enzyme and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in mammary tissue. Mammary lipoprotein lipase activity was increased with MSO relative to MLO. Treatments had no effect on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme

  15. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  16. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. PMID:22381704

  17. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  18. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  19. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  20. Sunflower Oil Supplementation Has Proinflammatory Effects and Does Not Reverse Insulin Resistance in Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Laureane Nunes; Martins, Amanda Roque; Neto, José César Rosa; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; de Lima Júnior, Edson Alves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as sunflower oil has been associated to beneficial effects in plasma lipid profile, but its role on inflammation and insulin resistance is not fully elucidated yet. We evaluated the effect of sunflower oil supplementation on inflammatory state and insulin resistance condition in HFD-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided in four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HFD, (c) CD supplemented with n-6 (CD + n-6), and (d) HFD supplemented with n-6 (HFD + n-6). CD + n-6 and HFD + n-6 were supplemented with sunflower oil by oral gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week. CD and HFD were supplemented with water instead at the same dose. HFD induced whole and muscle-specific insulin resistance associated with increased inflammatory markers in insulin-sensitive tissues and macrophage cells. Sunflower oil supplementation was not efficient in preventing or reducing these parameters. In addition, the supplementation increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and tissues. Lipid profile, on the other hand, was improved with the sunflower oil supplementation in animals fed HFD. In conclusion, sunflower oil supplementation improves lipid profile, but it does not prevent or attenuate insulin resistance and inflammation induced by HFD in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:22988427

  1. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    PubMed

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market. PMID:9659430

  2. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism. PMID:22672508

  3. A Chemoprotective Fish Oil- and Pectin-Containing Diet Temporally Alters Gene Expression Profiles in Exfoliated Rat Colonocytes throughout Oncogenesis123

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Hyemee; Turner, Nancy D.; Mann, John C.; Wei, Jiawei; Taddeo, Stella S.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Wang, Naisyin; Vannucci, Marina; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated that fish oil- and pectin-containing (FO/P) diets protect against colon cancer compared with corn oil and cellulose (CO/C) by upregulating apoptosis and suppressing proliferation. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby FO/P diets induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation during the tumorigenic process, we analyzed the temporal gene expression profiles from exfoliated rat colonocytes. Rats consumed diets containing FO/P or CO/C and were injected with azoxymethane (AOM; 2 times, 15 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously). Feces collected at initiation (24 h after AOM injection) and at aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (7 wk postinjection) and tumor (28 wk postinjection) stages of colon cancer were used for poly (A)+ RNA extraction. Gene expression signatures were determined using Codelink arrays. Changes in phenotypes (ACF, apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor incidence) were measured to establish the regulatory controls contributing to the chemoprotective effects of FO/P. At initiation, FO/P downregulated the expression of 3 genes involved with cell adhesion and enhanced apoptosis compared with CO/C. At the ACF stage, the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation was modulated by FO/P and the zone of proliferation was reduced in FO/P rats compared with CO/C rats. FO/P also increased apoptosis and the expression of genes that promote apoptosis at the tumor endpoint compared with CO/C. We conclude that the effects of chemotherapeutic diets on epithelial cell gene expression can be monitored noninvasively throughout the tumorigenic process and that a FO/P diet is chemoprotective in part due to its ability to affect expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:21508209

  4. Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

    2012-10-01

    Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-α-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-α-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-α-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content.

  5. Development and characterization of rice bran cookies.

    PubMed

    Sangronis, E; Sancio, M

    1990-01-01

    Four cookie formulas (A, B, C and D) were prepared by combining stabilized rice bran with flour of other locally produced cereals. A Hedonic Scale from 1 to 7 was used to test acceptability; and Proximate Composition, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Chemical Score (C.S.) and NDpCal% were determined. Sensory evaluation of the products did not detect a significant preference (p = 0.05) for any of the tested cookies. The formula A (30% rice bran), with the highest average score in flavor (6.2) and the highest PER (0.9) was selected for a consumer test among children ages 4 to 7, resulting in an acceptability of 100%.

  6. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  7. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  8. Evaluation of the impact of camelina oil-containing diets on the expression of genes involved in the innate anti-viral immune response in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Booman, Marije; Xu, Qingheng; Rise, Matthew L

    2014-11-01

    To improve sustainability of aquaculture, especially for carnivorous species like Atlantic cod, replacement of fish oil-based diets with vegetable oil-based diets has been studied. The use of vegetable oil in fish feeds can significantly change the fatty acid composition of fish tissues, and given the importance of fatty acids in inflammation and immunity, this change could potentially impact the immune response and health of the fish. The oilseed Camelina sativa is a promising source for this vegetable oil, because of the high oil content of its seeds (40%), a higher n-3 fatty acid content than most other oilseeds, and a high amount of γ-tocopherol. This study aims to investigate the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with oil from Camelina sativa on the immune response of Atlantic cod, as measured by the gene expression in spleen. Juvenile cod were fed on a fish oil-based diet (FO) or one of two diets in which camelina oil replaced 40% or 80% of fish oil (40CO and 80CO respectively) for 67 days, after which they were injected with either the viral mimic polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control. Microarray analysis was used to determine the effect of the diet on the basal spleen transcriptome (pre-injection), and on the response to pIC (24 h post-injection). No marked differences in the spleen transcriptome were found between the three diets, either before or after injection with pIC. All fish, regardless of diet, showed a strong anti-viral response 24 h after pIC injection, with more than 500 genes having a significant difference of expression of 2-fold or higher compared to the PBS-injected fish for the FO, 40CO and 80CO diets. Gene Ontology annotation analysis of the three pIC-responsive gene lists indicated they were highly similar, and that the term 'immune system process' was significantly enriched in the pIC-responsive gene lists for all three diets. QPCR analysis for 5 genes with a known

  9. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  10. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. PMID:25553412

  11. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  12. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  13. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    PubMed

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  14. High-fat diet from perilla oil induces insulin resistance despite lower serum lipids and increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet from perilla oil on serum lipids, hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were fed either a control (CT) diet or a diet high in perilla oil (HP). After 16 weeks of feeding, the serum lipids were measured, and the gene expressions involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were determined. In addition, hepatic fat deposition was detected, and insulin sensitivity was evaluated by means of euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results Compared with the rats in the CT group, the HP-feeding significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c). HP-feeding did not change the levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), free fatty acid (FFA), intrahepatic lipids or body weight. Moreover, the HP-feeding dramatically increased the mRNA expressions of fatty acid oxidation markers (PPAR-alpha, CPT1A) and fatty acid synthesis markers (SREBP-1, FASN and ACC) in the liver. The HP-feeding induced increased protein levels of CPT1A, while reducing the protein levels of FASN and ACC in the liver. However, the glucose infusion rate significantly increased in the HP group compared with the CT group. Conclusions Our data show that, in rats, excessive perilla oil intake may significantly lower serum lipids, strengthen hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, but at the same time may also lead to insulin resistance. PMID:24422660

  15. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K.; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Strain, J. J.; Gibney, Mike J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Ward, Jane L.; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions. PMID:26901221

  16. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions. PMID:26901221

  17. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-17

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  18. Effects of essential oils, yeast culture and malate on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Baluchi lambs fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Malekkhahi, M; Tahmasbi, A M; Naserian, A A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Kleen, J L; Parand, A A

    2015-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Yeast culture significantly increased (p > 0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood concentration of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion

  19. Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?

    PubMed

    Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.

  20. Red palm oil supplementation: a feasible diet-based approach to improve the vitamin A status of pregnant women and their infants.

    PubMed

    Radhika, M S; Bhaskaram, P; Balakrishna, N; Ramalakshmi, B A

    2003-06-01

    This double-blinded, randomized, controlled study was designed to study the effect of dietary supplementation with red palm oil during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal vitamin A status. A total of 170 women were recruited at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation and randomly assigned to an experimental group that received red palm oil to supply approximately one recommended dietary amount (RDA) (2,400 micrograms) of beta-carotene or to a control group that received an equivalent volume of groundnut oil. The women received the oils for a period of 8 weeks, starting at 26 to 28 weeks of gestation and extending to 34 to 36 weeks of gestation. The mean postintervention (34 to 36 weeks) levels of serum retinol were 1.20 +/- 0.22 (SD) mumol/L (95% CI, 1.15-1.25) in women receiving red palm oil and 0.73 +/- 0.15 mumol/L (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) in their infants; these levels were significantly higher than those in women receiving groundnut oil (1.07 +/- 0.26 mumol/L; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13; p < .01) and their infants (0.62 +/- 0.17 mumol/L; 95% CI, 0.57-0.67; p < .001). A significantly lower proportion of women in the red palm oil group than in the control group had vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol levels < 0.7 mumol/L) after intervention (1.5% vs. 9.7%). The proportion of women having anemia was significantly lower (p < .01) in the red palm oil-supplemented group (80.6%) than in the control group (96.7%). The mean birthweight and gestational age of the infants did not differ significantly between the two groups. An increased risk of low birth-weight (p = .003) and preterm delivery (p = .000) was observed with decreasing serum retinol levels in the third trimester of pregnancy. These results show that red palm oil supplementation significantly improved maternal and neonatal vitamin A status and reduced the prevalence of maternal anemia. Maternal vitamin A status in the later part of pregnancy is significantly associated with fetal growth and maturation. Hence red palm oil, a rich source

  1. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  2. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  3. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M H; Dugan, L D; Burns, J H; Bova, J; Story, K; Drennan, K B

    1991-04-10

    Oat cereals rich in the water-soluble fiber beta-glucan have been studied as a dietary therapy for hypercholesterolemia. To determine the hypocholesterolemic response of beta-glucan in the diet, 156 adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels above 4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) or between 3.37 and 4.14 mmol/L (130 and 160 mg/dL) with multiple risk factors were randomized to one of seven groups. Six groups received either oatmeal or oat bran at doses (dry weight) of 28 g (1 oz), 56 g (2 oz), and 84 g (3 oz). A seventh group received 28 g of farina (beta-glucan control). At week 6 of treatment, significant differences were found for both total cholesterol and LDL-C levels among the farina control and the treatment groups who were receiving 84 g of oatmeal, 56 g of oat bran, and 84 g of oat bran, with decreases in LDL-C levels of 10.1%, 15.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. Fifty-six grams of oat bran resulted in significantly greater reductions in LDL-C levels than 56 g of oatmeal. Nutrient analysis shows no difference in dietary fat content between these treatment groups; therefore, the higher beta-glucan content of oat bran most likely explains the significantly greater LDL-C reductions. A dose-dependent reduction in LDL-C levels with oat cereals supports the independent hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan.

  4. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R.; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account. PMID:27736913

  5. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol).

  6. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

  7. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P < 0.05), and also the plasma cholesterol levels and the proportion of grade IV oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the proportion of viable oocytes compared with the control and in the percentage of grade II oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Oocyte maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates after parthenogenetic activation of viable oocytes were not affected by the type of diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation.

  8. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P < 0.05), and also the plasma cholesterol levels and the proportion of grade IV oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the proportion of viable oocytes compared with the control and in the percentage of grade II oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Oocyte maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates after parthenogenetic activation of viable oocytes were not affected by the type of diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation. PMID:24853280

  9. Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Rendon, Pedro; Hernandez, Emilio; Salgado, Sergio; McInnis, Donald; Villalobos, Ethel; Liedo, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed) or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males (reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed. PMID:14503584

  10. Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Arunima, Sakunthala; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower-seed oil on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and the molecular regulation of fatty acid metabolism in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the test oils at 8 % for 45 d along with a synthetic diet. Dietary supplementation of VCO decreased tissue lipid levels and reduced the activity of the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, namely acyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P< 0·05). Moreover, VCO significantly (P< 0·05) reduced the de novo synthesis of fatty acids by down-regulating the mRNA expression of FAS and its transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, compared with the other oils. VCO significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was evident from the increased activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl CoA oxidase and the enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation; this was accomplished by up-regulating the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, the present results confirmed that supplementation of VCO has beneficial effects on lipid parameters by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing the rate of fatty acid catabolism; this effect was mediated at least in part via PPARα-dependent pathways. Thus, dietary VCO reduces the risk for CHD by beneficially modulating the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.

  11. Production of single cell oil from Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 56304 using biorefinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Probst, Kyle V; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2015-12-01

    Single cell oil (SCO) is a valuable noncrop-based renewable oil source. Hemicellulose derived sugars can be utilized to produce SCO using the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 56304. Bran by-products were tested as hemicellulose-rich feedstocks for the production of SCO. Whole and destarched corn and wheat bran hydrolysates were produced using hydrothermal and dilute sulfuric acid (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, v/v) pretreatment along with enzymatic hydrolysis. Whole bran hydrolysates produced from hydrothermal pretreatment generated the highest average oil yields of 126.7 and 124.3 mg oil/g sugar for both wheat and corn bran, respectively. 1.0% acid pretreatment was effective for the destarched bran generating a hemicellulose hydrolysis efficiency of 94% and 84% for wheat and corn bran, respectively, resulting in the highest oil yield of 70.7 mg oil/g sugar. The results indicate pretreated corn and wheat bran hydrolysates can serve as viable feedstocks for oleaginous yeast SCO bioconversion.

  12. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Jen; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kan, Jung-Yu; Juan, Chiung-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F.; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo). Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher) was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24). No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26495009

  13. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p < 0.05). Levels of blood total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  14. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  15. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  16. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2013-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P < 0.001), and lower weight gain was mainly due to less white adipose tissue (18% less, P = 0.001). The reduction in weight gain did not result in the overall enhancement in splenocyte proliferation. Overall, PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses. PMID:24133613

  17. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  18. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  19. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats.

  20. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of coriander oil, in canola oil diets, on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Randall, K M; Drew, M D; Øverland, M; Østbye, T-K; Bjerke, M; Vogt, G; Ruyter, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, on the ability of rainbow trout hepatocytes to increase the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) from [1-(14)C] α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) and to reduce the production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) from [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6. Addition of coriander oil increased the production of 22:6n-3, from [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3, at the 0.5 and 1.0% inclusion levels and reduced the conversion of [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. β-Oxidation was significantly increased at the 1.5% inclusion level for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6, however β-oxidation for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 only showed an increasing trend. Acetate, a main breakdown product of fatty acids (FA) via peroxisomal β-oxidation, decreased three-fold for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 and nearly doubled for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 when coriander was added at a 1.5% inclusion level. Acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) enzyme activity showed no significant differences between treatments. Relative gene expression of ∆6 desaturase decreased with addition of coriander oil compared to the control. The addition of petroselinic acid via coriander oil to vegetable oil (VO) based diets containing no fishmeal (FM) or fish oil (FO), significantly increased the production of anti-inflammatory precursor 22:6n-3 (P=0.011) and decreased pro-inflammatory precursor 20:4n-6 (P=0.023) in radiolabelled hepatocytes of rainbow trout.

  2. Effects of milk diets containing beef tallow or coconut oil on the fatty acid metabolism of liver slices from preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Graulet, B; Gruffat-Mouty, D; Durand, D; Bauchart, D

    2000-09-01

    Coconut oil (CO) induces a triacylglycerol infiltration in the hepatocytes of preruminant calves when given as the sole source of fat in the milk diet over a long-term period. Metabolic pathways potentially involved in this hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation were studied by in vitro methods on liver slices from preruminant Holstein x Friesian male calves fed a conventional milk diet containing CO (n 5) or beef tallow (BT, n 5) for 19 d. Liver slices were incubated for 12 h in the presence of 0.8 mm-[14C]oleate or -[14C]laurate added to the medium. Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring the production of CO2 (total oxidation) and acid-soluble products (partial oxidation). Production of CO2 was 1. 7-3.6-fold lower (P 0.0490) and production of acid-soluble products tended to be lower (P = 0.0625) in liver slices of CO- than BT-fed calves. Fatty acid esterification as neutral lipids was 2.6- to 3. 1-fold higher (P = 0.0088) in liver slices prepared from calves fed the CO diet compared with calves fed the BT diet. By contrast with what occurs in the liver of rats fed CO, the increase in neutral lipid production did not stimulate VLDL secretion by the hepatocytes of calves fed with CO, leading to a triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytosol. It could be explained by the reduction of fatty acid oxidation favouring esterification in the form of triacylglycerols, in association with a limited availability of triacylglycerols and/or apolipoprotein B for VLDL packaging and subsequent secretion. PMID:10967609

  3. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1989-01-01

    The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

  4. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  5. Antidiabetic oils.

    PubMed

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  6. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  7. Autoparallel Orbits in Kerr Brans-Dicke Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebeci, H.; Dereli, T.; Tucker, R. W.

    The bounded orbital motion of a massive spinless test particle in the background of a Kerr Brans-Dicke geometry is analysed in terms of worldlines that are auto-parallels of different metric compatible spacetime connections. In one case the connection is that of Levi-Civita with zero-torsion. In the second case the connection has torsion determined by the gradient of the Brans-Dicke background scalar field. The calculations permit one in principle to discriminate between these possibilities.

  8. Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs.

  9. The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abulnaja, Khalid O.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on testing the hypolipidemic activity of two doses of barley bran on hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats weighing 180–200 gm were divided into four groups. The first group (G1) was the negative control, the second group (G2) was the positive control group fed 2% cholesterol in the diet, and rats of the third and the fourth groups were fed 2% cholesterol and were cosupplemented with 5% and 10% barley bran, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic rats of (G2) showed an increase in lipid profile, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, whereas kidney function, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin total protein, and total bilirubin were not significantly affected compared with the negative control group in G1. Moreover, histology of heart, liver, and kidney of G2 rats showed histopathological changes compared with the negative control. Administration of the two doses of barley bran in G3 and G4 to the hypercholesterolemic rats ameliorated the level of lipids, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney tissues nearly restored the normal state as in G1. PMID:25866539

  10. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    PubMed

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  11. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability.

  12. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia.

  13. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs. PMID:26490201

  14. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs.

  15. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia. PMID:27375435

  16. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  17. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus. PMID:26676244

  18. In Vitro Microbiotic Fermentation Causes an Extensive Metabolite Turnover of Rye Bran Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Hanhineva, Kati; Aura, Anna-Marja; Rogachev, Ilana; Matero, Sanni; Skov, Thomas; Aharoni, Asaph; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    The human gut hosts a microbial community which actively contributes to the host metabolism and has thus remarkable effect on our health. Intestinal microbiota is known to interact remarkably with the dietary constituents entering the colon, causing major metabolic conversions prior to absorption. To investigate the effect of microbial metabolism on the phytochemical pool of rye bran, we applied an in vitro simulated colonic fermentation where samples were collected with intervals and analyzed by LC-MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling. The analyses revealed extensive metabolic turnover on the phytochemical composition of the bran samples, and showed effects on all the metabolite classes detected. Furthermore, the majority of the metabolites, both the precursors and the conversion products, remained unidentified indicating that there are numerous yet unknown phytochemicals, which can potentially affect on our health. This underlines the importance of comprehensive profiling assays and subsequent detailed molecular investigations in order to clarify the effect of microbiota on phytochemicals present in our everyday diet. PMID:22745732

  19. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    PubMed

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently.

  20. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  1. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  2. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  3. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2012-08-01

    In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P < 0.05). There were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels in both groups (P < 0.05). For all of these changes, no inter-group differences were observed. After the rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.

  4. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  5. Effect of feeding linseed oil in diets differing in forage to concentrate ratio: 1. Production performance and milk fat content of biohydrogenation intermediates of α-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Leacady; Gervais, Rachel; Lebeuf, Yolaine; Chouinard, P Yvan

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the interaction between the levels of dietary concentrate and linseed oil (LO) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile, 24 Holstein cows were used in a randomised complete block design based on days in milk, with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within each block, cows were fed one of four experimental diets containing 30% concentrate (LC) or 70% concentrate (HC), without LO (NLO) or with LO supplemented at 3% of dietary dry matter. Milk FA profiles were analysed with a special emphasis on the intermediates of the predominant trans-11, and a putative trans-13 pathways of ruminal biohydrogenation of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3. Feeding LO increased the concentrations of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 and trans-11, cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, and these increases were of a higher magnitude when LO was added in HC as compared with LC diet (interaction of LO by concentrate). A treatment interaction was also observed for the level of trans-11 18:1 which was higher when feeding LO, but for which the increase was more pronounced with the LC as compared with HC diet. The concentrations of cis-15 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 were higher in cows fed LO, but feeding HC diets decreased milk fat content of cis-15 18:1 and a tendency for a decrease in cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 was apparent. Feeding LO increased milk fat content of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2, while the concentrations of these two isomers were not affected by the level of dietary concentrates. The isomer cis-9, trans-13, cis-15 18:3 has not been detected in any of the milk samples. In conclusion, interactions were observed between LO and dietary concentrates on the proportions of some intermediates of the trans-11 biohydrogenation pathway. The presence of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2 supports the existence of a trans-13 pathway, but an 18:3 intermediate with a trans-13 double bond has not been identified.

  6. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. PMID:27664604

  7. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-01-01

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients. PMID:26400353

  8. Enrichment of dry-cured ham with α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol by the use of linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, C; Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Ordóñez, J A

    2008-11-01

    The use of α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol enriched pork on the fatty acids and the sensory characteristics of Spanish dry-cured hams have been studied. Five batches of hams were manufactured using the posterior legs of pigs fed on diets with the same ingredients except for the oil source: sunflower (C), linseed (L) or linseed and olive (1/1, w/w, LO). Two different α-tocopheryl acetate concentrations [20 (C, L and LO) or 220 (LOE and LE)mg/kg diet] were used. Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus/Semimembranosus muscles from hams with low polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6/n-3 ratio (less than 3) were obtained from animals fed on linseed and linseed/olive oil enriched diets. However, hams from animals fed on diets added with linseed and α-tocopheryl acetate (20mg/kg diet) (batch L) were rejected by consumers because of less acceptable sensory characteristics and higher TBARs. The remaining hams had satisfactory sensory and nutritional characteristics.

  9. In vitro fermentation patterns of rice bran components by human gut microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran is a rich source of bioactive components that can promote gastrointestinal health. However, bran is removed during polishing. Among those, feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and rice bran polyphenolics (RBPP) are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota ...

  10. Wheat bran particle size influence on phytochemical extractability and antioxidant properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unknown if particle size plays a role in extracting health promoting compounds in wheat bran because the extraction of antioxidant and phenolic compounds with particle size reduction has not been well documented. In this study, unmilled whole bran (coarse treatment) was compared to whole bran ...

  11. Wheat bran stabilization and its use in the preparation of high-fiber pasta.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M L; Ramasarma, P R; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-02-01

    Wheat bran was explored as a source of fiber in the preparation of high-fiber pasta. Ground raw wheat bran having an ash content 5.99%, crude protein 15.1% and fat content 5.83% was subjected to moist heat treatment (steam heat-treated bran) and dry heat treatment (dry heat-treated bran), wherein the lipase activity was reduced by 50%. Treated bran samples were stable for 3 months without developing any rancid flavor and bitterness. Pasta samples were prepared by substituting semolina with 40% and 50% of bran samples. There was no further significant inactivation of lipase activity upon extrusion followed by drying of pasta, irrespective of the type and the amount of bran sample used. The cooked weights of the pasta were in the range 257-268 g/100 g, whereas the cooking loss decreased from 12.8% to 9.3% for treated bran-incorporated pasta. Sensory scores for pasta containing treated bran samples were higher. The total dietary fiber increased by 5.2 times upon replacement of semolina by 40% of treated wheat bran. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed faint bands in treated bran samples as well as treated bran-incorporated pasta samples. PMID:21364045

  12. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran contains several bioactive components that have been linked to the promotion of human health. Brown rice bran contains lipophilic components that include the tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol. Pigmented or colored rice bran contains different phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (purp...

  13. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  14. Effect of corn bran particle size and substitution on pasting characteristics of wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Purified ultrafine food-grade corn bran (free of germ and endosperm), a byproduct from the grain milling industry is a good source of dietary fiber. Corn bran substitution effects batter viscosity, cake v...

  15. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies support that the bran fraction of rice contains bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of colonic tumors. Screening bran extracts from diverse rice varieties represents a novel approach to assessing the colon cancer chemopreventive properties of rice bran. We analyzed a pane...

  16. Cosmological constraint on Brans-Dicke Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Xia; Wu, Feng-Quan; Li, Yi-Chao; Gong, Yan; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2015-12-01

    We combine new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck with Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, in which the gravitational constant G evolves with time. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) provide another important set of cosmological data, as they may be regarded as standard candles after some empirical corrections. However, in theories that include modified gravity like the BD theory, there is some risk and complication when using the SNIa data because their luminosity may depend on G. In this paper, we assume a power law relation between the SNIa luminosity and G, but treat the power index as a free parameter. We then test whether the difference in distances measured with SNIa data and BAO data can be reduced in such a model. We also constrain the BD theory and cosmological parameters by making a global fit with the CMB, BAO and SNIa data set. For the CMB+BAO+SNIa data set, we find 0.08 × 10-2 < ζ < 0.33 × 10-2 at the 68% confidence level (CL) and -0.01 × 10-2 < ζ < 0.43 × 10-2 at the 95% CL, where ζ is related to the BD parameter ω by ζ = ln(1 + 1/ω).

  17. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (P<0·01) and milk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (P<0·05) milk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (P<0·05) the output of ΣC18 and Σcis-18 : 1 and increased (P<0·05) the output of trans-10-18 : 1 in milk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  18. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9