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Sample records for brasil dos primordios

  1. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  2. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  3. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  4. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  5. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  6. Different Roles of DosS and DosT in the Hypoxic Adaptation of Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang-Jin; Ko, In-Jeong; Kim, Young Min; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2010-01-01

    The DosS (DevS) and DosT histidine kinases form a two-component system together with the DosR (DevR) response regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosS and DosT, which have high sequence similarity to each other over the length of their amino acid sequences, contain two GAF domains (GAF-A and GAF-B) in their N-terminal sensory domains. Complementation tests in conjunction with phylogenetic analysis showed that DevS of Mycobacterium smegmatis is more closely related to DosT than DosS. We also demonstrated in vivo that DosS and DosT of M. tuberculosis play a differential role in hypoxic adaptation. DosT responds to a decrease in oxygen tension more sensitively and strongly than DosS, which might be attributable to their different autooxidation rates. The different responsiveness of DosS and DosT to hypoxia is due to the difference in their GAF-A domains accommodating the hemes. Multiple alignment analysis of the GAF-A domains of mycobacterial DosS (DosT) homologs and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis revealed that just one substitution of E87, D90, H97, L118, or T169 of DosS with the corresponding residue of DosT is sufficient to convert DosS to DosT with regard to the responsiveness to changes in oxygen tension. PMID:20675480

  7. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  8. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/PC runs on IBM PCs under PC-DOS or MS-DOS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  9. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  10. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    PubMed

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  12. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  13. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  14. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is located in northern Mendocino County, California, at the confluence of the Eel River and the Middle Fork of the Eel River. The area's boundaries are defined as follows— (1) Beginning in the... the Middle Fork of the Eel River, to the southeast corner of section 11, T21N, R13W (Dos...

  15. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  16. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  17. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/VMS runs on the VAX and MicroVAX series of computers under VMS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  18. Disk Operating System--DOS. Teacher Packet. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    The Learning Activity Packets (LAPs) contained in this manual are designed to assist the beginning user in understanding DOS (Disk Operating System). LAPs will not work with any version below DOS Version 3.0 and do not address the enhanced features of versions 4.0 or higher. These elementary activities cover only the DOS commands necessary to…

  19. [ELSA-Brasil strategies for outcome identification, investigation and ascertainment].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Bastos, Maria do Socorro Castelo Branco de Oliveira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Jesus, Elcimara Amorim de; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the strategies adopted by the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) for participation and retention of subjects. This is key to ensure internal validity of longitudinal studies, and to identify, investigate, and ascertain outcomes of interest. The follow-up strategies include annual telephone contacts with new assessments and interviews every three to four years this approach aims to identify transient outcomes (reversible or not), permanent outcomes as well as complications related to the progression of major diseases--cardiovascular diseases and diabetes--to be studied. Telephone interviews are designed to monitor subjects' health status and to identify potential health-related events such as hospital admissions, medical visits or pre-selected medical procedures. Subjects are also encouraged to report to the ELSA-Brasil team any new health-related events. When a potential event is identified, a thorough investigation is carried out to collect relevant information about that event from medical records. All data are blinded and reviewed and analyzed by a medical expert committee. Incident outcome ascertainment follows well-established international criteria to ensure data comparability and avoid misclassification. In addition to these strategies, the occurrence of health-related events is also investigated through linkage of secondary databases, such as national mortality and hospital admission databases. Accurate identification of outcomes will allow to estimating their incidence in the study cohort and to investigate the effect of the exposures studied in the ELSA-Brasil at baseline and at its subsequent waves.

  20. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  1. Strains of the East Asian (W/Beijing) Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are DosS/DosT-DosR Two-Component Regulatory System Natural Mutants▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Ashley; Domenech, Pilar; Reed, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to uncover the phenotypic consequences of genetic variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, we previously reported that isolates of the “East Asian” or “W/Beijing” lineage constitutively overexpress the coordinately regulated transcriptional program known as the DosR regulon under standard in vitro conditions. This phenotype distinguishes the W/Beijing lineage from all other M. tuberculosis lineages, which normally induce expression of this regulon only once exposed to low oxygen or nitric oxide, both of which result in inhibition of bacterial respiration and replication. Transcription of the DosR regulon is controlled through a two-component regulatory system comprising the transcription factor DosR and two possible cognate histidine sensor kinases, DosS and DosT. Through sequence analysis of a carefully selected set of isolates representing each of the major M. tuberculosis lineages, we describe herein a naturally occurring frameshift mutation in the gene encoding the DosT sensor kinase for isolates of the most recently evolved W/Beijing sublineages. Intriguingly, the occurrence of the frameshift mutation correlates precisely with the appearance of the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype displayed by the same “modern” W/Beijing strains. However, complementation studies have revealed that the mutation in dosT alone is not directly responsible for the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype. Our data serve to highlight the evolutionary pressure that exists among distinct M. tuberculosis lineages to maintain tight control over DosR regulon expression. PMID:20154135

  2. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  3. Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosRST signaling and persistence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiqing; Colvin, Christopher J; Johnson, Benjamin K; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wilson, Michael; Jorgensen-Muga, Katriana; Larsen, Scott D; Abramovitch, Robert B

    2017-02-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DosRST two-component regulatory system promotes the survival of Mtb during non-replicating persistence (NRP). NRP bacteria help drive the long course of tuberculosis therapy; therefore, chemical inhibition of DosRST may inhibit the ability of Mtb to establish persistence and thus shorten treatment. Using a DosRST-dependent fluorescent Mtb reporter strain, a whole-cell phenotypic high-throughput screen of a ∼540,000 compound small-molecule library was conducted. The screen discovered novel inhibitors of the DosRST regulon, including three compounds that were subject to follow-up studies: artemisinin, HC102A and HC103A. Under hypoxia, all three compounds inhibit Mtb-persistence-associated physiological processes, including triacylglycerol synthesis, survival and antibiotic tolerance. Artemisinin functions by disabling the heme-based DosS and DosT sensor kinases by oxidizing ferrous heme and generating heme-artemisinin adducts. In contrast, HC103A inhibits DosS and DosT autophosphorylation activity without targeting the sensor kinase heme.

  4. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  5. CRONUS, A Distributed Operating System. Volume 4. CRONUS DOS implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    3 VI’(of i,:oa4r) TC- ’ CRON S, A DISTRIBUTED OPERATING S YS^4T EM: CRONUS DOS Implementation .131N Laboratories Incorporated R~. Schantz, K...Classification) CRONUS , A DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM: CRONUS DOS Implementation 1Z.P ERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R. Schantz, K. Schroder, M. Barrow, G. Bono, M. Dean, R...second contract phase for development of the Cronus Project. ’% Cronus is the name given to the distributed operating system (DOS) and system

  6. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    divorce matters Visitation dos and don’ts For both parents and children, visitation is critical to maintaining ... sense of connectedness both during and after a divorce. But in the early stages of family restructuring ...

  7. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  8. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  9. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  10. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  11. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  12. Isotopic and chemical investigations on Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Tera, F.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huneke, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope ratios and chemical abundance measurements for a variety of elements are reported for total meteorite and mineral separates of the Angra dos Reis achondrite. U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb ages are concordant at 4.54 eons for the total meteorite and for high-purity whitlockite, which indicates that Angra dos Reis is an early planetary differentiate that has not been disturbed for these systems since 4.54 eons ago. The implications of different ratios of Sr-87 and Sr-86 found in different components are discussed. Xe isotopic measurements show that Pu-244 was enriched in the whitlockite relative to the pyroxene by a factor of about 18. Chemical enrichment factors between the whitlockite and the fassaitic pyroxene in Angra dos Reis are presented

  13. When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B.

    1989-04-01

    A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

  14. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 48 CFR 619.402-70 - DOS designee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 619.402-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation with the Small Business Administration 619.402-70 DOS designee. Where the FAR requires action by a Small Business Administration procurement center representative, but one has not been...

  16. Special Section--Library Workstations: Mac and DOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Ed; Flower, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Two articles discuss the library hardware marketplace. The first examines the Apple Macintosh in libraries from 1984 to the present, including linking libraries, computers, and endusers over large geographic distances. The second article discusses upgrading components of systems in the IBM compatible, MS-DOS, and Windows environments as costs…

  17. [Hypertension in women: study in mothers of students from Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodósio, Marta Regueira; Freitas, Clara Lúcia C de; Santos, Naíde Teodósio Valois; Oliveira, Eliane da Cunha Mendonça de

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy women community with a view preparing a program for primary prevention of hypertension. The population survey involved a representative sample of mothers of 126.800 students enrolled at schools of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brasil. The population size (1.273 students) was selected from a 5% +/- 2% expected frequency of the hypertension in children with a confidence level of 99.9%. This study comprised 21 schools and a random sample of 986 mothers of 1.601 students). Two blood pressure measurements separated by 2 minutes were carried out in the schools on two subsequent visits. The corporal mass index was determined in 893 mothers. In a group of 671 mothers, a midstream urine specimen was collected and the dip - stick was used to assess the presence of urinary abnormalities. The prevalence of the hypertension was 27.7% and it was significantly higher (p<0.01) in overweight (28.5%) and obese women (57%) than normal weight women (14%) and underweight women (12%). There was significant difference regarding the presence of glucosuria between the hypertensives and the normotensives women (3% and 0%, respectively). In a group of 62 hypertensives women with followup at 3 to 12 month interval, the blood pressure has been controlled in 13 (21%) and remains below the initial hypertensive stage in 27 (43.5%). The prevalence of hypertension (27,7%) do agree with the data in the literature concerning hypertension in women (26%), showing a higher tendency in overweight and obese women. We are continuing the followup of the hypertensive women as well as developing a community program for primary prevention of hypertension in the target population.

  18. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  19. Deceiving entropy-based DoS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, Ä.°lker; Brooks, Richard R.

    2014-06-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. A McAfee report shows that eight out of ten Critical Infrastructure Providers (CIPs) surveyed had a significant Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack in 2010.1 Researchers proposed many approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. In this approach, the detector uses statistical features; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields like source IP addresses or protocol type. It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection can be fooled by spoofing. An attacker can sniff the network to collect header field data of network packets coming from distributed nodes on the Internet and fuses them to calculate the entropy of normal background traffic. Then s/he can spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. In this study, we present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack that deceives entropy based detection approaches. Our preliminary results show that spoofing attacks cause significant detection performance degradation.

  20. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  1. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  2. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  3. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR-DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E; Roberts, David M; Sherman, David R; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

  4. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  5. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    PubMed

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  6. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  7. Detection of DoS attacks using intrusion detection sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Pathmenanthan; Maarof, Mohd A.

    2002-09-01

    Intrusion detection systems have usually been developed using large host-based components. These components impose an extra load on the system where they run (sometimes even requiring a dedicated system) and are subject to tampering or disabling by an intruder. Additionally, intrusion detection systems have usually obtained information about host behavior through indirect means, such as audit trails or network packet traces. This potentially allows intruders to modify the information before the intrusion detection system obtains it and slows down the detection and prevention of DoS attacks, making it possible for an intruder to hide his activities. In this paper we propose work that will attempt to show that it is possible to perform intrusion detection mechanism of DoS attacks using small sensors embedded in a computer system. These sensors will look for signs of specific intrusions. They will perform target monitoring by observing the behavior of the through an audit trail or other indirect means in real time while the Snort IDS running. Furthermore, by being built into the computer system it could provide a flexible alert sensor which may not impose a considerable extra load on the host they monitor.

  8. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

    1994-01-01

    An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth following aerobic expression of the DosR regulon.

    PubMed

    Minch, Kyle; Rustad, Tige; Sherman, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulator DosR is induced by multiple stimuli including hypoxia, nitric oxide and redox stress. Overlap of these stimuli with conditions thought to promote latency in infected patients fuels a model in which DosR regulon expression is correlated with bacteriostasis in vitro and a proxy for latency in vivo. Here, we find that inducing the DosR regulon to wildtype levels in aerobic, replicating M. tuberculosis does not alter bacterial growth kinetics. We conclude that DosR regulon expression alone is insufficient for bacterial latency, but rather is expressed during a range of growth states in a dynamic environment.

  11. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-11-26

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in ELSA-Brasil MSK. A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34 - 0.61; %CV=4.48% - 9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85) - 0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateu. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  14. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  15. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs.

  16. America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

  17. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  18. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  19. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  20. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  1. Unique Regulation of the DosR Regulon in the Beijing Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Pilar; Zou, Jason; Averback, Alexandra; Syed, Nishath; Curtis, Daniele; Donato, Samuel; Reed, Michael B

    2017-01-15

    The DosR regulon, a set of 48 genes normally expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration, is controlled via the DosR-DosS/DosT two-component system. While the regulon requires induction in most M. tuberculosis isolates, for members of the Beijing lineage, its expression is uncoupled from the need for signaling. In our attempts to understand the mechanistic basis for this uncoupling in the Beijing background, we previously reported the identification of two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the adjacent Rv3134c gene. In the present study, we have interrogated the impact of these SNPs on dosR expression in wild-type strains, as well as a range of dosR-dosS-dosT mutants, for both Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis backgrounds. In this manner, we have unequivocally determined that the C601T dosR promoter SNP is the sole requirement for the dramatic shift in the pattern of DosR regulon expression seen in this globally important lineage. Interestingly, we also show that DosT is completely nonfunctional within these strains. Thus, a complex series of evolutionary steps has led to the present-day Beijing DosR phenotype that, in turn, potentially confers a fitness advantage in the face of some form of host-associated selective pressure. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have been described as being of enhanced virulence compared to other lineages, and in certain regions, they are associated with the dramatic spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In terms of trying to understand the functional basis for these broad epidemiological phenomena, it is interesting that, in contrast to the other major lineages, the Beijing strains all constitutively overexpress members of the DosR regulon. Here, we identify the mutational events that led to the evolution of this unique phenotype. In addition, our work highlights the fact that important phenotypic differences exist between

  2. The DosR regulon of M. tuberculosis and antibacterial tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, I.L.; Rutherford, R.; Gruppo, V.; Morton, R.A.; Morris, R.P.; Klein, M.R.; Visconti, K.C.; Ryan, G.J.; Schoolnik, G.K.; Lenaerts, A.; Voskuil, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to an anaerobic dormant state that is tolerant to several antibacterials is mediated largely by a set of highly expressed genes controlled by DosR. A DosR mutant was constructed to investigate whether the DosR regulon is involved in antibacterial tolerance. We demonstrate that induction of the regulon is not required for drug tolerance either in vivo during a mouse infection or in vitro during anaerobic dormancy. Thus, drug tolerance observed in these models is due to other mechanisms such as the bacilli simply being in a non-replicating or low metabolic state. Our data also demonstrate that the DosR regulon is not essential for virulence during chronic murine infection. However, decreased lung pathology was observed in the DosR mutant. We also show that the DosR regulon genes are more highly conserved in environmental mycobacteria, than in pathogenic mycobacteria lacking a latent phase or environmental reservoir. It is possible that the DosR regulon could contribute to drug tolerance in human infections; however, it is not the only mechanism and not the primary mechanism for tolerance during a mouse infection. These data suggest that the regulon evolved not for pathogenesis or drug tolerance but for adaptation to anaerobic conditions in the environment and has been adapted by M. tuberculosis for survival during latent infection. PMID:19577518

  3. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  4. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  5. Results of Ponseti Brasil Program: Multicentric Study in 1621 Feet: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Monica P; Queiroz, Ana C D B F; Melanda, Alessandro G; Tedesco, Ana P; Brandão, Antonio L G; Beling, Claudio; Violante, Francisco H; Brandão, Gilberto F; Ferreira, Laura F A; Brambila, Leandro S; Leite, Leopoldina M; Zabeu, Jose L; Kim, Jung H; Fernandes, Kalyana E; Arima, Marcia A S; Aguilar, Maria D P Q; Farias Filho, Orlando C D; Oliveira Filho, Oscar B D A; Pinho, Solange D S; Moulin, Paulo; Volpi, Reinaldo; Fox, Mark; Greenwald, Miles F; Lyle, Brandon; Morcuende, Jose A

    The Ponseti method has been shown to be the most effective treatment for congenital clubfoot. The current challenge is to establish sustainable national clubfoot treatment programs that utilize the Ponseti method and integrate it within a nation's governmental health system. The Brazilian Ponseti Program (Programa Ponseti Brasil) has increased awareness of the utility of the Ponseti method and has trained >500 Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons in it. A group of 18 of those surgeons had been able to reproduce the Ponseti clubfoot treatment, and compiled their initial results through structured spreadsheet. The study compiled 1040 patients for a total of 1621 feet. The average follow-up time was 2.3 years with an average correction time of approximately 3 months. Patients required an average of 6.40 casts to achieve correction. This study demonstrates that good initial correction rates are reproducible after training; from 1040 patients only 1.4% required a posteromedial release. Level IV.

  6. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  7. DosR-regulon genes induction in Mycobacterium bovis BCG under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Flores Valdez, Mario Alberto; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2010-05-01

    In this report we demonstrated that under aerobic conditions, Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing an hsp60-driven second copy of the hypoxia-related transcriptional regulator DosR increased 2-fold or greater the expression of 38 out of the 48 genes belonging to the DosR regulon, including the latency antigens Rv1733c, Rv2029, Rv2627, and Rv2628. Expression of DosR under these conditions slightly delayed in vitro growth, but did not promote a non-replicating state as opposed to microaerobic and hypoxic adaptation. Our results suggest BCG producing DosR can be cultured under standard in vitro conditions, allowing evaluation of this strain as a latency-specific vaccine candidate.

  8. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  9. [Experience of importation of equipment for research in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiana Paula Matos de; Aquino, Estela M L; Mota, Eduardo L A; Mota, Fábio Batista; Braga, Valéria Cerqueira Campos; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Silva, Gabriela Feiden; Souza, Angelita Gomes de; Oliveira, Rosalba

    2013-06-01

    Policies that promote research in health were established in the last decade, developing the Brazilian scientific production. This development has not been accompanied by an improvement in the legal-institutional framework, thus hindering the development of research projects, including equipment importation activities. The present study aimed to analyze the equipment importation process for the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A case study was performed with data collected from internal ELSA-Brasil documents in five Investigation Centers and their respective supporting foundations. The following importation documents were analyzed: pulse wave velocity, bioimaging and retinography. Additionally, non-structured interviews with researchers and key informers were conducted in the foundations. Data were treated and organized into three stages: administrative-operational, exchange rate, and fiscal. Lengths of duration of these stages were calculated comparatively among centers. The need to standardize equipment in a multicenter study required a joint action of implementing institutions and foundations. Of all pieces of equipment analyzed, the first stage was administrative-operational, with a varying duration (minimum of eight, maximum of 101, and mean of 55 days) which was longer when legal opinions were included. The second stage was the exchange rate, which was longer than the former and did not pose any obstacles to the process (minimum of 11, maximum of 381, and mean of 196 days). The third stage was fiscal, which was the longest one (minimum of 43, maximum of 388, and mean of 215.5 days), due to the release of equipment without registration into the country. There were other factors that posed obstacles: inexperience of investigation centers and institutions in networking; inadequacy of the national legislation on scientific research particularities; and the lack of specialized professionals in scientific project management. The results

  10. [Reproducibility of arterial pressure measured in the ELSA-Brasil with 24-hour pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Larissa Rangel; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Mill, José Geraldo

    2013-06-01

    To determine the reproducibility of casual arterial pressure measurement and to confirm pressure diagnosis by monitoring of participants in the ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health). Casual blood pressure was measured with an oscilometric device. A sub-sample of participants (N = 255) from Espírito Santo state (Southeastern Brazil) was reevaluated using the same methodology following one to ten weeks and, in addition, underwent arterial blood pressure monitoring. Diagnosis of hypertension used cut off points of 140/90 mmHg for casual pressure and 130/80 mmHg for arterial blood pressure monitoring. White coat hypertension was defined as the presence of hypertension in casual blood pressure and normal arterial blood pressure monitoring, and converse findings characterized masked hypertension. Data are from 230 participants that on the two occasions were free from antihypertensive medication (N1 = 153) or under the same antihypertensive regimen (N2 = 77). Normotension was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 120 out of 134 participants of the N1 group. In N2, blood pressure control was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 43 of 54 participants with controlled hypertension per casual blood pressure. Overall diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was 78% (kappa = 0.44). In the N1 group, six subjects (4%) presented white coat hypertension, and 23 subjects (25%) presented with masked hypertension. Diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was moderate. The rigorous standardization of casual blood pressure measurement adopted in the ELSA-Brasil study was able to reduce white coat hypertension. The high frequency of masked hypertension may suggest that pressure values obtained by arterial blood pressure monitoring indicate an elevated degree of stress at work.

  11. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  12. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  13. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  14. Reproducibility of left ventricular mass by echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-02-01

    Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% -3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting.

  15. Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-15

    reporting in fast-paced social media such as Twitter, but these reports are rarely linked to quantiable network behavior. A data set of network-based...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks 5a...Random sample of 30 (D, E) pairs yielding 21 unique entities (E) Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks Evan Wright

  16. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DataPlus™ - a revolutionary applications generator for DOS hand-held computers

    Treesearch

    David Dean; Linda Dean

    2000-01-01

    DataPlus allows the user to easily design data collection templates for DOS-based hand-held computers that mimic clipboard data sheets. The user designs and tests the application on the desktop PC and then transfers it to a DOS field computer. Other features include: error checking, missing data checks, and sensor input from RS-232 devices such as bar code wands,...

  18. Dos, a heme-binding PAS protein from Escherichia coli, is a direct oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Nixon, V M; Gonzalez, G; Gilles-Gonzalez, M A

    2000-03-14

    A direct sensor of O(2), the Dos protein, has been found in Escherichia coli. Previously, the only biological sensors known to respond to O(2) by direct and reversible binding were the FixL proteins of Rhizobia. A heme-binding region in Dos is 60% homologous to the O(2)-sensing PAS domain of the FixL protein, but the remainder of Dos does not resemble FixL. Specifically, the C-terminal domain of Dos, presumed to be a regulatory partner that couples to its heme-binding domain, is not a histidine kinase but more closely resembles a phosphodiesterase. The absorption spectra of Dos indicate that both axial positions of the heme iron are coordinated to side chains of the protein. Nevertheless, O(2) and CO bind to Dos with K(d) values of 13 and 10 microM, respectively, indicating a strong discrimination against CO binding. Association rate constants for binding of O(2) (3 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), CO (1 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and even NO (2 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) are extraordinarily low and very similar. Displacement of an endogenous ligand, probably Met 95, from the heme iron in Dos triggers a conformational change that alters the activity of the enzymatic domain. This sensing mechanism differs from that of FixL but resembles that of the CO sensor CooA of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Overall the results provide evidence for a heme-binding subgroup of PAS-domain proteins whose working range, signaling mechanisms, and regulatory partners can vary considerably.

  19. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water.

    PubMed

    Chung, S H; Cerussi, A E; Merritt, S I; Ruth, J; Tromberg, B J

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R=0.96) with a difference of 1.1+/-0.91 degrees C over a range of 28-48 degrees C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  20. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    PubMed Central

    Chung, SH; Cerussi, AE; Merritt, SI; Ruth, J; Tromberg, BJ

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 ± 0.91 °C over a range of 28–48 °C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:20551502

  1. Electrocardiographic Findings in Brazilian Adults without Heart Disease: ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo Martins; Brant, Luisa C C; Padilha-da-Silva, José Luiz; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Vasconcelo-Silva, Paulo R; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho

    2017-10-02

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in population-based studies. However, there are few studies on electrocardiographic findings in Latin America and in Brazil. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprised 15,105 participants (35-74 years) from six Brazilian capitals. To describe electrocardiographic findings in Brazilian adults without heart disease, stratified by sex, age and race/skin color. Cross-sectional study with baseline data of 11,094 adults (44.5% men) without heart disease from ELSA-Brasil. The ECGs were recorded with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine and stored at the Pyramis System. ECG analysis was automatically performed using the Glasgow University software. A descriptive analysis of heart rate (HR), P, QRS and T waves' duration, PR and QT intervals, and P, R and T axes was performed. After stratification by sex, race/color and age, the groups were compared by the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the behavior of electrocardiographic parameters over age. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities defined by the Minnesota code were manually revised. Medians values of the electrocardiographic parameters were different between men and women: HR 63 vs. 66 bpm, PR 164 vs.158 ms, QT corrected 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS duration 92 vs. 86 ms, P-wave duration 112 vs. 108 ms, P-wave axis 54 vs. 57 degrees, R-wave axis 35 vs. 39 degrees, T-wave axis 39 vs. 45 degrees (p < 0.001 for all). The 2nd and the 98th percentiles of each variable were also obtained, and graphs were constructed to illustrate the behavior of the electrocardiographic findings over age of participants stratified by sex and race/skin color. The values for the electrocardiographic measurements herein described can be used as reference for Brazilian adults free of heart disease, stratified by sex. Our results suggest that self-reported race/skin color have no significant influence on

  2. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  3. WE-E-BRB-10: DosCheck - an Electronic Chart Checking Tool for Dosimetrists.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Wu, Y; Yaddanapudi, S; Moore, K; Pierbuxg, B; Brame, S; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    In addition to treatment planning, dosimetrists have to prepare documentation and manually enter data in treatment management system (TMS) which did not transfer or setup automatically. The required documents and data are dependent on the disease site, treatment machine and clinical workflow. Errors and inconsistencies can cause redundant work, treatment delays and potentially treatment errors. To address these issues, an electronic checking software tool, DosCheck was clinically implemented to check the existence of necessary documentations and the integrity of manually-entered data. The purpose of this software is to reduce the frequency of human errors and to improve efficiency. DosCheck reads data and documents from 1) TMS, 2) Pinnacle TPS, and 3) DICOM plan files stored in a DICOM-RT PACS. It processes documents in Word and PDF format, treatment plan data in Pinnacle native format and DICOM format, and Mosaiq data in database records. The software cross-checks data accuracy and consistency by following rules that are pre-defined according to the clinical requirements and treatment sties. It interacts with dosimetrists and presents instantaneous results via graphical user interface. DosCheck has been implemented in C#. It performs a full check for a patient with 20 seconds. It has been clinically commissioned and is used daily by all dosimetrists at our institution. Retrospective analysis shows that DosCheck identifies 30% to 40% of previously reported dosimetrist human errors. Additional ∼30% errors are checked by other tools that could be integrated DosCheck in the near future. As an electronic data checking tool, DosCheck can obtain and process data and documents from multiple clinical computer systems in the radiation oncology department, and perform checks according to clinical rules. It is able to improve the accuracy and efficiency of clinical data and document process, and therefore to reduce any potential inconsistencies and errors. © 2012 American

  4. Reagent based DOS: a "Click, Click, Cyclize" strategy to probe chemical space.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Alan; Lushington, Gerald H; Hanson, Paul R

    2010-05-07

    The synthesis of small organic molecules as probes for discovering new therapeutic agents has been an important aspect of chemical-biology. Herein we report a reagent-based, diversity-oriented synthetic (DOS) strategy to probe chemical and biological space via a "Click, Click, Cyclize" protocol. In this DOS approach, three sulfonamide linchpins underwent cyclization protocols with a variety of reagents to yield a collection of structurally diverse S-heterocycles. In silico analysis is utilized to evaluate the diversity of the compound collection against chemical space (PC analysis), shape space (PMI) and polar surface area (PSA) calculations.

  5. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  6. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  7. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  8. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  9. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  10. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  11. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases. PMID:19737390

  12. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.R.; Via, Alba Valéria; D’Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Lemos, Elba Regina S.

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis). PMID:21801642

  13. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  14. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  15. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  16. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  17. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  18. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (e) At MARSEC Levels 1 and 2, FSOs of facilities that frequently interface with the... part to implement a DoS with the VSO prior to any vessel-to-facility interface when he or she deems it...

  19. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (e) At MARSEC Levels 1 and 2, FSOs of facilities that frequently interface with the... part to implement a DoS with the VSO prior to any vessel-to-facility interface when he or she deems it...

  20. Stretching the Software Dollar: MS-DOS Shareware and Public Domain Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses shareware and public domain software for MS-DOS systems that are available through bulletin board systems (BBS). Problems with computer viruses are discussed; shareware available for communications, database and file management, spreadsheets, word processing, and menuing software is described; and source information for software is…

  1. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  2. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  3. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  4. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  5. Comparison and evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms of QUAC, DOS, and FLAASH for HICO hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liangliang; Mao, Zhihua; Chen, Peng; Han, Sha'ou; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun

    2016-10-01

    In order to obtain the spectral information of objects and improve the retrieval of quantitative parameters from remotely sensing data accurately on land or over water bodies, atmospheric correction is a vital step, certainly, it is also a prerequisite to hyperspectral imagery data analysis approaches. On the base of previous studies, the atmospheric correction algorithms were divided to two categories: image-based empirical and model-based correction methods. The Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) methods belong to the empirical or semiempirical methods, however, the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercube (FLAASH) method was developed from the radiative transfer model. In this paper, we initially evaluated the performance from Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) of 16 Nov 2013 using QUAC, DOS, and MODTRAN integrated in FLAASH, and compared the results of these correction methods with in situ data. The results indicate that the method of FLAASH model performs much better than DOS and QUAC in atmospheric correction for HICO hyperspectral imagery, although the DOS and QUAC method is conducted more easily and do not require inputs of complex parameters.

  6. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and

  7. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB...

  9. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  10. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  11. 48 CFR 653.217-70 - DOS form DS-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS form DS-1921, Award... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.217-70 DOS form DS-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement. As prescribed in 617.504-70(b)(5)(i), DS...

  12. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  13. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  14. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  15. ACONF DOS

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul; Symons, Phlip; & Corey, Garth

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. The routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.

  16. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  17. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  18. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  20. Using satellite images to monitor glacial-lake outburst floods: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Cole, Christopher J.; Nimick, David A.; Wilson, Earl M.; Fahey, Mark J.; McGrath, Daniel J.; Leidich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    During 2008–2013, 14 GLOFs were released from Lago Cachet Dos and created environmental and safety concerns for downstream residents and to infrastructure. If GLOFs and the consequent headward erosion continue, the moraine that creates Lago Cachet Uno could be destabilized and breached, and the two lakes could merge. If the two lakes become connected, the volume of future GLOFs likely would be greater and thus cause longer and (or) more extensive flooding downstream. Additional GLOFs from Lago Cachet Dos are expected in the future, and continued environmental monitoring could provide an early warning system as well as scientific information that could increase our understanding of GLOFs and their consequences. GLOFs occur in glaciated areas around the world and remote sensing technologies can allow researchers to better understand—and potentially predict—future GLOF events.

  1. Magnetic field effects on the DOS of a Kondo quantum dot coupled to LL leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Qin, Chang-Dong; Wang, Huai-Yu; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the joint effects of a magnetic field and electron-electron interaction on the tunneling density of states (DOS) of a quantum dot coupled to the Luttinger liquid leads in the Kondo regime. We find that for intralead electron interaction, the DOS develops two peaks deviated from the origin by the Zeeman energy. With the increase of the intralead interaction, a phase transition occurs. For moderately strong interaction, the Zeeman splitting peaks develop into two dips. The splitting of the Kondo peak and dip is not symmetric with respect to up and down spins. In the limit of strong interaction the Zeeman splitting behavior disappears and there appears a power-law scaling behavior.

  2. Application of a sparse matrix design strategy to the synthesis of dos libraries.

    PubMed

    Akella, Lakshmi B; Marcaurelle, Lisa A

    2011-07-11

    We have implemented an interactive and practical sparse matrix design strategy for the synthesis of DOS libraries, which facilitates the selection of diverse library members within a user-defined range of physicochemical properties while still maintaining synthetic efficiency. The utility of this approach is illustrated with the synthesis of an 8000-membered library of stereochemically diverse medium-sized rings accessible via a build/couple/pair DOS strategy. Diverse library members were selected from a virtual library by applying the maximum dissimilarity method, while the selection of similar analogs around each diverse product was ensured by picking near neighbors algorithmically based on fingerprint comparison. Adjustable filters on compound properties, which can be tailored to suit the needs of the target biology, facilitated subset selection from the synthetically accessible compounds.

  3. A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

  4. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  5. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    PubMed

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%.

  6. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  7. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  8. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  9. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  10. OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

    2014-05-01

    We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

  11. T cell responses to DosR and Rpf proteins in actively and latently infected individuals from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Riaño, Felipe; Arroyo, Leonar; París, Sara; Rojas, Mauricio; Friggen, Annemieke H; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Franken, Kees L M C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; García, Luis F; Barrera, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded proteins elicit strong immune T-cell responses in individuals with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Also, resuscitation (Rpf) proteins can induce such responses. However, variations in the immunogenicity of the DosR and Rpf proteins have been observed in European and African populations, and no data are published from other geographic areas. In Colombian LTBI and patients with recently diagnosed PTB, we therefore studied the immune response to DosR, Rpf, stress, and nominal antigens from Mtb, in 7-day stimulated cultures. Three DosR (Rv1737c, Rv2029c, Rv2628c) and 2 Rpf (Rv0867 and Rv2389c) antigens were recognized most prominently on the basis of the net IFNγ production (DosR) or the percentage of responding individuals (Rpf). Results show that the selected DosR antigens induced a higher proportion of CD4-T cells producing IFNγ from LTBI, compared to pulmonary TB patients (PTB), while there were no differences in the proportion of CD8-T cells. An increased frequency of CD4, but not CD8 T-cells with a CD45RO(+)CD27(+) phenotype was observed in LTBI in response to Rv2029c, Rv0867c, and Rv2389c, compared to PTB. The levels of cytokines and chemokines in the supernatants of stimulated cells, showed that the DosR and Rpf antigens induced higher levels of IFNγ in cultures from LTBI compared to PTB, although the induced pattern of cytokines and chemokines was also antigen dependent. In summary, our results are consistent with the significant immunogenicity of Mtb DosR and Rpf antigens in LTBI individuals, and confirm and extend previously reported data from other TB affected human populations.

  12. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  13. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  14. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  15. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  17. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  18. Carotid intima-media thickness value distributions in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Oliveira, Ilka R S; Souza, Angelita G; Meireles, Danilo P; Rundek, Tatjana; Foppa, Murilo; Bezerra, Daniel C; Freire, Cláudia M V; Roelke, Leonard H; Carrilho, Sayonara; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2014-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a noninvasive measurement of early atherosclerosis. Most IMT studies have involved populations with low rates of racial blending. The aim of the present article is to describe IMT value distributions and analyze the influence of sex and race on IMT values in a large Brazilian sample, a setting with a high rate of racial admixture. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter cohort of 15,105 adult (aged 35-74 years) civil servants in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included IMT measurements in both common carotid arteries. Race was self-reported. We studied the association between sex and race with IMT values using multiple linear regression models. We conducted analyses in all and low-risk individuals, defined as those without classical cardiovascular risk factors. We analyzed complete IMT data from 10,405 ELSA-Brasil participants. We present nomograms by age for all and low-risk individuals, stratified by sex and race. We found that men had significantly higher maximal IMT values compared with women (β = 0.058; P < 0.001). This association remained for low-risk individuals (β = 0.027; P = 0.001). In addition, Brown and White individuals had lower maximal IMT values compared with Black individuals for all (β = -0.034 and β = -0.054, respectively; P < 0.001) and low-risk individuals (β = -0.027; P = 0.013 and β = -0.035; P < 0.001, respectively). We found significantly higher IMT values in men. We found significantly higher IMT values in Black individuals than White and Brown individuals. These results persisted when analyses were restricted to low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to build a predictive model for detecting undiagnosed diabetes - ELSA-Brasil: accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Olivera, André Rodrigues; Roesler, Valter; Iochpe, Cirano; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i) parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii) automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times), to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii) error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv) generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. -These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.

  20. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  1. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  2. Association Between Short-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Variability and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in ELSA-Brasil Baseline.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adèle H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fujita, André; Goulart, Alessandra C; Chor, Dora; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-10-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), but few studies have explored the association between BP variability and CIMT. We aimed to investigate this association in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 7,215 participants (56.0% women) without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) or antihypertensive use. We included 10 BP readings in varying positions during a 6-hour visit. We defined BP variability as the SD of these readings. We performed a 2-step analysis. We first linearly regressed the CIMT values on main and all-order interaction effects of the variables age, sex, body mass index, race, diabetes diagnosis, dyslipidemia diagnosis, family history of premature CVD, smoking status, and ELSA-Brasil site, and calculated the residuals (residual CIMT). We used partial least square path analysis to investigate whether residual CIMT was associated with BP central tendency and BP variability. Systolic BP (SBP) variability was significantly associated with residual CIMT in models including the entire sample (path coefficient [PC]: 0.046; P < 0.001), and in women (PC: 0.046; P = 0.007) but not in men (PC: 0.037; P = 0.09). This loss of significance was probably due to the smaller subsample size, as PCs were not significantly different according to sex. We found a small but significant association between SBP variability and CIMT values. This was additive to the association between SBP central tendency and CIMT values, supporting a role for high short-term SBP variability in atherosclerosis.

  3. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation <10 years remained associated with higher WBC count (eg, time from smoking cessation ≥ 5 and <10 years: β: 167.92; 95%CI: 23.52 312.31), while only time from smoking cessation <1 year remained associated with higher arithmetic mean of CRP (AMR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.03‒1.54). Levels of inflammatory markers were similar to those of never-smokers 1 year after smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings.

  4. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  5. Anaerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell death stems from intracellular acidification mitigated by the DosR regulon.

    PubMed

    Reichlen, Matthew J; Leistikow, Rachel L; Scobey, Micah S; Born, Sarah E M; Voskuil, Martin I

    2017-09-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a strict aerobe capable of prolonged survival in the absence of oxygen. We investigated the ability of anaerobic Mtb to counter challenges to internal pH homeostasis in the absence of aerobic respiration, the primary mechanism of proton efflux for aerobic bacilli. Anaerobic Mtb populations were markedly impaired for survival under a mildly acidic pH relative to standard culture conditions. Acidic environmental pH greatly increased the susceptibility of anaerobic bacilli to collapse of proton motive force by protonophores, to antimicrobial compounds that target entry into the electron transport system, and to small organic acids with uncoupling activity. However, anaerobic bacilli exhibited high tolerance to these challenges at near neutral pH. At a slightly alkaline pH which was near the optimum intracellular pH, protonophore addition even improved long-term bacilli survival. Although anaerobic Mtb in acidic conditions maintained 40% lower ATP levels than bacilli at standard culture conditions, ATP loss alone could not explain the viability drop. Protonophores decreased ATP levels by more than 90% regardless of extracellular pH but were bactericidal only under acidic conditions, indicating anaerobic bacilli could survive extreme ATP loss provided the external pH was within viable intracellular parameters. Acidic conditions drastically decreased anaerobic survival of a DosR mutant while an alkaline environment improved survival of the DosR mutant. Together these findings indicate intracellular acidification is a primary challenge for anaerobic Mtb survival and that the DosR regulon plays a critical role in sustaining internal pH homeostasis.Importance: During infection, Mtb bacilli are prevalent in environments largely devoid of oxygen. Yet the factors that influence survival of these severely growth- and metabolically-limited bacilli remain poorly understood. We determined how anaerobic bacilli respond to fluctuations in

  6. Volcanic and structural controls of mineralization in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, H.; Klein, D.P.; Birmingham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geological features suggests that a central part of the Dos Cabezas Mountains probably has considerable potential for blind deposits, chiefly base metals. The area exposes the root zone of a Paleocene( ) volcanic complex and its underlying granitic stocks, which were emplaced next to a major northwest-trending, much reactivated fault zone. The new data, combined with the knowledge of past mining activity in the area, lead them to propose several exploration targets that may lead to ore bodies in breccia pipes along the base of the volcanic pile and along a possible concealed fault or caldera margin.

  7. Pinch-off dynamics and dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Sharma, Vivek

    2017-01-31

    Liquid transfer and drop formation/deposition processes involve complex free-surface flows including the formation of columnar necks that undergo spontaneous capillary-driven instability, thinning and pinch-off. For simple (Newtonian and inelastic) fluids, a complex interplay of capillary, inertial and viscous stresses determines the nonlinear dynamics underlying finite-time singularity as well as self-similar capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics. In rheologically complex fluids, extra elastic stresses as well as non-Newtonian shear and extensional viscosities dramatically alter the nonlinear dynamics. Stream-wise velocity gradients that arise within the thinning columnar neck create an extensional flow field, and many complex fluids exhibit a much larger resistance to elongational flows than Newtonian fluids with similar shear viscosity. Characterization of pinch-off dynamics and the response to both shear and extensional flows that influence drop formation/deposition in microfluidic and printing applications requires bespoke instrumentation not available, or easily replicated, in most laboratories. Here we show that dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry protocols that involve visualization and analysis of capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics of a columnar neck formed between a nozzle and a sessile drop can be used for measuring shear viscosity, power law index, extensional viscosity, relaxation time and the most relevant processing timescale for printing. We showcase the versatility of DoS rheometry by characterizing and contrasting the pinch-off dynamics of a wide spectrum of simple and complex fluids: water, printing inks, semi-dilute polymer solutions, yield stress fluids, food materials and cosmetics. We show that DoS rheometry enables characterization of low viscosity printing inks and polymer solutions that are beyond the measurable range of commercially-available capillary break-up extensional rheometer (CaBER). We show that for high

  8. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  9. PrDOS: prediction of disordered protein regions from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2007-07-01

    PrDOS is a server that predicts the disordered regions of a protein from its amino acid sequence (http://prdos.hgc.jp). The server accepts a single protein amino acid sequence, in either plain text or FASTA format. The prediction system is composed of two predictors: a predictor based on local amino acid sequence information and one based on template proteins. The server combines the results of the two predictors and returns a two-state prediction (order/disorder) and a disorder probability for each residue. The prediction results are sent by e-mail, and the server also provides a web-interface to check the results.

  10. Use of Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge for Geoconservation of Regiao dos Lagos, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, S.; Vasconcelos, G.; Mansur, K. L.; Anjos, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A series of lagoons can be found along the coastline of Rio de Janeiro, in the so-called Regiao dos Lagos. The lagoons differ in size, physicochemical, sedimentological and biological characteristics. Rare examples of litifying microbialites that produce stromatolites, the oldest fossils on Earth, can be found living in this lagoon system. The occurrence of stromatolites in the region is of great scientific interest because it enables the study of possible analogues of the earliest life on Earth. However, this region has been suffering from intense human activities and degradations. Geoconservation planning requires an assessment of the characteristics of the region and its potential threats. The primary goal of this study is to assess physical environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos. Using a broad integrative assessment combining remote sensing, GIS, field studies and local knowledge of communities, land-cover and land-use classes were identified, as well as the main human activities impacting the environment. The seasonal and weekend tourism and urban sprawl in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro triggers the occupation of new areas and the removal of natural vegetation, especially on lagoon margins. This disorderly occupation by an ever increasing population, with both legal and illegal constructions and the subsequent overload of the local infrastructure, e.g. increase of electrical energy consumption, volume of vehicles, pollution in air, water and soil and problems with water supply and wastewater treatment, are hastening the gradual degradation of the lake ecosystem. The main driving forces to environmental changes over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos were the change of dense vegetation, saline and bare soil classes into built-up areas, adding to the poor waste treatment and inadequate sewage disposal. This analysis provides a basis for a better control of anthropogenic impacts and

  11. The Intraplate Seismogenic Zone of Porto dos Gauchos in the Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M. S.; Quintero, R. Q.

    2007-05-01

    The Porto dos Gauchos Seismogenic Zone (PGSZ), in the center north of Mato Grosso State, in the contact between the southern Amazonian Craton and northern Parecis Basin, represents one of the most important area of seismic activity in Brazil, with the largest magnitude ever observed in the stable continent of the South America plate (6.2 mb on January 31, 1955). Focal mechanism studies indicated a pure reverse faulting regime with compressional SHmax. oriented in SE-NW direction. After the 1955 earthquake, located in Serra do Tombador, a recurrent seismicity has been detected in Porto dos Gauchos, 100 km northeast of Serra do Tombador. No recent events have been detected in the area of the 1955 epicenter, suggesting a long recurrence time or mislocation of Serra do Tombador earthquake. The Porto dos Gauchos recurrent seismicity has been observed since 1959, when a 4.5 macroseismic estimated magnitude was felt by local inhabitants settled in that remote area two years earlier. In subsequent years, with deployment of regional stations in Brazilian Amazon region earthquakes were detected in 1981 (3.8 mb), 1989 (3.3 mb), 1993 (3.8 mb), 1996 (4.4 mb), 1997 (3.3 mb), and finally on March 10, 1998 (5.1 mb). The aftershocks of 1998 main shock were studied with a local network with up to eight 3- component stations. Such network detected more than 2500 events until December of 2002, when the network was deactivated, but only 100 were accurately located. Based on this set of events and a controlled source experiment we determined a 1-D velocity model for the area, a composite focal mechanism with P wave polarities, spectral analysis studies to estimate the source dimension, stress drop and moment magnitudes for the main shock and some others events of the set. On March 23, 2005 another shock occurred in the same seismogenic area of Porto dos Gauchos, with magnitude 4.7 to 5.0. One week later five stations were installed again to monitor the aftershock activity, detecting

  12. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  13. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  14. Quality control and assurance for validation of DOS/I measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Kwong, Richard; Quang, Timothy; Hill, Brian; Tromberg, Bruce J.; MacKinnon, Nick; Mantulin, William W.

    2010-02-01

    Ongoing multi-center clinical trials are crucial for Biophotonics to gain acceptance in medical imaging. In these trials, quality control (QC) and assurance (QA) are key to success and provide "data insurance". Quality control and assurance deal with standardization, validation, and compliance of procedures, materials and instrumentation. Specifically, QC/QA involves systematic assessment of testing materials, instrumentation performance, standard operating procedures, data logging, analysis, and reporting. QC and QA are important for FDA accreditation and acceptance by the clinical community. Our Biophotonics research in the Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) program for breast cancer characterization focuses on QA/QC issues primarily related to the broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging (DOS/I) instrumentation, because this is an emerging technology with limited standardized QC/QA in place. In the multi-center trial environment, we implement QA/QC procedures: 1. Standardize and validate calibration standards and procedures. (DOS/I technology requires both frequency domain and spectral calibration procedures using tissue simulating phantoms and reflectance standards, respectively.) 2. Standardize and validate data acquisition, processing and visualization (optimize instrument software-EZDOS; centralize data processing) 3. Monitor, catalog and maintain instrument performance (document performance; modularize maintenance; integrate new technology) 4. Standardize and coordinate trial data entry (from individual sites) into centralized database 5. Monitor, audit and communicate all research procedures (database, teleconferences, training sessions) between participants ensuring "calibration". This manuscript describes our ongoing efforts, successes and challenges implementing these strategies.

  15. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Hélio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Márcio Amorim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91 (1 − e −0.062t−(−0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil. PMID:24977100

  16. Electron spin resonance dating of megafauna from Lagoa dos Porcos, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mayer, Elver; Ribau Mendes, Vinícius; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-06-01

    Excavations performed at Lagoa dos Porcos site revealed a vast amount of extinct mammal fossil remains, becoming one of the richest palaeontological occurrences in the Serra da Capivara National Park region, a UNESCO World Heritage. Although anatomic and taxonomic aspects of extinct Quaternary mammals are relatively well known, chronologic information for deposits is rare. In this context, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of megafauna samples provides important information for establishing a chronological background. This work presents the ESR dating of two teeth, one of Gomphotheriidae and other of Toxodontinae. Dose-response curves of each sample were constructed using spectra acquired with a JEOL FA-200 X-Band spectrometer resulting in equivalent dose (De) of 220 ± 40 Gy and 39 ± 2 Gy for Toxodontinae and Gomphotheriidae tooth, respectively. The conversion of De in age was made using ROSY ESR dating software resulting in 26 ± 4 and 22 ± 3 ka. These results place Lagoa dos Porcos fossil assemblage within the Late Pleistocene. These dates overlap with a period of abrupt increase in rainfall in northeast Brazil, and it is possible that this environmental change is related to the formation of this deposit.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of orthorexia nervosa among German students using the 21-item-DOS.

    PubMed

    Depa, Julia; Schweizer, Jenny; Bekers, Sandra-Kristin; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268). ON was determined using the 21-item-DOS, which is a well-constructed, validated, and reliability-tested questionnaire. Age, gender, and semester were also assessed. Of the total sample, 3.3 % were classified as having ON and 9.0 % were at risk of developing ON. Older students scored significantly higher on the subscale "avoidance of additives" compared with younger students and students of lower semester suffered significantly more often from ON than students of higher semester. In addition, comparing field of study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of ON or the risk of developing ON between female NS and ES students. However, mean values for the three DOS subscales were higher among female NS students, albeit far below values indicating pathological behavior. The prevalence of ON appears to be low in this sample of German university students. Female NS students do not seem to have higher prevalence of ON or risk of developing ON.

  18. "Las Dos Cosas," or Why Mexican American Mothers Breast-Feed, But Not for Long.

    PubMed

    Flores, Angela; Anchondo, Inés; Huang, Cindy; Villanos, MariaTeresa; Finch, Casey

    2016-01-01

    To determine why mothers in El Paso, Texas, choose to breast-feed but not exclusively and why breast-feeding duration is short. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 300, mostly Mexican American, low-income mothers delivering at a county hospital who answered questions about breast-feeding and formula feeding, sociodemographics, and health habits. Most mothers (92.6%) in our study initiated breast-feeding, but only 20.3% breast-fed exclusively at the time of hospital discharge. Most mothers (73%) self-identified as Mexicans or Mexican Americans living on the border of the United States and Mexico. Mothers in our study chose to breast-feed if they decided to breast-feed during pregnancy, had breast-fed a previous child, had support from a female relative, and had attended college. Distinctively, most mothers in our study chose "las dos cosas" or to breast-feed and formula feed together early after birth. Acculturation failed to explain the breast-feeding decisions. Mexican American mothers who decided to breast-feed during pregnancy, breast-fed another child, attended college, and enlist a female relative's breast-feeding help were more likely to choose breast-feeding exclusively. Most Mexican American low-income mothers in our study chose "las dos cosas."

  19. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  20. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  1. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Sherman, David R.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one third of the world’s population. Here we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 Å and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 Å resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected (βα)4 topology instead of the canonical (βα)5 fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation which contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix α10 which provides Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix α10 residues different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism. PMID:18353359

  2. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Hill, Carri; Carter, Alice S; Danis, Barbara; Egger, Helen L; Keenan, Kate; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cicchetti, Domenic; Maskowitz, Katie; Burns, James; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS), a new observational method for assessing preschool disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a structured clinic-based assessment designed to elicit clinically salient behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Child behavior is assessed in three interactional contexts that vary by partner (parent versus examiner) and level of support provided. Twenty-one disruptive behaviors are coded within two domains: problems in Behavioral Regulation and problems in Anger Modulation. A total of 364 referred and nonreferred preschoolers participated: interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a primary sample (n = 335) and test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 29). The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a reliable observational tool for clinic-based assessment of preschool disruptive behavior. This standardized assessment method holds promise for advancing developmentally sensitive characterization of preschool psychopathology.

  4. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-14

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 10(17)-10(21)/(cm(3)·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  5. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017-1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  6. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  8. First-principle calculation of the electronic structure, DOS and effective mass TlInSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayilova, N. A.; Orudzhev, G. S.; Jabarov, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    The electronic structure, density of states (DOS), effective mass are calculated for tetragonal TlInSe2 from first principle in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic structure of TlInSe2 has been investigated by Quantum Wise within GGA. The calculated band structure by Hartwigsen-Goedecker-Hutter (HGH) pseudopotentials (psp) shows both the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum located at the T point of the Brillouin zone. Valence band maximum at the T point and the surrounding parts originate mainly from 6s states of univalent Tl ions. Bottom of the conduction band is due to the contribution of 6p-states of Tl and 5s-states of In atoms. Calculated DOS effective mass for holes and electrons are mDOS h∗ = 0.830m e, mDOS h∗ = 0.492m e, respectively. Electron effective masses are fairly isotropic, while the hole effective masses show strong anisotropy. The calculated electronic structure, density of states and DOS effective masses of TlInSe2 are in good agreement with existing theoretical and experimental results.

  9. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  10. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  11. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    PubMed

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved.

  12. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  13. Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the oxygen fugacity (f{hook}O2) as a function of temperature (T) were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f{hook}O2-T relationship of the iron-wu??stite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wu??stite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f{hook}O2 values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f{hook}O2 of the assemblage iron-wu??stite. Measured f{hook}O2 data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars. ?? 1977.

  14. Revisiting DoS Attacks and Privacy in RFID-Enabled Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arco, Paolo; Scafuro, Alessandra; Visconti, Ivan

    Vaudenay presented in [ASIACRYPT 2007] a general RFID security and privacy model that abstracts some previous works in a single, concise, and much more understandable framework. He introduced eight distinct notions of privacy, corresponding to adversaries of different strength, and proved some possibility and impossibility results for such privacy notions. However, some interesting problems as: 1) achieving stronger privacy using low-cost tags (i.e., tags that usually can not perform public-key cryptography), 2) achieving stronger privacy in presence of side-channel attacks (e.g., DoS attacks, detection of the outputs of identification protocols), and 3) achieving stronger privacy under standard complexity-theoretic assumptions, are still left open.

  15. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  16. The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

  17. [Anterior cruciate ligament-plasty using the "U-dos" technique].

    PubMed

    Morales-Trevizo, C; Paz-García, M; Leal-Berumen, I; Leal-Contreras, C; Berumen-Nafarrate, E

    2013-01-01

    The knee is a compound diarthrodial joint, vulnerable to serious injuries such as ligament injuries of: medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament, as cruciate ligaments limit rotation movement in the joint. The purpose of our study was to create a new technique to treat injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament, which is composed of two bundles--anteromedial and posterolateral--trying to achieve an anatomical reconstruction that allows for a normal biomechanical recovery. This technique reduces the use of fixation material and costs. The diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was made with the pivot shift test. There are currently two repair methods for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: single bundle or double bundle repair; none of these techniques is considered as the gold standard, as their results are very similar. This paper describes a technique used for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, known as "U-dos", and its clinical results. Cross-sectional, observational study that enrolled 20 patients with total anterior cruciate ligament injuries who underwent anterior cruciate ligament plasty using the "U-dos" technique between June 2009 and June 2010. The technique requires the use of bone bank allograft, in this case of the anterior tibial ligament. Patients were assessed using the Lysholm scale and the pivot shift test. Our results show that all the pivot shift tests were negative and assessments according to the Lysholm scale were from normal to excellent in 95% of cases (19/20). Only one failure was reported, with avulsion of the graft attachment which required a surgical intervention.

  18. [The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program and aspects of public provision of medicines in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos-Pinto, Cláudia Du Bocage; Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, the Federal Government introduced the "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program, which was an example of policy innovation, establishing a co-payment scheme as a strategy for access to medication. The study analyzed the original model of the Program. Data were obtained from interviews with key stakeholders, program documents and user prescriptions and registers. The results showed widespread expansion of the PFPB network and in the number of people attended. Despite the ever-increasing number of people attended with prescriptions from the private sector, a large demand from public sector users, namely the original focus of the program, was observed. From the standpoint of the federative pact, the program reinstates the centralized model of essential medication distribution which, in the decentralized public system is under state and municipal responsibility. The results point to the difficulty in compliance by states and municipalities with medication distribution responsibilities, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. The study concludes that the population has been consistently turning to the PFPB for essential medication it has not been able to access in the public sector.

  19. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  1. Creating a Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Site: Lago Cachet Dos example in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B. A.; Nimick, D. A.; Wilson, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS has been acquiring remotely sensed imagery from all over the world, collecting thousands of images at more than 200 sites, and creating Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) as part of the Global Fiducials Program (GFP). The GFP program enables scientists to use these images to study our rapidly changing planet at carefully selected locations around the world. New GFP Sites are created and added each year. Researchers at the University of Alaska, for instance, added areas susceptible to coastal erosion for monitoring the long-term effects of high tides and storms. This presentation will guide you through the process of creating a new GFP site for your area of interest. We will describe the components of the GFP and its archive, the Global Fiducials Library. The Global Fiducials Program—Initial Site Proposal form will be presented and we will show you how to complete each component in order to propose a new site. Lago Cachet Dos, a glacier-dammed lake in southern Chile, is currently being proposed as a new GFP site and will be used as the example for this exercise. In addition, USGS web sites will be used to illustrate how a long-term imagery record can tell a story and to demonstrate viewing and downloading the type of data that will be available online and free of charge through the GFP.

  2. A proposed application of an industrial DOS computer for distribution substation monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Batur, I. . Aselsan Military); Guven, A.N.; Ozay, N. . Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an intelligent controller intended for use in distribution substations to perform monitoring and control duties within the framework of distribution automation needs. The hardware of the developed controller is a DOS based industrial computer running on ECB-BUS. The application software handles all input/output tasks, data collection, manipulation and control decisions with its flexible structure. This embedded controller measures bus voltage, transformer and feeder currents and calculates the real and reactive power, power factor, frequency, and total harmonic distortion of voltage and current. In addition to its local and remote data acquisition and monitoring functions by means of console and SCADA outputs, the system, through its relay outputs, is capable of performing automation tasks such as integrated Volt/Var control, overload and underfrequency detection and load shedding at the substation level. This reliable, high capacity and low cost system is completely programmable so that it can handle new requirements with new configurations easily.

  3. Environmental discrimination among soft-bottom mollusc associations off Lagoa dos Patos, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalão, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Sublittoral benthic molluscs established in the outlet of Lagoa dos Patos (South Brazil) were sampled with a rectangular dredge and the malacological associations delineated by cluster analysis (WPGA) using the Baroni-Urbani and Buser similarity index. Three main associations were characterized in bands parallel to the beach with relative concordance with specific sedimentological facies. The multiple discriminant analysis showed that there was a high correlation between these associations and the following environmental parameters: depth, average grain size, skewness of the sediment, medium sand, coarse sand, total sand and total mud. The effect of reducing the multidimensionality of the data to two factors, ecologically explained, brings out the importance of depth, average grain size, total sand and total mud. The first appears to be a bathymetric gradient of stability/disturbance; the disturbance from storms becomes less frequent with increasing depth. This is partially supported by the results of the Caswell neutral model, and is in agreement with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis predictions. The second sedimentological factor is the relative percentages of sand and mud in determining the specific composition of these associations.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  5. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  6. Dos and don'ts for using climate information for water resource planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.; Arnold, J.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly water managers and planners are being required to incorporate climate change information into their planning processes. This is generally seen as a step in the right direction. However, the continuously evolving and expanding realm of climate information can be confusing to use and easy to apply in ways the information producers never intended, and often in ways those producers might say are not viable. Additionally, advice on how various products should be used is not usually straightforward - it may require an extended dialogue between scientists and end users, which is not always feasible with current resources. While rarely is there a one-size fits all approach, there are usually preferable paths forward. To help the water resource planning and management community navigate the ever-changing climate science landscape, we present a set of guidelines for better practices when using climate information. These are divided into two categories: (1) process-based recommendations for developing an effective approach for using climate change scenarios, and (2) product-based cautions for using climate change information. This collection of dos and don'ts provides context on why certain strategies are preferable, including real-world examples. This work is intended to provide a foundation that can be built on through dialogue within and between the climate science and application communities to increase the usefulness of climate information.

  7. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE PICO DOS DIAS SURVEY HERBIG Ae/Be CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Marilia J.; Rodrigues, Claudia V.; Batalha, Celso

    2010-01-15

    A large sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) candidates, distributed in different Galactic regions south to declination +30 deg., were identified by the Pico dos Dias Survey (a search for young stellar objects based on IRAS colors). Most of the candidates are nearby or associated with star-forming clouds, but several others are considered isolated objects. Aiming to verify the young nature of 93 HAeBe candidates, we searched for additional information that could be useful to confirm if they are pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars or evolved objects, which coincidentally show similar IRAS colors. By adopting a spectral index that is related to the amount of infrared excess and the shape of the spectral energy distribution, we have classified the sample according to three groups, which are analyzed on the basis of (1) circumstellar luminosity; (2) spatial distribution; (3) optical polarization; (4) near-infrared colors; (5) stellar parameters (mass, age, effective temperature); and (5) intensity of emission lines. Our analysis indicates that only 76% of the studied sample, mainly the group with intermediate to low levels of circumstellar emission, can be more confidently considered PMS stars. The nature of the remaining stars, which are in the other group that contains the highest levels of infrared excess, remains to be confirmed. They share the same characteristics of evolved objects, requiring complementary studies in order to correctly classify them. At least seven objects show characteristics typical of post-asymptotic giant branch or proto-planetary nebulae.

  9. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food. PMID:28030625

  10. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  11. 48 CFR 653.219-70 - DOS form DS-1910, Small Business Agency Review-Actions Above the Simplified Acquisition Threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS form DS-1910, Small... 653.219-70 DOS form DS-1910, Small Business Agency Review—Actions Above the Simplified Acquisition Threshold. As prescribed in 619.501(c), DS-1910 is prescribed for use in documenting set-aside decisions. ...

  12. Cross-Reactive Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon-Encoded Antigens in Individuals Infected with Environmental, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, May Young; Reddy, T. B. K.; Arend, Sandra M.; Friggen, Annemieke H.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Verduyn, Marleen J. C.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Klein, Michel R.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens are highly immunogenic in M. tuberculosis-infected humans and are associated with latent tuberculosis infection. We have investigated the hypothesis that infection with or exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can induce cross-reactive immunity to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens since responsiveness has been observed in non-M. tuberculosis-exposed but purified protein derivative-responsive individuals. M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigen-specific T-cell responses were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NTM-infected/exposed individuals. BLASTP was used to determine the presence of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs among environmental mycobacteria and nonmycobacteria. Significant gamma interferon production was observed in PBMCs from NTM-infected/exposed individuals in response to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens. DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs were prominently present in tuberculous and environmental mycobacteria and surprisingly also in nonmycobacteria. The ubiquitous presence of the highly conserved DosR master regulator protein Rv3133c suggests that this is a general adaptive bacterial response regulator. We report a first series of M. tuberculosis antigens to which cross-reactive immunity is induced by NTM infection/exposure. The high conservation of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens most likely enables them to induce cross-reactive T-cell responses. PMID:19737909

  13. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  14. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  15. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  16. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  17. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  18. Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study: does BMI matter?

    PubMed

    Pena Gralle, Ana Paula Bruno; Barbosa Moreno, Arlinda; Lopes Juvanhol, Leidjaira; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus; Prates Melo, Enirtes Caetano; Antunes Nunes, Maria Angélica; Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-05-25

    To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.

  19. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. Methods: A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Results: Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Conclusions: Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. Citation: Blunden S, Rigney G. Lessons learned from sleep education in schools: a review of dos and don'ts. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):671–680. PMID:25766709

  20. Las dos cosas: an analysis of attitudes of latina women on non-exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bartick, Melissa; Reyes, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Non-exclusive breastfeeding among Latina women is commonly seen in the newborn period. The reasons behind las dos cosas ("both things") are not well understood but have included the beliefs that formula has vitamins and that adding formula will result in a chubbier baby, which is desirable. Many previous studies involved Mexican and Puerto Rican women living in the mainland United States. We performed detailed semistructured interviews with 17 Latina mothers in late pregnancy or the newborn period at a community hospital and an affiliated clinic in Massachusetts, serving a large Dominican population. Women were asked about their beliefs about breastfeeding, colostrum, and infant formula. Transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo 9 software (QSR International Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, Australia) to identify the frequencies of common trends. The most common reasons for introducing formula were treatment for insufficient milk, to keep the baby fuller longer, and planning for return to work. None of the women understood the potential risks of introducing formula on the establishment of breastfeeding, particularly on milk supply. Many thought that even limited amounts of breastfeeding were sufficient to produce a healthier child, failing to understand a negative dose-response effect of formula on health and milk production. While every woman saw breastfeeding as healthier, only one saw formula as unhealthy, an important distinction. None of the women expressed familiarity with medical recommendations around breastfeeding duration or exclusivity, with many believing that breastmilk alone would be insufficient to satisfy the hunger or nutritional needs of a growing child after as little as 3 months. Women consistently demonstrated a willingness to learn from health professionals. In counseling Latina women, it may be important to discuss the risks of formula to infant health, breastfeeding, and milk supply and to include the medical recommendations for breastfeeding exclusivity

  1. Implementation of DoS attack and mitigation strategies in IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Julia; Meng, Ke; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Roger

    2010-04-01

    IEEE 802.11 wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) becomes very prevalent nowadays. Either as a simple range extender for a home wired Ethernet interface, or as a wireless deployment throughout an enterprise, WLAN provides mobility, convenience, and low cost. However, an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network uses the frequency of unlicensed 2.4GHz, which makes the network unsafe and more vulnerable than traditional Ethernet networks. As a result, anyone who is familiar with wireless network may initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack to influence the common communication of the network or even make it crash. In this paper, we present our studies on the DoS attacks and mitigation strategies for IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and describe some initial implementations using IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices.

  2. Video movie making using remote procedure calls and 4BSD Unix sockets on Unix, UNICOS, and MS-DOS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Johnston, W.E.; Hall, D.E.; Rosenblum, M.

    1990-03-01

    We describe the use of the Sun Remote Procedure Call and Unix socket interprocess communication mechanisms to provide the network transport for a distributed, client-server based, image handling system. Clients run under Unix or UNICOS and servers run under Unix or MS-DOS. The use of remote procedure calls across local or wide-area networks to make video movies is addressed.

  3. Diverted organic synthesis (DOS): accessing a new, natural product inspired, neurotrophically active scaffold through an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Samineni, Ramesh; Srihari, Pabbaraja; Reddy, R Gajendra; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2012-09-14

    Drawing inspiration from the impressive neurotrophic activity exhibited by the natural product paecilomycine A, we have designed a new natural product-like scaffold employing an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. Several compounds based on the new designer scaffold exhibited promising neurotrophic activity and are worthy of further biological evaluation. Our findings also highlight the importance of a DOS strategy in creating useful therapeutical leads.

  4. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  5. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil's baseline assessment. Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension.

  7. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  8. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  9. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P<0.001) and carotid intima-media thickness (β=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P<0.001) and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 (odds ratio: 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-3.08; P<0.001) and CAC >0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P<0.001). Among former and current smokers, pack-years of smoking (burden) were significantly associated with hsCRP (P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively) and CAC (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Among former smokers, hsCRP and carotid intima-media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting (P<0.01). Among current smokers, number of cigarettes per day (intensity) was positively associated with hsCRP (P<0.001) and CAC >0 (P=0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  15. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 900125N1. 10258, R. R. Software, Inc., Janus/Ada 2.1.3 386 to DOS Bell 386 Under Ms-Dos 4 Host

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-25

    Ada Validation Vabkdim Swmy Re t AVF-VSR-90502/69 R R Softmm Im 3MW/Ada 21.3 316 to DOS chaplerl - Page I of 5 INTRODUCTION Organization ( AVO ). On...1.2 USE OF THIS VALIDATION SUMMARY REPORT Consistent with the national laws of the originating country, the AVO may make full and free public...contained in the Ada Compiler Validation Procedures and Guidelines. AVO The Ada Validation Organization. The AVO has oversight authority over all AVF

  16. Whole of Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort Between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of State (DOS), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT APPROACH: MAXIMIZING UNITY OF EFFORT BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD), DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), AND THE...UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID) A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort between the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of State (DoS), and the United States Agency for

  17. The FG loop of a heme-based gas sensor enzyme, Ec DOS, functions in heme binding, autoxidation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinya; Igarashi, Jotaro; Shimizu, Toru

    2009-10-01

    Ec DOS is a heme-based gas sensor enzyme that catalyzes conversion from cyclic-di-GMP to linear-di-GMP in response to gas molecules, such as oxygen, CO and NO. Ec DOS contains an N-terminal heme-binding PAS domain and C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. Based on crystal structures of the isolated heme-binding domain, it is suggested that the FG loop is involved in intra-molecular signal transduction to the catalytic domain. We generated nine full-length proteins mutated at ionic and non-ionic polar residues between positions 83 and 96 corresponding to the F-helix and FG loop, and examined the heme binding properties, autoxidation rates, and catalytic activities of mutant proteins. N84A and R85A mutant proteins displayed lower heme binding affinities, consistent with the finding that Asn84 interacts with propionate of protoporphyrin IX, and Arg85 with Asp40 on the heme proximal side. Autoxidation rates (0.058-0.54 min(-1)) of R91A, S96A and K89A/R91A/E93A mutant proteins were significantly higher than that (0.0053 min(-1)) of wild-type protein, suggesting that these residues in the FG loop form heme distal architecture conferring stability to the Fe(II)-O(2) complex. Catalytic activities of N84A and R85A mutant proteins with low heme affinity were significantly higher than those of wild-type protein in the absence of gas molecules. Accordingly, we propose that loss of heme binding enhances basal catalysis without the gas molecule, consistent with previous reports on heme inhibition of Ec DOS catalysis.

  18. Expression, maturation and turnover of DrrS, an unusually stable, DosR regulated small RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Moores, Alexandra; Riesco, Ana B.; Schwenk, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M. tuberculosis sRNAs and mRNAs. We have found that accumulation of this particular sRNA is slow but robust as cells enter stationary phase. Using reporter gene assays, we find that the sRNA core promoter is activated by DosR, and we have renamed the sRNA DrrS for DosR Regulated sRNA. Moreover, we show that DrrS is transcribed as a longer precursor, DrrS+, which is rapidly processed to the mature and highly stable DrrS. We characterise, for the first time in mycobacteria, an RNA structural determinant involved in this extraordinary stability and we show how the addition of a few nucleotides can lead to acute destabilisation. Finally, we show how this RNA element can enhance expression of a heterologous gene. Thus, the element, as well as its destabilising derivatives may be employed to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in mycobacteria in combination with different promoter variants. Moreover, our findings will facilitate further investigations into the severely understudied topic of mycobacterial RNA biology and into the role that regulatory RNA plays in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:28323872

  19. Expression, maturation and turnover of DrrS, an unusually stable, DosR regulated small RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Moores, Alexandra; Riesco, Ana B; Schwenk, Stefan; Arnvig, Kristine B

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M. tuberculosis sRNAs and mRNAs. We have found that accumulation of this particular sRNA is slow but robust as cells enter stationary phase. Using reporter gene assays, we find that the sRNA core promoter is activated by DosR, and we have renamed the sRNA DrrS for DosR Regulated sRNA. Moreover, we show that DrrS is transcribed as a longer precursor, DrrS+, which is rapidly processed to the mature and highly stable DrrS. We characterise, for the first time in mycobacteria, an RNA structural determinant involved in this extraordinary stability and we show how the addition of a few nucleotides can lead to acute destabilisation. Finally, we show how this RNA element can enhance expression of a heterologous gene. Thus, the element, as well as its destabilising derivatives may be employed to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in mycobacteria in combination with different promoter variants. Moreover, our findings will facilitate further investigations into the severely understudied topic of mycobacterial RNA biology and into the role that regulatory RNA plays in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  20. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  1. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  2. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  3. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional analysis from ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-06-01

    Studies focusing on the association between anxiety/depressive symptoms and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis have yielded mixed results. Our aim is to examine associations between anxiety/depressive symptoms, common mental disorder (CMD), major depression disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort baseline. The ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment included CIMT measurements and the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R), a validated questionnaire for anxiety/depressive symptoms/diagnoses. We analyzed participants without previous coronary heart disease or stroke, and with high-quality CIMT images. We built regression models to determine whether the CIS-R score, CMD, MDD or GAD were associated with maximal CIMT levels. The study sample comprised 9744 participants. We found that individuals with higher CIS-R scores (Odds ratio for one standard deviation increase [OR]:1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.06-1.19), CMD (OR:1.22; 95%CI:1.07-1.38) and GAD (OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01-1.41) had significantly higher odds of being classified in the highest age, sex and race-specific CIMT quartile. In the linear models, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher CIS-R scores (β:0.005; P = 0.010) and GAD (β:0.010; P = 0.049) were independently associated with CIMT values. Individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, or diagnoses of CMD or GAD, had higher CIMT values, compared to peers of same age, sex and race. CIS-R scores and GAD were independently associated with higher CIMT values. These results suggest an association between anxiety/depressive symptoms (and, most notably, GAD) and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes: results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chor, Dora; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years. Baseline assessments (2008-2010) included clinical and laboratory measurements and interviews on sociodemographic, occupational, and health characteristics. In the baseline sample (N=14 427), 19.6% were classified as having DM2 and 20.5% as having IGT. Mean age was 52.1 (SD 9.1) years. A total of 2041 participants worked at night for 1-20 years and 687 for >20 years. Among women exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work after adjustments for potential confounders, including obesity, the odds ratios (OR) derived from multinomial logistic regression for DM2 and IGT were 1.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-1.45] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), respectively. Among men exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work, the OR for DM2 and IGT were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.01), respectively. The association between years of night work and diabetes is stronger among women than men. Longitudinal studies from ELSA-Brasil will be able to corroborate or refute these findings.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities are still a barrier to full child vaccine coverage in the Brazilian Amazon: a cross-sectional study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Codeço, Claudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-11-27

    Vaccines are very important to reduce morbidity and mortality by preventable infectious diseases, especially during childhood. Optimal coverage is not always achieved, for several reasons. Here we assessed vaccine coverage for the first 12 months of age in children between 12 and 59 months old, residing in the urban area of a small Amazonian city, and factors associated with incomplete vaccination. A census was performed in the urban area of Assis Brasil, in the Brazilian Amazon, in January 2010, with mothers of 282 children aged 12 to 59 months old, using structured interviews and data from vaccination cards. Mixed logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with incomplete vaccination schemes. Only 82.6% of all children had a completed the basic vaccine scheme for the first year of life. Vaccine coverage ranged from 52.7% coverage (oral rotavirus vaccine) to 99.7% coverage (for Bacille Calmette-Guérin). The major deficiencies occurred in doses administered after the first six months of life. Incomplete vaccination was associated with not having enough income to buy a house (aOR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.21), low maternal schooling (aOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.28 - 5.29) , and time of residence of the child in the urban area of the city (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 - 0.95). This study showed that vaccine coverage in the first twelve months of life in Assis Brasil is similar to other areas in the Amazon and it is below the coverage postulated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Low vaccine coverage was associated with socioeconomic inequities that still prevail in the Brazilian Amazon. Short and long-term strategies must be taken to update child vaccines and increase vaccine coverage in the Amazon.

  6. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  8. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  9. Species richness of fern and lycophyte in an urban park in the Rio dos Sinos basin, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Goetz, M N B

    2010-12-01

    In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.

  10. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region.

  11. Cmr is a redox-responsive regulator of DosR that contributes to M. tuberculosis virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bochkareva, Aleksandra; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Hunt, Debbie M.; Kahramanoglou, Christina; Braun, Yvonne; Rodgers, Angela; Blockley, Alix; Coade, Stephen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Hafneh, Nor Azian; Glenn, Sarah M.; Crack, Jason C.; Le Brun, Nick E.; Saldanha, José W.; Makarov, Vadim; Nobeli, Irene; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). MTb colonizes the human lung, often entering a non-replicating state before progressing to life-threatening active infections. Transcriptional reprogramming is essential for TB pathogenesis. In vitro, Cmr (a member of the CRP/FNR super-family of transcription regulators) bound at a single DNA site to act as a dual regulator of cmr transcription and an activator of the divergent rv1676 gene. Transcriptional profiling and DNA-binding assays suggested that Cmr directly represses dosR expression. The DosR regulon is thought to be involved in establishing latent tuberculosis infections in response to hypoxia and nitric oxide. Accordingly, DNA-binding by Cmr was severely impaired by nitrosation. A cmr mutant was better able to survive a nitrosative stress challenge but was attenuated in a mouse aerosol infection model. The complemented mutant exhibited a ∼2-fold increase in cmr expression, which led to increased sensitivity to nitrosative stress. This, and the inability to restore wild-type behaviour in the infection model, suggests that precise regulation of the cmr locus, which is associated with Region of Difference 150 in hypervirulent Beijing strains of Mtb, is important for TB pathogenesis. PMID:28482027

  12. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  13. Degradability of dimethyl terephthalate by Variovorax paradoxus T4 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 isolated from deep-ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2006-08-01

    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from deep-ocean sediments of the South China Sea using enrichment culturing technique and they were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 (AY878409) and Variovorax paradoxus T4 (AY878410) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. S. yanoikuyae DOS01 was only capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) to monomethyl terephthalate (MMTP) without further degradation while V. paradoxus T4 exhibited ability in mineralizing DMTP as the sole source of carbon and energy. The biochemical pathway of DMTP degradation was through MMTP and terephthalic acid (TA) as major detectable degradation intermediates in the culture media by both microorganisms. V. paradoxus T4 utilized DMTP and MMTP via hydrolysis of diester and monoester in the initial steps in degradation as confirmed by total organic carbon analysis of the culture medium and esterase activity assay of the lysed cells and fraction. The specific hydrolysis activity of esterase induced by DMTP or MMTP showed that greater hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by esterase induced by DMTP-grown cells than that induced by MMTP. Results of this research suggest that the cleavage of the two identical carboxylic ester groups of phthalate diester are carried out by highly specific esterases of the same bacteria in the environment.

  14. Contextual variation in young children's observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification.

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Anderson, Erica L; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-09-01

    Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The DB-DOS

  15. Contextual variation in young children’s observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification

    PubMed Central

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L.; Anderson, Erica L.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Methods Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Results Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention

  16. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    .... Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies by...

  17. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  18. NGC 2287: Un cúmulo abierto rico en binarias espectroscópicas de dos espectros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.; García, B.; Grosso, M.

    NGC 2287 contiene 100 estrellas con buena fotometría y 40 con tipos MK. En 1979 Levato et al., usando la técnica de la clasificación espectral, descubrieron que la mayoría de las estrellas en el rango B8-A0 eran binarias espectroscópicas con una inusual proporción de binarias con dos espectros. El presente proyecto tuvo el propósito de confirmar la naturaleza binaria de los miembros del cúmulo. Hemos obtenido espectros con resolución 14000 de 15 estrellas clasificadas como binarias. Los espectros, que abarcan la región λ 3500-λ 6000 Å, permitieron confirmar la naturaleza binaria de varias de las estrellas en la muestra. Hacemos notar el considerable interés astrofísico de este cúmulo abierto.

  19. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-04-04

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered.

  20. Application of geostatistical methods to arsenic data from soil samples of the Cova dos Mouros mine (Vila Verde-Portugal).

    PubMed

    Reis, A P; Sousa, A J; Da Silva, E Ferreira; Fonseca, E Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    A total of 286 soil samples were collected in the Cova dos Mouros area. All samples were dry sieved into the <200 mesh size fraction and analysed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Bi and Mn by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and for As, Se, Sb and Te by atomic absorption spectrometry-hydrid generation (AAS-HG). Only the results of arsenic are discussed in this paper although the survey was extended to all analysed chemical elements. The purpose of this study was to make a risk probability mapping for arsenic that would allow better knowledge about the vulnerability of the soil to arsenic contamination. To achieve this purpose, the initial variable was transformed into an indicator variable using as thresholds the risk-based standards (intervention values) for soils, as proposed by [Swartjes 1999. Risk based assessment of soil and groundwater quality in the Netherlands: Standards and remediation. J. Geochem. Explor.73 1-10]. To account for spatial structure, sample variograms were computed for the main directions of the sampling grid and a spherical model was fitted to each sample variogram (arsenic variable and indicator variables). The parameters of the spherical model fitted to the arsenic variable were used to predict arsenic concentrations at unsampled locations. A risk probability mapping was also done to assess the vulnerability of the soil towards the mining works. The parameters of the spherical model fitted to each indicator variable were used to estimate probabilities of exceeding the corresponding threshold. The use of indicator kriging as an alternative to ordinary kriging for the soil data of Cova dos Mouros produced unbiased probability maps that allowed assessment of the quality of the soil.

  1. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  2. Long term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid function in children from Cidade dos Meninos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula; Rosa, Ana Cristina; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    A pesticide factory in Cidade dos Meninos village, Duque de Caxias County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ended its activity in 1961, leading to widespread contamination of the environment by several organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in children residing in Cidade dos Meninos. In a population-based survey carried out between 2003 and 2004, serum concentration of 19 pesticides and levels of free thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 193 children younger than 15 years old. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine thyroid hormone levels according to quintiles of organochlorine exposure, controlling for age, gender and serum lipid content. Free T4 and TSH levels were within reference values (0.7-1.8 ng/dl and 0.35-5.5 mU/l), whereas total T3 was above the reference range (80-180 ng/dl) in 28% of children. More than 60% of the children had detectable levels of most organochlorine pesticides. With the exception of heptachlor and methoxychlor, total T3 levels showed a significant increasing linear trend regardless of pesticide type to which children were exposed. Free T4 levels were positively and significantly associated only with exposure to p,p'-DDD, endosulfan 1, and dieldrin. No significant trend was found for TSH. Data showed that exposure of children to organochlorine pesticides produced a significant increase in serum total T3 concentrations. The clinical implications of such a total T3 elevation and subsequent development are uncertain and warrant the need for health monitoring of these children.

  3. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  4. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, É J F; Bittencourt, M S; Pereira, A C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2016-10-01

    Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8-1.9 ng/dl) and SCH (TSH ≥ 4.0 mIU/l and normal FT4) evaluated for IMT in a cross-sectional analysis. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and those with a history of cardiovascular disease. We performed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association with IMT (mean values and categorized at the 75th percentile) as a dependent variable and SCH as an independent variable, adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors. From 8623 subjects (median age of 50 years; interquartile range: 44-57), 4624 (53.6%) were women, 8095 (93.9%) were euthyroid, and 528 (6.1%) had SCH. Groups varied in age, body mass index, Framingham risk score, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, as well as, IMT, that were all higher in SCH compared to euthyroid participants. SCH is associated with IMT as a continuous variable (β = 0.010, P = 0.036) and IMT >75th percentile: OR = 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) in logistic models. Individuals with SCH presented higher IMT compared with euthyroid subjects, even after adjustment for potential confounders. IMT was independently associated with SCH in the baseline of the ELSA-Brasil study. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum uric acid is associated with better executive function in men but not in women: Baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela

    2017-06-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List Memory Test (CERAD-WLMT), the Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), and the Trail Making Test version B (TMT) were used as dependent variables. Sex-specific linear regression models were used to assess the association between SUA and cognitive tests, adjusted by age, education, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, coronary heart disease, renal function, depression, aspirin use, thyroid function, and menopausal status (in women). We used the Bonferroni procedure to control for the false discovery rate associated with multiple comparisons. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6751 women and 5464 men. Mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the sample was 49.6 (SD 7.4) years for men and 49.9 (SD 7.3) years for women. The majority of men (52%) and women (51%) were white. Mean SUA value was 4.75 (SD 1.16) mg/dL in women and 6.44 (SD 1.39) mg/dL in men. Multivariate linear models showed no association in women and a significant inverse association between SUA levels and TMT (β=-3.106, 95% CI=-4.594; -1.618, p=0.0004) in men. In a middle-aged subset population, SUA is associated with better performance on an executive function test in men, but not in women in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Usefulness of circulating E-selectin to early detection of the atherosclerotic process in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated whether determination of E-selectin concentrations could identify deterioration of cardiometabolic risk profile or subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals at low-to-moderate risk included in The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA-Brasil. A sample of 984 individuals from ELSA-Brasil (35-54 years) without cardiovascular disease or diabetes was stratified according to E-selectin tertiles. Traditional risk factors, inflammatory markers and categories of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were evaluated across the tertiles by ANOVA or Chi-squared test. In linear regression models, associations of E-selectin levels with insulin resistance index, adjusted for age, sex and adiposity were tested. The mean age of the participants was 45.8 (SD 4.9) years and 55 % were women. Mean values of age, anthropometric data, biochemical variables and inflammatory status increased across E-selectin tertiles. Also, a gradual deterioration of the cardiometabolic profile was reflected by increments in frequencies (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [53.7 % (48.5-58.8), 61.0 % (56.1-66.5) and 64.2 % (59.0-69.4), p = 0.019], hypertension [18.0 % (14.1-22.8), 19.8 % (15.4-24.6) and 24.8 % (20.4-29.9), p = 0.048], pre-diabetes [62.5 % (57.4-68.3), 63.1 % (58.4-69.6) and 73.8 % (68.8-78.3), p = 0.003] and hypertriglyceridemia [22.4 % (17.9-27.2), 27.3 % (22.5-32.8) and 33.4 % (28.3-38.5), p = 0.013]. Insulinemia and HOMA-IR were independently associated with E-selectin concentration. A greater proportion of individuals with CAC scores different from zero was found in the third tertile when compared with the first and second tertiles (16.1 versus 11 %, p = 0.04, respectively). Direct associations of E-selectin with traditional risk factors slightly above their normal ranges, components of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and presence of CAC suggest that this biomarker may indicate an initial

  8. Dynamics of the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in a Colombian population of household contacts of recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Ortíz, Blanca L; Franken, Kees L M C; García, Luis F; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Immune response to DosR and Rpf antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) seems to be important for latency maintenance. Little is known about the dynamics of the immune response to these antigens in an endemic community. Thus, the IFNγ response and cytokine production in response to PPD, Esat6-Cfp10 (E6-C10), DosR and Rpf antigens in healthy HHC of tuberculosis (TB) patients over a 12 (T12) months period (short-term, stLTBI) was investigated. This response was compared with a group of LTBI, who have remained healthy for 5-7 years (long-term, ltLTBI). According to the IFNγ response, two groups of HHCs were identified in stLTBI in response to E6-C10. At T12, E6-C10(+) HHCs displayed a decrease in the IFNγ levels and a generalized decrease in cytokines production. The E6-C10(-) HHC showed an increase in the IFNγ response and cytokine levels. In stLTBI, the responses to E6-C10, DosR, and Rpf may be interpreted as a protective immune response controlling Mtb infection and may be leading to a state of latent infection. Comparing the response of stLTBI and ltLTBI, we observed significant changes in the proportions of CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells to specific DosR and Rpf, which may indicate a persistent immune response to Mtb antigens in ltLTBI.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR is Required for Activity of the PmbtB and PmbtI Promoters under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Lise J.; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive for extended periods of time under conditions of low oxygen, low pH, low iron and low nutrients. The mycobactins (M. tuberculosis siderophores) play a key role in scavenging iron from the environment and are induced in response to low iron in an IdeR-regulated manner. We demonstrate that the promoters of two mycobactin gene (mbt) operons are also expressed during adaptation to low oxygen, and that this expression is dependent on the DosR regulator. Up-regulation of mbt operons induced by low iron was not DosR-dependent. DosR is a member of a two component regulatory system which responds to oxygen availability. Deletion of the DosR regulator led to increased expression of bacterioferritin and increased capacity to grow under iron depletion. These data provide a link between the mycobacterial response to two conditions likely to be encountered in vivo, low iron and low oxygen. PMID:25211224

  10. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  11. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  12. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  13. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  14. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  15. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. Association between maternal education and blood pressure: mediation evidence through height components in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Bensenor, Isabela M; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-05-01

    Maternal education influences skeletal growth and offspring adult blood pressure (BP). Height components are negatively associated with BP in high-income countries. To evaluate the association between maternal education and offspring adult systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), assessing whether different height components might mediate such an association. Simple mediation modelling was used to evaluate the maternal education-offspring SBP/DBP association, estimating the contribution of offspring height components, in a cross-sectional sample of 13 571 Brazilians aged 34-75 from the ELSA-Brasil study. After full adjustment for confounders, and compared to participants whose mothers received low education, those whose mothers received high education had, on average, 0.2 mm Hg lower SBP (95% CI = -0.274, -0.132), as result of the link between maternal education and offspring adult height which, in turn, influenced SBP. Thus, 18-26% of the maternal education-SBP association occurred indirectly, through height, trunk and leg length, alternatively. Better maternal education might influence higher leg and trunk lengths in offspring, which, in turn, might contribute to prevent higher BP in adults. The negative height-BP association reported in high-income countries is also present in a middle-income country with more recent economic development.

  17. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  18. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  19. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  20. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  2. Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

  3. MprA and DosR coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence operon encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c.

    PubMed

    Bretl, Daniel J; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J; Penoske, Renee M; Salzman, Nita H; Zahrt, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection.

  4. MprA and DosR Coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence Operon Encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c

    PubMed Central

    Bretl, Daniel J.; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J.; Penoske, Renee M.; Salzman, Nita H.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection. PMID:22689819

  5. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-03

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity.

  6. [Manifestatations of violence in adolescents in public schools in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes].

    PubMed

    Melo, Monica Cristina Batista de; Barros, Erika Neves de; Almeida, Andréa Maria Lages Gomes de

    2011-10-01

    Adolescence is a period in human development characterized by profound biological, psychological and social modifications affecting both adolescents and their entire social and family environment. This stage, which has good character forming opportunities, is also permeated by various risks, including violence. Nowadays, violence is the main cause of death among adolescents and is considered a public health concern. This research sought to investigate manifestations of violence in adolescents from public schools of the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes. This is a qualitative study, in which the data obtained from a questionnaire was analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results show that the main manifestations of violence involve harm to others. Drug usage was revealed as the main motive behind physical violence. The deployment of more policemen was the strategy most cited and strengthening the family unit was the most commented preventative measure. In conclusion, the importance of further discussion about disguised manifestations of violence is clear as this would contribute to reflections on new prevention proposals and greater visibility of the phenomenon.

  7. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Sganderla, J A; Prodanov, C C; Daroit, D

    2010-12-01

    This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  8. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R M R; Lauria, D C; Ferreira, A C; Sracek, O

    2004-01-01

    Ground water from Região dos Lagos, a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro state, was analysed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (222)Rn, (238)U, major ion concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were also measured. Concentrations values ranged from <0.002 to 0.492 Bq l(-1) for (226)Ra, from <0.01 to 1.50 Bq l(-1) for (228)Ra and from < 1.0 x 10(-4) to 8.0 x 10(-2) Bq l(-1) for (238)U. Detectable (222)Rn concentrations (>3 Bq l(-1)) were found only in two samples. The spatial distribution of Ra concentration delineated one distinct area and some hot spots with high Ra concentration. Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration. This is probably related to limited adsorption of radium on soil ferric oxides and hydroxides at low pH range. There was a significant correlation between uranium concentrations and electrical conductivity values, and also between uranium concentrations and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cl, indicating sea water impact. Uranium concentrations were lower than maximum contaminant level for drinking water, whereas 17 out of the 88 ground water samples had levels of radium that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The total annual effective dose for adult due to the water consumption reaches values up to 0.8 mSv.

  9. ESR dating of Smilodon populator from Toca de Cima dos Pilão, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mollemberg, Michelle; Santana, William; G Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Guidon, Niede; Fátima da Luz, Maria de; Guérin, Claude; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2017-02-01

    Smilodon is a genus of big cats that lived from the early to the late Pleistocene in regions extending from North to South America. The fossil records of the "saber-toothed cats" are uneven, with some taxa being quite abundant in certain regions. In Brazil, Smilodon populator is a well-known species whose remains, although scarce in comparison to other large mammals, are found all across the country. In particular, there are multiple records of this species in the region of the Serra da Capivara National Park. This area was home to a rich Pleistocene-Holocene fauna, including many mammals. Here, we report on the Electron Spin Resonance dating of a Smilodon populator tooth found in "Toca de Cima dos Pilão", located in the surroundings of the Serra da Capivara National Park. The equivalent dose found after exponential fitting of dose-response curve was (2.7±0.3)x10(2)Gy. Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the concentration of radioisotopes present in the sample and in the sediment to calculate the internal and external dose rates. The result of age found is 93±9ka, which confirmed the presence of this species in Serra da Capivara National Park in the late Pleistocene.

  10. Brief communication: "Zuzu" strikes again--morphological affinities of the early holocene human skeleton from Toca dos Coqueiros, Piaui, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, Mark; Neves, Walter A; do Amaral, Heleno Licurgo; Guidon, Niéde

    2007-10-01

    The Serra da Capivara National Park in northeastern Brazil is one of the richest archaeological regions in South America. Nonetheless, so far only two paleoindian skeletons have been exhumed from the local rockshelters. The oldest one (9870 +/- 50 BP; CAL 11060 +/- 50), uncovered in Toca dos Coqueiros and known as "Zuzu," represents a rare opportunity to explore the biological relationships of paleoindian groups living in northeastern Brazil. As previously demonstrated, South and Central America Paleoindians present skull morphology distinct from the one found nowadays in Amerindians and similar to Australo-Melanesians. Here we test the hypothesis that Zuzu shows higher morphological affinity with Paleoindians. However, Zuzu is a controversial skeleton since previous osteological assessments have disagreed on several aspects, especially regarding its sex. Thus, we compared Zuzu to males and females independently. Morphological affinities were assessed through clustering of principal components considering 18 worldwide populations and through principal components analysis of the individual dispersion of five key regions for America's settlement. The results obtained do not allow us to refute the hypothesis, expanding the known geographical dispersion of the Paleoindian morphology into northeast Brazil. To contribute to the discussion regarding Zuzu's sex, a new estimation is presented based on visual inspection of cranial and post-cranial markers, complemented by a discriminant analysis of its morphology in relation to the paleoindian sample. The results favor a male classification and are consistent with the mortuary offerings found in the burial, yet do not agree with a molecular determination.

  11. Power-efficiency trade-off due to density of states (DOS) distortion in a molecular thermoelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2013-03-01

    The issue of how a distortion in the electronic DOS affects nanoscale thermoelectric performance is addressed within an ``electrical engineering'' perspective. This view point is based on the direct evaluation of the overall efficiency and power from device current-voltage characteristics and gives a more complete picture of the thermoelectric performance in comparison to the traditional ``figure of merit'' based material science approach. We use representative examples from molecular conduction to study the trade-off between maximum efficiency and the maximum power generated within the set up. The trade-off is maximum for the well known example of a sharply resonant molecular level which represents the ultimate distortion in the electronic density of states. As the distortion is reduced via contact induced broadening, we obtain a smaller trade-off between maximum power and efficiency. We then present the effects of self consistent charging, contact induced asymmetry and the HOMO-LUMO gap on the thermoelectric performance. In all cases we compare our non-equilibrium calculations with zT calculations, and our results depict that zT is not the sole metric for the assessment of nanoscale thermoelectric performance.

  12. Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José T F; Sahoo, Prafulla K; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Figueiredo, Mariana M J Costa DE; Reis, Luiza S; Silva, Marcio S DA; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M

    2017-07-24

    Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.

  13. Dos Amigos... (Two Friends...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Rosalie M.

    Intended for supplementary reading material for Spanish speaking children in elementary grades, this illustrated Spanish text was developed by students in the Bilingual Teacher Aide Program at Mesa Community College. Both language and content have been controlled to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive material relevant to the…

  14. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  15. Race and Resting-State Heart Rate Variability in Brazilian Civil Servants and the Mediating Effects of Discrimination: An ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew H; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Pereira, Alexandre C; Santos, Itamar S; Dantas, Eduardo M; Mill, José G; Chor, Dora; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans are characterized by higher heart rate variability (HRV), a finding ostensibly associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, these findings are at odds with other evidence that blacks have worse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we examine associations in a large cohort from the ELSA-Brasil study and determined whether these effects are mediated by discrimination. Three groups were compared on the basis of self-declared race: "black" (n = 2,020), "brown" (n = 3,502), and "white" (n = 6,467). Perceived discrimination was measured using a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Resting-state HRV was extracted from 10-minute resting-state electrocardiograms. Racial differences in HRV were determined by regression analyses weighted by propensity scores, which controlled for potentially confounding variables including age, sex, education, and other health-related information. Nonlinear mediation analysis quantified the average total effect, comprising direct (race-HRV) and indirect (race-discrimination-HRV) pathways. Black participants displayed higher HRV relative to brown (Cohen's d = 0.20) and white participants (Cohen's d = 0.31). Brown relative to white participants also displayed a small but significantly higher HRV (Cohen's d = 0.14). Discrimination indirectly contributed to the effects of race on HRV. This large cohort from the Brazilian population shows that HRV is greatest in black, followed by brown, relative to white participants. The presence of higher HRV in these groups may reflect a sustained compensatory psychophysiological response to the adverse effects of discrimination. Additional research is needed to determine the health consequences of these differences in HRV across racial and ethnic groups.

  16. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-01-01

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008–2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35–74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic. PMID:28441727

  17. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  18. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão de; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.32) and 'Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality-as measured by different indicators-are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access.

  20. Associations of life course socioeconomic position and job stress with carotid intima-media thickness. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Benseñor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-09-01

    The association between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis is not consistent across studies. Socioeconomic adversities early in life are related to an increased probability of a low occupational grade and more stressful jobs in adulthood. However, the role of job stress in explaining the life course social gradient in subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. To examine whether life course SEP is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to investigate whether this association is partially mediated by job stress. This study used baseline data (2008-2010) for 8806 current workers from ELSA-Brasil. Maternal education, social class of first occupation and social class of current occupation were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP, respectively. Accumulation of risk across the life course was also evaluated. Job stress was assessed by the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Directed acyclic graph and linear regression models were used. Low childhood SEP was associated with increased IMT only in women, but low youth and adulthood SEP were associated with higher IMT in both genders. The simultaneous adjustment for all SEP indicators showed that only adulthood SEP continued to be associated with IMT. However, higher IMT values were observed among men and women sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. High-strain jobs and low job control were not associated with IMT independent of SEP. Our results support a model of the cumulative effects of exposures to SEP across the life span because the highest IMT values were observed in individuals sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. We did not find that job stress explained the association between life course SEP and IMT, suggesting that strategies to address socioeconomic inequalities in CVD should target additional steps beyond reducing job stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  2. Thyrotropin Levels, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; de Miranda, Érique José Peixoto; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have described an association with thyrotropin (TSH) levels, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional analysis to investigate the relationship between TSH levels, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Diabetics and individuals using medications that interfere in thyroid function were excluded, leaving 10,935 participants (54.3% women) for current analyses. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values above the 75th percentile was considered as indicative of presence of insulin resistance. Logistic regression models were built using HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome as the dependent variable, and quintiles of TSH as the independent variable (first quintile as reference). Odds ratios (OR) were presented with multivariate adjustment for socioeconomic/cardiovascular risk factors for insulin resistance, and adjustment only for socioeconomic factors and smoking for metabolic syndrome. Age, body mass index, waist measurement, fasting glucose and fasting and post load insulin and HOMA-IR increased according to TSH quintiles. Subjects in the fifth TSH quintile presented an OR of association with insulin resistance of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-2.75], regardless of gender. For the metabolic syndrome, subjects in the fifth quintile presented an OR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.01-1.45) and remained positive only for men (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.07-1.76). Restricting the analysis to quintiles of TSH in the normal range did not change the results. In this cross-sectional evaluation, high TSH quintiles were associated to insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome.

  3. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-04-22

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008-2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35-74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic.

  4. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  5. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-03-27

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  6. Circulating early biomarkers of atherogenesis in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Barreto, Sandhi; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the distribution of selected biomarkers according to age and sex, adjusted for HOMA-IR and adiposity, in a subset of middle-aged individuals of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA without diabetes mellitus or CVD. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 998 participants of the ELSA-Brasil without diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors, several biomarkers concentrations were compared according to sex, age groups (35-44; 45-54 yrs) and HOMA-IR tertiles. Linear regression was used to examine independent associations of sex and age with selected novel biomarkers, adjusted for body adiposity and HOMA-IR. Fifty-five percent were women. Men had higher mean values of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, worse lipid profile and higher E-selectin and lower leptin concentrations than women; while women had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and leptin than men. Mean values of waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) increased with age in both sexes. Leptin and E-selectin concentrations increased across HOMA-IR tertiles. Independent associations of Apo B with age were found only in male sex, while of leptin with body mass index and HOMA-IR, and of E-selectin with HOMA-IR in both sexes. In conclusion, our data indicate age, sex, adiposity and, consequently, insulin resistance, influence circulating levels of Apo B, leptin and E-selectin, suggesting that those aspects should be taken into consideration when assessing these parameters for research or clinical purposes in individuals at relatively low cardiometabolic risk.

  7. Thyrotrophin levels and coronary artery calcification: Cross-sectional results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Pereira, Alexandre C; Foppa, Murilo; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-06-13

    There is little information about the association between thyrotrophin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to analyse the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease. We included euthyroid subjects and individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper). Logistic regression models evaluated CAC >100 Agatston units as the dependent variable, and increasing quintiles of TSH as the independent variable, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Our sample included 3836 subjects, mean age 49 years (interquartile range 44-56); 1999 (52.1%) were female, 3551 (92.6%) were euthyroid, 239 (6.2%) had SCHypo and 46 (1.2%) had SCHyper. The frequency of women, White people and never smokers as well as body mass index and insulin resistance increased according to quintiles. The 1st quintile for TSH (0-0.99 mIU/L) was associated with CAC >100, using the 3rd quintile (1.39-1.85 mIU/L) as reference (adjusted OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35, P=.027), but no association was shown for the 5th quintile (2.68-35.5 mIU/L) compared to the 3rd. Restricting the analysis to euthyroid subjects did not change the results. For women, but not for men, we observed a U-shaped curve with 1st and 5th TSH quintiles associated with CAC>100. Low and low-normal (1st quintile) TSH levels were associated with CAC>100 Agatston units in a sample with subclinical thyroid disorders and euthyroid subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, James; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Sander; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that earlier age at first childbirth may increase the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, a novel finding with important public health implications. To date, however, no known studies have attempted to replicate this finding. We aimed to test the hypothesis that age at first childbirth is associated with the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from 2919 middle-aged and elderly postmenopausal women in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Age at first childbirth was determined from self-reporting and newly diagnosed diabetes through a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and/or glycated hemoglobin. Logistic regression was performed to examine associations between age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women. We did not find any association between age at first childbirth and diabetes, either when minimally adjusted for age, race and study center (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI]: ≤ 19 years: 1.15 [0.82-1.59], 20-24 years: 0.90 [0.66-1.23] and ≥ 30 years: 0.86 [0.63-1.17] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.36) or when fully adjusted for childhood and adult factors (OR [95% CI]: ≤ 19 years: 0.95 [0.67-1.34], 20-24 years: 0.78 [0.56-1.07] and ≥ 30 years: 0.84 [0.61-1.16] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.40). Our current analysis does not support the existence of an association between age at first childbirth and adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, which had been reported previously.

  9. Insulin resistance is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in non-diabetic subjects. A cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil cohort baseline.

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and insulin resistance, glucose levels or glycated hemoglobin with mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the association between CIMT and homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting and post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We included 8028 participants (aged 35-74 years) without diabetes or overt cardiovascular disease who had complete CIMT data at baseline. We built crude and adjusted linear and binary logistic models to evaluate the association between CIMT and (a) HOMA-IR; (b) fasting plasma glucose; (c) post-load plasma glucose; and (d) glycated hemoglobin. We also built post-hoc models, stratified by sex. In the fully-adjusted linear models, only the association between CIMT (in mm) and HOMA-IR remained significant (β = 0.004; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:0.001 to 0.006). Consistent with these results, only the association between the highest age- sex- and race-specific CIMT quartile and HOMA-IR was significant in the adjusted logistic model (odds ratio [OR]:1.10; 95% CI:1.04-1.17). The association between HOMA-IR and the highest CIMT quartile remained significant in sex-specific analyses (OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for men and OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for women). We did not find an independent association between CIMT and glucose or glycated hemoglobin. We found a direct association between HOMA-IR and CIMT in a large sample of non-diabetic participants. Mechanisms unrelated to glucose homeostasis, as a direct effect of insulin on atherosclerosis, or medial hypertrophy, may be involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  11. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  12. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  13. The petrochemistry of the auriferous, volcanosedimentary Riacho dos Machados Group, Central-eastern Brazil: geotectonic implications for shear-hosted gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, E.; Lobato, L. M.; Baars, F. J.

    1997-12-01

    The Ouro Fino Gold Deposit at the Riacho dos Machados Mine is located in the Araçuaí Fold Belt at the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton. The gold is shear zone-hosted and associated principally with a sulphide-bearing, quartzmuscovite schist, derived from the hydrothermal alteration of pelitic and quartzofeldspathic schists of the Riacho dos Machados Group (RMG). Along the shear zones, mineral associations typical of the amphibolite facies are progressively altered to assemblages typical of the greenschist facies. It has become evident from the studies that the process of segregation and concentration of chemical elements and minerals is the very process of mineralization, involving the concentration of Au. The RMG comprises ultramafic, mafic and acid metavolcanic rocks intercalated in a sequence of metapelites. The metapelites have textures and geochemistry compatible with greywackes. The dacitic and mafic/ultramafic rocks are of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic subalkaline association, respectively. The RMG probably formed within a continental volcanic arc. The thrust faults that establish the regional architecture, and which host the Riacho dos Machados gold mineralization, are related to a continental collision of unknown age between the precursor to the São Francisco Craton and the Guanambi-Correntina Block.

  14. Comparison of a short version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire with its long version--a cross-sectional analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Mannato, Livia Welter; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the preferred instrument for obtaining dietary information in epidemiological studies. A short form of the FFQ was compared with the original version that was used in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), and also with three 24-hour dietary recalls. Cross-sectional study carried out in six Brazilian state capitals. Multiple linear regression was used to reduce the original food and drink list of the FFQ, which had contained 114 food items. The frequency of consumption and nutritional composition of the foods were also taken into consideration. To assess the validity of the shortened FFQ, the energy and nutrients values of the 24-hour dietary recalls were deattenuated and log-transformed. The list of the FFQ of ELSA-Brasil was reduced to 76 food items. The intraclass correlation coefficients in the validation study ranged from 0.17 (selenium) to 0.66 (calcium). The number of items was reduced by 33%, while still maintaining relatively good capacity to measure energy and selected nutrients.

  15. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  16. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Bisi Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of

  17. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  18. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  19. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su l

  20. 2.3 Å X-ray Structure of the Heme-Bound GAF Domain of Sensory Histidine Kinase DosT of Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Podust, Larissa M.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds to the changes in environmental conditions through a two-component signaling system that detects reduced O2 tension and NO and CO exposures via the heme-binding GAF domains of two sensory histidine kinases, DosT and DevS, and the transcriptional regulator DosR. We report the first x-ray structure of the DosT heme-bound GAF domain (GAFDosT) in both oxy and deoxy forms determined to a resolution of 2.3 Å. In GAFDosT, heme binds in an orientation orthogonal to that in the PAS domains via a highly conserved motif including invariant H147 as a proximal heme axial ligand. On the distal side, invariant Y169 is in stacking interactions with the heme with its long axis parallel and the plane of the ring orthogonal to the heme plane. In one of the two protein monomers in an asymmetric unit, O2 binds as a second axial ligand to the heme iron, and is stabilized via an H-bond to the OH-group of Y169. The structure reveals two small tunnel-connected cavities and a pore on the protein surface that suggest a potential route for O2 access to the sensing pocket. The limited conformational differences observed between differently heme iron-ligated GAFDosT monomers in the asymmetric unit may result from crystal lattice limitations since atmospheric oxygen binding likely occurs in the crystal as a result of x-ray induced Fe3+ photoreduction during diffraction data collection. Determination of the GAFDosT structure sets up a framework in which to address ligand-recognition, discrimination, and signal propagation schemes in the heme-based GAF domains of biological sensors. PMID:18980385

  1. [Species from genus Eimeria observed in domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces raised at the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Adriana J; Mayen, Friederike L; de Oliveira, Francisco C R

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify species of the genus Eimeria from eleven rabbit meat breeders from Campos dos Goytacazes. Fecal samples were collected from rabbits with different health conditions and consintence of feces. The following species of Eimeria were identified: E. perforans; E. magna; E. coecicola; E. irresidua; E. media; E. flavescens; E. nagpurensis; E. intestinalis, E. exigua and E. stiedae. Parasites from this genus were detected in 81.82% (9) of the rabbit meat production sites, regardless of the management and hygiene conditions. In all cases the infection was always caused from more than one species of Eimeria.

  2. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  3. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in public school children in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, prior to the introduction of the hepatitis A universal childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kury, Charbell Miguel; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Jaquelline Pereira da; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vitral, Claudia Lamarca

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV). The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A. Age, non-white skin color, accustomed to swimming in the river and more than five people living at home were the factors that were associated with an increase in the chance of a positive anti-HAV result. Mother's education level (secondary or tertiary) was considered a protective factor for HAV infection. The data obtained showed that a large proportion of the children from Campos dos Goytacazes were at risk of HAV infection, which should be minimized with the introduction of the vaccination program against hepatitis A that was launched in the municipality in 2011.

  4. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  5. Detection of IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in tuberculosis patients before and after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Ana Márcia Menezes; Chaves, Alexandre Silva; Franken, Kees L M C; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains challenging. Serum IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis active growth phase antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv0717 and Rv3353), DosR regulon-encoded proteins (Rv1733, Rv1737, Rv2628 and Rv2029), and resuscitation-promoting factors (Rv0867 and Rv2389) were evaluated in TB patients using ELISA. Active TB patients showed elevated levels of IgG1 antibodies against ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv0717, Rv3353, Rv1733, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867 in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.001). These levels remained high after the initiation of treatment, while responses to Rv0717 and Rv1733 peaked early during treatment. IgG1 responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv3353, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867 declined to control levels after the completion of 6 months chemotherapy. ROC analysis confirmed the good diagnostic performance of Rv0717, Rv1733, Rv3353, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867antigens. These data suggest that detecting IgG1 antibodies against M. tuberculosis antigens, including DosR and Rpf proteins, may represent an additional tool in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  6. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  7. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  8. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  9. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  10. Multifunctional T Cell Response to DosR and Rpf Antigens Is Associated with Protection in Long-Term Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional T cells have been shown to be protective in chronic viral infections. In mycobacterial infections, however, evidence for a protective role of multifunctional T cells remains inconclusive. Short-term cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 antigens 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and 10-kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP10), which are induced in the early infection phase, have been mainly used to assess T cell multifunctionality, although long-term culture assays have been proposed to be more sensitive than short-term assays for assessment of memory T cells, which are essential for long-term immunity. Here we used a long-term culture assay system to study the T cell immune responses to the M. tuberculosis latency-associated DosR antigens and reactivation-associated Rpf antigens, compared to ESAT6 and CFP10, in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and household contacts of PTB patients with long-term latent tuberculosis infection (ltLTBI), in a community in which M. tuberculosis is endemic. Our results showed that the DosR antigens Rv1737c (narK2) and Rv2029c (pfkB) and the Rv2389c (rpfD) antigen of M. tuberculosis induced higher frequencies of CD4+ or CD8+ mono- or bifunctional (but not multifunctional) T cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in ltLTBI, compared to PTB. Moreover, the frequencies of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells with a CD45RO+ CD27+ phenotype were higher in ltLTBI than in PTB. Thus, the immune responses to selected DosR and Rpf antigens may be associated with long-term latency, correlating with protection from M. tuberculosis reactivation in ltLTBI. Further study of the functional and memory phenotypes may contribute to further discrimination between the different states of M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:27489136

  11. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  12. Multifunctional T Cell Response to DosR and Rpf Antigens Is Associated with Protection in Long-Term Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Franken, Kees L M C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional T cells have been shown to be protective in chronic viral infections. In mycobacterial infections, however, evidence for a protective role of multifunctional T cells remains inconclusive. Short-term cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 antigens 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and 10-kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP10), which are induced in the early infection phase, have been mainly used to assess T cell multifunctionality, although long-term culture assays have been proposed to be more sensitive than short-term assays for assessment of memory T cells, which are essential for long-term immunity. Here we used a long-term culture assay system to study the T cell immune responses to the M. tuberculosis latency-associated DosR antigens and reactivation-associated Rpf antigens, compared to ESAT6 and CFP10, in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and household contacts of PTB patients with long-term latent tuberculosis infection (ltLTBI), in a community in which M. tuberculosis is endemic. Our results showed that the DosR antigens Rv1737c (narK2) and Rv2029c (pfkB) and the Rv2389c (rpfD) antigen of M. tuberculosis induced higher frequencies of CD4(+) or CD8(+) mono- or bifunctional (but not multifunctional) T cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in ltLTBI, compared to PTB. Moreover, the frequencies of CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cells with a CD45RO(+) CD27(+) phenotype were higher in ltLTBI than in PTB. Thus, the immune responses to selected DosR and Rpf antigens may be associated with long-term latency, correlating with protection from M. tuberculosis reactivation in ltLTBI. Further study of the functional and memory phenotypes may contribute to further discrimination between the different states of M. tuberculosis infections.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  14. Osteobiographic analysis of skeleton I, Sítio Toca dos Coqueiros, Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, 11,060 BP: first results.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Andrea; Guidon, Niéde

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an osteobiographic analysis of a single skeleton found in a small rock shelter known as Toca dos Coqueiros, Piauí, Brazil. This find is of interest because of an exceptionally old radiocarbon date associated with it. The date (11,060 BP) was obtained from charcoal associated directly with the skeleton. This is an interesting find because of the rarity of osteobiographic studies of skeletons of such antiquity. Despite the existence of two projectile points in association with the burial, the morphological and molecular analyses of the skeleton demonstrated that this was a female. She was about 35-45 years of age at death. The skeleton exhibited acute and chronic bone lesions. Oral pathology was also observed, including an interproximal dental groove, probably caused by the therapeutic use of a cactus thorn. This could be one of the oldest cases of an analgesic plant used in the prehistoric Americas.

  15. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  16. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae) at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C

    2008-02-01

    Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items), consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33%) and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%). Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes) and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4%) food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%), with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia.

  17. Geochemistry of upland lacustrine sediments from Serra dos Carajás, Southeastern Amazon, Brazil: Implications for catchment weathering, provenance, and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Felix Guimarães, José Tasso; Martins Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Sousa da Silva, Marcio; Maurity, Clovis Wagner; Powell, Mike A.; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; Fonseca da Silva, Delmo; Mardegan, Sílvia Fernanda; Furtini Neto, Antonio Eduardo; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    A multi-proxy geochemical study of surficial sediments of an upland lake (Amendoim Lake), located in the Serra dos Carajás region, Brazil, was carried out to understand catchment weathering and provenance of sediments in the basin, as well as sedimentary processes. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of organic matter in the sediment were quite homogeneous, and suggest that the organic sources for this lake are mainly composed of palms and submerged macrophytes. The R-mode factor analysis indicates that most of the trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), are clustered with Al (Group 1), Si is grouped with Zr and Hf (Group 4), total organic carbon (TOC) with TS and Hg (Group 2), and Fe with Mn and As (Group 3). The elements of the Group 1 show strong positive correlations with Al, suggesting that these elements are hosted in detrital minerals during laterization in the catchment basin and not significantly affected by diagenesis. The high CIA values (96-99) of sediments together with their position in A-CN-K and log (Fe2O3/K2O) vs log (SiO2/Al2O3) plots indicate intense chemical weathering in source area. However, similar geochemical signatures between lake sediments and catchment lateritic crust indicates that mechanical erosion was the dominant sediment formation process. REE patterns normalized to chondrite along with geochemical indices (Al/K, Al/Ti, La/Th, La/Al, Ti/Zr, Zr/Hf, Th/Sc, Co/Th, Ba/Sr, and Eu/Eu*) also indicate that the sediments are mainly derived from laterite crust. This study provides reliable background information to reconstruct weathering processes and lake evolution in the Serra dos Carajás area.

  18. Diet of Ameerega braccata (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Chapada dos Guimarães and Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, L R; Tissiani, A S O; Mott, T; Strüssmann, C

    2011-02-01

    The understanding of feeding habits is important for anurans in general, both from an ecological and a phylogenetic perspective. For diurnal poison frogs belonging to the Dendrobatidae family, diet aspects play a crucial role in their defense and survival. Herein, we investigated feeding habits, foraging behaviour, and overall effects of habitat, sex, and body size on the diet of individuals of Ameerega braccata, a poorly known dendrobatid species. Specimens were observed and collected in the type-locality, Chapada dos Guimarães, and in the neighbouring municipality of Cuiabá, both in the State of Mato Grosso, Midwestern Brazil. The most important prey categories for A. braccata were Formicidae, Isoptera, and Acari, whose representatives were caught during active foraging. Individuals from Chapada dos Guimarães population consumed more Acari but fewer Isoptera than individuals from Cuiabá. Despite this, niche breadth values were narrow and similar for the two populations. Individuals from two distinct habitats (campo sujo and cerrado stricto sensu) showed differences in their diet, probably as an effect of differential prey availability. Females consumed more Isoptera than males. The number of prey categories used as food was not influenced by the variation of body size of the target species. However, the abundance and the volume of consumed Acari were statistically correlated with body size. The main results suggest that Ameerega braccata has a narrow niche breadth, as well as a specialised diet in ants, termites, and mites, which reinforces the hypotheses of close association between Acari consumption and the presence of skin toxic alkaloids, already found in other species of Dendrobatidae. Although differences in prey consumption between sexes are uncommon among poisonous frogs, differences in the diet composition between age classes, which probably reduce intraspecific competition, are frequently reported.

  19. Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kee Woong; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hongmin; Han, Seung Jung; Hahn, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Ki Taek; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-03-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that latency-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens from the dormancy survival regulator regulon (DosR) may be promising novel vaccine target antigens for the development of an improved tuberculosis vaccine. After transcriptional profiling of DosR-related genes in the hyper-virulent Beijing Mtb strain K and the reference Mtb strain H37Rv, we selected Rv3131, a hypothetical nitroreductase, as a vaccine antigen and evaluated its vaccine efficacy against Mtb K. Mtb K exhibited stable and constitutive up-regulation of rv3131 relative to Mtb H37Rv under three different growth conditions (at least 2-fold induction) including exponential growth in normal culture conditions, hypoxia, and inside macrophages. Mice immunised with Rv3131 formulated in GLA-SE, a well-defined TLR4 adjuvant, displayed enhanced Rv3131-specific IFN-γ and serum IgG2c responses along with effector/memory T cell expansion and remarkable generation of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cells co-producing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in both spleen and lung. Following challenge with Mtb K, the Rv3131/GLA-SE-immunised group exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial number and less extensive lung inflammation accompanied by the obvious persistence of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that Rv3131 could be an excellent candidate for potential use in a multi-antigenic Mtb subunit vaccine, especially against Mtb Beijing strains.

  20. Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kee Woong; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hongmin; Han, Seung Jung; Hahn, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Ki Taek; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that latency-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens from the dormancy survival regulator regulon (DosR) may be promising novel vaccine target antigens for the development of an improved tuberculosis vaccine. After transcriptional profiling of DosR-related genes in the hyper-virulent Beijing Mtb strain K and the reference Mtb strain H37Rv, we selected Rv3131, a hypothetical nitroreductase, as a vaccine antigen and evaluated its vaccine efficacy against Mtb K. Mtb K exhibited stable and constitutive up-regulation of rv3131 relative to Mtb H37Rv under three different growth conditions (at least 2-fold induction) including exponential growth in normal culture conditions, hypoxia, and inside macrophages. Mice immunised with Rv3131 formulated in GLA-SE, a well-defined TLR4 adjuvant, displayed enhanced Rv3131-specific IFN-γ and serum IgG2c responses along with effector/memory T cell expansion and remarkable generation of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4+ T cells co-producing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in both spleen and lung. Following challenge with Mtb K, the Rv3131/GLA-SE-immunised group exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial number and less extensive lung inflammation accompanied by the obvious persistence of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that Rv3131 could be an excellent candidate for potential use in a multi-antigenic Mtb subunit vaccine, especially against Mtb Beijing strains. PMID:28272457

  1. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species.

  2. Humoral Responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nalwoga, Angela; Levin, Jonathan; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Elliott, Alison M.; Cose, Stephen; Andia-Biraro, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB cases from Uganda compared to other DosR proteins, but antibody responses were not described. We characterized antibody responses to these proteins in individuals from Uganda. Antibodies to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were measured in 68 uninfected individuals, 62 with LTBI, and 107 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) cases. There were no differences in the concentrations of antibodies to Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins between individuals with LTBI and APTB and those who were uninfected. LTBI was associated with higher concentrations of antibodies to Rv1733c in female participants [adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.812, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.105 2.973, and p = 0.019] but not in males (p value for interaction = 0.060). Antibodies to the four DosR regulon-encoded proteins investigated may not serve as good biomarkers of LTBI in the general population. More of the M.tb proteome needs to be screened to identify proteins that induce strong antibody responses in LTBI. PMID:28255560

  3. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be ‘pre-adapted’ to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under ‘non-inducing’ conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be 'pre-adapted' to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under 'non-inducing' conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to the

  6. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  7. Real Time Programming of a Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    results displayed on the screen. In despite o[ the manual reset of the integrators the test was a success, that is, the values of CS (analog double...Department ot Mechanical Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 9. Cpt. Paulo Roberto de Souza 2 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - IAE - ESB...12225 - S. Jose dos Campos - SP - Brasil 10. Diretor do Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12225 - S. Jose dos Campos - SP - Brasil

  8. Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; Santos, Itamar S; Rotenberg, Lucia; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Goulart, Alessandra C; Aquino, Estela M; Benseñor, Isabela

    2016-11-01

    Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain. Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria. Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00-1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08-1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00-1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09-1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine. Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:987-1000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Unified National Health System costs in São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil, for hospital admissions due to external causes].

    PubMed

    Melione, Luís Paulo Rodrigues; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify direct expenditures for hospitalizations due to external causes in the Unified National Health System (SUS) in the city of São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. Admissions to the Dr. José de Carvalho Florence Municipal Hospital resulting from external causes or injuries - ICD-10, chapters XIX and XX respectively - were analyzed for the first semester of 2003. 976 patient admission forms were analyzed, after data evaluation. Admissions with the highest total cost were those resulting from motor vehicle accidents and falls. The highest mean cost for hospitalization for injury was due to motor vehicle accidents (BRL 614.63), followed by assault (BRL 594.90). The highest mean cost for hospitalization due to injury was for cervical fractures (BRL 1,191.42) and head injuries (BRL 1,000.44). Hospitalizations with the highest daily cost were skull and facial fractures (BRL 166.72) and abdominal trauma (BRL 148.26). The study confirmed that motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assault are an important source of costs due to hospitalization for injuries.

  10. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  11. Implementing a Knowledge Translation Intervention in Long-Term Care: Feasibility Results From the Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS)

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Courtney C.; Thabane, Lehana; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of implementing an interdisciplinary, multifaceted knowledge translation intervention within long-term care (LTC) and to identify any challenges that should be considered in designing future studies. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Forty LTC homes across the province of Ontario, Canada. Participants LTC teams composed of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other staff. Measurements Cluster-level feasibility measures, including recruitment, retention, data completion, and participation in the intervention. A process evaluation was completed by directors of care indicating which process/policy changes had been implemented. Results Recruitment and retention rates were 22% and 63%, respectively. Good fidelity with the intervention was achieved, including attendance at educational meetings. After ViDOS, 7 process indicators were being newly implemented by more than 50% of active intervention homes. Conclusion Despite recruitment and retention challenges, the multifaceted intervention produced a number of policy/process changes and had good intervention fidelity. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398527. PMID:24953541

  12. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  13. Combined use of aerogammaspectrometry and geochemistry to access sediment sources in a shallow coral site at Armação dos Búzios, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godiva, Danielly; Evangelista, Heitor; Kampel, Milton; Licinio, Marcus Vinicius; Munita, Casimiro

    2010-05-01

    Coral and reef environments in shallow waters are negatively affected by human activities in several coastal areas worldwide. It has been demonstrated that sediment influx and macronutrient discharges induce decline of coral population structure and diversity. Therefore, efforts to quantify sediment flux, sources and the biological response to sedimentation were conducted by several marine researchers. Herein, we investigated the case study of Armação dos Búzios/Brazil/Western South Atlantic, where coral colonies (mostly Siderastrea stellata) are under stress due to sediment apportionment as a consequence of regional human occupation. Classification of potential sediment source regions was based on a high-resolution aerogammaspectrometry survey for 232Th, 238U and 40K in main land near shore, used as primarily tool, in combination with sediment geochemistry. This approach allowed distinguishing three hydrographic basins (Macaé river basin, São João river basin and Una river basin) as potential sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to the set of parameters identified the Macaé River as the most probable sediment contributor to the coralline site.

  14. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Leite, Ronaldo Viana; Bonacim, José Edivaldo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4%) reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5%) showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.

  15. [Ecological aspects of phlebotomus of the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos, Rio de Janeiro. I. Monthly frequency in human baits (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae)].

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, G M; Soucasaux, T

    1984-01-01

    During two full years--from October 1980 to September 1982--we captured sandflies in the National Park of Serra dos Orgãos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The captures, with human bait, were carried out weekly, each with a duration of two hours, and at three different times (6 to 8 a.m., 5 to 7 a.m. and 7:30 to 9:30 p.m.). In every capture, we recorded the phase of the moon and, at each hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind and rain. In 586 hours 4,834 sandflies of ten species were captured, all belonging to genus Lutzomyia França, 1924. L. ayrozai and L. hirsuta represented 92% of the total species captured. However, they were dominant at different times, the former being more frequent in the warm and wet months, and considerably declining in the cold and dry months, in which the latter gradually prevailed. L. fischeri and L. shannoni were shown to be the most resistant to unfavourable weather conditions. Whenever there was any rain or wind, they were, in general, the only species captured. With regard to lunar cycle, we observed that new moon was the most favourable phase for the capture of sandflies and full moon the one with the smallest yield, except for L. shannoni which occurred more frequently during this period.

  16. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  17. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  18. [Governance, sustainability, and equity in the health program for the municipality of São José dos Pinhais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bueno, Roberto Eduardo; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Bueno, Paula Alexandra Reis; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the Final Report of the VIII Health Conference and the São José dos Pinhais City Health Program for 2010-2013 and investigate whether these documents addressed the themes of sustainability, governance, and equity and the interfaces between these themes--government policies, power balance, and inclusive processes/impacting results--that make up the Concept Model for Human Development and Health Promotion developed by the authors. This case study analyzed 331 proposals approved for incorporation in the City Health Program. The six thematical categories of the Concept Model were analyzed using ATLAS Ti 5.0 software. The proposals were classified according to the number of themes and interfaces of the Concept Model: full health proposals contained all six categories; partial proposals contained three categories; and incipient proposals contained one category. Of 331 proposals approved, 162 (49%) contemplated the six thematical categories and were classified as full health promotion proposals. Ninety-five (29%) contemplated three categories (partial health promotion). Of these, 38 (12%) addressed Governance, Sustainability, and Government Policies, 33 (10%) addressed Governance, Power Balance, and Equity and 24 (7%) addressed Equity, Inclusive Processes/Impact Results, and Sustainability. Finally, 74 (22%) proposals contemplated only one category and were classified as incipient: 36 (11%) addressed Governance, 27 (8%) addressed sustainability, and 11 (3%) addressed equity. Based on the fact that 49% of the proposals approved were classified as full health promotion, it is considered that the effectiveness of social control and popular participation in the construction of health policies at the local level contritute to the promotion of health in the city.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization.

  20. Diverging DOS strategy using an allene-containing tryptophan scaffold and a library design that maximizes biologically relevant chemical space while minimizing the number of compounds.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas O; Wang, Lirong; Majumder, Supriyo; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Brummond, Kay M

    2011-03-14

    A diverging diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) strategy using an allene-containing tryptophan as a key starting material was investigated. An allene-yne substituted derivative of tryptophan 12 gave indolylmethylazabicyclooctadiene 17 when subjected to a microwave-assisted allenic [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. This same tryptophan-derived precursor afforded an indolylmethyldihydrocyclopentapyridinone 14 when subjected to a rhodium(I)-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation reaction and an indolylmethylpyrrolidinocyclopentenones 16 when reacted with molybdenum hexacarbonyl. Construction of allenic tetrahydro-β-carboline scaffolds via a Pictet-Spengler reaction and subsequent silver(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization afforded tetrahydroindolizinoindoles (21). Attachment of allene and alkyne groups to the tetrahydro-β-carboline, followed by a microwave-assisted allenic [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, provided tetrahydrocyclobutaindoloquinolizinones 24 and the tetrahydrocyclopentenone indolizinoindolone 26 when reacted with molybdenum hexacarbonyl. These six scaffolds were used as templates for the construction of a virtual library of 11 748 compounds employing 44 indoles, 12 aldehydes, and 51 alkynes. Diversity analyses using a combination of cell-based chemistry space computations using BCUT (Burden (B) CAS (C) Pearlman at the University of Texas (UT)) metrics and Tanimoto coefficient (Tc) similarity calculations using two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints showed that the compounds in the virtual library occupied new chemical space when compared to the 327,000 compounds in the molecular libraries small molecule repository (MLSMR). A subset of fifty-three compounds was identified from the virtual library using the DVS package of Sybyl 8.0; this subset represents the most diverse compounds within the chemical space defined by these compounds and will be synthesized and screened for biological activity.

  1. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  2. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  3. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  4. SU-E-T-115: Analysis of Patient Specific QA for VMAT by Disease Site and Planning-Delivery System Using the ScandiDos Delta4 Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, T; Hardin, M; Keller, J; Kremmel, E; Peng, C; Doyle, L; Yu, Y; Xiao, Y; Harrison, A; Fu, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) for the delivery of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by disease site. To compare planning-delivery system (PDS) PSQA pass rates in a dual vendor institution. Methods: PSQA is performed for VMAT plans using a ScandiDos Delta4 phantom. Verification plans are calculated using Varian Eclipse and Elekta Monaco treatment planning systems (TPS) for patients treated using Varian Truebeam and Elekta linear accelerators respectively. Individual arcs are delivered to the Delta4 phantoms and assessed using the gamma index pass criterion(3% Dose Deviation(DD%), 3mm Distance to Agreement(DTA),10% dose threshold and 90% gamma index). Results: A total of 287 VMAT plans and 680 arcs were analyzed. The passing rates for VMAT QA plans were 95% and 98% for head/neck and pelvis/prostate plans respectively, and 100% for chest/abdomen, spine, lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS) plans. Average gamma indices were: (99 ± 2) % for pelvis/prostate, chest/abdomen and lung SBRT plans, (97 ± 4) % for head and neck plans and (98 ± 3) % for spine plans. The average DD% and DTA pass rates ranged from 82% to 90% and 98% to 99% respectively for plans in different disease sites. Paired t-test analysis (two tails) indicated no significant differences in the gamma indices between plans delivered using different PDS; the P values were: 0.08, 0.45, and 0.94 for lung SBRT, head/neck and pelvis/prostate plans respectively. The statistical power for comparing PDS in different disease sites with an alpha of 0.05 is 1. Conclusion: The Gamma indices based on 3% DD%, 3 mm DTA and 10% dose threshold for the VMAT QA plans in all disease sites were well above 90%, suggesting the possibility of using a more stringent PSQA criterion. No significant differences were observed in the QA of VMAT plans delivered using different PDS.

  5. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  6. The Serra Pelada Au-PGE deposit, Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil): geological and geochemical indications for a composite mineralising process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Marilena; Girardi, Vicente A.; Ferrario, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    The Serra Pelada Au-PGE-rich deposit is located in the Serra dos Carajás, a leading mining area in Brazil. This region is characterised by a complex geological and structural framework and is affected by deep lateritisation which has lasted for more than 70 Ma. The Serra Pelada deposit is emplaced in a late-Archean low-grade metasedimentary sequence (Rio Fresco/Águas Claras Formation) which is host to other gold deposits in the region (Igarapé Bahia, Águas Claras). The Rio Fresco/Águas Claras sequence was deposited in tectonic basins developed on Archean basement and Au-bearing greenstone terranes which were intruded by PGE-rich layered mafic complexes (e.g. Luanga). The Serra Pelada mineralisation is located along a regional, complex system of strike-slip faults (Cinzento-Carajás systems) which were active during the late Archean to early Proterozoic. The mineralisation appears to be concentrated along a faulted hinge zone of a fold. Ore zone rock facies are dominated by low-grade ferruginous to carbonaceous metasiltstones and minor sandstones, locally brecciated and cemented by quartz (±sulphide) stockwork. Supergene alteration led to partial to total transformation into friable aggregates of kaolinite, Fe oxide-hydroxides, silica and secondary phosphate-sulphates even at depths exceeding 200 m. Precious metals are exceptionally enriched, with up to more than 1,000 ppm Au+PGE in some peculiar ferruginous-graphitic zones locally called "hidrotermalito". Geochemistry shows complex patterns of major and trace elements, particularly rare-earth elements (REE), in mineralised vs. nonmineralised samples. These patterns are interpreted in terms of variable degree of superposition of hydrothermal and supergene alteration. Precious metals show progressive increase from samples with hydrothermal imprint to samples with supergene imprint. The geological evolution of the Carajás region and the characteristics of mineralisation at Serra Pelada may suggest a composite

  7. An interdisciplinary knowledge translation intervention in long-term care: study protocol for the vitamin D and osteoporosis study (ViDOS) pilot cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Courtney C; Ioannidis, George; Giangregorio, Lora M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Thabane, Lehana; Morin, Suzanne N; Crilly, Richard G; Marr, Sharon; Josse, Robert G; Lohfeld, Lynne; Pickard, Laura E; King, Susanne; van der Horst, Mary-Lou; Campbell, Glenda; Stroud, Jackie; Dolovich, Lisa; Sawka, Anna M; Jain, Ravi; Nash, Lynn; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2012-05-24

    Knowledge translation (KT) research in long-term care (LTC) is still in its early stages. This protocol describes the evaluation of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention aimed at integrating evidence-based osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies into LTC care processes. The Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) is underway in 40 LTC homes (n = 19 intervention, n = 21 control) across Ontario, Canada. The primary objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility of delivering the KT intervention, and clinically, to increase the percent of LTC residents prescribed ≥800 IU of vitamin D daily. Eligibility criteria are LTC homes that are serviced by our partner pharmacy provider and have more than one prescribing physician. The target audience within each LTC home is the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC), an interdisciplinary team who meets quarterly. The key elements of the intervention are three interactive educational sessions led by an expert opinion leader, action planning using a quality improvement cycle, audit and feedback reports, nominated internal champions, and reminders/point-of-care tools. Control homes do not receive any intervention, however both intervention and control homes received educational materials as part of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. Primary outcomes are feasibility measures (recruitment, retention, attendance at educational sessions, action plan items identified and initiated, internal champions identified, performance reports provided and reviewed), and vitamin D (≥800 IU/daily) prescribing at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of residents prescribed calcium supplements and osteoporosis medications, and falls and fractures. Qualitative methods will examine the experience of the LTC team with the KT intervention. Homes are centrally randomized to intervention and control groups in blocks of variable size using a computer generated allocation sequence. Randomization is

  8. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  9. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; De Boni, Raquel B.; Kallas, Esper G.; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S.; Marins, Luana M. S.; Anderson, Peter L.; Luz, Paula M; da Costa Leite, Iuri; Liu, Albert Y.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Methods: PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350–699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). Results: 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10–3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08–2.94). Conclusions: The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the

  10. Association Between Smoking and Serum GlycA and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Bittencourt, Marcio; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Jones, Steven R; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Toth, Peter; Otvos, James D; Tibuakuu, Martin; Hall, Michael E; Harada, Paulo H N; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-08-23

    Inflammation is suggested to be a central feature of atherosclerosis, particularly among smokers. We studied whether inflammatory biomarkers GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with cigarette smoking. A total of 11 509 participants, 6774 from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 4735 from ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) were included. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between multiple measures of smoking behavior and the inflammatory biomarkers, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, using regression models adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics. Participants were 57.7±11.1 years old and 46.4% were men. Never, former, and current smokers comprised 51.7%, 34.0%, and 14.3% of the population, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted mean absolute difference in GlycA levels (μmol/L) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were higher for former (4.1, 95% CI, 1.7-6.6 μmol/L) and current smokers (19.9, 95% CI, 16.6-23.2 μmol/L), compared with never smokers. Each 5-unit increase in pack-years of smoking was associated with higher GlycA levels among former (0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.1 μmol/L) and current smokers (1.6, 95% CI, 0.8-2.4 μmol/L). Among former smokers, each 5-year increase in time since quitting smoking was associated with lower GlycA levels (-1.6, 95% CI, -2.4 to -0.8 μmol/L) and each 10-unit increase in number of cigarettes/day was associated with higher GlycA among current smokers (2.8, 95% CI, 0.5-5.2 μmol/L). There were similar significant associations between all measures of smoking behavior, and both log-transformed GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Acute and chronic exposure to tobacco smoking is associated with inflammation, as quantified by both GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. These biomarkers may have utility for the study and regulation of novel and traditional tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors

  11. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  12. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2, BRASIL... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2,...

  13. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  14. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  15. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  16. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  17. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  18. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  19. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  20. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  1. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  2. Automatic scaling of critical frequency foF2 from ionograms recorded at São José dos Campos, Brazil: a comparison between Autoscala and UDIDA tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzopane, Michael; Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto

    2017-02-01

    This paper considers a dataset of ionograms recorded by the CADI ionosonde installed at São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2°S, 45.9°W, magnetic latitude 14.1°S), Brazil, to compare two autoscaling systems: Autoscala, developed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, and the UDIDA-scaling, developed by the Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. The analysis, focused on the critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2, shows that the two systems work differently. The UDIDA-scaling gives always a value of foF2 as output, regardless of the presence of the ionogram trace and its definition, while Autoscala tends to reject ionograms for which the digital information is considered insufficient. As a consequence, the UDIDA-scaling can autoscale more foF2 values than Autoscala, but Autoscala can discard a larger number of ionograms for which the trace is unidentifiable. Discussions are made on the accuracy of the foF2 values given as output, as well as on the main shortcomings characterizing the two systems.

  3. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  4. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  5. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  7. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  8. DOS/Russian - US program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pifer, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the organization and describes the objectives for the science and technology agreements between the U.S.A. and Russia. The Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission objectives and the Civilian Research and the Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union (CRDF) are discussed.

  9. DOS Design/Application Tools. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    a distributed program must be partitioned into a number of program units (objects and clients ) and subsequently allocated to the various processors...initiates the appropriate processes (objects and clients ) on the designated nodes. Payoff for Developers Performance: The allocation tool directly addresses...the relationship between a particular Unit of Distribution and the Processor to which it has been assigned for execution. Finally, note that Client (a

  10. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  11. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, and device-independent. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  13. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  14. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose..., 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12 3927-5383;...

  15. The Use of Seaplanes as an Advanced Weapon Systemxc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    41 due to problems with the propellers and the Junkers Jumo 205C Diesel engines. For those not familiar with aircraft powerplants, it is worth relating...Biblioteca do ITA Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 14. Director da EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica Sao Jose

  16. Emergence of a New Neotropical Malaria Vector Facilitated by Human Migration and Changes in Land Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the abdomen was stored in 95% ethanol and used subsequently for molecular species identification, and the head/thorax was dried and stored for...Deane LM, Causey OR, Deane MP, 1948. Notas s6bre a distri- buigao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regi6es Nordestina e Amazonica do Brasil. Bras Rev

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of mCVs and other variable objects (Oliveira+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This catalog contains the spectra of the 45 variable objects, which was observed with SOAR 4.1m telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the Perkin- Elmer 1.6m telescope at Observatorio do Pico dos Dias (OPD-LNA/MCTI), locate in Brazopolis-MG, Brasil. (3 data files).

  18. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy.

  19. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) sensu lato (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) no Brasil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos ou ácaros planos são importantes fitófagos constituintes do agroecossistema e florestas semitropical e tropical (JEPPSON et al., 1975; HOY, 2011), sendo que algumas espécies estão associadas à transmissão de fitovírus (CHAGAS et al., 2001 e 2003; CHILDERS et al., 2001; KITAJ...

  20. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  1. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  2. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  3. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  4. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate…

  5. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  6. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  7. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    AND RESURRECTION FROM SYNONYMY WITH ANOPHELES (NYSSORHYNCHUS) OSWALDOI (PERYASSU) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) CARMEN FLORES -MENDOZA, E. L. PEYTON, RICHARD C...Amazonas, Brazil, specimen 1629, 15-VIII-1998, C. Flores -Mendoza coil., deposited at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil...Hygiene, Monographic Series 18. 1948. Notas sobre a distribui•fio e a biologia dos anofelinos das Regi6es Nordestina e Amaz6n- ica do Brasil

  8. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  9. Face mask ventilation--the dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Wood, Fiona E; Morley, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the mask shape although the size must appropriately fit the face. The essence of the technique is to roll the mask on to the face from the chin while avoiding the eyes, with a finger and thumb apply a strong even downward pressure to the top of the mask, away from the stem and sloped sides or skirt of the mask, place the other fingers under the jaw and apply a similar upward pressure. Preterm infants require continuous end-expiratory pressure to facilitate lung aeration and maintain lung volume. This is best done with a T-piece device, not a self-inflating or flow-inflating bag. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ORAMUS(DOS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Biller, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 acute health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  11. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  12. Dos and Don'ts for a Fabulous Pedicure

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick under your nails. This helps keep your nails clean and removes the dirt, glitter, and other types of build-up you may not be able to see. Do bring your own pedicure utensils to the salon. Why? Because bacteria and fungus can move easily from one person to the ...

  13. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  14. 48 CFR 632.702-70 - DOS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incremental funding of cost-reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price, labor-hour, and time-and-materials contracts... requirements office, justifying the need for incremental funding due to the unavailability of funds. ...

  15. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  16. CRONUS, A Distributed Operating System: CRONUS DOS Implementation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the final report for the second contract phase for development of the CRONUS Project. CRONUS is the name given to the distributed operating...Force Rome Air Development Center (RADC). The project was begun in 1981. The CRONUS distributed operating system is intended to promote resources...remote data, to collections of complex subsystems tailored to take advantage of a distributed architecture. One of the main contributions of CRONUS is

  17. Treating rheumatic diseases in pregnancy: dos and don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Lockshin, M D

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical appraisal of the current evidence and recommendations regarding the use of pharmaceuticals and biologicals in pregnancy. Clinical experience is often at variance with published recommendations as studies have not taken into account the differences in physiology in the various stages of gestation and between animal and human pregnancies. Physicians should bear in mind that pregnancy causes disruption in several organ systems; the effects of an intervention may depend on the stage of gestation; and some effects of interventions in pregnancy may not manifest until adulthood. PMID:17038475

  18. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  19. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  20. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  1. Dos and Don'ts of Writing Presidential Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, an employment agreement between a university president and a governing board was often nothing more than a handshake. Today, formal contracts are requirements for presidents, with boards and presidents typically relying on lawyers to extensively document terms of employment, salary and benefits, and, perhaps most…

  2. Estudo da Polarizacao dos Hiperons $\\Xi^-$ E $\\Omega^-$

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho De Gouvea, Andre Luiz

    1995-01-01

    ln this thesis the polarization of the $\\Xi^-$ hyperon and the $\\Xi^+$ antihyperon produced in the Fermilab Experiment E791 was determined by the analysis of the weak decay $\\Xi^- \\to \\Lambda^0 + \\pi^-$. For $\\Xi^-$ produced in the interaction between a 500 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam and a unpolarized carbon (platinum) target in the region $p_t$ > 0.8 GeV/c and $X_F$ > 0, -10.9% ± 1.5% (-14.7% ± 3.1%) polarization was obtained perpendicular to the production plane and -5.92% ± 1.69% (-2.41%±3.53% $\\approx O$) polarization was measured for $\\Xi^+$. Evidence was also found for a polarized $\\Omega^-$ hyperon produced in the same experiment in the region $X_F$ >0, after analysis of the weak decay $\\Omega^- \\to \\Lambda^0 + K^-$.

  3. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  4. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Machado, Luciana A C; Telles, Rosa W; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-06-30

    Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs.

  5. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK)

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana A. C.; Telles, Rosa W.; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. Objective To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Method Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Results Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. Conclusion These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs. PMID:27878226

  6. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  7. Analysis of geothermal temperatures for heat pumps application in Paraná (Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alexandre F.; de Souza, Heraldo J. L.; Cantao, Mauricio P.; Gaspar, Pedro D.

    2016-11-01

    Geothermal heat pumps are broadly used in developed countries but scarcely in Brazil, in part because there is a lack of Brazilian soil temperature data. The aims of this work are: to present soil temperature measurements and to compare geothermal heat pump system performances with conventional air conditioning systems. Geothermal temperature measurement results are shown for ten Paraná State cities, representing different soil and climate conditions. The measurements were made yearlong with calibrated equipment and digital data acquisition system in different measuring stations. Geothermal and ambient temperature data were used for simulations of the coeficient of performance (COP), by means of a working fluid pressure-enthalpy diagram based software for vapor-compression cycle. It was verified that geothermal temperature measured between January 13 to October 13, 2013, varied from 16 to 24 °C, while room temperature has varied between 2 and 35 °C. Average COP values for conventional system were 3.7 (cooling mode) and 5.0 kW/kW (heating mode), corresponding to 5.9 and 7.9 kW/kW for geothermal system. Hence it was verified an average eficiency gain of 59%with geothermal system utilization in comparison with conventional system.

  8. [Association between household solid waste disposal and health, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil].

    PubMed

    Catapreta, C A; Heller, L

    1999-02-01

    There are few published studies about the effects of inadequate solid waste collection on the health of the population exposed to this situation. The objective of the present work was to describe this association in a sample of children under 5 years of age living in seven low-income neighborhoods and favelas in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We defined as "exposed" those children whose families were not served by waste collection; "not-exposed" were children who lived in areas with waste collection. The study employed data collected in 1994 and organized as a database by the municipal department of health. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which a "case" was defined as a child whose outpatient clinic record indicated a diagnosis of diarrheal, parasitic, or dermatological disease. Other diagnoses for the same age group composed the control group. Our epidemiological study revealed an association between the absence of domestic solid waste collection and public health. Our results suggest that the children exposed to the absence of solid waste collection have a 40% higher odds (OR = 1.40) of presenting diarrheal, parasitic, and dermatological diseases than not-exposed children. In addition, the calculation of attributable risk revealed that the presence of waste collection could prevent (based on the 1995 situation) 512 cases in the neighborhoods studied and (based on the 1994 conditions) 2316 cases among children in the entire city of Belo Horizonte.

  9. [Decline in homicide rates in São Paulo, Brasil: a descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    To describe homicide mortality in the municipality of São Paulo according to type of weapon, sex, race or skin color, age, and areas of socioeconomic inequalities, between 1996 and 2008. For this ecological time-series study, data about deaths in the municipality of São Paulo were collected from the municipal program for improvement of mortality information, using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. Homicide mortality rates (HMR) were calculated for the overall population and specifically for each sex, race or skin color, age range, type of weapon, and occurrence in social deprivation/affluence areas. HMR were adjusted for age using the direct method. The percentage age of variation in HMR was calculated for the study period. For areas of socioeconomic inequalities, the relative risk of death from homicide was calculated. HMR fell 73.7% between 2001 and 2008. A reduction in HMR was observed in all groups, especially males (-74.5%), young men between 15 and 24 years of age (-78.0%), and residents in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation (-79.3%). The reduction occurred mostly in firearm homicide rates (-74.1%). The relative risk of death from homicide in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation, as compared to areas with some degree of socioeconomic deprivation, was 2.77 in 1996, 3.9 in 2001, and 2.13 in 2008. In areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, the relative risk was 2.07 in 1996 and 1.96 in 2008. To understand the reduction in homicide rates in the municipality of São Paulo, it is important to take into consideration macrodeterminants that affect the entire municipality and all population subgroups, as well as micro/local determinants that have special impact on homicides committed with firearms and on subgroups such as the young, males, and residents of areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

  10. Characteristics of male and female injecting drug users of the AjUDE-Brasil II Project.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    The object of this study is to compare female and male injection drug users (IDUs) in terms of sociodemographic profile and aspects of their initiation to the use of injection drugs. It was a cross-sectional and multicentric study realized in 2000-2001 in six Brazilian syringe-exchange programs. 146 women and 709 men were interviewed, with average ages of 29.5 and 28.3 years, respectively. Both began injection drug use at similar ages, 18.6 and 19.3, for women and men, respectively, although women report more frequently than men that they were initiated by a sexual partner to acquiring drugs and syringes, and to the act of injection. Compared to men, women report significantly more regular sexual partners (83% versus 72%); fewer casual partners (39% versus 58%), more use of injection drugs with their partners, as well as more "exchange" of sex for drugs. Among HIV-seropositive individuals, women show less education, had more chance of their sexual partners participating in their initiation to injection drugs, and report sexual partners that used injection drugs more frequently. Female IDUs exhibit aspects of behavior indicating greater vulnerability to HIV infection than do males.

  11. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  12. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  13. Aspectos ecologicos, toxicologicos y agricolas de la hormiga brasileña Solenopsis invicta

    Treesearch

    J. A. Torres

    1990-01-01

    The fire ant Solenopsis invicta recently invaded in Puerto Rico. Its presence has created great alarm among farmers and the public. This work reviews the ecology of this ant in the United States, Brazil and Puerto Rico in order to clarify some misconceptions. Information is provided to separate Solenopsis invicta from S. geminata. Colony foundation, caste...

  14. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access.

  15. Essentialism and the expression of social stereotypes: a comparative study of Spain, Brasil and England.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Alvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Schweiger Gallo, Inge

    2010-11-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain and England. The aim was to test whether there was a greater degree of essentialization among the naturalizable categories (sex, age and race) than among the entitative categories (economic condition, religion, political orientation, nationality and social condition). The results not only showed that participants hold more essentialist beliefs with regard to naturalistic categories but also showed the differences in the degree of essentialization across the three cultures. A discussion is conducted on the implications of the present findings, and on the heuristic value of the theoretical model (of the bidimensional nature of essentialism) adopted by this research.

  16. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  17. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  18. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  19. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  20. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  1. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  2. Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

    2012-01-01

    Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics.

  3. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  4. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-04

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência.

  5. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-12-19

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5.

  6. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  7. One? "Dos" Drei. A Study of Code Switching in Child Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidiak, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study focuses on the language production of two siblings, aged 6 and 9 at the beginning of the data collection period, who have been brought up in a bilingual family in New York. The parents of the two girls are native speakers of German and Spanish, respectively, and English for them is the language of education and the larger…

  8. Ensuring the relocatability of programs in the operational system DOS YeS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novoseltsev, S. K.; Orlov, I. G.; Chesalin, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    Specific modifications in the Disk Operational System Unified Series to insure the relocatability of programs stored permanently in the core image library is described. A self-relocating method for loading programs into the working memory with re-editing all the programs recorded in the core image library is presented. The modified linkage editor can be included in a relocation dictionary containing data about each address constant at the assembly stage at the request of the programmer. The relocation dictionary increases the dimension of the RL-phase in comparison with the dimension of this same phase when edited by the standard method, making possible the creation of multiphase program complexes. Generation and use of the modified system using Assembly language is described. An example of the use of the system is given, and limitations of the use of the relocatable programs in the modified system are outlined.

  9. Dos and Donts for Conditional Acceptance of Nonconforming Supplies or Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    have quite a few options in dealing with this prob-lem, including conditional acceptance. The purpose of this article is, first, to share a personal ...accom- modate that request. Out of all the choices (reject, rework at no additional cost, replacement or terminate for default) avail- able under FAR...sub-part 46.407 to the government, conditional acceptance was probably thought to be the easiest and most expeditious choice . But for whom

  10. Denoised ordered subset statistically penalized algebraic reconstruction technique (DOS-SPART) in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Li, Yinsheng; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three dimensional (3D) breast imaging modality in which projections are acquired over a limited angular span around the compressed breast and reconstructed into image slices parallel to the detector. DBT has been shown to help alleviate the breast tissue overlapping issues of two dimensional (2D) mammography. Since the overlapping tissues may simulate cancer masses or obscure true cancers, this improvement is critically important for improved breast cancer screening and diagnosis. In this work, a model-based image reconstruction method is presented to show that spatial resolution in DBT volumes can be maintained while dose is reduced using the presented method when compared to that of a state-of-the-art commercial reconstruction technique. Spatial resolution was measured in phantom images and subjectively in a clinical dataset. Noise characteristics were explored in a cadaver study. In both the quantitative and subjective results the image sharpness was maintained and overall image quality was maintained at reduced doses when the model-based iterative reconstruction was used to reconstruct the volumes.

  11. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  12. Nuevos rangos altitudinales para dos especies de la avifauna de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; I. Castillo

    2015-01-01

    We document the elevational range expansions of two Nicaraguan bird species, scaled pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) and collared plover (Charadrius collaris). The previously reported elevational range of Patagioenas speciosa was sea level to 600 m. We observed the species in shade coffee at Santa Maura farm at an elevation of 1115 masl. Historically, the second species,...

  13. Organogel formation rationalized by Hansen solubility parameters: dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Julien; Suissa, Gad; Raynal, Matthieu; Bouteiller, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    Some organic compounds gelate liquids by forming a network of anisotropic fibres. Hansen solubility parameters can be used to predict the range of liquids that are likely to be gelled by any given gelator. We critically review the various approaches recently proposed in the literature. In particular, we discuss the shape of the gelation domain, the relevance of the Teas plot representation and the use of group contribution calculations. We also propose an improved scheme for the solubility tests, and a detailed procedure for the determination of the gelation domain.

  14. One? "Dos" Drei. A Study of Code Switching in Child Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidiak, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study focuses on the language production of two siblings, aged 6 and 9 at the beginning of the data collection period, who have been brought up in a bilingual family in New York. The parents of the two girls are native speakers of German and Spanish, respectively, and English for them is the language of education and the larger…

  15. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  16. Notas sobre dos autores mejicoamericanos de California (Notes on Two Mexican-American Authors in California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moesser, Alba

    This paper discusses the work of two Mexican American authors, Jose A. Villerreal and Richard Vazquez, using "Pocho" by Villarreal and "Chicano" by Vazquez as the focus for discussion. Both authors describe the world of Mexican Americans and their social conditions, and both underscore the need for conserving their native…

  17. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  18. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  19. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  20. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  1. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-06-15

    Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  3. "Mi Hija Vale Dos Personas": Latino Immigrant Parents' Perspectives about Their Children's Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Rodriguez-Galindo, Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of 16 Latino immigrant parents whose children were upper elementary students in a bilingual education class in the southwestern United States. In interviews that focused on their children's language learning and usage, the parents spoke of a commitment to a better life for their children. All believed that English…

  4. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  5. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ...

  6. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a continuing...

  7. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a continuing...

  8. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  9. Von Willebrand disease - the 'Dos' and 'Don'ts' in surgery.

    PubMed

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Berntorp, Erik

    2017-02-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common genetic bleeding disorder. VWD is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a plasma protein that mediates the initial adhesion of platelets at sites of vascular injury and binds and stabilises coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) in the blood. Prophylaxis of surgical bleeding in patients with VWD requires consideration of the individual situation, including the type of procedure and the bleeding rate, before decisions about treatment type, dose, duration and adjunctive therapy with antifibrinolytics or antithrombotic prophylaxis can be made. Although desmopressin (DDAVP)-stimulated release of endogenous VWD is an effective treatment strategy in many patients, plasma concentrates containing VWF are the preferred option for most patients undergoing surgical procedures. Recommendations for the management of surgery in patients with VWD are summarised, including the severity of VWD and the type of the surgical procedure.

  10. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  11. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  12. A social media primer for professionals: digital dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Alber, Julia; Gold, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Social media sites have become powerful and important tools for health education, promotion, and communication activities as they have dramatically grown in popularity. Social media sites also offer many features that can be used for professional development and advancement. When used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer great potential for professional development by building and cultivating professional networks, as well as sharing information to increase one's recognition and improve one's reputation. They also provide a medium for increasing one's knowledge and awareness of timely news and trends by following important organizations, opinion leaders, and influential professionals. When used unwisely and imprudently, there is the potential to delay, damage, or even destroy one's professional and personal life. In this commentary, we offer recommendations for using Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter for professional development and caution against online behaviors that may have negative professional consequences. In summary, we believe that the strengths and benefits of social media for professional advancement and development far outweigh the risks and encourage health promotion professionals to properly engage these powerful tools.

  13. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered…

  14. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  15. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  16. Estudio de dos cúmulos abiertos del tercer cuadrante galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solivella, G. R.; Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; De Laurenti, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results from photometric observations in the open clusters Ruprecht 42 and Ruprecht 43 are presented. In the last case spectroscopic observations were added. The open cluster entity of Ruprecht 42, not previously studied, is confirmed. While the preliminary analysis of Ruprecht 43 suggests that it does not exist, at the same time evidences of a blue distant population in the same direction are found. The connection of both clusters with the near spiral structure is commented.

  17. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  18. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered…

  19. DOS Design/Application Tools System/Segment Specification. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    development tools by automating and coordin- ating information exchange between tools, through use of the CRONUS distributed system and the ONTOS object...3.1.7.2. Cronus to CSCI Interfaces ...................................................................... 24 3.1.7.2. 1. Cronus to Tool Integration...Framework CSCI Interface .................. 24 3 1.7.2.2. Cronus to Tool CSCI Interfaces ...................................................... 25 3

  20. 33 CFR 101.505 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or between vessels in the case of a vessel-to-vessel activity, as to the respective security measures each must undertake during a specific vessel-to-facility interface, during a series of interfaces between the vessel and the facility, or during a vessel-to-vessel activity. (b) Details as to who must...

  1. 33 CFR 101.505 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or between vessels in the case of a vessel-to-vessel activity, as to the respective security measures each must undertake during a specific vessel-to-facility interface, during a series of interfaces between the vessel and the facility, or during a vessel-to-vessel activity. (b) Details as to who must...

  2. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  3. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  4. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  6. A Methodology for the Evaluation of Structural Design Software for DOS- Based Microcomputers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    09235 Fort Iheiri 92310 SETAF ATTN: AFZ7-EH USA Eap Activty. Capital Arc ATTN: AESE-EN D 09613 Fot Hood 76544 ATrN: Lbrwy 22211 ATTN: AESE-EN 09630 ATTN...Ehnendorf AFB. AK 99506-5001 HQ AFLCODEE Wright-Patemno AFB. OH 45433-5001 HQ AFRES/DEE Robhin AFB, DC 20334-5000 HQ AFSCODEE Andrews AFB. DC DC 20334

  7. Portulano frente a Landsat: Dos sistemas de georreferenciacion para el Estrecho de Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco Molina, Carlos

    The purpose of this research is to study and an compare two different images of the same area, from geographical, topographical and historical perspectives. The main differences between them are the temporal localization and the techniques and tools required in the process of getting both images. One of them is a 17th century map and the other is a contemporary satellite image. Any cartographical document would be expected to be precise, exact and cutting edge thanks to the application of the new technologies to cartography, geodesy and computing. The document can therefore be considered as insuperable and definitive. In this context, this research is a starting point for my future doctoral dissertation which will deal with the importance of the portulano maps in the Scientific Revolution of the 15th and 16 th century.

  8. Deflecting Hurakan: Enhancing DOD and DOS Interagency Hurricane Response Operations in Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    INformation ―Coordinacion logistica y vías de acceso en la RAAN - Informacion actualizada‖, 15 Sep 2007; http://www.logcluster.org/ops/hurricane-felix...coordination/coordinacion- logistica -y- vias-de-acceso-en-la-raan-informacion-actualizada. 80 MC1 Michael Wimbish, ―U.S. Military Forces Wrap up Hurricane...Dept04.htm (accessed 02 March 2010). Puente Aéreo (Air Bridge) Information ―Coordinacion logistica y vías de acceso en la RAAN – Informacion

  9. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  10. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  11. Understanding the curriculum the light of training guiding health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Bibiana Arantes; Costa, Nilce Maria da Silva

    2016-06-01

    To analyze Pedagogical Projects Courses (PPCs) from the healthcare field in light of the National Curriculum Standards (NCS) policies on healthcare training. Exploratory descriptive study of qualitative approach, in which were carried out analyzes of PPPs of Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine, Nutrition and Dentistry of a federal university in the Midwest region of Brazil. As technical analysis of documentary sources, adopted the content analysis in the thematic mode. The analysis of PPC showed the general aspects of PPC as the course features the historical percursso and construction, professional skills and competences required for professional performance and the guiding principles of formation characterized by technical, professional practice, articulation theory/ practice, interdisciplinarity and ethical / social training. PPC presented is consistent with the proposals set out in DCN and carry training policies in health in Brazil, providing adequate training for health professionals, the demands of the population and the National Health System. Analisar os Projetos Pedagógicos de Cursos (PPC) da área da saúde à luz das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) e das políticas indutoras de formação em saúde do Brasil. Pesquisa descritiva exploratória de abordagem qualitativa, na qual foram realizadas análises dos PPC dos cursos de Enfermagem, Farmácia, Medicina, Nutrição e Odontologia de uma instituição federal de ensino superior da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Como técnica de análises das fontes documentais, adotou-se a análise de conteúdo, na modalidade temática. As análises dos PPC evidenciaram os aspectos gerais dos PPC como as características do curso, o percursso histórico e sua construção, habilidades e competências profissionais requeridas para o desempenho profissional e os princípios norteadores da formação caracterizados pela técnica, prática profissional, articulação teoria/prática, interdisciplinaridade e formação

  12. Using High-Speed Video Images to Obtain Peak Current Estimates from Natural CG Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Antunes, L.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Using high-speed camera data from the RAMMER network, we were able to estimate image-based peak current of some strokes within selected CG flashes. The intent of this work was the establishment of a relationship between the luminosity of the bottom portion of the channel and peak current data from BrasilDAT lightning detection network. The high-speed camera dataset was obtained during the campaign of 2013, in São José dos Campos, Brazil. We choose the videos containing flash multiplicities greater than 10, with visible channel and unsaturated pixels at the return stroke moment. Although new channels were presented in most of the cases, we needed at least 10 strokes that hit the same ground contact point. We ended up with five flashes and 90 individual strokes that met the conditions established for this initial investigation. All five flashes had also, at least, five strokes detected by BrasilDAT, which allowed us to test our methodology. For all flashes we also acquired their waveforms recorded by individual and nearby sensors. The peak current estimates of BrasilDAT were recently compared with older LLS networks with positive results. Also, the waveforms recorded by BrasilDAT individual sensors proved to be useful in the determination of some characteristics of bipolar flashes recorded in the same region. The initial results indicate a positive linear trend between the integrated luminosity of the return strokes and the absolute of the peak current (and also the peak E-field), with R2 > 0.78 for three cases and 0,67 for another one. There was only one case where we didn't find any correlation at all. Since the return stroke intensities were close to the saturation of the CMOS sensor, that may have been the cause of the non-correlation. For each flash, a different linear fit was found. This was somewhat expected since all flashes had their strokes connected to the ground at different distances from the camera and the rain can also interfere with the measurements

  13. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  14. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  15. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  16. Lifestyle INtervention for Diabetes prevention After pregnancy (LINDA-Brasil): study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Castilhos, Cristina; Wendland, Eliana Márcia; Hallal, Pedro C; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Drehmer, Michele; Costa e Forti, Adriana; Façanha, Cristina; Nunes, Maria Angélica

    2016-03-30

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a hyperglycemic state detected during pregnancy, is an established risk factor for diabetes. However, treatment during pregnancy in and of itself is not able to eliminate this risk, and a considerable fraction of women with GDM will develop frank diabetes in the decade following pregnancy. Our aim is to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention program implemented after a pregnancy complicated by GDM in delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Women aged 18 or older identified as having recent GDM are recruited and followed by telephone to assess eligibility for the trial. To be eligible, women must have used insulin during pregnancy or present intermediate hyperglycemia postpartum. Women are encouraged to enter the trial as early as 10 weeks, and are permitted to do so up to 2 years after a pregnancy with GDM. An estimated 740 women will be randomized to either conventional care or to coach-based interventions focused on breastfeeding, weight loss, healthy eating, and increased physical activity, and predominantly delivered by telephone. Women are followed annually to detect new onset diabetes, the primary outcome, and additional secondary outcomes which include reversion to normoglycemia, weight loss, physical activity and fitness, and insulin resistance. Though previous studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented, no study has yet demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of similar interventions implemented in the postpartum period for women with recent GDM. If shown to be successful, this approach could become an important means of preventing diabetes in primary care settings. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02327286; Registered 23 December 2014.

  17. Postmenopausal hormone therapy in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): who still uses it?

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Almeida, Maria-da-Conceição C; Menezes, Greice M S; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Gabrielli, Ligia

    2016-06-01

    We aim to investigate the patterns of hormone therapy (HT) use and associated factors in women participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. This study included 3281 naturally menopausal women of 40 to 74 years of age at enrollment to the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health study, who answered questions regarding their use and discontinuation of HT. Prevalence rates of current and previous HT use were calculated, and a multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to simultaneously analyze the associated factors. The prevalence of HT use increased from 1995 onwards, peaking at 55.7% in 1997. A sharp decline occurred in the decade beginning in 2000, reaching 11.1% at the study baseline interview (2008-2010). Current use was associated with being ≥60 years of age (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR): 1.81; 95%CI: 1.10-2.96), divorced (RRR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.14-2.60), or married (RRR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.41-3.10); having a university education (RRR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.14-2.40) or postgraduate degree (RRR: 2.45; 95%CI: 1.80-3.35); and having private health insurance (RRR: 2.86; 95%CI: 2.00-4.09). Body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) was inversely associated with HT use (RRR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.26-0.53) as was the presence of at least one contraindication to HT use (RRR: 0.63; 95%CI: 0.44-0.89). Of the current users ≥60 years of age, 79.1% had been using HT for at least 5 years, and 73.6% had been menopausal for at least 10 years. Although the use of HT has declined in Brazil, the women who continue using it are largely exceeding evidence-based limits of age, time since menopause, and time of use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Relation of Fasting Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Coronary Artery Calcium Score (from the ELSA-Brasil Study).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marcio S; Santos, Raul D; Staniak, Henrique; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Kondapally, Rao; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Ray, Kausik K; Bensenor, Isabela; Lotufo, Paulo

    2017-05-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49.9 ± 8.4 years, 54% women) who had no history of CVD, were not using lipid-lowering medications, and underwent CAC evaluation. We assessed the relation between increasing fasting TRL-C and the graded increase in CAC and to what extent TRL-C were independently associated with CAC over and above LDL-C using logistic regression models. Overall, 973 (25%) of the participants had a CAC >0 and 308 (8%) had a CAC >100. The median TRL-C level was 22 mg/dL (IQR 16 to 32). Subjects with CAC >0 had higher TRL-C levels than those with CAC = 0 (p <0.001). Similarly, subjects with CAC >0 had higher levels of LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p <0.001). After multivariate adjustment, log-transformed TRL-C remained associated with the presence and severity of CAC (all p <0.05). When TRL-C was added to models that contained demographic factors and conventional lipids, it significantly improved the model to predict the presence of CAC >0 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects, TRL-C was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis supporting a potentially causal role in CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extremely elevated HDL-cholesterol levels are not associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness: data from ELSA Brasil.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Santos, Itamar S; Santos, Raul D; Bensenor, Isabela M; Conceição, Raquel D; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that extremely elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), that is, hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HALP) may indicate dysfunctional HDL, conferring increased cardiovascular risk. We studied carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) a marker of subclinical vascular disease according to HDL-c distribution. cIMT was studied in subjects with "normal" HDL-c levels (HDL-c 40-50 mg/dL for men; 50-60 mg/dL for women, mean 49.6 ± 5.7 mg/dL, n = 3226); in those with HALP (HDL-c ≥90 mg/dL for both sexes, mean 101.2 ± 10 mg/dL, n = 264) and according to HDL-c quintile distribution (n = 9779). Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of HDL-c and cIMT. Subjects with HALP were older (54.5 ± 9.6 vs 51.1 ± 8.8 years, P < .001); more frequently females (86.4% vs 49%, P < .001); and presented a lower burden of risk factors: hypertension (24.6% vs 32.7%, P = .009), diabetes (10.2% vs 20.4%, P < .001), and obesity (18.6% vs 37.6%, P < .001). A similar profile was seen with higher HDL-c quintiles in the whole study population. When compared to normal HDL-c values, HALP was associated with lower maximal cIMT (0.779 ± 0.189 mm vs 0.818 ± 0.200 mm, P = .002), and there was a lower prevalence of individuals with cIMT ≥ 75(th) percentile for age and gender or high cIMT (17.5% vs 26.2%, P = .003). After multivariate analysis, no association was seen between HALP and increasing cIMT values, indeed the 5(th) HDL-c quintile was associated with lower risk of high cIMT (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.68-0.95). HALP is associated with lower cIMT and does not indicate a pro-atherogenic phenotype. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    PubMed

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of essential elements and chemical contaminants in thirteen fish species from the Bay Aratu, Bahia, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Souza, N F A; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of ten elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determinate in muscle tissues of 13 fish species from Aratu Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of our results were checked by using two certified reference materials: BCR-422 cod muscle and SRM 1566b oyster tissue. The average trace element concentrations in the fish species varied in the following ranges, in μg g-1: 0.03-0.8 for Cr; 2.0-33.7 for Cu, 2.4-135.1 for Fe, 1.6-25.6 for Se; 1.6-35.1 for Sr; and 2.8-40.5 for Zn. The Diaptereus rhombeus (carapeba) specie presented the highest concentrations of Se, Cu and Fe. Chromium and Se were present at levels above the limit of tolerance allowed by the National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA). The results were also evaluated using the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  2. Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients: an urban disease. Experience in a metropolis in the middle east of Brasil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Bianca; de Araújo Filho, Joâo Alves; Matos Pereira, Nayara; de Miranda Godoy, Lucas; Borges Lamounier, Bruna; Dias Nunes, Elizon; Espíndola Rosa, Lucas

    2017-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania. In all, 166 patients (130 men) met the criteria for AIDS and histoplasmosis coinfection. Almost half of the patients (41%) had simultaneous histoplasmosis and AIDS diagnoses. The general mortality was 53% (88 patients). The main symptoms involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous systems. The distribution of cases included almost all regions of the urban areas, with some predominance in the eastern and western regions close to areas of environmental degradation, contaminated water sources and unplanned urbanisation. In conclusion, coinfection with HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis is common and associated with high mortality rates in our referral hospital for infectious diseases. Despite being considered as having a predominantly rural epidemiology, many patients reported living in urban areas such as Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia. Our findings suggest the need for environmental studies to evaluate environmental contamination and possible local risk factors for H. capsulatum infection in addition to serological surveys to determine the prevalence of this infection in the studied cities.

  3. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  4. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  5. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, Espirito Santo, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; Centoducatte, Luana D'Avila; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Marcili, Arlei; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50). Positive samples were diluted 2-fold until the last positive dilution. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 77 (47.05%) dogs and antibodies to N. caninum in 22 dogs (11.76%) and one only dog was positive for both infections. No association between T. gondii and N. caninum infection and sex was observed (p>0.05). Control measures to prevent those infections in dogs that living surrounding the reserve and that had contact with wild animals are important to avoid the introduction of N. caninum in wild animals. This was the first study of frequency of occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  6. Is Brazil Actually Ready to be a World Economic Power? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 13-11, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Brazil, Porto Brasil : Economic Sectors, http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/economy/economy-sectors/agriculture-and-cattle- raising-agropecuaria (accessed...April 15, 2011); Federal Government of Brazil, “Porto Brasil : Federal Government Budget,” http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/ brazil/government/federal

  7. [Latin American contribution to the study of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2009-09-01

    We have reviewed Lilacs, PubMed and Google searching for original articles related to Helicobacter pylori published by Latin American investigators from 2003 to 2008. Contributions in the following fields by countries are: Molecular biology: Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal diseases: Brasil, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and extra digestive diseases: Brasil, Colombia and Venezuela. Pediatrics: Brasil, Cuba y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela.

  8. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of actors, and we are excited about its technical and human potential.

  9. Full-screen ultrafast video modes over-clocked by simple VESA routines and registers reprogramming under MS-DOS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuxiang; Wang, Bo

    2002-05-01

    Fast full-screen presentation of stimuli is necessary in psychological research. Although Spitczok von Brisinski (1994) introduced a method that achieved ultrafast display by reprogramming the registers, he could not produce an acceptable full-screen display. In this report, the author introduces a new method combining VESA routine calling with registers reprogramming that can yield a display at 640 x 480 resolution, with a refresh rate of about 150 Hz.

  10. [Implementation of indigenous people's health policy in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: obstacles and prospects].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maria de Betania Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Almeida, Celia

    2006-02-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian National Policy for Indigenous People's Health, formulated in the 1990s as part of the national Health Reform Movement and based on the creation (in 1999) of the Indigenous Healthcare Sub-System. Coordinated at the central government level under the administration of the National Health Foundation/Ministry of Health, the implementation of this sub-system required adaptations in the organization of health services systems at the local level, with the creation of Special Indigenous Health Districts. This configuration showed the need for dialogue and negotiation among the various institutions involved with indigenous affairs, from the perspective of overcoming various conflicts and operational difficulties. The current analysis identifies the difficulties in the implementation of a differentiated indigenous health policy under federal responsibility and within the decentralized Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), since the absence of specific mechanisms and instruments regulating the operationalization of these services at the local level and the lack of more effective supervision and on-going evaluation of this policy mean that differentiated care for the indigenous population is subject to both the vices and virtues of local policy.

  11. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  12. NGC 2849 y NGC 6134: dos cúmulos abiertos más para el proyecto BOCCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Bragaglia, A.; Cignoni, M.; Donati, P.; Tosi, M.; Marconi, G.

    The "Bologna Open Cluster Chemical Evolution" (BOCCE) project is a photometric and spectroscopic survey of Galactic open clusters (OCs), to be used as tracers of the properties and evolution of the Galactic disk. The main OCs parameters are derived in a precise and homogeneous way, and they will be used, for example, to determine the metallicity distribution in the Galactic disk and how it has evolved with time. We present here part of our last effort, concerning the photometric data obtained for NGC 2849 and NGC 6134. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  14. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  15. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  16. Turbo Pascal Implementation of a Distributed Processing Network of MS-DOS Microcomputers Connected in a Master-Slave Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    sequence as recommended in the Xmcdem protocol. The Master operator can check for a "live" Slave by watching for the received NAK characters, displayed...04H <aJ> 05H * nak [ 15H <can. 18H 2. Transmission Medium Level Protocol Asynchronous, 8 data bits, no parity, one stop bit. The protocol imposes no...it does in the current implementations. b. Receive Program Considerations The receiver has a 10-second timeout. It sends a < nak > every time it times

  17. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Dos Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Two-Month-Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the second month of life. The pamphlet outlines typical infant behavior at 2 months of age, the need for regular visits to a physician, health insurance,…

  18. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a…

  19. Hybrid Identity in Academic Writing: "Are There Two of Me?" (Identidad híbrida: "¿hay dos yo?")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Lengeling, Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Heredia Ocampo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of identity in an academic learning environment in Central Mexico, and shows how identity may be linked to non-language factors such as emotions or family. These issues are associated with elements of hybrid identity. To analyze this we draw on language choice as a tool used for the construction of identity and…

  20. What You Ask for Is What You Get: Some Dos and Don'ts for Assigning Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines for developing effective research assignments were distributed to University of Colorado, Boulder, teaching assistants and faculty by the Instructional Services Librarian. Suggestions concerning what to do (i.e., clarify research objectives, schedule library presentation) and what not to do (i.e., limit research to particular index or…