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Sample records for brasiliensis gomes rubiaceae

  1. Comparative study on the technological properties of latex and natural rubber from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work reports a systematic comparative study of the properties of natural lattices and rubbers extracted from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis [(Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] (clone RRIM 600) trees from 11 collections in Brazil throughout 2004. Natural rubber latex particl...

  2. Phytoalexin induction in rubiaceae.

    PubMed

    Braga, M R; Claudia, M; Young, M; Dietrich, S M; Gottlieb, O R

    1991-06-01

    Phytoalexin responses were measured by modified drop-diffusate and facilitated diffusion techniques after fungal inoculation of leaves of 32 Rubiaceae species from Brazilian forest and savanna. Such responses presented a trend similar to that previously observed for a broad sample of dicotyledonous plants and are more frequently positive for the more primitive (or slower growing) trees than for the advanced (or faster growing) herbs. Fifteen of these species analyzed during a one-year period showed that positive phytoalexin responses are stronger for the rainy (and hotter) than for the dry (and cooler) season. Species that contain relatively large quantities of phenolics gave invariably negative responses. Positive responses are not necessarily associated with the appearance of new substances within leaf tissue and are thus caused by inhibitins rather than by phytoalexins. These results are discussed recognizing that the tested plants are subject to the multifarious influences of their natural environment and of a possible conjugate-caused compartmentation of plant metabolites.

  3. GOME wavelength calibration using solar and atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspar, C.; Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral information in the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) solar irradiance spectra and GOME earth radiance spectra are used in conjunction with the GOME solar reference spectrum to provide absolute vacuum internal wavelength calibration for GOME. Two methods for wavelength calibration of GOME data are investigated. The first employs chi-square minimization of a merit function involving wavelength and the GOME slit function. It is quite robust and requires little GOME data in the processing (calibration window regions from 15 to 40 pixels). The second employs cross correlation of GOME data and the solar reference spectrum in the Fourier transform domain, using a procedure in the image reduction and analysis facility (IRAF) software system developed for the determination of galaxy redshifts. It also requires small amounts of GOME data (calibration window regions with from 10 to 15 pixels). Both methods provide absolute wavelength calibration accurate to a small fraction of a GOME pixel across the entire GOME spectrum, and to 0.001 nm over much of the range.

  4. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  5. Defining the mammalian CArGome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Chen, Guang; Streb, Jeffrey W.; Long, Xiaochun; Yang, Yumei; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Miano, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) binds a 1216-fold degenerate cis element known as the CArG box. CArG boxes are found primarily in muscle- and growth-factor-associated genes although the full spectrum of functional CArG elements in the genome (the CArGome) has yet to be defined. Here we describe a genome-wide screen to further define the functional mammalian CArGome. A computational approach involving comparative genomic analyses of human and mouse orthologous genes uncovered >100 hypothetical SRF-dependent genes, including 10 previously identified SRF targets, harboring a conserved CArG element within 4000 bp of the annotated transcription start site (TSS). We PCR-cloned 89 hypothetical SRF targets and subjected each of them to at least two of several validations including luciferase reporter, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and mRNA expression following RNAi knockdown of SRF; 60/89 (67%) of the targets were validated. Interestingly, 26 of the validated SRF target genes encode for cytoskeletal/contractile or adhesion proteins. RNAi knockdown of SRF diminishes expression of several SRF-dependent cytoskeletal genes and elicits an attending perturbation in the cytoarchitecture of both human and rodent cells. These data illustrate the power of integrating existing algorithms to interrogate the genome in a relatively unbiased fashion for cis-regulatory element discovery. In this manner, we have further expanded the mammalian CArGome with the discovery of an array of cyto-contractile genes that coordinate normal cytoskeletal homeostasis. We suggest one function of SRF is that of an ancient master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:16365378

  6. US Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Geary, J. C.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAGW-2541 through September 30, 1997. The research performed under this grant includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, sensitivity and instrument studies to define GOME and SCIAMACHY instruments, consultation on optical and detector issues for both GOME and SCIAMACHY, consultation and development for SCIAMACHY near-real-time (NRT) and off-line (OL) data products, and development of infrared line-by-line atmospheric modeling and retrieval capability for SCIAMACHY. The European Space Agency selected the SAO to participate in GOME validation and science studies, part of the overall ERS AO. This provided access to all GOME data; The SAO activities that are carried out as a result of selection by ESA were funded by the present grant. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS- 2 satellite on April 20, 1995, and remains working in normal fashion. SCIAMACHY is currently scheduled for launch in early 2000. The first two European ozone monitoring instruments (OMI), to fly on the q series of operational meteorological satellites being planned by Eumetsat, have been selected to be GOME-type instruments (the first, in fact, will be the refurbished GOME flight spare). K. Chance is the U.S. member of the OMI Users Advisory Group.

  7. Cell scientist to watch - Edgar Gomes.

    PubMed

    2017-01-15

    Edgar Gomes earned his PhD at the University of Coimbra in Portugal under the supervision of Carlos Duarte. He then travelled to the USA to train as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Gregg Gundersen at Columbia University in New York. Before moving back to Portugal in 2014, Edgar was a group leader in the Myology Institute at the University of Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris (France) as an INSERM Avenir Fellow. His lab investigates the mechanisms of nuclear positioning in skeletal muscle and in migrating cells.

  8. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  9. NLC occurrence frequency retrieval from SCIAMACHY, GOME and GOME-2 nadir data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, Martin; Von Savigny, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Noctilucent clouds NLCs are clouds occurring in the polar summer mesopause region at about 82-86 km altitude, and they can be observed poleward of about 50 degrees latitude. Due to their high altitude, they can scatter sunlight to the ground, even if it is dark at the ground, which makes them a fascinating bright phenomenon in the summer night sky. First observations of NLCs were reported in the 1880ies after the eruption of the Krakatau volcano. Afterwards they were seen every year and current long time studies show, that their occurrence rate is well anticorrelated with solar activity and it increased over time for the last decades. Ever since the NLCs were observed it was discussed whether their increasing occurrence rate can be interpreted as a sign of climate change in the upper atmosphere. With the SCIAMACHY, GOME and GOME 2 nadir measurements, which are very similar for each instrument a long time dataset of over 20 years of data is available to retrieve NLC occurrence frequencies. All three instruments have a very stable local times with descending nodes ranging between 9:30 a.m. and 10:30 a.m.. We present the algorithm to retrieve NLC occurrence frequencies from these instruments and results of this retrieval.

  10. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents from the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBW, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  11. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor); Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents h m the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBUV, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  12. U.S. Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAGW-2541 from April 1, 1996 through March 31, 1997. The research performed during this reporting period includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, consultation and development for SCIAMACHY near-real-time (NRT) and off-line (OL) data products, and development of infrared line-by-line atmospheric modeling and retrieval capability for SCIAMACHY. SAO also continues to participate in GOME validation studies, to the limit that can be accomplished at the present level of funding. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995, and remains working in normal fashion. SCIAMACHY is currently in instrument characterization. The first two European ozone monitoring instruments (OMI), to fly on the Metop series of operational meteorological satellites being planned by Eumetsat, have been selected to be GOME-type instruments (the first, in fact, will be the refurbished GOME flight spare). K. Chance is the U.S. member of the OMI Users Advisory Group.

  13. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  14. Sommera cusucoana, a new species of Rubiaceae from Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Dietzsch, Anke C.; Kelly, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sommera cusucoana Lorence, D. Kelly & A. Dietzsch, sp. nov., (Rubiaceae), a new species from Honduras, differs from the other Mesoamerican Sommera species by the combination of large, obovate leaves with long red petioles, glabrous or glabrate intervenal areas, red stipules, lax, sparsely pubescent inflorescences with red axes, flowers with red hypanthium and calyx, long fruiting pedicels, and dark red mature fruits. It is known only from the type locality in Cusuco National Park. PMID:26751914

  15. US Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Geary, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The research performed during this reporting period includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, further sensitivity and instrument studies to help finalize the definition of the SCIAMACHY instrument, and consultation on optical and detector issues for both GOME and SCIAMACHY. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995, during this reporting period, and is working in the expected fashion. The European Space Agency has made their selections from responses to the Announcement of Opportunity for GOME validation and science studies, part of the overall ERS AO. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposal has been selected. These proposals are primarily for access to the data; ESA does not provide research funding for the selected investigations. The SAO activities that are carried out as a result of selection by ESA are funded by the present grant, to the limit that can be accomplished at the present level of funding. SCIAMACHY is currently in Phase C/D. Instrument design is almost finalized and selection of infrared detectors from the initial production run has been made.

  16. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  17. Development of microsatellite markers for Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A J L; Yamaguishi, A T; Chaves, L J; Coelho, A S G; Lima, J S; Telles, M P C

    2015-07-03

    Herein, we describe 34 microsatellite loci developed using an enrichment genomic library for the tree species Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae). Thirty-five individuals were genotyped using 34 primers to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 20. The average number of alleles was 8.11, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.62 to 0.94. These microsatellite primers will be useful in population genetics studies for this species.

  18. Spectral surface albedo derived from GOME-2/Metop measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflug, Bringfried; Loyola, Diego

    2009-09-01

    Spectral surface albedo is an important input for GOME-2 trace gas retrievals. An algorithm was developed for estimation of spectral surface albedo from top-of-atmosphere (TOA)-radiances measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME-2 flying on-board MetOp-A. The climatologically version of this algorithm estimates Minimum Lambert-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) for a fixed time window and can use data of many years in contrast to the Near-real time version. Accuracy of surface albedo estimated by MLER-computation increases with the amount of available data. Unfortunately, most of the large GOME pixels are partly covered by clouds, which enhance the LER-data. A plot of LER-values over cloud fraction is used within this presentation to account for this influence of clouds. This "cloud fraction plot" can be applied over all surface types. Surface albedo obtained using the "cloud fraction plot" is compared with reference surface albedo spectra and with the FRESCO climatology. There is a general good agreement; however there are also large differences for some pixels.

  19. Tropical tropospheric column ozone from GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II using the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Weber, Mark; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Burrows, P. John

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone column can be retrieved with the Convective Clouds Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al., 1998) using total ozone column and cloud retrievals. The CCD technique uses the clear-sky and above-cloud ozone column measurements to derive a monthly mean tropospheric column amount by the subtraction of the above cloud column from the total column. An important assumption here is that stratospheric ozone is nearly invariant with longitude, which is only approximately true in the tropical region. A CCD algorithm has been developed and is applied to GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II measurements so that a unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (20oN - 20oS) can be created starting in 1995. First results of the CCD application that includes validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data will be presented.

  20. Phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae): its evolutionary and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiwu; Tu, Tieyao; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Zhu, Chengjie; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2014-09-01

    Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae) is an enigmatic, monotypic genus endemic to southwestern China. Its generic status has never been doubted because it is morphologically unique by having rosette habit, showy, long-corolla-tubed flowers, and multi-seeded indehiscent berry-like fruits. The genus has been postulated to be a relict in the broad-leaved forests of China, and to be related to the genus Wendlandia, which was placed in the subfamily Cinchonoideae and recently classified in the tribe Augusteae of the subfamily Dialypetalanthoideae. Using combined evidence from palynology, cytology, and DNA sequences of nuclear ITS and four plastid markers (rps16, trnT-F, ndhF, rbcL), we assessed the phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus in Rubiaceae. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the genus deeply nested within Wendlandia. This relationship is corroborated by evidence from palynology and cytology. Using a relaxed molecular clock method based on five fossil records, we dated the stem age of Wendlandia to be 17.46 my and, the split between G. acaulis and related Wendlandia species in southwestern China to be 2.11mya. This young age, coupled with the derived position in Wendlandia, suggests an evolutionary derivation rather than an evolutionary relict of G. acaulis. Its rosette habit and large showy flowers, which are very distinctive from other Wendlandias, are interpreted as a result of recent rapid adaptation to rock and cliff habitats.

  1. Molecular detection and identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, G S; Aleff, R A; Kline, B C; da Silva Lacaz, C

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 800 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the 28S ribosomal gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were sequenced, and a 14-base DNA probe specific for this species was identified. Hybridization results showed that the probe identified P. brasiliensis ribosomal DNA in a panel of ribosomal DNAs representing a total of 48 species of fungi. PMID:9196219

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  3. Development of a prototype algorithm for the operational retrieval of height-resolved products from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurr, Robert J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) level 2 products of total ozone column amounts have been generated on a routine operational basis since July 1996. These products and the level 1 radiance products are the major outputs from the ERS-2 ground segment GOME data processor (GDP) at DLR in Germany. Off-line scientific work has already shown the feasibility of ozone profile retrieval from GOME. It is demonstrated how the retrievals can be performed in an operational context. Height-resolved retrieval is based on the optimal estimation technique, #and cloud-contaminated scenes are treated in an equivalent reflecting surface approximation. The prototype must be able to handle GOME measurements routinely on a global basis. Requirements for the major components of the algorithm are described: this incorporates an overall strategy for operational height-resolved retrieval from GOME.

  4. An empirical sun-glint index for GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Lang, Rüdiger; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Sun-glint has high impact on several kinds of remote sensing applications over oceans, e.g. ocean color, detection of oil spills, retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties, or the retrieval of trace gas columns from spectral measurements. Here we investigate to what extent information about sun-glint can be derived from spectrally resolved measurements from satellite, e.g. GOME-2, covering the UV/vis spectral range, but with rather coarse spatial resolution. Several different quantities are investigated, e.g. radiance, operational cloud products, a color index, polarization state (Stokes fraction), and the oxygen column density. From the combination of color index and Stokes fraction, it is possible to differentiate between the occurrence of sun-glint and clouds, and an empirical sun-glint flag can be defined on the high spatial resolution of GOME-2 PMD measurements. This flag can be used to either exclude sun-glint situations, or to explicitly select them for their well-defined radiative transfer conditions and high reflectance. Going beyond simple flagging, a float sun-glint index might allow for a gradual quantification or correction of sun-glint effects, with potential applications in various fields of research (work in progress).

  5. Validation of GOME-2/Metop total column water vapour with ground-based and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalakoski, Niilo; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sofieva, Viktoria; Tamminen, Johanna; Grossi, Margherita; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The total column water vapour product from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 on board Metop-A and Metop-B satellites (GOME-2/Metop-A and GOME-2/Metop-B) produced by the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) is compared with co-located radiosonde observations and global positioning system (GPS) retrievals. The validation is performed using recently reprocessed data by the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7. The time periods for the validation are January 2007-July 2013 (GOME-2A) and December 2012-July 2013 (GOME-2B). The radiosonde data are from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ground-based GPS observations from the COSMIC/SuomiNet network are used as the second independent data source. We find a good general agreement between the GOME-2 and the radiosonde/GPS data. The median relative difference of GOME-2 to the radiosonde observations is -2.7 % for GOME-2A and -0.3 % for GOME-2B. Against the GPS, the median relative differences are 4.9 % and 3.2 % for GOME-2A and B, respectively. For water vapour total columns below 10 kg m-2, large wet biases are observed, especially against the GPS retrievals. Conversely, at values above 50 kg m-2, GOME-2 generally underestimates both ground-based observations.

  6. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  7. GOME total ozone and calibration error derived using Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local structure as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The 1b detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  8. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elida G; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Brígido, Marcelo de Macedo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Survival of pathogenic fungi inside human hosts depends on evasion from the host immune system and adaptation to the host environment. Among different insults that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has to handle are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the human host cells, and by its own metabolism. Knowing how the parasite deals with reactive species is important to understand how it establishes infection and survives within humans. The initiative to describe the P. brasiliensis transcriptome fostered new approaches to study oxidative stress response in this organism. By examining genes related to oxidative stress response, one can evaluate the parasite's ability to face this condition and infer about possible ways to overcome this ability. We report the results of a search of the P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tag database for homologous sequences involved in oxidative stress response. We described several genes coding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, for example, catalase and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxiredoxin, cytochrome c peroxidase, glutathione synthesis enzymes, thioredoxin, and the transcription factors Yap1 and Skn7. The transcriptome analysis of P. brasiliensis reveals a pathogen that has many resources to combat reactive species. Besides characterizing the antioxidant defense system in P. brasiliensis, we also compared the ways in which different fungi respond to oxidative damage, and we identified the basic features of this response.

  9. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Frederic; Groeninckx, Inge; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The tribe Spermacoceae is essentially a herbaceous Rubiaceae lineage, except for some species that can be described as ‘woody’ herbs, small shrubs to treelets, or lianas. Its sister tribe Knoxieae contains a large number of herbaceous taxa, but the number of woody taxa is higher compared to Spermacoceae. The occurrence of herbaceous and woody species within the same group raises the question whether the woody taxa are derived from herbaceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness represents the ancestral state (i.e. primary woodiness). Microscopic observations of wood anatomy are combined with an independent molecular phylogeny to answer this question. Methods Observations of wood anatomy of 21 woody Spermacoceae and eight woody Knoxieae species, most of them included in a multi-gene molecular phylogeny, are carried out using light microscopy. Key Results Observations of wood anatomy in Spermacoceae support the molecular hypothesis that all the woody species examined are secondary derived. Well-known wood anatomical characters that demonstrate this shift from the herbaceous to the woody habit are the typically flat or decreasing length vs. age curves for vessel elements, the abundance of square and upright ray cells, or even the (near-) absence of rays. These so-called paedomorphic wood features are also present in the Knoxieae genera Otiophora, Otomeria, Pentas, Pentanisia and Phyllopentas. However, the wood structure of the other Knoxieae genera observed (Carphalea, Dirichletia and Triainolepis) is typical of primarily woody taxa. Conclusions In Spermacoceae, secondary woodiness has evolved numerous times in strikingly different habitats. In Knoxieae, there is a general trend from primary woodiness towards herbaceousness and back to (secondary) woodiness. PMID:19279041

  10. Improvement of total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Valks, Pieter; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Huan, Yu; Beirle, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the development and refinement of novel scientific algorithms for the retrieval of total and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns for the GOME-2 satellite instrument. NO2 plays significant roles in atmospheric chemistry. It is strongly related to ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and is regarded as an important air pollutant and ozone precursor in the troposphere. Total NO2 columns from GOME-2 are retrieved with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method using the large 425-497 nm wavelength fitting window in order to increase the signal to noise ratio. The tropospheric NO2 column is derived using an improved Stratospheric-Tropospheric separation (STS) algorithm, followed by an air mass factor (AMF) conversion calculated with the LIDORT model. For the calculation of the tropospheric AMF, improved GOME-2 cloud parameters are used and a new surface albedo (LER) climatology based on GOME-2 observations for 2007-2013 is applied. We present the improvements in the NO2 retrieval algorithm, and we show examples of air quality applications with GOME-2 NO2 data.

  11. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions using the GOME-2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focusses on the GOME-2 SO2 column products from the METOP-A and B satellites. The GOME-2 SO2 column product has been developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic SO2 provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. Volcanic eruptions may bring ash and gases (e.g. SO2) high up into the atmosphere, where a long-range transport can occur. SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic activity and an excellent tracer for volcanic eruption clouds, especially if ash detection techniques fail. SO2 can affect aviation safety: In the cabin it can cause disease and respiratory symptoms, whereas in its hydrogenated form H2SO4 it is highly corrosive and can cause damage to jet engines as well as pitting of windscreens. We will present results for volcanic events retrieved from GOME-2 solar backscattered measurements in the UV wavelength region around 320nm using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. SO2 columns are generated operationally by DLR with the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7 and are available in near-real-time, i.e. within two hours after sensing. Using data from both MetOp satellites allows for a daily global coverage. We will furthermore present current improvements to the GOME-2 SO2 column product.

  12. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  13. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Loyola, D.; Gimeno García, S.; Romahn, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) and to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud top height (CTH), cloud top pressure (CTP), cloud top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than six years of GOME-2A data (February 2007-June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing angle dependent and latitude dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with co-located AVHRR geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15±0.20. From operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its extremely fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA by using the polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  14. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2004-09-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2) is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities.

    Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2). We use this data (1997-2001) to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information.

    The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories.

    The small spatial extent of NO2 "hot spots" allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale.

    The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT), OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA) or GOME II (to be launched 2005) with an improved spatial resolution.

  15. GOME level 1-to-2 data processor version 3.0: a major upgrade of the GOME/ERS-2 total ozone retrieval algorithm.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Robert; Loyola, Diego; Thomas, Werner; Balzer, Wolfgang; Mikusch, Eberhard; Aberle, Bernd; Slijkhuis, Sander; Ruppert, Thomas; van Roozendael, Michel; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Soebijanta, Trisnanto

    2005-11-20

    The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) was launched in April 1995, and the GOME data processor (GDP) retrieval algorithm has processed operational total ozone amounts since July 1995. GDP level 1-to-2 is based on the two-step differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) approach, involving slant column fitting followed by air mass factor (AMF) conversions to vertical column amounts. We present a major upgrade of this algorithm to version 3.0. GDP 3.0 was implemented in July 2002, and the 9-year GOME data record from July 1995 to December 2004 has been processed using this algorithm. The key component in GDP 3.0 is an iterative approach to AMF calculation, in which AMFs and corresponding vertical column densities are adjusted to reflect the true ozone distribution as represented by the fitted DOAS effective slant column. A neural network ensemble is used to optimize the fast and accurate parametrization of AMFs. We describe results of a recent validation exercise for the operational version of the total ozone algorithm; in particular, seasonal and meridian errors are reduced by a factor of 2. On a global basis, GDP 3.0 ozone total column results lie between -2% and +4% of ground-based values for moderate solar zenith angles lower than 70 degrees. A larger variability of about +5% and -8% is observed for higher solar zenith angles up to 90 degrees.

  16. Overinfection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Gouty Crystal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Abadía, F.; Vélez, J. D.; Zárate-Correa, L. C.; Carrascal, E.; Guarín, N.; Castañeda-Ramírez, C. R.; Cañas, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic South American systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). The main clinical form of disease is pulmonary, but all organs may be involved. We report a case of overinfection by P. brasiliensis in chronic gouty arthritis affecting the proximal phalanx of the right hallux. The patient required proximal amputation and long-term antifungal therapy. PMID:23251162

  17. (13)C-NMR Spectral Data of Alkaloids Isolated from Psychotria Species (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho Junior, Almir Ribeiro de; Vieira, Ivo Jose Curcino; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; S Lima, Mary Anne; Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; José Maria, Edmilson; Oliveira, Daniela Barros de

    2017-01-11

    The genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) comprises more than 2000 species, mainly found in tropical and subtropical forests. Several studies have been conducted concerning their chemical compositions, showing that this genus is a potential source of alkaloids. At least 70 indole alkaloids have been identified from this genus so far. This review aimed to compile (13)C-NMR data of alkaloids isolated from the genus Psychotria as well as describe the main spectral features of different skeletons.

  18. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  19. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar.

  20. Nuclear staining of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, J G; Restrepo, B I; Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A

    1987-10-01

    More than 80% of the conidia produced by two different isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, were found to be uninucleate; however, when they were incubated at 37 degrees C and began to transform into yeast cells, they became bi- or multi-nucleated, so that when most of the conidia had already transformed into yeast cells (72-96 h), there were at least four or five nuclei per cell in approximately 80% of the conidia examined.

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. PMID:28348912

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes.

  3. A Revised Time Tree of the Asterids: Establishing a Temporal Framework For Evolutionary Studies of the Coffee Family (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Niklas; Kainulainen, Kent; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.; Smedmark, Jenny E. E.; Bremer, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Divergence time analyses in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) have all relied on the same Gentianales crown group age estimate, reported by an earlier analysis of the asterids, for defining the upper age bound of the root node in their analyses. However, not only did the asterid analysis suffer from several analytical shortcomings, but the estimate itself has been used in highly inconsistent ways in these Rubiaceae analyses. Based on the original data, we here reanalyze the divergence times of the asterids using relaxed-clock models and 14 fossil-based minimum age constraints. We also expand the data set to include an additional 67 taxa from Rubiaceae sampled across all three subfamilies recognized in the family. Three analyses are conducted: a separate analysis of the asterids, which completely mirrors the original asterid analysis in terms of taxon sample and data; a separate analysis of the Gentianales, where the result from the first analysis is used for defining a secondary root calibration point; and a combined analysis where all taxa are analyzed simultaneously. Results are presented in the form of a time-calibrated phylogeny, and age estimates for asterid groups, Gentianales, and major groups of Rubiaceae are compared and discussed in relation to previously published estimates. Our updated age estimates for major groups of Rubiaceae provide a significant step forward towards the long term goal of establishing a robust temporal framework for the divergence of this biologically diverse and fascinating group of plants. PMID:25996595

  4. Thyroid peroxidase inhibition by Kalanchoe brasiliensis aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C; Rosenthal, D; Carvalho, D P

    2000-05-01

    Flavonoids are known inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and some are components of Kalanchoe brasiliensis, a plant used in popular medicine to treat tissue injuries, enlarged ganglia and peptic ulcer. As K. brasiliensis extract is currently used, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of K. brasiliensis aqueous extract on TPO activity. We show here that TPO iodide-oxidation activity was significantly inhibited by K. brasiliensis aqueous extract and that TPO inhibition seems to be competitive, since the enzyme V(max) was unchanged and K(m) for iodide was significantly increased in the presence of the plant extract. Furthermore, TPO inhibitory activity produced by K. brasiliensis extract was unchanged after boiling or by incubation with hepatic enzymes (activated S9 fraction), suggesting that at least the antithyroid component of this plant infusion could probably reach systemic circulation. We also report that K. brasiliensis aqueous extract is able to scavenge H(2)O(2), in vitro. As H(2)O(2) is an essential TPO cofactor, it is possible that the H(2)O(2) trapping effect of K. brasiliensis may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the iodide-oxidation reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Thus, K. brasiliensis aqueous extract has antithyroid effects in vitro, suggesting that its chronic consumption could contribute to the development of goitre and hypothyroidism, mainly in areas of low iodine intake.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

  6. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  7. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  8. Long-term analysis of GOME in-flight calibration parameters and instrument degradation.

    PubMed

    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Slijkhuis, Sander; Aberle, Bernd; Loyola, Diego

    2008-09-10

    Since 1995, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has measured solar and backscattered spectra in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range. Now, the extensive data set of the most important calibration parameters has been investigated thoroughly in order to analyze the long-term stability and performance of the instrument. This study focuses on GOME in-flight calibration and degradation for the solar path. Monitoring the sensor degradation yields an intensity decrease of 70% to 90% in 240-316 nm and 35% to 65% in 311-415 nm. The spectral calibration is very stable over the whole period, although a very complex interaction between predisperser temperature and wavelength was found. The leakage current and the pixel-to-pixel gain increased significantly during the mission, which requires an accurate correction of the measured radiance and irradiance signals using proper calibration parameters. Finally, several outliers in the data sets can be directly assigned to instrument and satellite anomalies.

  9. Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

  10. Simulations of Solar Induced Fluorescence compared to observations from GOSAT and GOME-2 Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Berry, J. A.; Frankenberg, C.; Joiner, J.; Van der Tol, C.; Lee, J. E.; Denning, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) are currently retrieved from the GOSAT and GOME-2 satellites, and will become available from OCO-2 shortly. The GOSAT (and OCO-2) satellite has a midday overpass time, while GOME-2 has a variable observation of approximately 0800-1100 local time. Previous studies have demonstrated a linear relationship between SIF and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), but lack the ability to investigate causes of spatiotemporal variability. We demonstrate an ability to simulate SIF using a landsurface model (the Simple Biosphere Model; SIB) for direct comparison to observations. We calculate fluorescence yield based on known relationships between photosynthesis and fluorescence, and calculate total SIF using existing leaf-to-canopy scaling factors. We find that simulated SIF exceeds GOSAT retrieved SIF, especially in tropical and Boreal forests. Simulated SIF exceeds GOME-2 values in Boreal forest and in lower-productivity areas such as marginal desert and tundra. Observed SIF GOME-2 in croplands is significantly higher than simulations. SIF simulated for low- and high-productivity grassland and savanna show much less seasonal and interannual amplitude when compared to values from both satellites, implicating that model phenology and/or response to meteorological forcing is damped. Simulated SIF seasonal cycles are similar to observed from both satellites, and simulations are able to reproduce drought events such as occurred in Russia in 2010 and the Central USA in 2012. As simulated SIF more closely resembles observations, model estimates of GPP become more robust, as does our ability to understand and recreate the mechanisms involved in vegetation response to seasonal cycles and anomalous stress events such as drought.

  11. Retrieval Of Cloud Pressure And Chlorophyll Content Using Raman Scattering In GOME Ultraviolet Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Joiner, Joanna; Vasikov, Alexander; Flittner, David; Gleason, James; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable cloud pressure estimates are needed for accurate retrieval of ozone and other trace gases using satellite-borne backscatter ultraviolet (buv) instruments such as the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME). Cloud pressure can be derived from buv instruments by utilizing the properties of rotational-Raman scattering (RRS) and absorption by O2-O2. In this paper we estimate cloud pressure from GOME observations in the 355-400 nm spectral range using the concept of a Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (LER) surface. GOME has full spectral coverage in this range at relatively high spectral resolution with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. This allows for much more accurate estimates of cloud pressure than were possible with its predecessors SBUV and TOMS. We also demonstrate the potential capability to retrieve chlorophyll content with full-spectral buv instruments. We compare our retrieved LER cloud pressure with cloud top pressures derived from the infrared ATSR instrument on the same satellite. The findings confirm results from previous studies that showed retrieved LER cloud pressures from buv observations are systematically higher than IR-derived cloud-top pressure. Simulations using Mie-scattering radiative transfer algorithms that include O2-O2 absorption and RRS show that these differences can be explained by increased photon path length within and below cloud.

  12. Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Saludes, Jonel P; Garson, Mary J; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2002-11-01

    A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.

  13. Galium shinasii (Rubiaceae): a new species of Galium L. from Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Şık, Levent; Yıldırım, Hasan; Pirhan, Ademi Fahri; Altıoğlu, Yusuf; Gemici, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Galium shinasii Yıldırım (Rubiaceae), is described as a new species from Malatya Province in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The new species is morphologically related to Galium cornigerum Boiss. & Hausskn. Galium lasiocarpum and Galium sorgereae Ehrend. and Schönb. but clearly differs from them based on the morphological differences presented in the species description. In addition, the conservation status, the distribution map, and notes on the biogeography and ecology of the new species are given. PMID:28127242

  14. Development of an OClO Slant Column Product for the GOME-2 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion by catalytic reactions involving halogens is one of the most prominent examples of anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere. In spite of the rapid and successful international action to reduce emissions of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances leading to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone depletion in polar spring is still observed in both hemispheres on a regular basis. For the coming years, slow ozone recovery is expected but individual years will still see very low ozone columns depending on meteorology and possible interactions with climate change. Monitoring of both ozone and ozone depleting substances in the stratosphere remains a priority to ensure that the predicted reduction in halogen levels and recovery of ozone columns is taking place as predicted. One way to observe stratospheric chlorine activation is by measurements of OClO which can be detected by UV/visible remote sensing from the ground and from satellite. While the link between OClO levels and chlorine activation is complicated by the fact that a) OClO is not directly involved in ozone depletion but is produced by reaction of BrO and ClO and b) is rapidly photolysed at daylight, the long existing data series from both ground-based and satellite observations makes it an interesting tracer of chlorine activation. The GOME-2 instruments on the MetOp series of satellites are nadir viewing UV/vis spectrometers having the spectral coverage and resolution needed for Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy retrievals of OClO. With their combined lifetime of more than 15 years, they can provide a long-term data set. However, previous attempts to create an OClO product for GOME-2 suffered from large scatter in the OClO data and time-dependent offsets. Here we present an improved OClO slant column retrieval for the two instruments GOME2-A and GOME2-B. The data is shown to be of similar quality as for earlier instruments such as SCIAMACHY, and is consistent

  15. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound.

  16. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  17. (1) Request for a binding decision on whether Ferdinanda (Compositae) and Ferdinandea (Rubiaceae) are sufficiently alike to be confused

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Ferdinandusa is an attractive, widespread shrub in tropical America, a member of the family Rubiaceae, and is sometimes cultivated for its bright showy flowers. It is a later name for the genus Ferdinandea, which has been confused with the genus Ferdinanda. By officially establishing that ...

  18. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  19. Colleters in Rubiaceae from forest and savanna: the link between secretion and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Canaveze, Yve; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate colleters' secretory function, on cellular level, in Rubiaceae species from contrasting environments looking to explore the association between secretion and environment. We collected samples from eight species of Rubiaceae growing in forest and savanna having standard-type colleters with diverse histochemistry (hydrophilic, lipophilic and mixed secretions) and processed for both conventional and cytochemical study under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The standard colleters, although similar in morphology and anatomy, exhibited marked differences on cellular level, especially in the abundance and topology of Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids when comparing forest and savanna species. These differences were clearly aligned with the chemical nature of the secretions they produce, with predominance of hydrophilic secretions in forest species and lipophilic or mixed secretions in savanna species. The combination of methods in electron microscopy revealed the sites of synthesis and intracellular compartmentation of substances, the mechanisms of their secretion from the protoplast and confirmed the involvement of the outer walls of the epithelial cells in the elimination of exudates to the gland surface. Our study suggests a potential environment-associated plasticity of the secretory cells of standard-type colleters in modulating their secretory function performance.

  20. Evaluating a New Homogeneous Total Ozone Climate Data Record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koukouli, M.E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Labow, G.; Frith, S.; Spurr, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3 percent requirement of the European Space

  1. Evaluating a new homogeneous total ozone climate data record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Labow, G.; Frith, S.; Spurr, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 ± 1% level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3% requirement of the European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change

  2. Hydrolytic enzymes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Bruno; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Siqueira, Saulo J L de; Parachin, Nádia S; Torres, Fernando A G

    2005-06-30

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. The yeast form of this pathogen is found in the animal host whereas the mycelial form is recovered from living and non-living organic material. The sole carbon source available in these habitats is represented by polysaccharides from the plant cell wall. Hydrolytic enzymes are necessary to convert these polymers into simple sugars for fungal metabolism. We report on the presence of ortholog genes of hydrolytic enzymes identified in the P. brasiliensis transcriptome and on hydrolytic activities in supernatants of induced P. brasiliensis cultures of mycelium and yeast cells. Enzymatic assays have shown cellulase and xylanase activities, both being higher in mycelium than in the yeast form. Amylase and chitinase activities were detected only in mycelium. Data so far reinforce the idea that mycelial P. brasiliensis is a saprobe.

  3. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  4. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed.

  5. [Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, M G; Guarneri, A A; Pires, H H; Diotaiuti, L; Lazzari, C R

    2000-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution.

  6. Equatorial Kelvin wave signatures in ozone profile measurements from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; van Oss, R. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates the ability to derive height-resolved information on equatorial Kelvin wave activity from three different Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profile data sets. The ozone profiles derived using the Ozone Profile Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) based on optimal estimation and the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) both show Kelvin wave signals in agreement with previously identified signals in the GOME total ozone columns. However, because of the inadequate vertical resolution, these two data sets are not able to resolve the vertical structure of the Kelvin wave activity. The third data set, consisting of assimilated OPERA ozone profiles, does provide height-resolved information on Kelvin wave activity that is consistent with results from the analysis of GOME total ozone columns and ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) temperature data. Largest Kelvin-wave-induced perturbations of up to 0.69 DU/km coincide with the maximum vertical gradient in ozone around 35 hPa and show an in-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40 as expected from theoretical considerations. These results indicate that the ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere and in the total column of ozone are transport related. Between 10 and 1 hPa, large Kelvin-wave-induced fluctuations in ozone mixing ratio are present that, however, because of their small contribution to the total column, do not constitute a large contribution to the total ozone column perturbations. The ozone perturbations between 10 and 1 hPa show an out-of-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40, indicating that the perturbations can either be caused by transport effects or photochemical influences.

  7. Recent Developments To The RAL Joint IASI+GOME-2 Ozone Profile Retrievals Using TIR, UV And Visible Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Georgina; Siddans, Richard; Latter, Barry; Kerridge, Brian; Waterfall, Alison

    2013-12-01

    We present results from recent developments of the RAL Ozone Profile optimal estimation retrieval scheme. The algorithm produces both a GOME-2 only and a joint IASI and GOME-2 profile product, both of which have sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. The joint product has been selected for the ESA Climate Change Initiative Ozone nadir prototype product, for which data will be disseminated to the climate modelling community. Time-series and highlights from several years of the single and joint MetOp-A GOME-2 and IASI retrievals are presented. We further present results of the introduction of measurements from the Chappuis ozone bands to add near-surface ozone information to the retrieval under certain atmospheric and surface conditions.

  8. Variability in Tropospheric Ozone over China Derived from Assimilated GOME-2 Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Kelder, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    A tropospheric ozone dataset is derived from assimilated GOME-2 ozone profiles for 2008. Ozone profiles are retrieved with the OPERA algorithm, using the optimal estimation method. The retrievals are done on a spatial resolution of 160×160 km on 16 layers ranging from the surface up to 0.01 hPa. By using the averaging kernels in the data assimilation, the algorithm maintains the high resolution vertical structures of the model, while being constrained by observations with a lower vertical resolution.

  9. Hydrocarbon Emissions Constrained By Formaldehyde Column Measurements from Gome-2 and OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde retrieved from the spaceborne instruments GOME2 and OMI are used to constrain the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic emissions of formaldehyde precursors NMVOC at the global scale. To this end, those emissions are varied and optimized in the (updated) IMAGESv2 model. The adjoint model technique is used to minimize the bias of the model with observations from either GOME2 or OMI. The optimisation is performed on a monthly basis at the model resolution (2°x2.5°). The a priori biogenic emissions are provided by the MEGAN-ECMWF-v2 inventory for isoprene and from a previous optimization of methanol emissions based on IASI columns. Biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions are taken from GFEDv3 and from a combination of the RETRO global inventory with the regional inventory REASv2.Given the different local overpass times of GOME2 (9h30 LT) and OMI (13h40 LT), the factors which might affect the diurnal cycle of formaldehyde in the model (chemistry, diurnal profile of emissions, mixing) are examined through sensitivity calculations. The simulated diurnal cycle is evaluated against ground-based measurements obtained by either the MAX-DOAS technique (in Europe, China, and Africa) or by FTIR (in the Indian Ocean). The agreement between simulated and observed normalized columns is found to be generally better in the summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in the winter.Both optimizations infer a reduction of the global biogenic emissions of isoprene (by 10-15%), which is largest (up to a factor of 2) over Eastern U.S. according to GOME2 and over Western Amazonia according to OMI. Those reductions and evaluated by comparisons with arcraft observations for different years (ARCTAS and INTEX-A). Northern Australia, Southern China and Northern Africa are also regions where both sensors indicate an overestimation of MEGAN. Biomass burning emissions appear to be likewise overestimated in Central Canada

  10. Development and characterization of 32 microsatellite loci in Genipa americana (Rubiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Manoel, Ricardo O.; Freitas, Miguel L. M.; Barreto, Mariana A.; Moraes, Mário L. T.; Souza, Anete P.; Sebbenn, Alexandre M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the tree species Genipa americana (Rubiaceae) for further population genetic studies. • Methods and Results: We identified 144 clones containing 65 repeat motifs from a genomic library enriched for (CT)8 and (GT)8 motifs. Primer pairs were developed for 32 microsatellite loci and validated in 40 individuals of two natural G. americana populations. Seventeen loci were polymorphic, revealing from three to seven alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.24 to 1.00 and from 0.22 to 0.78, respectively. • Conclusions: The 17 primers identified as polymorphic loci are suitable to study the genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in G. americana. PMID:25202610

  11. Expression and Trans-Specific Polymorphism of Self-Incompatibility RNases in Coffea (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michael D.; Davis, Aaron P.; Anthony, François; Yoder, Anne D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is widespread in the angiosperms, but identifying the biochemical components of SI mechanisms has proven to be difficult in most lineages. Coffea (coffee; Rubiaceae) is a genus of old-world tropical understory trees in which the vast majority of diploid species utilize a mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The S-RNase GSI system was one of the first SI mechanisms to be biochemically characterized, and likely represents the ancestral Eudicot condition as evidenced by its functional characterization in both asterid (Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae) and rosid (Rosaceae) lineages. The S-RNase GSI mechanism employs the activity of class III RNase T2 proteins to terminate the growth of “self” pollen tubes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Coffea GSI and specifically examine the potential for homology to S-RNase GSI by sequencing class III RNase T2 genes in populations of 14 African and Madagascan Coffea species and the closely related self-compatible species Psilanthus ebracteolatus. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences aligned to a diverse sample of plant RNase T2 genes show that the Coffea genome contains at least three class III RNase T2 genes. Patterns of tissue-specific gene expression identify one of these RNase T2 genes as the putative Coffea S-RNase gene. We show that populations of SI Coffea are remarkably polymorphic for putative S-RNase alleles, and exhibit a persistent pattern of trans-specific polymorphism characteristic of all S-RNase genes previously isolated from GSI Eudicot lineages. We thus conclude that Coffea GSI is most likely homologous to the classic Eudicot S-RNase system, which was retained since the divergence of the Rubiaceae lineage from an ancient SI Eudicot ancestor, nearly 90 million years ago. PMID:21731641

  12. Calculation of smoke plume mass from passive UV satellite measurements by GOME-2 polarization measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.; Fromm, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Wallow wildfire of 2011 was one of the most devastating fires ever in Arizona, burning over 2,000 km2 in the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The fire originated in the Bear Wallow Wilderness area in June, 2011, and raged for more than a month. The intense heat of the fire caused the formation of a pyro-convective cloud. The resulting smoke plume, partially located above low-lying clouds, was detected by several satellite instruments, including GOME-2 on June 2. The UV Aerosol Index, indicative of aerosol absorption, reached a maximum of 12 on that day, pointing to an elevated plume with moderately absorbing aerosols. We have performed extensive model calculations assuming different aerosol optical properties to determine the total aerosol optical depth of the plume. The plume altitude, needed to constrain the aerosol optical depth, was obtained from independent satellite measurements. The model results were compared with UV Aerosol Index and UV reflectances measured by the GOME-2 polarization measurement devices, which have a spatial resolution of roughly 10x40 km2. Although neither the exact aerosol optical properties nor optical depth can be obtained with this method, the range in aerosol optical depth values that we calculate, combined with the assumed specific extinction mass factor of 5 m2/kg lead us to a rough estimate of the smoke plume mass that cannot, at present, be assessed in another way.

  13. Human neutrophils produce extracellular traps against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Susana P; Cano, Luz E; López, Juan A; Hernandez, Orville; González, Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophils play an important role as effector cells and contribute to the resistance of the host against microbial pathogens. Neutrophils are able to produce extracellular traps (NETs) in response to medically important fungi, including Aspergillus spp., Candida albicans and Cryptococcus gattii. However, NET production in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has yet to be studied. We have demonstrated that human neutrophils produce NETs against both conidia and yeasts of P. brasiliensis. Although the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) did not alter NET production against conidia, it partially suppressed NET formation against P. brasiliensis yeasts. Cytochalasin D or IFN-γ did not affect the production of NETs against the fungus. Additionally, a mutant strain of P. brasiliensis with reduced expression of an alternative oxidase induced significantly higher levels of NETs in comparison with the WT strain. Finally, c.f.u. quantification of P. brasiliensis showed no significant differences when neutrophils were treated with DPI, DNase I or cytochalasin D as compared with untreated cells. These data establish that NET formation by human neutrophils appears to be either dependent or independent of reactive oxygen species production, correlating with the fungal morphotype used for stimulation. However, this mechanism was ineffective in killing the fungus.

  14. Cryptic Chromosomal Diversity in the Complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel Araújo; Argolo, Leandro Araújo; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Diniz, Débora; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Among American cichlids, Geophagus stands out as a species-rich genus widespread over neotropical region. Despite their diversity and confusing taxonomy, only few and basic chromosomal reports are available in populations/species along Atlantic coast, hindering our understanding about evolutionary trends in this genus. Therefore, detailed chromosomal studies were performed in "Geophagus" brasiliensis complex from coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil, totalizing seven populations of Geophagus brasiliensis and one of Geophagus itapicuruensis. All samples shared a diploid number (2n) of 48 divided into 2 submetacentric and 46 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes with (peri)centromeric heterochromatin, hypothesized as a symplesiomorphy for Geophagini. Although G. itapicuruensis and two populations of G. brasiliensis presented single NORs on short arms, multiple GC-rich rDNA sites were observed in the remaining G. brasiliensis samples, ranging from three to six NOR-bearing chromosomes. Inversely, 5S rDNA sites were invariably located at interstitial region on a st/a pair, nonsyntenic to NORs. A compilation of the data set in Geophagus shows that their chromosomal evolution has been driven by pericentric inversions and microstructural changes. Besides, the divergence found in northeastern Brazil places this region as a biodiversity hotspot. A taxonomic revision in the complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis is recommended with the support of cytogenetic analyses.

  15. Ultrastructure of Dimorphic Transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M ⇌ Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M → Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y → M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M → Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y → M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon. Images PMID:5359610

  16. [Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, L J; Mondragón-González, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; López-Martínez, R; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bonifaz, A; Anides Fonseca, A; Araiza, J; Vega-López, F

    2004-01-01

    Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients' sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  17. Characterization of the cellular antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form.

    PubMed Central

    Casotto, M

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic components of the yeast extract of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Linder 2511 cultured for 3, 8, 20, 30, and 60 days were examined by the Western blot (immunoblot) technique. The 3-day extract was chosen for characterization of the antigenic components because its stability did not vary with time and it contained all antigens identified by patient sera. Antibodies to cross-reacting antigens of P. brasiliensis extracts were detected in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. The 58-, 57-, 21-, and 16-kilodalton (kDa) antigens were specific for P. brasiliensis, while the 48- and 45-kDa antigens were specific for paracoccidioidomycosis. The Western blot technique is a useful tool for the diagnosis of disease and revealed heterogeneity in the responses of patient sera. The combination of the 58-, 57-, and 45-kDa proteins confirmed a diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (87% of the cases). Images PMID:2380351

  18. Overview and perspectives the transcriptome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rosângela V; Da Silva, Silvana P; Torres, Fernando A G; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio José; Silva-Pereira, Ildenete; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia Maria P; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Carvalho, Maria Joseá A; Almeida, Nalvo F; Brigido, Marcelo M; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-12-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America that affects 10 million individuals. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. This review shows the results of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome project which generated 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phases. Computer analysis using the tools of bioinformatics revealed several aspects from the transcriptome of this pathogen such as: general and differential metabolism in mycelium and yeast cells; cell cycle, DNA replication, repair and recombination; RNA biogenesis apparatus; translation and protein fate machineries; cell wall; hydrolytic enzymes; proteases; GPI-anchored proteins; molecular chaperones; insights into drug resistance and transporters; oxidative stress response and virulence. The present analysis has provided a more comprehensive view of some specific features considered relevant for the understanding of basic and applied knowledge of P. brasiliensis.

  19. Use of GOME measurements for the examination of the nitrogen oxide budget in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, O.; Rohrer, F.; Toenges, N.; Schultz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Ozone in the troposphere is controlled by stratospheric-tropospheric exchange (STE) and in-situ production which depends on the concentration of precursors such as the nitrogen oxides NO_X. Due to the short tropospheric lifetime of NO_X in the troposphere of about one day its global distribution strongly corresponds to the distribution of emissions. We want to quantify the relative contributions and the geographic distributions of individual NO_X emission sources using a variety of novel satellite data. The use of these data can give additional information about the distribution and the relative importance of different types of sources (anthropogenic, lightning, biomass burning, and soil emissions). In a first step nitrogen dioxide NO_2 measured by the GOME satellite has been compared to night-time light emissions observed from space from the DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS). The area of lighting as seen from space is closely correlated with the power consumption and CO_2 -emissions in that area and can therefore serve as a proxy for fossil fuel consumption. For comparison we performed a run with the global chemical transport model MOZART-2 which shows a strong pattern correlation to the EDGAR-2 emission database used in this model. It turns out that the light density at the Earth's surface shows a better correlation with tropospheric NO_2 measured by GOME (R=0.63) than the estimated anthropogenic emissions in the EDGAR database (R=0.52) which are widely used in global chemistry models. Recently satellite datasets of global lightning flash frequencies (NASA LIS/OTD) and fire counts (ATSR) became available. The empirical combination of lighting and lightning improves the correlation coefficient with GOME NO_2 to R=0.77 thus explaining 60 % of the total variance of measured NO2. Emissions from biomass burning are more difficult to derive from satellite observations. We want to make use of ATSR fire counts in combination with the AVHRR NDVI product for the

  20. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  1. The GOME-2 Level 1 Instrument Degradation Model Version 1 and its Application for Atmospheric Composition Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckle, R.; Lang, R.; Retscher, C.; Poli, G.; Lindstrot, R.; Lacan, A.; Trollope, E.; Munro, R.

    2015-12-01

    GOME-2 on Metop-A and -B is suffering from signal degradation in the shorter wavelength regime below 420 nm, like many instruments of this type. During its 8 years in orbit to date, GOME-2 on Metop-A has acquired enough data to enable correction of most (though not all) aspects of its signal degradation using a combination of empirical and instrument model correction. We present the first version of the GOME-2 Metop-A degradation model which covers the full spectral range between 240 nm and 790 nm and also includes signal correction for two polarisation measurement devices (PMDs). We discuss the individual model components, including a correction of the solar-spectrum and the calibration of the solar diffuser, a stray-light correction in the region below 295 nm, an angular correction of all earthshine data, as well as a correction in the spectral domain for low frequency patterns. The first version of the dataset covers the time period from launch until the start of tandem operations in July 2013, when the swath of GOME-2 Metop-A was reduced from 1920 km to 960 km. We will discuss the individual degradation components accounted for, their physical origin, and will show the first results of the corrected spectra and their impact on level-2 retrieval quality. We also present the roadmap towards the implementation of a near real-time correction scheme of GOME-2 level-1 data and discuss various options concerning its potential operational and offline functionalities.

  2. Melatonin production in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Peres, Rafael; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspardo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Neto, José Cipolla

    2014-04-01

    The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the tree of life, in animals, plants, and fungi, supporting a deep evolutionary origin for this signaling molecule. However, some key groups have not been studied. Echinoderms, deuterostome animals, are one of these groups. Herein we study the presence of melatonin and enzymes of its pathway in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis. We demonstrate that E. brasiliensis produces endogenous melatonin, in the gonads, under a circadian pattern with a nocturnal peak of production. We also show that the enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present and are probably regulating the melatonin production.

  3. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  4. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jader; Marcet, Paula L; Takiya, Daniela M; Mendonça, Vagner J; Belintani, Tiago; Bargues, Maria D; Mateo, Lucia; Chagas, Vivian; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Costa, Jane; da Rosa, João A; Almeida, Carlos E

    2017-02-20

    "Triatoma brasiliensis species complex" was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of "Brasiliensis subcomplex" which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads. Panstrongylus megistus was included in the analysis as it was previously found related to T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps. The results of both molecular and morphometric approaches clearly grouped the species analyzed into two monophyletic units, supported by both genetic and wing variability. The first one (G1) comprises the four species originally included in the T. brasiliensis species complex plus T. lenti and T. petrocchiae. The second group (G2) was composed by T. melanocephala, T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps, and remarkably, P. megistus if considering wing variability and phylogenetic results. Nevertheless, geometric morphometrics of heads provided a quantitative measurement that discriminates Panstrongylus from the Triatoma species based on the position of the antennal insertion relative to eyes, as it is used as the generic distinctive character. The discrepancy among approaches questions the validity of this character to define Panstrongylus genus. Independently of the chosen group definition -"T. brasiliensis species complex" or "Brasiliensis subcomplex"-we propose to delimit it to species of G1 that are all associated with the Caatinga biome in the Brazilian Northeast. G2 are the ones associated with the Atlantic Forest biome.

  5. Area Sulphur Dioxide Emissions over China Extracted from GOME2/MetopA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Zyrichidou, I.; van der A, R.; Ding, Jieying; Hedelt, P.; Valks, P.; Fioletov, V.

    2016-08-01

    As part of EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project, http://www.marcopolo.eu/, the long trends of atmospheric sulphur dioxide, SO2, have been studied from a spade of satellite instruments and algorithms [Koukouli et al., 2016]. Point sources with negative trends have been identified, pointing to the implementation of air quality technologies, as well as locations with positive trends, pointing to the Chinese economy and industry increasing need for energy.Using mathematical tools, as well as apriori SO2 emission fields used in a renowned regional chemistry transport model, we investigate the possibility of improving the current emission fields by calculating a top-down emission inventory for China based on GOME2/MetopA SO2 measurements.

  6. NO2 evolution at global level using the space instruments SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Adrian; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Bocaneala, Corina; Voiculescu, Mirela; Puiu Georgescu, Lucian

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the amount of NO2 at global level above twenty five worldwide urban agglomerations or station during 2002-2015. Tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD) are derived from various satellite UV-Vis instruments: SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) onboard Envisat, OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) onboard AURA and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Measurements-2) onboard Metop-A& B. Possible dependence of the evolution of the density of NO2 molecules above the major cities on demographic, economic, industry characteristics are investigated. Causes for various trends of the NO2 column, depending on geographical characteristics, altitude, are also analysed.

  7. Improvement of GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra and MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm using two approaches: fitting several EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and scaling reflectance spectra. We also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval. These results clearly show the potential of using the visible to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval.

  8. Effective cloud fractions of GOME-2 measurements using an enhanced HICRU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihler, Holger; Beirle, Steffen; Grzegorski, Michael; Hörmann, Christoph; Lampel, Johannes; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The physics of clouds is one of the most important drivers of meteorology and the climate system. Apart from this, the distribution of clouds interferes with the majority of satellite measurement techniques. Tropospheric trace gas retrievals are particularly sensitivity to the distribution of clouds within the field-of-view of the instrument, because already small cloud fractions have the potential to alter the measurement error and significantly increase the uncertainty of the measurement. Hence, the accuracy of tropospheric trace gas retrievals depends on the accuracy of the cloud fraction, particularly for small cloud fractions. The original HICRU Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities (HICRU) algorithm has been specifically developed for the retrieval of small cloud fractions at high accuracy. This is achieved by inferring a clear sky top of atmosphere reflectance map from the dataset itself, minimising the influence of instrument degradation and/or insufficient calibration. HICRU thus requires a minimum of a-priori knowledge. So far, this approach was limited to measurements at sufficiently small viewing angles, such as GOME and SCIAMACHY, for which the use of a single, viewing-angle independent background albedo map is justified. Here, we demonstrate how this empirical approach may be enhanced by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. It then becomes applicable to satellite instruments like GOME-2, OMI, and the upcoming TROPOMI/S5P with viewing angles up to 45 or even 70 degrees, by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. Furthermore, the enhanced HICRU algorithm comprises an advanced treatment of the temporal evolution using a spatially averaged Fourier series fit. The enhanced HICRU has the potential to be applied also to instruments with moderate spectral resolution like MERIS, MODIS, or AVHRR as well.

  9. Monitoring the Bardarbunga eruption using GOME-2/Metop-A & -B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2015-04-01

    We will present here the results of the Bardarbunga eruption monitored by the GOME-2 instrument aboard MetOp-A & -B. After increased seismic activity in August, the Icelandic volcano Bardarbunga (Bárðarbunga) erupted on 31 August 2014. Since 1 September the GOME-2 instruments aboard the MetOp-A and -B satellites detect a continuous emission of sulphur-dioxide (SO2) emitted from the Holuhraun fissure at the flanks of the Bardarbunga volcano. At the beginning the emitted SO2 was mainly transported to the north-eastern direction over Scandinavia and Russia. However, on September 22 an SO2 cloud was even moving over Europe and could be detected at the Hohenpeissenberg and Schneefernerhaus observatories. SO2 emissions are a good indicator for volcanic activity, since besides weak anthropogenic emissions there are no other known sources for atmospheric SO2, which can cause respiratory problems in the local population and the aircraft passengers. Furthermore in form of acid rain it increases the oxidation of aircraft components. It was found that for some volcanic eruptions SO2 can be a good proxy for the much harder to detect volcanic ash. Volcanic ash can be hazardous not only for the local population but also for aviation since it can cause total engine failure if it melts and then congeals in the engine. Furthermore ash is highly abrasive to engine turbine vanes and propellers. Under the leadership of IMF, DLR-EOC provides operational trace gas measurements, including total SO2 columns, in near-real-time (i.e., within 2 hours of recording) in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF).

  10. Cryptic dioecy in Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae): a species with stigma-height dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ai-Min; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Dian-Xiang; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolutionary transitions from heterostyly to dioecy have been proposed in several angiosperm families, particularly in Rubiaceae. These transitions involve the spread of male and female sterility mutations resulting in modifications to the gender of ancestral hermaphrodites. Despite sustained interest in the gender strategies of plants, the structural and developmental bases for transitions in sexual systems are poorly understood. Methods Here, floral morphology, patterns of fertility, pollen-tube growth and floral development are investigated in two populations of the scandent shrub Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae), native to southern China, by means of experimental and open-pollinations, light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with paraffin sectioning. Key Results Mussaenda pubescens has perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers and populations with two style-length morphs but only weak differentiation in anther position (stigma-height dimorphism). Experimental pollinations demonstrated that despite morphological hermaphroditism, the species is functionally dioecious. The long-styled (L) morph possesses sterile pollen and functions as a female, whereas the short-styled (S) morph is female sterile and functions as a male. Self- and intra-morph pollinations of the S-morph were consistent with those expected from dimorphic incompatibility. The two populations investigated were both S-morph (male) biased. Investigations of early stages of floral development indicated patterns typical of hermaphroditic flowers, with no significant differences in organ growth between the floral morphs. Meiosis of microspore mother cells was of the simultaneous type with tetrads isobilateral in shape. The tapetal cells in anther walls of the L-morph became vacuolized during meiosis I, ahead of the uninucleate microspore stage in the S-morph. In the L-morph, the microspore nucleus degenerated at the tetrad stage resulting in male

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  12. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uieda, W

    1998-10-01

    This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  13. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  14. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jason T.; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Chau, Marian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  15. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Conserva, Lucia Maria; Ferreira, Jesu Costa

    2012-01-01

    Borreira and Spermacoce are genera of Rubiaceae widespread in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Based on its fruits morphology they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. Whereas the discussion is still unclear, in this work they were considered as synonyms. Some species of these genera play an important role in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Some of these uses include the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage, urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60 compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles. This paper briefly reviews the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera.

  16. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering.

  17. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P < 0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.

  18. Screening of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from Some Plants of Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Elya, Berna; Basah, Katrin; Mun'im, Abdul; Yuliastuti, Wulan; Bangun, Anastasia; Septiana, Eva Kurnia

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as a serious global health problem that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 DM is more common in diabetic populations. In this type of DM, inhibition of α-glucosidase is a useful treatment to delay the absorption of glucose after meals. As a megabiodiversity country, Indonesia still has a lot of potential unexploited forests to be developed as a medicine source, including as the α-glucosidase inhibitor. In this study, we determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 80% ethanol extracts of leaves and twigs of some plants from the Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Inhibitory activity test of the α-glucosidase was performed in vitro using spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC50 117.20 μg/mL), thirty-seven samples of forty-five were shown to be more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values in the range 2.33–112.02 μg/mL. PMID:22187534

  19. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Conserva, Lucia Maria; Ferreira, Jesu Costa

    2012-01-01

    Borreira and Spermacoce are genera of Rubiaceae widespread in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Based on its fruits morphology they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. Whereas the discussion is still unclear, in this work they were considered as synonyms. Some species of these genera play an important role in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Some of these uses include the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage, urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60 compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles. This paper briefly reviews the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera. PMID:22654404

  20. Comparison of total water vapor column from GOME-2 on MetOp-A against ground-based GPS measurements at the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Román, R; Antón, M; Cachorro, V E; Loyola, D; Ortiz de Galisteo, J P; de Frutos, A; Romero-Campos, P M

    2015-11-15

    Water vapor column (WVC) obtained by GOME-2 instrument (GDP-4.6 version) onboard MetOp-A satellite platform is compared against reference WVC values derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) instruments from 2007 to 2012 at 21 places located at Iberian Peninsula. The accuracy and precision of GOME-2 to estimate the WVC is studied for different Iberian Peninsula zones using the mean (MBE) and the standard deviation (SD) of the GOME-2 and GPS differences. A direct comparison of all available data shows an overestimation of GOME-2 compared to GPS with a MBE of 0.7 mm (10%) and a precision quantified by a SD equals to 4.4mm (31%). South-Western zone presents the highest overestimation with a MBE of 1.9 mm (17%), while Continental zone shows the lowest SD absolute value (3.3mm) due mainly to the low WVC values reached at this zone. The influence of solar zenith angle (SZA), cloud fraction (CF), and the type of surface and its albedo on the differences between GOME-2 and GPS is analyzed in detail. MBE and SD increase when SZA increases, but MBE decreases (taking negative values) when CF increases and SD shows no significant dependence on CF. Under cloud-free conditions, the differences between WVC from GOME-2 and GPS are within the WVC error given by GOME-2. The changes of MBE and SD on Surface Albedo are not so evident, but MBE slightly decreases when the Surface Albedo increases. WVC from GOME-2 is, in general, more precise for land than for sea pixels.

  1. Is success a sin? A conversation with the reverend Peter J. Gomes. Interview by David A. Light.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P J

    2001-09-01

    The difficult task of achieving worldly success while also storing up spiritual treasure is perennially with us, in good times and in bad. Today, however, as the economy has cooled and companies have demonstrated their mortality, questions about meaning and value appear more relevant, even urgent. HBR associate editor David A. Light recently spoke with the Reverend Peter J. Gomes, one of the nation's best-known preachers and the minister at Harvard University's Memorial Church, about why and how it is both possible and necessary to reconcile a life of success with a life of faith. To do so, says Gomes, you must first "get used to it"--come to terms with the age-old tension between being rich in spirit and rich in worldly goods. Second, you should "get over it"--arrive at an understanding of the value and responsibilities associated with power and wealth. Finally, "get on with it"--figure out how you can live your life spiritually while continuing to lead in the business world. For those wondering how to get on with spiritual development, Gomes cites the growing phenomenon of senior executives gathering with peers--out of shared need, not shared accomplishment--to pray, study sacred texts, and share their religious life together. He counsels that it's never too late to get on with it: We can amend life at any time, whether we're 35, 45, or 75. Gomes concludes that business will continue to be one of the most significant forces in American culture, but it will always struggle against people's need for a perspective that is beyond this world's.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) Anthers Reveals Candidate Genes for Tapetum and Pollen Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Lin; Twell, David; Kuang, Yanfeng; Liao, Jingping; Zhou, Xianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the anther transcriptome on non-model plants without a known genome are surprisingly scarce. RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling provides a comprehensive approach to identify candidate genes contributing to developmental processes in non-model species. Here we built a transcriptome library of developing anthers of Hamelia patens and analyzed DGE profiles from each stage to identify genes that regulate tapetum and pollen development. In total 7,720 putative differentially expressed genes across four anther stages were identified. The number of putative stage-specific genes was: 776 at microspore mother cell stage, 807 at tetrad stage, 322 at uninucleate microspore stage, and the highest number (1,864) at bicellular pollen stage. GO enrichment analysis revealed 243 differentially expressed and 108 stage-specific genes that are potentially related to tapetum development, sporopollenin synthesis, and pollen wall. The number of expressed genes, their function and expression profiles were all significantly correlated with anther developmental processes. Overall comparisons of anther and pollen transcriptomes with those of rice and Arabidopsis together with the expression profiles of homologs of known anther-expressed genes, revealed conserved patterns and also divergence. The divergence may reflect taxon-specific differences in gene expression, the use RNA-seq as a more sensitive methodology, variation in tissue composition and sampling strategies. Given the lack of genomic sequence, this study succeeded in assigning putative identity to a significant proportion of anther-expressed genes and genes relevant to tapetum and pollen development in H. patens. The anther transcriptome revealed a molecular distinction between developmental stages, serving as a resource to unravel the functions of genes involved in anther development in H. patens and informing the analysis of other members of the Rubiaceae. PMID:28119704

  3. Structural Evidence in Plectroniella armata (Rubiaceae) for Possible Material Exchange between Domatia and Mites

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Patricia M.; van Wyk, Abraham E.; van der Merwe, Chris F.

    2012-01-01

    Domatia are small structures on the lower surface of a leaf, usually taking the form of cavities, pouches, domes with an opening, or hairs (or a combination of these), and located in the axils between the main veins. They are found in many dicotyledons including certain members of the Rubiaceae. As part of an ongoing study of selected southern African members of the tribe Vanguerieae of this family, their structure in transverse section was investigated. In some taxa, such as Plectroniella armata, light microscopic (LM) observations revealed large numbers of stomata in the domatia as well as a number of channel-like structures extending across the cuticle toward the cavity of the domatia. The cuticle of the epidermis lining the domatia also appeared thicker than in other parts of the leaves. The epidermis in P. armata was also examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Domatia have been shown to house mainly mites, many of which are predatory or fungivorous, in a symbiotic (mutualistic) relationship with the plant. To date, much research has focussed on the role of domatia in providing shelter for various organisms, their eggs and their young. However, the TEM study revealed the apparent “channels” and thick cuticle seen under LM to be electron dense non-cellulosic branching fibrils within pronounced, often closely spaced cuticular folds. The functional significance of these fibrils and folds requires further investigation. Folding of cell walls and membranes at ultrastructural level is usually functionally associated with an increased surface area to facilitate active exchange of compounds/metabolites. This may indicate that translocation of substances and/or other forms of communication is possible between the domatium and its inhabitants. This therefore suggests a far more active role for the leaf in the symbiotic relationship than was previously thought. More work is required to test such a possibility. PMID:22792206

  4. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar Escobar, Diego Fernando; Torres, Alba Marina

    2013-06-01

    Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae) is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n = 1 400), and moisture content of seeds (n = 252). Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n = 200), followed by imbibition (n=252) and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n = 300 seeds). Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n = 100 seeds). We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44%) and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior) and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.

  5. A linear method for the retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Philipp; Guanter, Luis; Joiner, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Global retrievals of near-infrared sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have been achieved in the last several years by means of space-borne atmospheric spectrometers. SIF is an electromagnetic signal emitted by the chlorophyll-a of photosynthetically active vegetation in the 650-850 nm spectral range. It represents a part of the excess energy during the process of photosynthesis and provides a measure of photosynthetic activity. The key challenge to retrieve SIF from space is to isolate the signal from the about 100 times more intense reflected solar radiation in the measured top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance spectrum. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that a number of satellite sensors provide the necessary spectral and radiometric performance to evaluate the in-filling of solar Fraunhofer lines and/or atmospheric absorption features by SIF. We will present recent developments for the retrieval of SIF from medium spectral resolution space-borne spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY). Building upon the previous work by Joiner et al. 2013, our approach solves existing issues in the retrieval such as the non-linearity of the forward model and the arbitrary selection of the number of free parameters. In particular, we use a backward elimination algorithm to optimize the number of coefficients to fit, which reduces also the retrieval noise and selects the number of state vector elements automatically. A sensitivity analysis with simulated spectra has been utilized to evaluate the performance of our retrieval approach. The method has also been applied to estimate SIF from real spectra from GOME-2 and for the first time, from SCIAMACHY. We are able to present a time series of GOME-2 SIF results covering the 2007-2011 time period and SCIAMACHY SIF results between 2003-2011. This represents an almost one decade long record of global SIF. We

  6. Systematic aerosol characterization by combining GOME-2 UV Aerosol Indices with trace gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M.; Stammes, P.; Wagner, T.

    2012-04-01

    The task of determining aerosol type using passive remote sensing instruments is a daunting one. First, because the variety in aerosol (optical) properties is very large; and second, because the effect of aerosols on the detected top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum is smooth and mostly featureless. In addition, spectrometers like GOME-2 have a coarse spatial resolution, which makes aerosol characterization even more difficult due to interferences with clouds. On account of these problems, we do not attempt to derive aerosol properties from single measurements: instead, we combine time series of UV Aerosol Index and trace gas concentrations to derive the dominating aerosol type for each season. Aside from the Index values and trace gas concentrations themselves, the correlation between UV Aerosol Indices (which are indicative of aerosol absorption) with NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO columns - or absence of it - provides clues to the (main) source of the aerosols in the investigated region and time range. For example: a high correlation of HCHO and Absorbing Aerosol Index points to aerosols from biomass burning, highly correlated CHOCHO, HCHO, and SCattering Index indicate biogenic secondary organic aerosols, and coinciding high NO2 concentrations with high SCattering Index values are associated with industrial and urban aerosols. We here present case studies for several regions to demonstrate the suitability of our approach. Then, we introduce a method to systematically derive the dominating aerosol type on a global scale on time scales varying from monthly to yearly.

  7. Estimating the lifetime of boundary layer NO_x for different polluted regions using GOME data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Hollwedel, J.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO_2=NO_x) are important trace gases with impact on health, rain acidity and especially ozone production and OH concentration in the troposphere. NO_2 is detectable from satellite platforms using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Tropospheric column densities can be retrieved by estimating and subtracting the stratospheric fraction. A major goal of NO_2 retrievals from satellites is to estimate actual NO_x emissions. Therefore, knowledge of the lifetime τ of NO_x is essential. τ is highly variable due to its dependency on factors like OH concentration, humidity, actinic flux or wind transport. Typical values in the troposphere range from hours to days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GOME NO_2 data to estimate mean lifetimes of boundary layer NO_x for different regions and seasons. For this task, we investigate the weekly cycle of NO_2 in industrialized regions. Anthropogenic activities are reduced during the weekend. Hence, we find significant reduction (up to 50%) of tropospheric NO_2 on Sunday compared to working days. Furthermore, the weekend minimum of emissions also affects the Monday levels of NO_2. Thus the specific shape of the weekly cycle allows us to deduce τ. With this method, for instance for Germany, we obtain the mean lifetime of boundary layer NO_x to be 6 hours in summer and about 24 hours in winter.

  8. Genetic diversity of the Neotropical tree Hancornia speciosa Gomes in natural populations in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, H J; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva Junior, J F; Alzate-Marin, A L; Moraes Filho, R M

    2015-12-22

    Mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) is a fruit tree of the Apocynaceae family, which is native to Brazil and is a very important food resource for human populations in its areas of occurrence. Mangabeira fruit is collected as an extractive activity, and no domesticated varieties or breeding programs exist. Due to a reduction in the area of ecosystems where it occurs, mangabeira is threatened by genetic erosion in Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the genetic diversity of 38 mangabeira individuals collected from natural populations in Pernambuco State using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The ISSR methodology generated a total of 93 loci; 10 were monomorphic and 83 were polymorphic. The average number of loci per primer was 15.5, ranging from 9 (#UBC 866) to 21 (#UBC 834). The results showed a high level of genetic diversity (0.30), and found that only around 30% of genetic variability is distributed among populations (GST = 0.29, ФST = 0.30), with the remainder (ФCT = 70%) found within each population, as expected for forest outcrossing species. Estimates for historic gene flow (1.18) indicate that there is some isolation of these populations, and some degree of genetic differentiation.

  9. General metabolism of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Arraes, Fabrício B M; Benoliel, Bruno; Burtet, Rafael T; Costa, Patrícia L N; Galdino, Alexandro S; Lima, Luanne H A; Marinho-Silva, Camila; Oliveira-Pereira, Luciana; Pfrimer, Pollyanna; Procópio-Silva, Luciano; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Annotation of the transcriptome of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has set the grounds for a global understanding of its metabolism in both mycelium and yeast forms. This fungus is able to use the main carbohydrate sources, including starch, and it can store reduced carbons in the form of glycogen and trehalose; these provide energy reserves that are relevant for metabolic adaptation, protection against stress and infectivity mechanisms. The glyoxylate cycle, which is also involved in pathogenicity, is present in this fungus. Classical pathways of lipid biosynthesis and degradation, including those of ketone body and sterol production, are well represented in the database of P. brasiliensis. It is able to synthesize de novo all nucleotides and amino acids, with the sole exception of asparagine, which was confirmed by the fungus growth in minimal medium. Sulfur metabolism, as well as the accessory synthetic pathways of vitamins and co-factors, are likely to exist in this fungus.

  10. Functional genome of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Torres, Fernando A G; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Carvalho, Maria José A; Andrade, Rosângela V; Nicola, André M; Teixeira, Marcus M; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-09-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the cellular differentiation process that this fungus undergoes from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process a network of Brazilian laboratories carried out a transcriptome project for both cell types. This review focuses on the data analysis yielding a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism and the molecular adaptations during dimorphism in P. brasiliensis from analysis of 6022 groups, related to expressed genes, which were generated from both mycelium and yeast phases.

  11. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber. PMID:23375136

  12. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    PubMed Central

    ARANTES, Thales Domingos; BAGAGLI, Eduardo; NIÑO-VEGA, Gustavo; SAN-BLAS, Gioconda; THEODORO, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  13. Proposals to reject the names Spermacoce stigosa and S. hyssopifolia Sm. and conserve the names S. hyssopifolia Wild. Es oem. & Schult. (Rubiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Spermacoce is a wide spread, common weed that frequently occurs in agricultural situations, and is a member of the family Rubiaceae. Diodella apiculata is a wide spread weedy species found in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, all the way to Argentina. Two earlier names, S....

  14. Studies of the latex of Brazilian IAC series clones from Hevea brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber is an important commodity industrial crop that mainly derives from Hevea brasiliensis. Most natural rubber production is in Southeast Asia, but significant cultivar development takes place in Brazil, the original origin of current commercial H. brasiliensis cultivars. Thus it is criti...

  15. Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Diana; Hernández, Orville; Muñoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; González, Angel

    2013-06-01

    The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

  16. Intracellular multiplication of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in macrophages: killing and restriction of multiplication by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of coculturing yeast-form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with murine cells was studied. Coculture of resident peritoneal or pulmonary macrophages with P. brasiliensis for 72 h dramatically enhanced fungal multiplication 19.3 +/- 2.4- and 4.7 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with cocultures with lymph node cells or complete tissue culture medium alone. Support of P. brasiliensis multiplication by resident peritoneal macrophages was macrophage dose dependent. Lysates of macrophages, supernatants from macrophage cultures, or McVeigh-Morton broth, like complete tissue culture medium, did not support multiplication of P. brasiliensis in 72-h cultures. Time course microscopic studies of cocultures in slide wells showed that macrophages ingested P. brasiliensis cells and that the ingested cells multiplied intracellularly. In sharp contrast to resident macrophages, lymphokine-activated peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages not only prevented multiplication but reduced inoculum CFU by 96 and 100%, respectively, in 72 h. Microscopic studies confirmed killing and digestion of P. brasiliensis ingested by activated macrophages in 48 h. These findings indicate that resident macrophages are permissive for intracellular multiplication of P. brasiliensis and that this could be a factor in pathogenicity. By contrast, activated macrophages are fungicidal for P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:2744848

  17. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) from Mus musculus in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Goswami, Urvashi; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2016-01-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India. Sequence analysis of cox1 gene in this study revealed that the present specimen showed close identity with the same species available in GenBank, confirming that the species is N. brasiliensis. This study represents the first record of molecular identification of N. brasiliensis from India and the protein structure to better understand the comparative phylogenetic characteristics. PMID:28095659

  19. Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx and reservoir species) are important trace gases in the troposphere with impact on human health, atmospheric chemistry and climate. Besides natural sources (lightning, soil emissions) and biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of the total production of NOx. Since human activity in industrialized countries largely follows a seven-day cycle, fossil fuel combustion is expected to be reduced during weekends. This "weekend effect" is well known from local, ground based measurements, but has never been analysed on a global scale before. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows measurements of NO2 column densities. By estimating and subtracting the stratospheric column, and considering radiative transfer, vertical column densities (VCD) of tropospheric NO2 can be determined (e.g. Leue et al., 2001). We demonstrate the statistical analysis of weekly cycles of tropospheric NO2 VCDs for different regions of the world. In the cycles of the industrialized regions and cities in the US, Europe and Japan a clear Sunday minimum of tropospheric NO2 VCD can be seen. Sunday NO2 VCDs are about 25-50% lower than working day levels. Metropolitan areas with other religious and cultural backgrounds (Jerusalem, Mecca) show different weekly patterns corresponding to different days of rest. In China, no weekly pattern can be found. The presence of a weekly cycle in the measured tropospheric NO2 VCD may help to identify the different anthropogenic source categories. Furthermore, we estimated the lifetime of tropospheric NO2 by analysing the mean weekly cycle exemplarily over Germany, obtaining a value of about 6 h in summer and 18-24 h in winter.

  20. Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: A signature of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2003-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx) are important trace gases in the troposphere with impact on human health, atmospheric chemistry and climate. Besides natural sources (lightning, soil emissions) and biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of the total production of NOx. Since human activity in industrialized countries largely follows an artificial seven-day cycle, fossil fuel combustion is expected to be reduced during weekends. This "weekend effect" is well known from local, ground based measurements, but has never been analysed on a global scale before. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows measurements of NO2 column densities. Applying sophisticated algorithms, vertical column densities (VCD) of tropospheric NO2 can be determined. We demonstrate the statistical analysis of weekly cycles of tropospheric NO2 VCDs for different regions of the world. In the cycles of the industrialized regions and cities in the US, Europe and Japan a clear Sunday minimum of tropospheric NO2 VCD can be seen. Sunday NO2 VCDs are about 25-50% lower than working day levels. Metropolitan areas with other religious and cultural backgrounds (Jerusalem, Mecca) show different weekly patterns corresponding to different days of rest. In China, no weekly pattern can be found. The presence of a weekly cycle in the measured tropospheric NO2 VCD allows the identification of anthropogenic sources. In addition, the fraction of emissions subjected to a weekly cycle (mainly transport, power generation) with respect to a constant background (all kind of natural sources, biomass burning, heavy industry) can be estimated. Furthermore, we estimated the lifetime of tropospheric NO2 by analysing the mean weekly cycle over Germany in detail, obtaining a value of about 12 h.

  1. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  2. Relationship between MODIS fire counts and GOME-2 tropospheric NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schönhardt, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning has an ongoing role in determining the composition of Earth's surface and atmosphere. The term biomass burning comprises prescribed and wild fires (vegetation fires), as well as biofuel use, such as wood or peat for heating and cooking. Biomass burning represents an important source of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, but also chemically active gases such as CO and NO2 are observed in the plumes. Even though vegetation fire emission inventories have improved considerably in recent years, large uncertainties remain in the temporally and spatially highly variable biomass burning emissions, especially due to uncertainties in input parameters. While satellite observed CO emissions from biomass burning have been investigated in great detail in the last years, NO2 has received much less attention. This can be explained by difficulties posed by the short atmospheric lifetime of NO2 and its photochemical equilibrium with NO but also the complicated retrieval of NO2 due to the presence of smoke and aerosols in the biomass burning plumes. Here, we present the relationship between observed fire counts and NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities from MODIS and GOME-2 measurements, respectively. The MOZART model for 1997 was used to determine monthly averaged air-mass factors and cloud fraction was derived by the FRESCO algorithm from SCIAMACHY measurements. The results show good correlation values (> 0.7) in many parts of the world, especially in the Subtropics. Future work will be further improvement of the retrieval for specific biomass burning situations in order to estimate total emissions from biomass burning for representative biomass burning regions by the use of appropriate models.

  3. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Yakov; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Fiedler, Lars; Dyer, Richard; Eisinger, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument's health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument's degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  4. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Y.; Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Fiedler, L.; Dyer, R.; Eisinger, M.

    2009-12-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument’s health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument’s degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  5. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results using GOME-2 and OMI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2014-06-27

    Inverse modeling using satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns has been extensively used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide independent global NO2 column measurements on a nearly daily basis at around 9:30 and 13:30 local time across the equator, respectively. Anthropogenic NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI) methods to these two sets of measurements show substantial differences. We improve the DI method by conducting model simulation, satellite retrieval, and inverse modeling sequentially on a daily basis. After each inversion, we update anthropogenic NOx emissions in the model simulation with the newly obtained a posteriori results. Consequently, the inversion-optimized emissions are used to compute the a priori NO2 profiles for satellite retrievals. As such, the a priori profiles used in satellite retrievals are now coupled to inverse modeling results. The improved procedure was applied to GOME-2 and OMI NO2 measurements in 2011. The new daily retrieval-inversion (DRI) method estimates an average NOx emission of 6.9 Tg N/yr over China, and the difference between using GOME-2 and OMI measurements is 0.4 Tg N/yr, which is significantly smaller than the difference of 1.3 Tg N/yr using the previous DI method. Using the more consistent DRI inversion results, we find that anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to be higher in winter and summer than spring (and possibly fall) and the weekday-to-weekend emission ratio tends to increase with NOx emission in China.

  6. Trends in formaldehyde columns over the Amazon rainforest, as observed from space with SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Lerot, Christophe; Yu, Huan; François, Hendrick; Gielen, Clio; Pinardi, Gaia; Muller, Jean-François; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric formaldehyde (H2CO) is a central carbonyl compound of tropospheric chemistry. It is produced by the oxidation of a large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from biogenic, pyrogenic or anthropogenic emission sources. Tropical vegetation, in particular the Amazon forest that represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, emit a wide range of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Those play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and climate, by changing the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and thus the lifetimes of other key trace gases such as CO and CH4, and by producing organic aerosols. Satellite observations of H2CO, bringing information at the global scale and over decades, are essential to trace and understand the nature and the spatio-temporal evolution of VOC emissions. We have been developing algorithms to retrieve formaldehyde columns from satellite nadir UV spectral measurements, and we have processed the full level-1 datasets of GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, GOME-2/METOPA&B and OMI/AURA (De Smedt et al., 2008; 2012; 2015). Resulting H2CO products are openly distributed via the TEMIS website (http://h2co.aeronomie.be). In this work, we use the morning and afternoon H2CO columns between 2004 and 2014, respectively composed by the SCIAMACHY and GOME2 A&B datasets, and from the OMI observations, to study the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of H2CO over the Amazon rainforest. The highest H2CO columns worldwide are observed, with morning columns markedly higher than early afternoon. Very large variations between the dry and the wet seasons occur each year. Importantly, in some areas of the forest, mainly in the Rondonia Brazilian State, we observe a net decrease of the H2CO columns. We find very high correlation coefficients between the satellite H2CO columns and the reported deforestation fires that have significantly decreased in Rondonia since 2004 [INPE].

  7. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  8. A Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycan shares serologic and functional properties with cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscila C; Cordero, Radames J B; Fonseca, Fernanda L; Peres da Silva, Roberta; Ramos, Caroline L; Miranda, Kildare R; Casadevall, Arturo; Puccia, Rosana; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Guimaraes, Allan J; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2012-11-01

    The cell wall of the yeast form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is enriched with α1,3-glucans. In Cryptococcus neoformans, α1,3-glucans interact with glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a heteropolysaccharide that is essential for fungal virulence. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of P. brasiliensis glycans sharing properties with cryptococcal GXM. Protein database searches in P. brasiliensis revealed the presence of sequences homologous to those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of GXM and capsular architecture in C. neoformans. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised to cryptococcal GXM bound to P. brasiliensis cells. Using protocols that were previously established for extraction and analysis of C. neoformans GXM, we recovered a P. brasiliensis glycan fraction composed of mannose and galactose, in addition to small amounts of glucose, xylose and rhamnose. In comparison with the C. neoformans GXM, the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction components had smaller molecular dimensions. The P. brasiliensis components, nevertheless, reacted with different GXM-binding mAbs. Extracellular vesicle fractions of P. brasiliensis also reacted with a GXM-binding mAb, suggesting that the polysaccharide-like molecule is exported to the extracellular space in secretory vesicles. An acapsular mutant of C. neoformans incorporated molecules from the P. brasiliensis extract onto the cell wall, resulting in the formation of surface networks that resembled the cryptococcal capsule. Coating the C. neoformans acapsular mutant with the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction resulted in protection against phagocytosis by murine macrophages. These results suggest that P. brasiliensis and C. neoformans share metabolic pathways required for the synthesis of similar polysaccharides and that P. brasiliensis yeast cell walls have molecules that mimic certain aspects of C. neoformans GXM. These findings are important because they provide additional evidence for

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p < 0.001). IVM had no inhibitory effect on the development of mycetoma. Furthermore, DEC treatment was associated with a significant enhancement of ROI expression (p < 0.05) by polymorphonuclear neutrophils at day 3 after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to N. brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p < 0.01). Significant changes in antibody response were not observed. By all parameters tested, DEC was superior to IVM regarding immunostimulatory potency. In conclusion, DEC expressed an in vivo influence on the immune status during the infection by N. brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination.

  10. Development of SSR markers for Psychotria homalosperma (Rubiaceae) and cross-amplification in four other species1

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Kyoko; Watanabe, Kenta; Kato, Hidetoshi; Sugawara, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty-six microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were characterized in Psychotria homalosperma (Rubiaceae), an endemic evergreen tree in the Bonin Islands, Japan, to investigate the genetic structure and gene flow of the species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we developed 26 SSR markers for P. homalosperma with perfect motifs from di- to pentanucleotide repeats. Of these, the Chichijima and Hahajima island populations of P. homalosperma had mean allele numbers of 6.50 and 6.81, respectively. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.578 and 0.606, respectively. In addition, 10 and eight of these markers were successfully amplified for P. boninensis and P. serpens, respectively, occurring in the same or adjacent areas. Conclusions: The SSR markers developed in this study will be useful for future studies concerning the population genetics of P. homalosperma and will facilitate the development of a conservation strategy. PMID:27213122

  11. A cytological study on Kelloggia (Rubiaceae), an intercontinental disjunct genus between eastern Asia and western North America.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tie-Yao; Sun, Hang; Bartholomew, Bruce; Nie, Ze-Long

    2006-07-01

    A cytological study was carried out for the first time on four populations of the only two species of Kelloggia (Rubiaceae), which occur disjunctly in eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.) and western North America (K. galioides Torr.). The consistent mitotic prophase chromosome condensation pattern and interphase nuclei type were determined for both species. The chromosome base number of the genus is suggested to be x = 11. The karyotype of 2n = 22 = 2x = 16m + 6sm was examined for both species. The karyotypical asymmetry of 1A and 2A was found in K. chinensis and K. galioides, respectively. According to the predominant evolutionary direction of karyotype asymmetry in angiosperms, K. galioides (2A) seems slightly more evolved than K. chinensis (1A). Our finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the Old World origin of Kelloggia based on molecular study.

  12. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 micrograms of both sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne per ml. A significant decreases in susceptibility was demonstrated for one isolate obtained from a patient relapsing during sulfonamide therapy. Images PMID:7416744

  13. Dynamical control of NH and SH winter/spring total ozone from GOME observations in 1995-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Dhomse, S.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2003-06-01

    The abnormal high wave activity in austral spring 2002 led to the first observation of a major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere resulting in a net winter increase of mid- to high latitude total ozone until September 2002. In previous years chemical ozone depletion inside the Antarctic vortex was sufficiently high to reduce mean total ozone south of 50° in September to values slightly below that of March (fall) as observed by GOME during the period 1995-2001. This unusual event permits us to examine the interannual variability in total ozone and OClO (the latter being an indicator of the level of chlorine activation inside the polar vortex) as measured by GOME combining data from the southern and northern hemisphere. It is shown that the absolute winter eddy heat flux between 43° and 70° latitudes at 100 hPa correlates extremely well (r = 0.97) with spring-to-fall ratio of total ozone polewards of 50° and anti-correlates with the winter integrated maximum OClO column amounts (r = -0.94) using this combined data set. The unusual ozone ratio for austral winter/spring 2002 lies almost midway between typical values for Antarctica and those for recent cold Arctic winter/spring seasons.

  14. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stubi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and the geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of data set content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile data sets retrieved at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL, United Kingdom), using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 (i.e. the second generation Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment on the first Meteorological Operational Satellite) measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO GAW). This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile data sets with user requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and from climate modellers.

  15. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stübi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2014-11-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of dataset content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile datasets retrieved at KNMI and RAL, using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch. This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile datasets with user requirements from GCOS and from climate modellers.

  16. Application of OMI, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 satellite SO2 retrievals for detection of large emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Loyola, D. G.; Valks, P.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from space-based spectrometers are in a relatively early stage of development. Factors such as interference between ozone and SO2 in the retrieval algorithms often lead to errors in the retrieved values. Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensors, averaged over a period of several years, were used to identify locations with elevated SO2 values and estimate their emission levels. About 30 such locations, detectable by all three sensors and linked to volcanic and anthropogenic sources, were found after applying low and high spatial frequency filtration designed to reduce noise and bias and to enhance weak signals to SO2 data from each instrument. Quantitatively, the mean amount of SO2 in the vicinity of the sources, estimated from the three instruments, is in general agreement. However, its better spatial resolution makes it possible for OMI to detect smaller sources and with additional detail as compared to the other two instruments. Over some regions of China, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data show mean SO2 values that are almost 1.5 times higher than those from OMI, but the suggested spatial filtration technique largely reconciles these differences.

  17. Application of OMI, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 Satellite SO2 Retrievals for Detection of Large Emission Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fioletov, V.E.; McLinden, C. A.; Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Loyola, D. G.; Valks, P.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Retrievals of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from space-based spectrometers are in a relatively early stage of development. Factors such as interference between ozone and SO2 in the retrieval algorithms often lead to errors in the retrieved values. Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensors, averaged over a period of several years, were used to identify locations with elevated SO2 values and estimate their emission levels. About 30 such locations, detectable by all three sensors and linked to volcanic and anthropogenic sources, were found after applying low and high spatial frequency filtration designed to reduce noise and bias and to enhance weak signals to SO2 data from each instrument. Quantitatively, the mean amount of SO2 in the vicinity of the sources, estimated from the three instruments, is in general agreement. However, its better spatial resolution makes it possible for OMI to detect smaller sources and with additional detail as compared to the other two instruments. Over some regions of China, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data show mean SO2 values that are almost 1.5 times higher than those from OMI, but the suggested spatial filtration technique largely reconciles these differences.

  18. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induced M1 polarization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated. Herein, we verified that EVs from P. brasiliensis induce the production of proinflammatory mediators by murine macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of EV to macrophages also promoted transcription of the M1-polarization marker iNOs and diminish that of the M2 markers Arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1. Furthermore, the augmented expression of M2-polarization markers, stimulated by IL-4 plus IL-10, was reverted toward an M1 phenotype in response to secondary stimulation with EVs from P. brasiliensis. The ability of EVs from P. brasiliensis to promote M1 polarization macrophages favoring an enhanced fungicidal activity, demonstrated by the decreased CFU recovery of internalized yeasts, with comparable phagocytic efficacy. Our results suggest that EVs from P. brasiliensis can modulate the innate immune response and affect the relationship between P. brasiliensis and host immune cells. PMID:27775058

  19. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  20. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-05-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. The input total ozone product is generated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) also within the O3M SAF framework. Polar orbiting satellites provide global coverage but infrequent sampling of the diurnal cloud cover. The diurnal variation of the surface UV radiation is extremely strong due to modulation by solar elevation and rapidly changing cloud cover. At the minimum, one sample of the cloud cover in the morning and another in the afternoon are needed to derive daily maximum and daily integrated surface UV radiation quantities. This is achieved by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit (daytime descending node around 09:30 LT) and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit (daytime ascending node around 14:30 LT). In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast) using commercial telecommunication satellites for broadcasting the data to the user community. The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated UVB and UVA radiation, solar noon UV Index and daily maximum photolysis

  1. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Guenther, A.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the adjoint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chemical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model resolution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME-2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cycle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon maxima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening maxima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich regions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043). The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly polluted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inventory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, however, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and reductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in particular over the northeast

  2. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Guenther, A.

    2015-04-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the adjoint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chemistry-transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model resolution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME-2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cycle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at 7 sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modelled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon maxima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening maxima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich regions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is found to be generally better in summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043). The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly polluted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inventory (24.6 vs. 25.5 in the a priori) with, however, pronounced increases in the Northeast China and reductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC), in particular over the Northeast, likely

  3. Expression of alpha tubulin during the dimorphic transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, W P; Soares, R B; Jesuino, R S; Izacc, S M; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    2001-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the expression of (alpha-tubulin during the dimorphic transition of the human-pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The alpha-tubulin from P. brasiliensis was recognized by a commercially available anti-tubulin antibody and was developmentally regulated during the dimorphic form transition. We detected at least two alpha-tubulin isoforms in the mycelial state and only one isoform in the yeast forms. This finding suggests specific roles for the alpha-tubulin isoforms in P. brasiliensis's yeast and mycelial forms.

  4. Susceptibility and resistance of inbred mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Calich, V. L.; Singer-Vermes, L. M.; Siqueira, A. M.; Burger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nine different inbred strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis showed significantly varying patterns of susceptibility. The A/SN strain was found to be the most resistant, while BIOD2/nSn, BIO.A and BIOD2/oSn the most susceptible strains. These susceptibility differences were not dependent on the size of challenge inocula and sex of animals. All strains studied showed a mean survival time proportional to the size of inocula used. Although almost all infected male mice presented a shorter survival time when compared with females, significant mortality differences between sexes were found only in two of the strains studied, namely BALB/c and BIOD2/nSn. The H-2 region did not influence the susceptibility pattern since the A/SN and BIO.A strains share the same H-2 haplotype and were respectively highly resistant and susceptible to P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the presence of C5 and unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide had no influence on the mortality data observed. Specific antibodies were detected only in a small number of animals and titres were consistently low, appearing later in the resistant (A/SN) than in a susceptible strain (BIO.A). Omentum, spleen and liver were the most affected organs in both strains, but the susceptible mice had more granulomatous lesions and earlier dissemination of the fungus. PMID:4063162

  5. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees.

  6. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-Visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the along-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 9.30 a.m. and 13.30 p.m. are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15% when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features are

  7. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and MetOp-B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 09:30 and 13:30 LT are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15 % when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally, regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features

  8. The direct fitting approach for total ozone column retrievals: a sensitivity study on GOME-2/MetOp-A measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, A.; Borsdorff, T.; aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the direct fitting approach to retrieve total ozone columns from the clear sky Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2/MetOp-A (GOME-2/MetOp-A) measurements between 325 and 335 nm in the period 2007-2010. The direct fitting of the measurement is based on adjusting the scaling of a reference ozone profile and requires accurate simulation of GOME-2 radiances. In this context, we study the effect of three aspects that introduce forward model errors if not addressed appropriately: (1) the use of a clear sky model atmosphere in the radiative transfer demanding cloud filtering, (2) different approximations of Earth's sphericity to address the influence of the solar zenith angle, and (3) the need of polarization in radiative transfer modeling. We conclude that cloud filtering using the operational GOME-2 FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) cloud product, which is part of level 1B data, and the use of pseudo-spherical scalar radiative transfer is fully sufficient for the purpose of this retrieval. A validation with ground-based measurements at 36 stations confirms this showing a global mean bias of -0.1 % with a standard deviation (SD) of 2.7 %. The regularization effect inherent to the profile scaling approach is thoroughly characterized by the total column averaging kernel for each individual retrieval. It characterizes the effect of the particular choice of the ozone profile to be scaled by the inversion and is part of the retrieval product. Two different interpretations of the data product are possible: first, regarding the retrieval product as an estimate of the true column, a direct comparison of the retrieved column with total ozone columns from ground-based measurements can be done. This requires accurate a priori knowledge of the reference ozone profile and the column averaging kernel is not needed. Alternatively, the retrieval product can be interpreted as an effective column defined by the total column

  9. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P-F; Guenther, Alex B.

    2015-10-26

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the ad-joint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chem-ical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model res-olution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME- 2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cy-cle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon max-ima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening max-ima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich re-gions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear after-noon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043).The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly pol-luted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inven-tory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, how-ever, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and re-ductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in

  10. Evaluation of GOME Satellite Measurements of Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO using Regional Data from Aircraft Campaigns in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. V.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T.B.; Nicks, D.K.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.P.; Jacob, D.J.; Sturges, E.D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compare tropospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument with in situ measurements over eastern Texas and the southeast United States. On aveiage, the GOME and in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns are consistent despite pronounced sampling differences. The geometric mean in situ to GOME ratios over the campaign are 1.08 for NO2 and 0.84 for HCHO, with corresponding geometric standard deviations of 1.27 and 1.38. The correlation of the observed column spatial variability between the two NO2 measurement sets is encouraging before (r2 = 0.54, n = 18) and after (r2 = 0.67, n = 18) correcting for a sampling bias. Mean relative vertical profiles of HCHO and NO2 calculated with a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-CHEM) and used in the GOME retrieval are highly consistent with in situ measurements; differences would affect the retrieved NO2 and HCHO columns by a few percent. GOME HCHO columns over eastern Texas include contributions from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions but are dominated by biogenic VOC emissions at the regional scale in August-September when HCHO columns are within 20% of those over the southeastern United States. In situ measurements show that during summer the lowest 1500 m (the lower mixed layer) contains 75% of the tropospheric NO2 column over Houston and Nashville, and 60% of the HCHO column over Houston. Future validation of space-based measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns over polluted regions should include coincident in situ measurements that span the entire satellite footprint, especially in the heterogeneous mixed layer.

  11. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-05-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  12. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  14. Observing atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) from space: validation and intercomparison of six retrievals from four satellites (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B, OMPS) with SEAC4RS aircraft observations over the southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Yu, Karen; Travis, Katherine R.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; De Smedt, Isabelle; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly; Li, Can; Ferrare, Richard; Fried, Alan; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Richter, Dirk; Scarino, Amy Jo; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Wolfe, Glenn M.

    2016-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) column data from satellites are widely used as a proxy for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but validation of the data has been extremely limited. Here we use highly accurate HCHO aircraft observations from the NASA SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) campaign over the southeast US in August-September 2013 to validate and intercompare six retrievals of HCHO columns from four different satellite instruments (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B and OMPS; for clarification of these and other abbreviations used in the paper, please refer to Appendix A) and three different research groups. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used as a common intercomparison platform. All retrievals feature a HCHO maximum over Arkansas and Louisiana, consistent with the aircraft observations and reflecting high emissions of biogenic isoprene. The retrievals are also interconsistent in their spatial variability over the southeast US (r = 0.4-0.8 on a 0.5° × 0.5° grid) and in their day-to-day variability (r = 0.5-0.8). However, all retrievals are biased low in the mean by 20-51 %, which would lead to corresponding bias in estimates of isoprene emissions from the satellite data. The smallest bias is for OMI-BIRA, which has high corrected slant columns relative to the other retrievals and low scattering weights in its air mass factor (AMF) calculation. OMI-BIRA has systematic error in its assumed vertical HCHO shape profiles for the AMF calculation, and correcting this would eliminate its bias relative to the SEAC4RS data. Our results support the use of satellite HCHO data as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low mean bias. There is no evident pattern in the bias, suggesting that a uniform correction factor may be applied to the data until better understanding is achieved.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  17. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Klaes, D.; Poli, G.; Retscher, C.; Lindstrot, R.; Huckle, R.; Lacan, A.; Grzegorski, M.; Holdak, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Livschitz, J.; Eisinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterisation activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The quality of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarises a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages (http://www.eumetsat.int) and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  18. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  19. Yearly averaged BrO and SO2 emissions from Ambrym volcano as seen by the GOME-2 satellite instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoermann, C.; Sihler, H.; Bobrowski, N.; Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2013-12-01

    Since bromine monoxide (BrO) of volcanic origin was detected for the first time in the plume of the Soufrière Hills volcano by ground-based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements in 2003, this species has been regularly observed by ground-based instruments at several quiescent-degassing volcanoes worldwide. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument (GOME-2) has proven to be capable of monitoring volcanic BrO in volcanic plumes also from space, during both, minor and major eruptions. However, long-term measurements of BrO at continuous passively degassing volcanoes are usually only provided from ground-based observations due to their higher sensitivity to weaker emissions. Here, we present the first space-based observations of enhanced BrO abundances in the vicinity of the mostly quiescent-degassing Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) by yearly averaged GOME-2 satellite data in the years 2007-2012. The observed spatial BrO distribution in the plume is compared to the corresponding mean distribution of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2), which is commonly used as a tracer for volcanic emissions due to its relatively long lifetime and strong absorption features in the UV wavelength range. The averaged data shows distribution patterns of both species up to distances of 100 km from the volcano and a clear linear correlation with mean BrO/SO2 ratio of 5 x 10^-5 to 1 x 10^-4 throughout the investigated time period. In addition, an estimation of the lower limit of the total sulphur and bromine emissions will be given.

  20. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Megretskaia, Inna A.; Chatfield, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of <30 DU uniformly distributed south of 35 S during all seasons, and relatively high tropospheric column ozone of >33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  1. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  2. [Isolation of an Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigen from solid culture media].

    PubMed

    Gago, J; Godio, C; Ochoa, L; Negroni, R; Nejamkis, M R

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop in solid medium a fast method to obtain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) with a high yield. Four culture media were assayed: Sabouraud honey-agar, Sabouraud dextrose-agar, tomato -agar-medium (TOM) and a medium based on grape pulp. The most exhuberant growth was observed in medium based on grape pulp. Antigen was prepared in microscale at 6, 10 and 15 days incubation of solid cultures and the crude product concentrated by means of Centriplus tubes (Helena, France). Isolated antigens were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by immunolabelling and detection of the characteristic gp45 antigen employing human and Pb-infected rat sera. Best results were observed after 10 days culture in grape medium. None of the other three media afforded comparable results.

  3. Transporters in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome: insights on drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane da Silva; Albuquerque, Flávia Caixeta; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira; Oliveira, Gina Camilo de; Almeida, Mauro Fernandes de; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz

    2005-06-30

    In the struggle for life, the capacity of microorganisms to synthesize and secrete toxic compounds (inhibiting competitors) plays an important role in successful survival of these species. This ability must come together with the capability of being unaffected by these same compounds. Several mechanisms are thought to avoid the toxic effects. One of them is toxin extrusion from the intracellular environment to the outside vicinity, using special transmembrane proteins, referred to as transporters. These proteins are also important for other reasons, since most of them are involved in nutrient uptake and cellular excretion. In cancer cells and in pathogens, and particularly in fungi, some of these proteins have been pointed out as responsible for an important phenotype known as multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present study, we tried to identify in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome, transporter-ortholog genes from the two major classes: ATP binding cassette and major facilitator superfamily transporter. We found 22 groups with good similarity with other fungal ATP binding cassette transporters, and four Paracoccidioides brasilienses assembled expressed sequence tags that probably code for major facilitator superfamily proteins. We also focused on fungicide resistance orthologs already characterized in other pathogenic fungi. We were able to find homologs to C. albicans CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDR5 and Aspergillus AtrF genes, all of them related to azole resistance. As current treatment for paracoccidioidomycosis mainly uses azole derivatives, the presence of these genes can be postulated to play a similar role in P. brasiliensis, warning us for the possibility of resistant isolate emergence.

  4. Experimental model of arthritis induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazin, Samia Khalil; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; Puccia, Rosana; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is highly prevalent in Brazil, where it is the principal cause of death by systemic mycoses. The disease primarily affects men aged 30-50 year old and usually starts as a pulmonary focus and then may spread to other organs and systems, including the joints. The present study aimed to develop an experimental model of paracoccidioidomycotic arthritis. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 48) were used, divided in 6 groups: test groups EG/15 and EG/45 (received one dose of 100 μl of saline containing 10(5) Pb viable yeasts in the knee); heat killed Pb-group HK/15 and HK/45 (received a suspension of 10(5) Pb nonviable yeasts in the knee) and control groups CG/15 and CG/45 (received only sterile saline in the knee). The rats were killed 15 and 45 days postinoculation. In contrast with the control rats, the histopathology of the joints of rats of the test groups (EG/15 and EG/45) revealed a picture of well-established PCM arthritis characterized by extensive sclerosing granulomatous inflammation with numerous multiple budding fungal cells. The X-ray examination revealed joint alterations in these groups. Only metabolic active fungi evoked inflammation. The experimental model was able to induce fungal arthritis in the knees of the rats infected with metabolic active P. brasiliensis. The disease tended to be regressive and restrained by the immune system. No evidence of fungal dissemination to the lungs was observed.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 μM strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 μM, while the MLC is around 30 μM. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 μM), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 μM of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 μM exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is

  6. Morphology, secretion composition, and ecological aspects of stipular colleters in Rubiaceae species from tropical forest and savanna.

    PubMed

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Nogueira, Anselmo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Colleters are secretory structures that produce and release mucilage or a mucilage-resin mixture protecting meristems and young structures against desiccation, herbivores, and pathogens. The secretions may vary in colleters of same or different types, indicating that the functionality of colleters may be more specific than previously thought. In this study, we compared 17 Rubiaceae species from savanna and forest environment focusing on colleter secretions and its ecological role. First, we evaluated the morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of stipular colleters using light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the phenology, microclimate, and the proportion of damaged apices in the savanna and forest species. We recorded standard-type colleters, variable in distribution and size, in 14 of the 17 studied species. The secretion varied from predominantly hydrophilic, mixed to predominantly lipophilic. During the budding period, secretion covered the vegetative apices. Savanna species had a prevalence of lipid secretion in habitats with higher luminosity, which had a lower proportion of damaged apices. In contrast, forest species occurred in habitats with lower luminosity and had a higher proportion of damaged apices, in general with the absence of lipids in the colleters. These results highlight that colleters with similar morphology clearly differed in secretions among species, especially between species from savanna and forest, in which the colleters appear potentially associated with protection against irradiation in savanna, but not in the forest environment.

  7. Evolutionary Relationships and Biogeography of the Ant-Epiphytic Genus Squamellaria (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) and Their Taxonomic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological research on ant/plant symbioses in Fiji, combined with molecular phylogenetics, has brought to light four new species of Squamellaria in the subtribe Hydnophytinae of the Rubiaceae tribe Psychotrieae and revealed that four other species, previously in Hydnophytum, need to be transferred to Squamellaria. The diagnoses of the new species are based on morphological and DNA traits, with further insights from microCT scanning of flowers and leaf δ13C ratios (associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism). Our field and phylogenetic work results in a new circumscription of the genus Squamellaria, which now contains 12 species (to which we also provide a taxonomic key), not 3 as in the last revision. A clock-dated phylogeny and a model-testing biogeographic framework were used to infer the broader geographic history of rubiaceous ant plants in the Pacific, specifically the successive expansion of Squamellaria to Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji. The colonization of Vanuatu may have occurred from Fiji, when these islands were still in the same insular arc, while the colonization of the Solomon islands may have occurred after the separation of this island from the Fiji/Vanuatu arc. Some of these ant-housing epiphytes must have dispersed with their specialized ants, for instance attached to floating timber. Others acquired new ant symbionts on different islands. PMID:27028599

  8. Monophyly of Kelloggia Torrey ex Benth. (Rubiaceae) and evolution of its intercontinental disjunction between western North America and eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Wen, Jun; Sun, Hang; Bartholomew, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    Kelloggia Torrey ex Bentham (Rubiaceae) consists of two species disjunctly distributed in western North America (K. galioides Torrey) and the western part of eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.). The two species exhibit a high level of morphological divergence. To test its monophyly and to infer its biogeographic history, we estimated the phylogeny of Kelloggia and its relatives from sequences of three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL gene, atpB-rbcL spacer, and rps16 intron). The monophyly of Kelloggia was strongly supported, and it forms a sister relationship with the tribe Rubieae. The divergence time between the two disjunct species of Kelloggia was estimated to be 5.42 ± 2.32 million years ago (mya) using the penalized likelihood method based on rbcL sequence data with fossil calibration. Our result does not support the Madrean-Tethyan hypothesis, which assumes an earlier divergence time of 20-25 mya. Ancestral area analysis, as well as dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analysis, suggests the Asian origin of Kelloggia and the importance of Eurasia in the diversification of its close relatives in the Rubieae-Theligoneae-Paederieae group. The intercontinental disjunction in Kelloggia is suggested to have evolved via long-distance dispersal from Asia into western North America.

  9. Morphology, secretion composition, and ecological aspects of stipular colleters in Rubiaceae species from tropical forest and savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Nogueira, Anselmo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Colleters are secretory structures that produce and release mucilage or a mucilage-resin mixture protecting meristems and young structures against desiccation, herbivores, and pathogens. The secretions may vary in colleters of same or different types, indicating that the functionality of colleters may be more specific than previously thought. In this study, we compared 17 Rubiaceae species from savanna and forest environment focusing on colleter secretions and its ecological role. First, we evaluated the morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of stipular colleters using light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the phenology, microclimate, and the proportion of damaged apices in the savanna and forest species. We recorded standard-type colleters, variable in distribution and size, in 14 of the 17 studied species. The secretion varied from predominantly hydrophilic, mixed to predominantly lipophilic. During the budding period, secretion covered the vegetative apices. Savanna species had a prevalence of lipid secretion in habitats with higher luminosity, which had a lower proportion of damaged apices. In contrast, forest species occurred in habitats with lower luminosity and had a higher proportion of damaged apices, in general with the absence of lipids in the colleters. These results highlight that colleters with similar morphology clearly differed in secretions among species, especially between species from savanna and forest, in which the colleters appear potentially associated with protection against irradiation in savanna, but not in the forest environment.

  10. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Luciana B; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-03-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flower was relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5 J) and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30 kJ) would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura), the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis), and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris). The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-01-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained. PMID:9067645

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-03-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained.

  13. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-12-19

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  16. Rubipodanin A, the First Natural N-Desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-Type Cyclopeptide from Rubia podantha, Indicating an Important Role of the N9-Methyl Group in the Conformation and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    One new cyclic hexapeptide named rubipodanin A (1), which is the first identified natural N-desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptide, together with six known Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides (2–7) were obtained using the TLC cyclopeptide protosite detection method with ninhydrin from the roots and rhizomes of Rubia podantha. The cyclopeptide structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, IR, UV and MS. The solution conformation and biological activities of 1 and RA-V (4) were evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the N9-methyl group plays a vital role in the maintenance of the conformation and bioactivity. PMID:26694544

  17. Rubipodanin A, the First Natural N-Desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-Type Cyclopeptide from Rubia podantha, Indicating an Important Role of the N9-Methyl Group in the Conformation and Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Si-Meng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    One new cyclic hexapeptide named rubipodanin A (1), which is the first identified natural N-desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptide, together with six known Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides (2-7) were obtained using the TLC cyclopeptide protosite detection method with ninhydrin from the roots and rhizomes of Rubia podantha. The cyclopeptide structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, IR, UV and MS. The solution conformation and biological activities of 1 and RA-V (4) were evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the N9-methyl group plays a vital role in the maintenance of the conformation and bioactivity.

  18. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  19. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution.

  20. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P < 0.05), as well as higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than other plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations on MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  1. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-06-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections.

  3. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  4. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-08-07

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans.

  5. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:7650207

  6. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  7. Discovery of a new species of Caloptilia (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) from east and central Africa with its suggested associated host (Gentianales: Rubiaceae) and natural enemies (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    De Prins, Jurate; Gumovsky, Alex; De Coninck, Eliane

    2015-05-18

    A new species of the leaf-mining moth genus Caloptilia (Gracillariidae), C. mwamba sp. nov., suggested to be associated with Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K.Schum. (Rubiaceae) is described from east and central Africa. The taxonomic relationships of the new species with its congeners from the Oriental and the Palaearctic regions are discussed. Newly obtained taxonomic and biological data are linked with the DNA barcode workbench in BOLD, providing the molecular, machine-readable identification tag of the new species. New distribution and morphological data for two parasitoid species, Afrotroppopsis risbeci Gumovsky, 2007 and Zaommomentedon newbyi (Kerrich, 1969) (Eulophidae), which were found to be associated with C. mwamba sp. nov., are presented.

  8. The mitochondrial genome from the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria Angélica G; Tambor, José Humberto M; Nobrega, Francisco G

    2007-07-01

    We present here the sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the pathogenic thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, agent of an endemic disease in most South American countries. The sequenced genome has 71 334 bp and is organized as a circular molecule with two gaps of unknown size flanking the middle exon of the nad5 gene. We located genes coding for the three subunits of the ATP synthase (atp6, atp8 and atp9), the apocytochrome b (cob), three subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme complex (cox1, cox2 and cox3), seven subunits of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, nad6 and nad4L) and the large (rnl) and small (rns) subunits of ribosomal RNA. Two maturases and a ribosomal protein (rms5) are located inside introns. Twenty-five tRNAs were identified with acceptors for all 20 amino acids. Seven polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts (140-240 bp) have been found in this genome. All genes are in the same orientation over the genome, while their order is closest to the mitochondrial genomes from Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus nidulans.

  9. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals.

  10. Isolation and purification of two immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Rodriguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    Two immunogenic proteins from a crude extract of Nocardia brasiliensis were purified to homogeneity. A 61-kDa protein (P61) was isolated from a 50% ammonium sulfate precipitate in two steps. Initially, P61 was obtained by electroelution in a 10% nondenatured preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In a second step, the eluate from the nondenatured gel was run in a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) preparative polyacrylamide gel. After elution, a single band was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot (immunoblot). Also, a 24-kDa immunogenic protein (P24) was isolated by gel filtration in a Sephadex G-100 column and then by electroelution in a 12% nondenatured polyacrylamide gel. In a previous paper, we showed by Western blot assays that these proteins are recognized by the sera of mycetoma patients and not by sera from mycobacterial-infected or healthy individuals. We consider these proteins to be good candidates for the study of the host-parasite relationship in nocardial infections. The possible clinical application of these purified antigens in a serological diagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:1583118

  11. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research.

  12. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gabriel Capella; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Arantes, Thales Domingos; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens. PMID:23903981

  13. Temporal auditory summation in the echolocating bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Thaller, J

    1994-06-15

    Auditory thresholds improve with increasing signal duration within the maximum integration time of the auditory system, a phenomenon called temporal summation. The temporal summation function is a basic characteristic of particular relevance for bat sonar, as it determines the ability to detect targets with short echolocation calls. Temporal summation was studied in 6 Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in a forced two-choice behavioural test. Masked auditory thresholds for 40-kHz test tone pulses with durations between 2 ms and 400 ms were determined in broadband noise of two different spectrum levels (-18 dB, +17 dB). At both masker levels, thresholds decreased by considerably more than 10 dB per decade of duration. The time constants of the summation functions, which are a measure of the maximum integration time, shortened significantly with increasing masker level from 62 ms to 14 ms. The steep summation functions are only partly accounted for by spectral splatter. This suggests that the bats are capable of a neural overintegration of sound intensity. Finally, it is shown that such short time constants are typical for echolocating animals, and the implications of the found summation functions for echolocation are considered.

  14. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)).

  15. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  16. Purinergic effects of a hydroalcoholic Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) extract on liver functions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Andrea L; Eler, G Jacklin; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane M

    2010-06-23

    The effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) on functional parameters in the perfused rat liver were examined with emphasis on its content of nucleotides and nucleosides. Several nucleosides and nucleotides were identified in the A. brasiliensis extract, which was active on several liver functions. A significant part of the effects is the result of the purinergic action of nucleosides and nucleotides: pressure increment, glycogenolysis stimulation, transient inhibition of oxygen consumption, and redox state changes. Other phenomena such as the stimulation of gluconeogenesis, ureogenesis, and oxygen consumption are more likely consequences of the metabolic transformation of substrates contained within the extract, especially amino acids. It seems apparent that consumption of A. brasiliensis represents not only the ingestion of metabolic precursors but also the ingestion of substances that, even at low concentrations, can exert important signaling functions in the liver as well as in the organism as a whole.

  17. Heterologous Expression, Purification, and Immunological Reactivity of a Recombinant HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Daniela A.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Roseli M.; Sueli, M.; Felipe, S.; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Deepe Jr., George S.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The complete coding cDNA of HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was overexpressed in an Escherichia coli host to produce high levels of recombinant protein. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. A total of 169 human serum samples were tested for reactivity by Western blot analysis with the purified HSP60 recombinant protein. Immunoblots indicated that the recombinant P. brasiliensis HSP60 was recognized by antibodies in 72 of 75 sera from paracoccidioidomycosis patients. No cross-reactivity was detected with individual sera from patients with aspergillosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis. Reactivity to HSP60 was observed in sera from 9.52% of control healthy individuals and 11.5% of patients with histoplasmosis. The high sensitivity and specificity (97.3 and 92.5%, respectively) for HSP60 suggested that the recombinant protein can be used singly or in association with other recombinant antigens to detect antibody responses in P. brasiliensis-infected patients. PMID:11874881

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rua, Cintia P J; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Appolinario, Luciana R; Venas, Tainá M; Garcia, Gizele D; Carvalho, Lucas S; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Valle, Rogério A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  19. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  20. Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: its ecological and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Ekman, Stefan; McDowell, Timothy D; Bremer, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae) display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1) self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2) changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to "a high degree of specialization and developmental burden"; 3) head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards dioecy. A single

  1. OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetopA Sulphur Dioxide Estimates; The Case of Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Theys, N.; Brenot, H.; van Gent, J.; Hendrick, F.; Wang, T.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Lichtenberg, G.; Richter, A.; Krotkov, N.; Li, C.; van der A, R.

    2015-11-01

    The EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project focuses on deriving emission estimates from space, http://www.marcopolo-panda.eu. Long term satellite observations of Sulphur Dioxide, SO2, over the greater China area from the SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME2/MetopA and OMI/Aura missions are compared and their relative strong points and limitations are discussed. For each satellite instrument, two different datasets are being analyzed in the same manner. Rigorous spatiotemporal statistical analysis based on novel analysis techniques is performed for each data set in order to reduce noise and biases and enhance pollution signals in satellite datasets. Furthermore, identification of point sources such as power plants, smelters and urban agglomerations, as well as definition of their relative contribution to the regional SO2 levels, form the main findings of this investigation. Trend analyses and their statistical representation help locate regions of interesting SO2 loading in China.

  2. Evaluation of satellite sulphur dioxide estimates from OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetopA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Valks, Pieter; Hedelt, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Günter; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project focuses on deriving emission estimates from space and their refinement by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. Satellite observations of suphur dioxide, SO2, over the greater China area are analyzed using novel techniques [Fioletov et al., 2011; 2013] in order to enhance the observational signal and provide a robust SO2 dataset for the region. Observations from the SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME2/MetopA and OMI/Aura missions are assessed in this work and their relative strengths and shortcomings discussed at length. Rigorous screening is applied to and presented for each data source, including a full length spatiotemporal statistical analysis. Furthermore, identification of point sources such as power plants and urban agglomerations, as well as the definition of their relative contribution to the general SO2 levels, form the basis of this investigation.

  3. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    PubMed

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  4. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  5. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, D M; Marmontel, M; Rosas, F W; Santos, F R

    2007-12-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  7. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  8. TLR9 Activation Dampens the Early Inflammatory Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting Host Survival

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Alves, Ana G.; Lobo-Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Saraiva, Ana Laura; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Romani, Luigina; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis and regulation of the immune response. However, the role of TLR9 during the infection by this fungus remains unclear. Methodology/Principal findings We used in vitro and in vivo models of infection by P. brasiliensis, comparing wild type and TLR9 deficient (−/−) mice, to assess the contribution of TLR9 on cytokine induction, phagocytosis and outcome of infection. We show that TLR9 recognizes either the yeast form or DNA from P. brasiliensis by stimulating the expression/production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow derived macrophages, also increasing their phagocytic ability. We further show that TLR9 plays a protective role early after intravenous infection with P. brasiliensis, as infected TLR9−/− mice died at higher rate during the first 48 hours post infection than wild type mice. Moreover, TLR9−/− mice presented tissue damage and increased expression of several cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The increased pattern of cytokine expression was also observed during intraperitoneal infection of TLR9−/− mice, with enhanced recruitment of neutrophils. The phenotype of TLR9−/− hosts observed during the early stages of P. brasiliensis infection was reverted upon a transient, 48 hours post-infection, neutrophil depletion. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that TLR9 activation plays an early protective role against P. brasiliensis, by avoiding a deregulated type of inflammatory response associated to neutrophils that may lead to tissue damage. Thus

  9. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase.

  10. Life history traits and host specificity of Japanese Trachyaphthona species (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), candidates as biological control agents against skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae),in Southeastern U.S. & Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae), is native to Asia and has been recognized as an invasive weedy vine of natural areas in Florida and Hawaii. It has overgrown on native vegetation and caused serious damage. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been considering use of Trachyaphthona sor...

  11. Surface NO2 fields derived from joint use of OMI and GOME-2A observations with EMEP model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Svendby, Tove; Stebel, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Emitted primarily by transport and industry, NO2 has a major impact on health and economy. In contrast to the very sparse network of air quality monitoring stations, satellite data of NO2 is ubiquitous and allows for quantifying the NO2 levels worldwide. However, one drawback of satellite-derived NO2 products is that they provide solely an estimate of the entire tropospheric column, whereas what is generally needed for air quality applications are the concentrations of NO2 near the surface. Here we derive surface NO2 concentration fields from OMI and GOME-2A tropospheric column products using the EMEP chemical transport model as auxiliary information. The model is used for providing information of the boundary layer contribution to the total tropospheric column. For preparation of deriving the surface product, a comprehensive model-based analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of the NO2 surface-to-column ratio in Europe was carried out for the year 2011. The results from this analysis indicate that the spatial patterns of the surface-to-column ratio vary only slightly. While the highest ratio values can be found in some shipping lanes, the spatial variability of the ratio in some of the most polluted areas of Europe is not very high. Some but not all urban agglomeration shows high ratio values. Focusing on the temporal behavior, the analysis showed that the European-wide average ratio varies throughout the year. The surface-to-column ratio increases from January all the way through April when it reaches its maximum, then decreases relatively rapidly to average levels and then stays mostly constant throughout the summer. The minimum ratio is observed in December. The knowledge gained from analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of the surface-to-column ratio was then used to produce surface NO2 products from the daily NO2 data for OMI and GOME-2A. This was carried out using two methods

  12. A Morphological and Cytochemical Study of the Interaction between Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda R. G.; Filgueira, Absalom L.; de Souza, Wanderley

    2004-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P. brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together, these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular P. brasiliensis.

  13. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  14. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: assessing catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Alessandra S; Andrade, Rosângela V; de Carvalho, Maria J; Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Campos, Elida G

    2008-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that infects humans and establishes infection in the yeast form. We are interested in the mechanisms this fungus uses to evade the human immune system, and in its survival strategies within infected host cells. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in host defence, but are detoxified by pathogen-derived antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of P. brasiliensis catalase and cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP) antioxidant enzymes upon culture treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is described. High H(2)O(2) concentrations (up to 100 mm) still permitted 70-100% survival of exponential and stationary phase yeast cells, though stationary phase cells were consistently more resistant. P. brasiliensis has both cytosolic and peroxisomal catalase isoenzymes and a single cytochrome-c peroxidase. High-dose treatments with H(2)O(2) led to an early increase in total catalase and CCP enzymatic activities, indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. The expression levels of the catalase genes increased three to fourfold when the cells were treated with 50 mm H(2)O(2) for 40 or 50 min. Lipid peroxidation, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid method, was relatively low upon treatment with H(2)O(2), which was consistent with our results demonstrating that P. brasiliensis has a powerful antioxidant defence system enabling it to survive H(2)O(2)-mediated stress.

  15. Cell signaling pathways in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--inferred from comparisons with other fungi.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Larissa; Araújo, Marcus A M; Amaral, André; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Martins, Natália F; Felipe, M S

    2005-06-30

    The human fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an ascomycete that displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic transition, appearing as a mycelium at 22 degrees C and as a yeast at 37 degrees C, this latter being the virulent form. We report on the in silico search made of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome-expressed sequence tag database for components of signaling pathways previously known to be involved in morphogenesis and virulence in other species of fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Using this approach, it was possible to identify several protein cascades in P. brasiliensis, such as i) mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling for cell integrity, cell wall construction, pheromone/mating, and osmo-regulation, ii) the cAMP/PKA system, which regulates fungal development and virulence, iii) the Ras protein, which allows cross-talking between cascades, iv) calcium-calmodulin-calcineurin, which controls cell survival under oxidative stress, high temperature, and membrane/cell wall perturbation, and v) the target of rapamycin pathway, controlling cell growth and proliferation. The ways in which P. brasiliensis responds to the environment and modulates the expression of genes required for its survival and virulence can be inferred through comparison with other fungi for which this type of data is already available.

  16. Pulmonary cavitation and skin lesions mimicking tuberculosis in a HIV negative patient caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; Unterstell, Natasha; Carlos Gripp, Alexandre; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Brota, Arles; Dias, Emylli; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa R; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV negative male presented with multiple pulmonary cavitation and skin abscesses up to 15 cm in diameter mimicking tuberculosis. Sporothrix brasiliensis was isolated and patient responded well to amphotericin B followed by itraconazole, except the skin lesions that had to be surgical drained to obtain cure. PMID:24432220

  17. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Terçarioli, Gisela Ramos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Reis, Gabriela Martins; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bosco, Sandra De Moraes Gimenes; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al) in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al. PMID:17953742

  18. IL-4Rα-Associated Antigen Processing by B Cells Promotes Immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Jennifer C.; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; McSorley, Henry J.; Ndlovu, Hlumani; Bobat, Saeeda; Kimberg, Matti; Kirstein, Frank; Cutler, Anthony J.; DeWals, Benjamin; Cunningham, Adam F.; Brombacher, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, B cell function in protective TH2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα−/− mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4+ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88−/− B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24204255

  19. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  20. Cell-free antigens of Sporothrix brasiliensis: antigenic diversity and application in an immunoblot assay.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Reis, Rosani Santos; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Peralta, José Mauro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis diagnosed by isolation of the fungus in culture. Serological tests for help in diagnosis in general do not use purified or recombinant antigens, because there is a paucity of described immunoreactive proteins, especially for the new described Sporothrix species, such as Sporothrix brasiliensis. This study aims to characterise antigens from S. brasiliensis and verify their application in serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis. An immunoblot assay allied with computer-based analysis was used to identify putative antigenic molecules in a cell-free extracts of both morphological phases of this fungus, and to delineate antigenic polymorphism among seven S. brasiliensis isolates and one S. schenckii Brazilian strain. The mycelial and yeast phase of the fungus originated 14 and 23 reactive bands, respectively, which were variable in intensity. An 85 kDa antigen, verified in the yeast phase of the fungus, was observed in all strains used and the immunodominant protein was identified. This protein, however, cross-react with serum samples from patients infected with other pathogens. The results show that the S. brasiliensis cell-free antigen extract is a single and inexpensive source of antigens, and can be applied on the sporotrichosis serodiagnosis.

  1. Comparison of various techniques for determining viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Cano, L E; de Bedout, C; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

    1982-01-01

    The viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells was determined by colony-forming units, direct fluorescent staining, and production of germ tubes in slide culture. The first procedure was unreliable and time consuming; the latter two showed better correlation with hemacytometer total cell counts and required significantly less time. PMID:7107858

  2. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  3. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  4. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  5. Inhibition of growth of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by ajoene.

    PubMed Central

    San-Blas, G; San-Blas, F; Gil, F; Mariño, L; Apitz-Castro, R

    1989-01-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived compound that prevents platelet activation, inhibited the growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a fungal pathogen for humans, by affecting the integrity of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. This action may be the basis for the study of ajoene as a possible specific antifungal drug. Images PMID:2817865

  6. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  7. Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates to amphotericin B, azoles, and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Gagini, Thalita Braga; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Castro, Rafaela; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Nucci, Marcio; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (PSC), voriconazole (VRC), and terbinafine (TRB) against 32 Brazilian isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis, including 16 isolates from a recent (2011-2012) epidemic in Rio de Janeiro state, was examined. We describe and genotype new isolates and clustered them with 16 older (from 2004 or earlier) S. brasiliensis isolates by phylogenetic analysis. We tested both the yeast and the mycelium form of all isolates using broth microdilution methods based on the reference protocols M38-A2 and M27-A3 (recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Considering minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), TRB was found to be the most active drug in vitro for both fungal forms, followed by PSC. Several isolates showed high MICs for AMB and/or ITC, which are currently used as first-line therapy for sporotrichosis. VRC displayed very low activity against S. brasiliensis isolates. The primary morphological modification observed on treated yeasts by transmission electron microscopy analysis was changes in cell wall. Our results indicate that TRB is the antifungal with the best in vitro activity against S. brasiliensis and support the use of TRB as a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.

  8. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  9. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  10. Psychophysical frequency modulation thresholds in a FM-bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, E; Schmidt, S

    1993-05-01

    Echolocating bats hunting flying insects discriminate complex temporal patterns of acoustic stimuli. For bats using frequency modulated sonar calls (FM bats), there are no behavioral data on the perception of sinusoidally frequency modulated (SFM) stimuli. Discrimination performance for SFM stimuli of varying modulation depth was measured in 4 Tadarida brasiliensis in a two-alternative, forced choice procedure. A center frequency of 40 kHz was modulated with rates between 10 and 2000 Hz. It was found that discrimination performance improved from a mean threshold modulation depth of 3.05 kHz at a modulation rate of 2000 Hz to 1.58 kHz at a modulation rate of 10 Hz. Psychoacoustical modulation depth thresholds of T. brasiliensis are thus distinctly larger than those observed in bat species emitting constant frequency (CF) components followed by an FM-sweep, in active echolocation experiments. The modulation thresholds of T. brasiliensis are discussed in connection with the ability of bats to discriminate insect wingbeats. A comparison between non-echolocating mammals and the FM bat T. brasiliensis shows that the ability to echolocate is not reflected in the modulation thresholds.

  11. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-10-30

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.

  12. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Uilson P.; Campos, Jaqueline F.; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS

  13. Estimating the NO(x) produced by lightning from GOME and NLDN data: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beirle, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stohl, A.; Cummins, K. L.; Turner, T.; Boccippio, D.; Cooper, O. R.; Wenig, M.; Grzegorski, M.; Platt, U.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular in catalytic ozone production. Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere s oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning produced NO(x) (LNO(x)) are of the order of 5 Tg [N] per year with still high uncertainties in the range of one order of magnitude. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows the retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 on a global scale. Here we present the GOME NO2 measurement directly over a large convective system over the Gulf of Mexico. Simultaneously, cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes are counted by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN(TradeMark)), and extrapolated to include intracloud (IC)+CG flashes based on a climatological IC:CG ratio derived from NASA s space-based lightning sensors. A series of 14 GOME pixels shows largely enhanced column densities over thick and high clouds, coinciding with strong lightning activity. The enhancements can not be explained by transport of anthropogenic NO(x) and must be due to fresh production of LNO(x). A quantitative analysis, accounting in particular for the visibility of LNO, from satellite, yields a LNO, production of 90 (32-240) moles of NO(x), or 1.3 (0.4-3.4) kg [N], per flash. If simply extrapolated, this corresponds to a global LNO(x) production of 1.7 (0.6-4.7) Tg [N]/yr.

  14. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-Spectral-Resolution Near-Infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Guanter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 0.5. We also show

  15. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  16. Humoral Immunity through Immunoglobulin M Protects Mice from an Experimental Actinomycetoma Infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium. PMID:15385456

  17. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  18. Global observations of glyoxal columns from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A sensors and comparison with multi-year simulations by the IMAGES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerot, Christophe; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Hendrick, François; De Smedt, Isabelle; Müller, Jean-François; Volkamer, Rainer; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from both natural and human activities play a key role in air quality. Information on their atmospheric concentrations can be derived using remote sensing techniques for a limited number of species, including formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO). The latter is mostly produced in the atmosphere as an intermediate product in the oxidation of other non-methane VOCs. It is also directly emitted from fire events and combustion processes. Owing to its short lifetime, elevated glyoxal concentrations are observed near emission sources. Measurements of atmospheric glyoxal concentrations therefore provide quantitative information on the different types of VOC emission and can help to better assess the quality of current inventories. In addition, glyoxal is also known to significantly contribute to the total budget of secondary organic aerosols. Global observations of glyoxal columns have been realized from different space-borne spectrometers using the well-known DOAS retrieval technique. In the past, we developed an algorithm to retrieve glyoxal columns from spectra measured by the GOME-2 instrument aboard METOP-A (Lerot et al., 2010). Specificities of this algorithm were an original two-step approach in the DOAS fit to minimize the impact of spectral interferences with the liquid water absorption as well as the use of a priori information from the Chemical Transport Model IMAGES in the air mass factor calculation. In this work, we present the adaptation of this algorithm to the OMI sensor on the AURA platform. The time series of glyoxal columns derived from OMI and GOME-2 are compared in different parts of the world and a high level of consistency is found. The OMI glyoxal data product is found to be very stable over the entire duration of the mission, in contrast to the GOME-2 product which is affected by instrumental degradation. We present validation results using several years of MAX-DOAS glyoxal measurements

  19. Redescription of Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup 1858), a senior synonym of Urophycis latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 (Gadiformes: Phycidae).

    PubMed

    Lemes, Paola C R; Loeb, Marina V; Santificetur, César; Melo, Marcelo R S

    2016-02-29

    Urophycis Gill 1864 is a genus of demersal fish composed by eight valid species with anti-tropical distributions in the western Atlantic. Only two species occur in the South Atlantic: U. brasiliensis (Kaup 1858) and U. mystacea Miranda Ribeiro 1903. These species have similar ranges from southeastern Brazil to northern Argentina, but U. brasiliensis occurs in more shallow waters than U. mystacea. Both species are important fishery resources in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Herein, we redescribe U. brasiliensis based on comparison of types and additional specimens, including the description of the Sagitta otolith, formerly place U. latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 as a junior synonym of U. brasiliensis, and provide an updated map of distribution.

  20. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-07

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

  1. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  2. Functional and structural optimization of the respiratory system of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae): does airway geometry matter?

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; Atala, Cristian; Olivares, Ricardo; Guajardo, Francisco; Figueroa, Daniela P; Sabat, Pablo; Rosenmann, Mario

    2005-10-01

    We studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat Tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, Abrothrix andinus and A. olivaceus. Tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. The blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. In consequence, T. brasiliensis has an oxygen diffusion capacity two or three times higher than that of the rodents. In Tadarida brasiliensis the characteristics of the lung were accompanied by geometrical changes in the proximal airway, such as high physical optimization as a consequence of small variations in the symmetry and the scaling ratio of the bronchial diameters. These may constitute an efficient way to save energy in respiratory mechanics and are the first report of airway adjustments to decrease entropy generation in bats.

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the medicinal plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and related species1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Monteiro, Mariza; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, José B.; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. • Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S. goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. • Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners. PMID:25202555

  4. Retrieval of Ozone Column Content from Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements During SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III, POAM III,THOMAS and GOME Measurements. Comparison with SAGE 111, POAM 111, TOMS and GOME Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Pitts, M.

    2003-01-01

    retrievals during selected DC-8 latitudinal and longitudinal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite sensors. To enable this comparison, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution, fast response in-situ ozone measurements acquired during the DC-8 ascent at the start of each science flight.

  5. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kenneth R.; Lorence, David H.; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai‘i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7–10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20–28 mm long; flowers 6–8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4–8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua‘i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  6. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  7. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  8. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection. PMID:26360774

  9. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafaela A; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Teixeira, Pedro A C; Sanches, Glenda F; Teixeira, Marcus M; Quintella, Leonardo P; Almeida, Sandro R; Costa, Rosane O; Camargo, Zoilo P; Felipe, Maria S S; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  10. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  11. Tropospheric O3 over Indonesia during biomass burning events measured with GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and compared with backtrajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    During the dry season, biomass burning is an important source of ozone precursors for the tropical troposphere, and ozone formation can occur in biomass burning plumes originating in Indonesia and northern Australia. Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment) data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone production over this region during the El Niño event in September 1997 compared to a so called "normal" year 1998. Large scale biomass burning occurred over Kalimantan in 1997 caused by the absence of the northern monsoon rains, leading to significant increases in tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM). Backtrajectory calculations show that Indonesia is influenced every summer by the emissions of trace gases from biomass buring over northern Australia. But in 1997 over Indonesia an increasing of tropospheric ozone amounts can be observed caused by the fires over Indonesia itself as well as by northern Australia. The analysis of the measurements of BIBLE-A (Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment) and using ATSR (Along the Track Scanning Radiometer) data show differences in the view to the intensity of fire counts and therefore in the amount of the emission of precursors of tropospheric ozone comparing September 1997 to September 1998.

  12. A Model-Data Fusion Approach for Constraining Modeled GPP at Global Scales Using GOME2 SIF Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Lewis, P.; Guanter, L.; Koehler, P.; Bacour, C.; Peylin, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.; Chevallier, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the fate of the ecosystem carbon, C, stocks and their sensitivity to climate change relies heavily on our ability to accurately model the gross carbon fluxes, i.e. photosynthesis and respiration. However, there are large differences in the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) simulated by different land surface models (LSMs), not only in terms of mean value, but also in terms of phase and amplitude when compared to independent data-based estimates. This strongly limits our ability to provide accurate predictions of carbon-climate feedbacks. One possible source of this uncertainty is from inaccurate parameter values resulting from incomplete model calibration. Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) has been shown to have a linear relationship with GPP at the typical spatio-temporal scales used in LSMs (Guanter et al., 2011). New satellite-derived SIF datasets have the potential to constrain LSM parameters related to C uptake at global scales due to their coverage. Here we use SIF data derived from the GOME2 instrument (Köhler et al., 2014) to optimize parameters related to photosynthesis and leaf phenology of the ORCHIDEE LSM, as well as the linear relationship between SIF and GPP. We use a multi-site approach that combines many model grid cells covering a wide spatial distribution within the same optimization (e.g. Kuppel et al., 2014). The parameters are constrained per Plant Functional type as the linear relationship described above varies depending on vegetation structural properties. The relative skill of the optimization is compared to a case where only satellite-derived vegetation index data are used to constrain the model, and to a case where both data streams are used. We evaluate the results using an independent data-driven estimate derived from FLUXNET data (Jung et al., 2011) and with a new atmospheric tracer, Carbonyl sulphide (OCS) following the approach of Launois et al. (ACPD, in review). We show that the optimization reduces the strong positive

  13. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region.

  14. Statistical based media optimization and production of naringinase using Aspergillus brasiliensis 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Kirthika, J; Ragupathy, J; Nilanee, K; Manickam, A

    2014-03-01

    Statistics based optimization, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to screen and optimize the media components for the production of naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344, using solid state fermentation. Cassava waste (CW) was used as both the solid support and carbon source for the growth of A. brasiliensis. Based on the positive influence of the Pareto chart obtained from PBD on naringinase activity, three media components--maltose, peptone and calcium chloride were screened. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed using these three factors at three levels, for further optimization, and the second order polynomial equation was derived, based on the experimental data. Derringer's desired function methodology showed that the concentrations of maltose (7.74 g/L), peptone (4.19 g/L) and calcium chloride (7.63 mM) were the optimal levels for maximal naringinase activity (889.91 U/mg) which were validated through experiments.

  15. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  16. Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia by pulmonary macrophages and the effect of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Arango, R; Salazar, M E; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    The ability of conidia, the infectious form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, to be killed in vitro by murine pulmonary macrophages was studied. Mice were immunized by intravenous injection of killed conidia, which resulted in cellular immunity demonstrated by delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and macrophage migration inhibition factor production in vitro. Resident pulmonary macrophages from non-immune mice were able to significantly kill the conidia (28%). Such macrophages treated with supernatants (cytokines) from antigen-stimulated immune mononuclears had a markedly enhanced ability to kill conidia (73%). These results show that activated pulmonary macrophages are potent killers of conidia of P. brasiliensis and that immune mononuclears play a role in activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages may be important for pulmonary defense against the initial stages of infection with this fungus.

  17. THE POWER OF THE SMALL: THE EXAMPLE OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CONIDIA

    PubMed Central

    RESTREPO, Angela; CANO, Luz Elena; GONZALEZ, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensis interactions. PMID:26465363

  18. Brasilinolide A, a new macrolide antibiotic produced by Nocardia brasiliensis: producing strain, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Nemoto, A; Tojyo, T; Kadowaki, K; Shigemori, H; Kobayashi, J

    1997-12-01

    A new 32-membered macrolide antibiotic, brasilinolide A was isolated from the fermentation broth of Nocardia sp. IFM 0406. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotic was only active against Aspergillus niger, but not active against other fungi including yeasts as well as other filamentous like fungi and bacteria. Brasilinolide A exerted an immunosuppressive activity in the assay system of a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).

  19. [Comparative study of the pathogenicity and antigenicity of 6 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains].

    PubMed

    Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Iovannitti, C A; de Elías Costa, M R

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of antigenicity and pathogenicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immunodiffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A) presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B) presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in histologic sections stained by H&E; C) culture of lung and D) immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow: As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection. PMID:22547544

  1. Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both Morphological Phases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2010-01-01

    Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 μg/ml). Inhibition of the yeast phase ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall β-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the β-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal phases. PMID:20937789

  2. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  3. Transcriptome characterization of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by EST analysis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, M S S; Andrade, R V; Petrofeza, S S; Maranhão, A Q; Torres, F A G; Albuquerque, P; Arraes, F B M; Arruda, M; Azevedo, M O; Baptista, A J; Bataus, L A M; Borges, C L; Campos, E G; Cruz, M R; Daher, B S; Dantas, A; Ferreira, M A S V; Ghil, G V; Jesuino, R S A; Kyaw, C M; Leitão, L; Martins, C R; Moraes, L M P; Neves, E O; Nicola, A M; Alves, E S; Parente, J A; Pereira, M; Poças-Fonseca, M J; Resende, R; Ribeiro, B M; Saldanha, R R; Santos, S C; Silva-Pereira, I; Silva, M A S; Silveira, E; Simões, I C; Soares, R B A; Souza, D P; De-Souza, M T; Andrade, E V; Xavier, M A S; Veiga, H P; Venancio, E J; Carvalho, M J A; Oliveira, A G; Inoue, M K; Almeida, N F; Walter, M E M T; Soares, C M A; Brígido, M M

    2003-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a pathogenic fungus that undergoes a temperature-dependent cell morphology change from mycelium (22 degrees C) to yeast (36 degrees C). It is assumed that this morphological transition correlates with the infection of the human host. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the mycelium (M) and yeast (Y) forms by EST sequencing in order to generate a partial map of the fungus transcriptome. Individual EST sequences were clustered by the CAP3 program and annotated using Blastx similarity analysis and InterPro Scan. Three different databases, GenBank nr, COG (clusters of orthologous groups) and GO (gene ontology) were used for annotation. A total of 3,938 (Y = 1,654 and M = 2,274) ESTs were sequenced and clustered into 597 contigs and 1,563 singlets, making up a total of 2,160 genes, which possibly represent one-quarter of the complete gene repertoire in P. brasiliensis. From this total, 1,040 were successfully annotated and 894 could be classified in 18 functional COG categories as follows: cellular metabolism (44%); information storage and processing (25%); cellular processes-cell division, posttranslational modifications, among others (19%); and genes of unknown functions (12%). Computer analysis enabled us to identify some genes potentially involved in the dimorphic transition and drug resistance. Furthermore, computer subtraction analysis revealed several genes possibly expressed in stage-specific forms of P. brasiliensis. Further analysis of these genes may provide new insights into the pathology and differentiation of P. brasiliensis.

  4. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic α-Galactosyl epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Ganiko, Luciane; Medeiros, Lia C Soares; Miranda, Kildare; Silva, Luiz S; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Almeida, Igor C; Puccia, Rosana

    2011-03-01

    Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic α-linked galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing α-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-α-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal α-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-α-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with α-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying α-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-α-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with α-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after β-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and α-galactosyl epitopes.

  5. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  6. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    PubMed

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density.

  7. In Vitro Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to Essential Oils of Lamiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Silva, Anna Luiza; Dias de Castro, Luciana Laitano; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Ferraz, Vanny; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Zanette, Régis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the chemical, cytotoxic and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis properties of commercial essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.). Chemical composition of the oils was identified through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and cytotoxicity was performed through MTT assay in VERO cell line. Anti-S. brasiliensis activity was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 guidelines using isolates obtained from cats and dogs. The major compounds found were carvacrol in the oregano oil (73.9 %) and 1,8-cineole in rosemary and marjoram oils (49.4 and 20.9 %, respectively). All S. brasiliensis isolates were susceptible to the plant oils, including itraconazole-resistant ones. Marjoram and rosemary oils showed MIC90 of 0.56 and 1.12 mg ml(-1), and MFC90 of 4.5 and 9 mg ml(-1), respectively. For oregano oil, a strong antifungal activity was observed with MIC90 and MFC90 values ≤0.07 mg ml(-1). The weakest cytotoxicity was observed for rosemary oil. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these essential oils in sporotrichosis.

  8. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model.

    PubMed

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction.

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces Formation of Foamy Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24936860

  11. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-10-22

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis.

  12. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice during infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, S; Tobon, A; Trujillo, J; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a feared sequelae of paracoccidioidomycosis. We sought to determine if mice exposed to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia would develop pulmonary fibrosis. BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with P. brasiliensis conidia and sacrificed at regular intervals. One lung was sectioned for histopathology and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, trichromic and argentic stains; the other lung was homogenized and cultured to determine the viability of the fungus. One week post-challenge, only small peribronchial foci were apparent. After 4 weeks, reticular fibres appeared disorganized and disrupted. Six to 8 weeks later peribronchial infiltrates were larger and appeared surrounded by reticular fibres; thick collagen I fibres were noticed in the infiltrated areas at this time. On weeks 10-12, infiltrates were confluent and reticular fibres were concentrated around the inflammatory foci; collagenization was apparent. Observations up to 16 weeks revealed diffuse involvement of the lung parenchyma with extensive collagenization. Lung cultures were always positive. We suggest that inhalation of P. brasiliensis conidia induces adverse lung responses leading to changes in the proportion of collagen fibres I and III.

  13. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  14. Identification and functional characterization of HbOsmotin from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheng; Sun, Yong; Wang, Dan; Wang, Limin; Li, Ling; Meng, Xueru; Feng, Weiqiang; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-12-01

    Latex in the laticiferous cell network of Hevea brasiliensis tree is composed of cytoplasm that synthesizes natural rubber. Ethylene stimulation of the tree bark enhances latex production partly by prolonging the duration of latex flow during the tapping process. Here, we identified an osmotin-like cDNA sequence (HbOsmotin) from H. brasiliensis that belongs to the pathogenesis-related 5 (PR-5) gene family. The HbOsmotin protein is present in the lutoids of latex in H. brasiliensis, whereas in onion epidermal cells, this protein is predominantly distributed around the cell wall, suggesting that it may be secreted from the cytoplasm. We investigated the effects of exogenous ethylene on HbOsmotin transcription and protein accumulation in rubber latex, and further determined the protein function after osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. In regularly tapped trees, HbOsmotin expression was drastically inhibited in rubber latex after tapping, although the expression was subsequently recovered by ethylene stimulation. However, in virgin plants that had never been tapped, exogenous ethylene application slightly decreased HbOsmotin expression. HbOsmotin overexpression in Arabidopsis showed that HbOsmotin reduced the osmotic stress tolerance of the plant, which likely occurred by raising the water potential. These data indicated that HbOsmotin may contribute to osmotic regulation in laticiferous cells.

  15. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 135 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Azevedo, Maristella O; Soares, Célia M A

    2004-06-01

    A 630 bp cDNA encoding an L35 ribosomal protein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, designated as Pbl35, was cloned from a yeast expression library. Pbl35 encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 14.5 kDa and a pI of 11.0. The deduced PbL35 shows significant conservation in respect to other described ribosomal L35 proteins from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Motifs of ribosomal proteins are present in PbL35, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) that could be related to the protein addressing to the nucleolus for the ribosomal assembly. The mRNA for PbL35, about 700 nucleotides in length, is expressed at a high level in P. brasiliensis. The PbL35 and the deduced amino acid sequence constitute the first description of a ribosomal protein in P. brasiliensis. The cDNA was deposited in GenBank under accession number AF416509.

  17. Monofunctional catalase P of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification, characterization, molecular cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sabrina F I; Bailão, Alexandre M; Barbosa, Mônica S; Jesuino, Rosalia S A; Felipe, M Sueli Soares; Pereira, Maristela; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2004-01-30

    Within the context of studies on genes from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) potentially associated with fungus-host interaction, we isolated a 61 kDa protein, pI 6.2, that was reactive with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. This protein was identified as a peroxisomal catalase. A complete cDNA encoding this catalase was isolated from a Pb cDNA library and was designated PbcatP. The cDNA contained a 1509 bp ORF containing 502 amino acids, whose molecular mass was 57 kDa, with a pI of 6.5. The translated protein PbCATP revealed canonical motifs of monofunctional typical small subunit catalases and the peroxisome-PTS-1-targeting signal. The deduced and the native PbCATP demonstrated amino acid sequence homology to known monofunctional catalases and was most closely related to catalases from other fungi. The protein and mRNA were diminished in the mycelial saprobic phase compared to the yeast phase of infection. Protein synthesis and mRNA levels increased during the transition from mycelium to yeast. In addition, the catalase protein was induced when cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. The identification and characterization of the PbCATP and cloning and characterization of the cDNA are essential steps for investigating the role of catalase as a defence of P. brasiliensis against oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms. These results suggest that this protein exerts an influence in the virulence of P. brasiliensis.

  18. Chitinase from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: molecular cloning, structural, phylogenetic, expression and activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Sheyla M R C; Cruz, Aline H S; Jesuino, Rosália S A; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Molinari-Madlum, Eugênia E W I; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2006-03-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a chitinase (Pbcts1) was cloned by screening a cDNA library from the yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The cDNA consists of 1888 bp and encodes an ORF of 1218 bp corresponding to a protein of 45 kDa with 406 amino acid residues. The deduced PbCTS1 is composed of two signature family 18 catalytic domains and seems to belong to fungal/bacterial class. Phylogenetic analysis of PbCTS1 and other chitinases suggests the existence of paralogs of several chitinases to be grouped based on specialized functions, which may reflect the multiple and diverse roles played by fungi chitinases. Glycosyl hydrolase activity assays demonstrated that P. brasiliensis is able to produce and secrete these enzymes mainly during transition from yeast to mycelium. The fungus should be able to use chitin as a carbon source. The presence of an endocytic signal in the deduced protein suggests that it could be secreted by a vesicular nonclassical export pathway. The Pbcts1 expression in mycelium, yeast, during differentiation from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells obtained from infected mice suggests the relevance of this molecule in P. brasiliensis electing PbCTS1 as an attractive drug target.

  19. Identification, N-terminal region sequencing and similarity analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A F; Sousa, M V; Silva, S P; Jesuíno, R S; Soares, C M; Felipe, M S

    1999-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis in Latin America. This human pathogen is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelium (26 degrees C) and in infected tissues as a yeast form (36 degrees C). The in vitro differentiation process is reversible and dependent on temperature shift. In the present study, the total proteins from both forms of P. brasiliensis (isolate Pb01) were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified. Two of these proteins, PbM46 (mycelium) and PbY20 (yeast), were submitted to automated protein sequencing of their N-terminal regions. The 15 amino acid residue sequence of PbM46, AITKIFALKVYDSSG, is similar to enolases from several sources, and specially those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (80%) and Candida albicans (67%), when compared to the NR database at NCBI using the BLASTP program. The 34 amino acid residue sequence of PbY20, APKIAIVFYSLYGHIQKLAEAQKKGIEAAGGTAD, could probably represent an allergen protein since it is very similar (90%) to the minor allergen protein of Alternaria alternata and 82% similar to the allergen protein of Cladosporium herbarum. This comparative analysis of proteins from mycelium and yeast forms has allowed the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins, probably related to differential gene expression in P. brasiliensis.

  20. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  1. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model

    PubMed Central

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Moraes da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction. PMID:26552324

  2. In vitro Paracoccidioides brasiliensis biofilm and gene expression of adhesins and hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Voltan, Aline Raquel; Braz, Jaqueline Derissi; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that initially infect the lungs but can also spread throughout the body. The spreading infection is most likely due to the formation of a biofilm that makes it difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. Biofilm formation is crucial for the development of infections and confines the pathogen to an extracellular matrix. Its presence is associated with antimicrobial resistance and avoidance of host defenses. This current study provides the first description of biofilm formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and an analysis of gene expression, using real-time PCR, associated with 3 adhesins and 2 hydrolytic enzymes that could be associated with the virulence profile. Biofilm formation was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. P. brasiliensis was able to form mature biofilm in 144 h with a thickness of 100 μm. The presence of a biofilm was found to be associated with an increase in the expression of adhesins and enzymes. GP43, enolase, GAPDH and aspartyl proteinase genes were over-expressed, whereas phospholipase was down-regulated in biofilm. The characterization of biofilm formed by P. brasiliensis may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis as well as the search for new therapeutic alternatives; while improving the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:26055497

  3. An Hcp100 gene fragment reveals Histoplasma capsulatum presence in lungs of Tadarida brasiliensis migratory bats.

    PubMed

    González-González, A E; Aliouat-Denis, C M; Carreto-Binaghi, L E; Ramírez, J A; Rodríguez-Arellanes, G; Demanche, C; Chabé, M; Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Taylor, M L

    2012-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum was sampled in lungs from 87 migratory Tadarida brasiliensis bats captured in Mexico (n=66) and Argentina (n=21). The fungus was screened by nested-PCR using a sensitive and specific Hcp100 gene fragment. This molecular marker was detected in 81·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73·4-89·7] of all bats, representing 71 amplified bat lung DNA samples. Data showed a T. brasiliensis infection rate of 78·8% (95% CI 68·9-88·7) in bats captured in Mexico and of 90·4% (95% CI 75·2-100) in those captured in Argentina. Similarity with the H. capsulatum sequence of a reference strain (G-217B) was observed in 71 Hcp100 sequences, which supports the fungal findings. Based on the neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony Hcp100 sequence analyses, a high level of similarity was found in most Mexican and all Argentinean bat lung samples. Despite the fact that 81·6% of the infections were molecularly evidenced, only three H. capsulatum isolates were cultured from all samples tested, suggesting a low fungal burden in lung tissues that did not favour fungal isolation. This study also highlighted the importance of using different tools for the understanding of histoplasmosis epidemiology, since it supports the presence of H. capsulatum in T. brasiliensis migratory bats from Mexico and Argentina, thus contributing new evidence to the knowledge of the environmental distribution of this fungus in the Americas.

  4. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM.

  5. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  6. Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared with GOME retrievals for the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Eskes, H. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Boersma, K. F.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Drevet, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Krol, M. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lawrence, M. G.; Martin, R. V.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; van Roozendael, M.

    2006-04-01

    We present a systematic comparison of tropospheric NO2 from 17 global atmospheric chemistry models with three state-of-the-art retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) for the year 2000. The models used constant anthropogenic emissions from IIASA/EDGAR3.2 and monthly emissions from biomass burning based on the 1997-2002 average carbon emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Model output is analyzed at 10:30 local time, close to the overpass time of the ERS-2 satellite, and collocated with the measurements to account for sampling biases due to incomplete spatiotemporal coverage of the instrument. We assessed the importance of different contributions to the sampling bias: correlations on seasonal time scale give rise to a positive bias of 30-50% in the retrieved annual means over regions dominated by emissions from biomass burning. Over the industrial regions of the eastern United States, Europe and eastern China the retrieved annual means have a negative bias with significant contributions (between -25% and +10% of the NO2 column) resulting from correlations on time scales from a day to a month. We present global maps of modeled and retrieved annual mean NO2 column densities, together with the corresponding ensemble means and standard deviations for models and retrievals. The spatial correlation between the individual models and retrievals are high, typically in the range 0.81-0.93 after smoothing the data to a common resolution. On average the models underestimate the retrievals in industrial regions, especially over eastern China and over the Highveld region of South Africa, and overestimate the retrievals in regions dominated by biomass burning during the dry season. The discrepancy over South America south of the Amazon disappears when we use the GFED emissions specific to the year 2000. The seasonal cycle is analyzed in detail for eight different continental regions. Over regions dominated by biomass burning, the timing of

  7. Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared with GOME retrievals for the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Eskes, H. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Boersma, K. F.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Drevet, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Krol, M. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lawrence, M. G.; Martin, R. V.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; van Roozendael, M.

    2006-07-01

    We present a systematic comparison of tropospheric NO2 from 17 global atmospheric chemistry models with three state-of-the-art retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) for the year 2000. The models used constant anthropogenic emissions from IIASA/EDGAR3.2 and monthly emissions from biomass burning based on the 1997-2002 average carbon emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Model output is analyzed at 10:30 local time, close to the overpass time of the ERS-2 satellite, and collocated with the measurements to account for sampling biases due to incomplete spatiotemporal coverage of the instrument. We assessed the importance of different contributions to the sampling bias: correlations on seasonal time scale give rise to a positive bias of 30-50% in the retrieved annual means over regions dominated by emissions from biomass burning. Over the industrial regions of the eastern United States, Europe and eastern China the retrieved annual means have a negative bias with significant contributions (between -25% and +10% of the NO2 column) resulting from correlations on time scales from a day to a month. We present global maps of modeled and retrieved annual mean NO2 column densities, together with the corresponding ensemble means and standard deviations for models and retrievals. The spatial correlation between the individual models and retrievals are high, typically in the range 0.81-0.93 after smoothing the data to a common resolution. On average the models underestimate the retrievals in industrial regions, especially over eastern China and over the Highveld region of South Africa, and overestimate the retrievals in regions dominated by biomass burning during the dry season. The discrepancy over South America south of the Amazon disappears when we use the GFED emissions specific to the year 2000. The seasonal cycle is analyzed in detail for eight different continental regions. Over regions dominated by biomass burning, the timing of

  8. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  9. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  10. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis.

  11. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS) is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin. PMID:20034376

  12. [Variation of above-ground biomass of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Kintze (Arecaceae) at a palm shrub community on the Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Menezes, L F; de Araujo, D S

    2000-02-01

    Variation of above-ground biomass of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Kuntze (Arecaceae) along five topographic profiles perpendicular to the ocean was examined in a palm scrub community on Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Aerial biomass was positively correlated with distance from the sea (F = 39.57; R2 = 0.69; P < 0.01) as was detritus cover (F = 525.92; R2 = 0.92; P < 0.01). A. arenaria growth is closely related to the topography of the beach area. Dense populations of this palm enrich the soil by increasing organic matter under the plants through dead leaf material. This promotes the accumulation of nutrients and the creation of micro-climates that favor the establishment of other species.

  13. Lactic dehydrogenase virus infection enhances parasite egg production and inhibits eosinophil and mast cell responses in mice infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, M; Yamada, M; Arizono, N; Hayashi, T

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection on the protective immune responses to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were studied. Mice with chronic LDV infection showed significantly higher levels of parasite egg production than non-LDV-infected (control) mice after N. brasiliensis infection. Concurrent LDV infection also suppressed peripheral blood eosinophilia and the lung mastocytosis induced by this nematode. LDV infection showed higher expression levels of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA in lymph nodes compared with control mice before N. brasiliensis infection. In addition, the IgG2a production in LDV-infected mice was higher than that in control mice before and after N. brasiliensis infection. These results suggest that LDV infection modulates protective immune responses against N. brasiliensis infection by the activation of T-helper type 1 cells. PMID:9659227

  14. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae) from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S C; Ferreira, F S; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ávila, R W; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Guarnieri, M C

    2012-11-01

    The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  15. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  16. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata A; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E; da Silva, Cássia J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pinto, Márcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  17. Characterization of PbPga1, an Antigenic GPI-Protein in the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa X. R.; Basso, Luiz Roberto; dos Reis Almeida, Fausto B.; Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Arruda, Luisa Karla; Martinez, Roberto; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. P. brasiliensis cell wall components interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. Cell wall components, such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-proteins play a critical role in cell adhesion and host tissue invasion. Although the importance of GPI-proteins in the pathogenesis of other medically important fungi is recognized, little is known about their function in P. brasiliensis cells and PCM pathogenesis. We cloned the PbPga1 gene that codifies for a predicted GPI-anchored glycoprotein from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis. PbPga1 is conserved in Eurotiomycetes fungi and encodes for a protein with potential glycosylation sites in a serine/threonine-rich region, a signal peptide and a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment signal sequence. Specific chicken anti-rPbPga1 antibody localized PbPga1 on the yeast cell surface at the septum between the mother cell and the bud with stronger staining of the bud. The exposure of murine peritoneal macrophages to rPbPga1 induces TNF-α release and nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages. Furthermore, the presence of O-glycosylation sites was demonstrated by β-elimination under ammonium hydroxide treatment of rPbPga1. Finally, sera from PCM patients recognized rPbPga1 by Western blotting indicating the presence of specific antibodies against rPbPga1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PbPga1gene codifies for a cell surface glycoprotein, probably attached to a GPI-anchor, which may play a role in P. brasiliensis cell wall morphogenesis and infection. The induction of inflammatory mediators released by rPbPga1 and the reactivity of PCM patient sera toward rPbPga1 imply that the protein favors the innate mechanisms of defense and induces humoral immunity during P. brasiliensis infection. PMID:23024763

  18. Differences in Cell Morphometry, Cell Wall Topography and Gp70 Expression Correlate with the Virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rafaela A.; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H.; Teixeira, Pedro A. C.; Sanches, Glenda F.; Teixeira, Marcus M.; Quintella, Leonardo P.; Almeida, Sandro R.; Costa, Rosane O.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Felipe, Maria S. S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes. PMID:24116065

  19. The Homeostasis of Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis, Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus Gattii: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mirelle Garcia; Schrank, Augusto; Bailão, Elisa Flávia L.C.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Staats, Charley Christian; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé; Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of essential ions in infected tissues. We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus species, little is known regarding the regulation of these elements in P. brasiliensis. We also present amino acid sequences analyses of deduced proteins in order to examine possible conserved domains. The genomic data reveals, for the first time, genes associated to iron, copper, and zinc assimilation and homeostasis in P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. However, homologs to genes involved in siderophore production were only found in P. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in silico analysis of the genomes of P. brasiliensis Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18 revealed significant differences in the presence and/or number of genes involved in metal homeostasis, such as in genes related to iron reduction and oxidation. The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, C. neoformans var. grubii, and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. PMID:21833306

  20. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  1. Influence of blood meal and mating in reproduction patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis females (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Daflon-Teixeira, Natália Faria; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Aníbal; Chiang, Ralem Gary; Lima, Marli Maria

    2009-11-01

    The influence of blood meal and mating on Triatoma brasiliensis (Neiva) female fecundity, fertility, life-span and the preoviposition period were investigated under laboratory conditions. Nourishment increased fecundity, fertility and adult lifespan, whereas mating increased fecundity, fertility and decreased the preoviposition period. Females also required more than one mating to reach their full reproductive potential. Results indicate that both nourishment and mating are important in T. brasiliensis proliferation. Such information will help towards developing effective control strategies of this vector of Chagas disease.

  2. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae) in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, T A; Maia-Carneiro, T; Almeida-Gomes, M; Siqueira, C C; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2014-02-01

    Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%), with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna.

  3. Population-level variation in the expression of heterostyly in three species of Rubiaceae: does reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas characterize heterostyly?

    PubMed

    Faivre, A E; McDade, L A

    2001-05-01

    Heterostyly (i.e., reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas between two or three floral morphs) is hypothesized to enhance outcrossing and reduce selfing. However, few studies have documented reciprocity among individual plants; instead, mean anther and stigma heights for floral morphs are usually reported, masking interindividual variation. We measured eight floral dimensions for individuals in five populations of three heterostylous Rubiaceae. The three methods used to quantify reciprocity yielded different conclusions regarding the degree to which populations conformed to expectations for heterostylous plants. Only Psychotria poeppigiana had stigma and, to a lesser degree, anther heights in discrete classes. Variation among plants of Bouvardia ternifolia and Psychotria chiapensis yielded a continuum of anther and stigma heights across populations. Comparison of distances between stigma and anthers indicated that only flowers of B. ternifolia had, as expected, a constant value for this distance. Finally, regression relationships between anther and stigma heights and corolla length showed that only in one population each of B. ternifolia and P. poeppigiana, and in P. chiapensis, was distance between anthers and stigmas the same across the range of corolla sizes for both floral morphs. Variation among these species in expression of heterostyly was not clearly linked to phylogenetic relationship or pollinator syndromes. Two approach herkogamous (AH) species were studied for comparison. Flowers of Psychotria brachiata were consistently AH, but flowers of P. pittieri were highly variable. Determining fitness consequences of population-level variation in sexual systems requires studies linking floral morphology to pollinator behavior and pollen transfer.

  4. Genetic Variability of the Narrow Endemic Tree Antirhea aromatica Castillo‐Campos & Lorence, (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae) in a Tropical Forest of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ‐ASTORGA, JORGE; CASTILLO‐CAMPOS, GONZALO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genetic structure and variability were examined in the only three extant populations of the narrow‐endemic tree Antirhea aromatica (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae), an endangered species of the tropical forest of eastern Mexico. Patterns of genetic diversity within and among populations for adult plants and seedlings were obtained. • Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of 15 loci was conducted and the data analysed with statistical approximation for obtaining genetic diversity, structure and gene flow. • Key Results The mean expected heterozygosity (He) in the adult and seedling populations was 0·18 ± 0·08 and 0·20 ± 0·09, respectively. The genetic variation explained by differences among populations was 51 and 35 %, for adult and seedling populations, respectively. On average, gene flow between paired adult populations was low (Nm = 0·26 ± 0·09), compared with other trees from the tropical forest. • Conclusions The results indicated that the populations evaluated have high genetic variability, compared with other endemic and geographically narrowly distributed plant species, in areas with high levels of environmental heterogeneity (e.g. tropical forests). The conservation implications of the results are discussed, and in this regard it is proposed that A. aromatica should be considered as an indicator species with economic potential. It is suggested that sustainable management practices should be implemented and that the areas where the species is distributed should be declared a natural reserve to ensure the species conservation. PMID:15056561

  5. Photochemical efficiency of adult and young leaves of the neotropical understory shrub Psychotria limonensis (Rubiaceae) in response to changes in the light environment.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Gerardo; Mulkey, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    We explored the short-term adjustment in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) in adult and young leaves of the understory neotropical shrub Psychotria limonensis Krause (Rubiaceae) in response to rapid changes in the light environment. Leaves were collected from 20 individual plants growing under sun and shade conditions on Gigante Peninsula, Barro Colorado Natural Monument (Republic of Panama), during the wet season of 1996. Leaves were distributed in four sequences of light treatments (AB leaves were expanded under sun and were transferred to shade, BA leaves experienced the opposite transfer, and the controls AA and BB leaves that were expanded and maintained under sun or shade conditions). Adult and young leaves did not differ in overall photochemical efficiency. Instead, differences were found among light environments, for which leaves transferred from shade to sun showed the lowest Fv/Fm ratios. There was no relationship between photochemical efficiency and leaf temperature. In P. limonensis, understory plants are susceptible of photoinhibition independently of the leaf ontogenetic stage. The approach utilized in this experiment allowed the rapid exploration of this capacity, and could be applied to poorly studied understory species.

  6. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  7. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Páez, Uriel Alonso; García Romero, Ibonne Aydee; Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  8. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  9. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  10. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in freshwater Neotropical fish Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; da Silva, Cleber Pinto; Doria, Halina Binde; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2015-06-01

    From the concentration in water and sediments, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and arsenic (As) were determined in the gills, liver, and muscles of Geophagus brasiliensis in the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Metals were quantified through AAS, and a study was carried out on the existing relations between metal and body weight, size, and genre of this species. The level of metal in the water of the reservoir was lower than the maximum set forth in the legislation, except for that of Cd and Fe. In sediments, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni presented concentrations above the threshold effect level (TEL). Pb and Cr were above the limits for the G. brasiliensis. The tendency of metals present in the muscles of G. brasiliensis was Al > Cu > Zn > Fe > Co > Mn > Cr > Ag > Ni > Pb > Cd > As. In the gills, it was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Co > Ag > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd, and the liver presented Al > Cu > Zn > Co > Fe > Mn > Pb > Ag > Ni > Cr > As > Cd. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in the tissues follow the global tendency liver > gills > muscle. The statistical analysis did not point to significant differences in the metal concentration and body weight, size, and gender of the species in the three tissues under analysis.

  11. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  12. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taborda, Carlos P.; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic dimorphic fungi including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Coccidioides posadasii. Melanization appears to contribute to virulence by reducing the susceptibility of melanized fungi to host defense mechanisms and antifungal drugs. PMID:18777637

  13. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  14. New Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate reveals unexpected genomic variability in this human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Lilia L; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Teixeira, Marcus M; Carvalho, Maria Jose A; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuino, Rosália S A; McEwen, Juan G; Mendoza, Leonel; Taylor, John W; Felipe, Maria Sueli; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2008-05-01

    By means of genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR), we have investigated coding and non-coding regions from various genes and the ITS sequences of 7 new and 14 known isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Such isolates grouped within the three phylogenetic groups recently reported in the genus Paracoccidioides, with one single exception, i.e., Pb01, a strain that has been the subject of intense molecular studies for many years. This isolate clearly separates from all other Paracoccidioides isolates in phylogenetic analyses and greatly increases the genomic variation known in this genus.

  15. Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and

  16. New methods for the retrieval of chlorophyll red fluorescence from hyperspectral satellite instruments: simulations and application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-08-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736 nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683 nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths > 712 nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths < 712 nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5 nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric and/or solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) γ band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 γ band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps to estimate red SIF

  17. Polyketide Synthase Gene Diversity within the Microbiome of the Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, Endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia P. J.; Andrade, Bruno G. N.; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides. PMID:23275501

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-11-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed.

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  20. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis.

  1. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  2. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  3. Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Peron, Gabriela; Costa, Marcelo Vieira; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A. M.; Bonato, Vânia L. D.; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete’s Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:27598463

  4. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glucan synthase gene from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Felipe, M S; Brígido, M M; Soares, C M; Azevedo, M O

    2000-03-30

    1,3-beta-D-glucan is a fungal cell wall polymer synthesized by the multi-subunit enzyme 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. A subunit of this integral membrane protein was first described as the product of the FKS1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using echinocandin mutants. Other FKS1 genes were also reported for Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the first homologous FKS gene cloned from the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. An open reading frame of 5942 bp was identified in the complete sequence, interrupted by two putative introns, the first close to the 5' end and the second close to the 3' end of the gene. A promoter region is also described containing consensus sequences such as canonical TATA and CAAT boxes and, possibly, multiple sites for glucose regulation by creA protein. The deduced sequence of 1926 amino acid show more than 85% similarity to FksAp from A. nidulans, and 71% to Fks1p and Fks2p from S. cerevisiae. Computational analysis of P. brasiliensis Fks1p suggests a similar structure to transmembrane proteins, such as FksAp, with the presence of two domains composed by hydrophobic helices that limit the putative highly hydrophilic catalytic domain within the cytoplasm.

  6. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis.

  7. Geographic Discrimination of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Ana María; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Felipe; San-Blas, Gioconda

    1998-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 33 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela produced reproducible amplification products which were sufficiently polymorphic to allow differentiation of the strains. Types generated with five primers (OPG 03, OPG 05, OPG 14, OPG 16, and OPG 18) resulted in a high discriminatory index (0.956). The discriminatory index was slightly reduced (0.940) when only two primers (OPG 3 and OPG 14) were used. A dendrogram based on these results showed a high degree of similarity among the strains, and genetic differences were expressed in clusters related to geographical regions but not to pathological features of the disease. With a few exceptions, strains were sorted into five groups by geographical origin as follows: group I, Venezuelan strains; group II, Brazilian strains; group III, Peruvian strains; group IV, Colombian strains; and group V, Argentinian strains. The group containing the most disparate strains was group V (discriminatory index, 0.633); the discriminatory index for the other four groups was 0.824. The use of primer OPG 18 by itself was sufficient to discriminate species specificity, and the use of primer OPG 14 by itself was sufficient to discriminate among the geographical locations of the strains in the sample. This method may be helpful for epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9620409

  8. Inhibition by estrogens of conidium-to-yeast conversion in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1988-03-01

    Conidia produced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are inhibited by mammalian estrogens in their in vitro conversion into yeast-form cells. This was demonstrated with four different isolates. In these experiments, conversion was reduced to 10.7 and 34.4% of the control values by 17-beta-estradiol at 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, respectively. At the same concentrations, the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was slightly less inhibitory. In contrast, other sex hormones and analogs, i.e., testosterone, 17-alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and hydroxytamoxifen, had no effect on conidium-to-yeast conversion. Previous studies have shown that estrogens similarly inhibit mycelium-to-yeast-form transition in P. brasiliensis. Conidia, and not mycelial fragments, are believed to be the natural infectious propagules. These findings with conidia support the hypothesis that estrogens, affecting the initial host-parasite interactions by suppressing conversion to the parasitic form of the organism, are, at least in part, responsible for the greater resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.

  9. Inhibition by estrogens of conidium-to-yeast conversion in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    Conidia produced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are inhibited by mammalian estrogens in their in vitro conversion into yeast-form cells. This was demonstrated with four different isolates. In these experiments, conversion was reduced to 10.7 and 34.4% of the control values by 17-beta-estradiol at 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, respectively. At the same concentrations, the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was slightly less inhibitory. In contrast, other sex hormones and analogs, i.e., testosterone, 17-alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and hydroxytamoxifen, had no effect on conidium-to-yeast conversion. Previous studies have shown that estrogens similarly inhibit mycelium-to-yeast-form transition in P. brasiliensis. Conidia, and not mycelial fragments, are believed to be the natural infectious propagules. These findings with conidia support the hypothesis that estrogens, affecting the initial host-parasite interactions by suppressing conversion to the parasitic form of the organism, are, at least in part, responsible for the greater resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:3343055

  10. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causing a rib lesion in an adult AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Dantas, Kátia Cristina; Garcia, Roberta Scholz Pinto; Magri, Marcello Mihailenko Chaves; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2010-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a geographic distribution that is limited to Central and South America; Brazil has the highest number of cases. Severe disseminated disease caused by paracoccidioidomycosis was observed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients who live or have resided in endemic paracoccidioidomycosis areas. Here we describe a male patient admitted to a large public hospital with diffuse nodular infiltrates observed in chest radiographs and with erosion at the second rib near the sternum. Blood tests showed anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibodies, a human immunodeficiency virus viral load of 59,700 (4.8 log), and CD4 144/mm(3), with negative serology result for fungal infections. Aspirate of the rib lesion showed cells with a typical morphology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, aside from benign inflammatory cells. The histology of the rib biopsy showed typical granulomas and immunostained fungal cells. Although there was no growth in the Sabouraud cultures, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 and rDNA genes were detected in the aspirate by polymerase chain reaction. Therapy with amphotericin resulted in complete recovery. This type of bone lesion is rare and has been described primarily in the juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis; it must be included in the differential diagnosis of bone lesions in adult acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients of endemic areas.

  11. Dose response effect of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in an experimental model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Dos Santos, José Henrique Fermino Ferreira; Puccia, Rosana; Brancalhão, Rosimeire Costa; Chasco, Lucinéia de Fátima; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) and corresponds to prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the dose response effect of the fungal yeast phase for the standardization of an experimental model of septic arthritis. The experiments were performed with groups of 14 rats that received doses of 103, 104 or 105 P. brasiliensis (Pb18) cells. The fungi were injected in 50 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) directly into the knee joints of the animals. The following parameters were analyzed in this work: the formation of swelling in knees infused with yeast cells and the radiological and anatomopathological alterations, besides antibody titer by ELISA. After 15 days of infection, signs of inflammation were evident. At 45 days, some features of damage and necrosis were observed in the articular cartilage. The systemic dissemination of the fungus was observed in 11% of the inoculated animals, and it was concluded that the experimental model is able to mimic articular PCM in humans and that the dose of 105 yeast cells can be used as standard in this model.

  12. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds.

  13. Lipidomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from the Pathogenic Phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ganiko, Luciane; Lopes, Felipe G.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Almeida, Igor C.; Puccia, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Background Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a detailed lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles released by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at the yeast pathogenic phase. We compared data of two representative isolates, Pb3 and Pb18, which have distinct virulence profiles and phylogenetic background. Vesicle lipids were fractionated into different classes and analyzed by either electrospray ionization- or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found two species of monohexosylceramide and 33 phospholipid species, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Among the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in extracellular vesicles, C181 predominated in Pb3, whereas C18:2 prevailed in Pb18. The prevalent sterol in Pb3 and Pb18 vesicles was brassicasterol, followed by ergosterol and lanosterol. Inter-isolate differences in sterol composition were observed, and also between extracellular vesicles and whole cells. Conclusions/Significance The extensive lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from two P. brasiliensis isolates will help to understand the composition of these fungal components/organelles and will hopefully be useful to study their biogenesis and role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22745761

  14. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  15. Characterization of a gene which encodes a mannosyltransferase homolog of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alessandra A; Gómez, Francisco J; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Jesuino, Rosália S A; Deepe, George S; de Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2002-08-01

    We screened an expression library of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with a pool of human sera that was pre-adsorbed with mycelium, from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A sequence (PbYmnt) was obtained and characterized. A genomic clone was obtained by PCR of P. brasiliensis total DNA. The sequence contained a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 357 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 39.78 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited identity to mannosyl- and glycosyltransferases from several sources. A DXD motif was present in the translated gene and this sequence is characteristic of the glycosyltransferases. Hydropathy analysis revealed a single transmembrane region near the amino terminus of the molecule that suggested a type II membrane protein. The PbYmnt was expressed preferentially in the yeast parasitic phase. The accession number of the nucleotide sequence of PbYmnt and its flanking regions is AF374353. A recombinant protein was generated in Escherichia coli. Our data suggest that PbYmnt encodes one member of a glycosyltransferase family of proteins and that our strategy was useful in the isolation of differentially expressed genes.

  16. Transcriptional profiles of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mycelium and yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Andrade, Rosângela V; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Nicola, André M; Maranhão, Andréa Q; Torres, Fernando A G; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Márcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Andrade, Patrícia A; Tavares, Aldo H F P; Silva, Simoneide S; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Souza, Diorge P; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Andrade, Edmar V; Parente, Juliana A; Oliveira, Gisele S; Barbosa, Mônica S; Martins, Natália F; Fachin, Ana L; Cardoso, Renato S; Passos, Geraldo A S; Almeida, Nalvo F; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Soares, Célia M A; Carvalho, Maria José A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease that affects 10 million individuals in Latin America. This report depicts the results of the analysis of 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phase expressed sequence tags, covering about 80% of the estimated genome of this dimorphic, thermo-regulated fungus. The data provide a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism, including overexpressed transcripts, stage-specific genes, and also those that are up- or down-regulated as assessed by in silico electronic subtraction and cDNA microarrays. Also, a significant differential expression pattern in mycelium and yeast cells was detected, which was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, providing insights into differential metabolic adaptations. The overall transcriptome analysis provided information about sequences related to the cell cycle, stress response, drug resistance, and signal transduction pathways of the pathogen. Novel P. brasiliensis genes have been identified, probably corresponding to proteins that should be addressed as virulence factor candidates and potential new drug targets.

  17. Characterization of a chaperone ClpB homologue of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Azevedo, Maristela O; Felipe, M Sueli S; Pereira, Maristela; De Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2002-08-01

    We report the cloning and sequence analysis of a genomic clone encoding a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ClpB chaperone homologue (PbClpB). The clpb gene was identified in a lambda Dash II library. Sequencing of Pbclpb revealed a long open reading frame capable of encoding a 792 amino acid, 87.9 kDa protein, pI of 5.34. The predicted polypeptide contains several consensus motifs of the ClpB proteins. Canonical sequences such as two putative nucleotide-binding sites, chaperonins ClpA/B signatures and highly conserved casein kinase phosphorylation domains are present. ClpB is 69% to 49% identical to members of the ClpB family from several organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transcript of PbclpB was detected as a mRNA species of 3.0 kb, preferentially expressed in the yeast parasitic phase of the fungus. A 89 kDa protein was also detected in yeast cells of P. brasiliensis.

  18. Protein synthesis patterns of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis isolates in stage-specific forms and during cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Salem-Izacc, S M; Jesuino, R S; Brito, W A; Pereira, M; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we compared the protein synthesis patterns of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. The protein profiles were compared for both yeast and mycelial forms and similarity analysis among them was performed by calculating similarity matrices and grouping the isolates in dendrograms. The examined isolates exhibited highly variable cellular morphology at 36 degrees C, when typical yeast cells were expected. On the other hand, at 26 degrees C all the isolates showed mycelial morphology. The analysis of protein synthesis profiles made it possible to cluster the P. brasiliensis isolates into groups that correlated with the morphological data. Interestingly, growth at 36 degrees C strongly decreased the heterogeneity of protein synthesis patterns seen in mycelial isolates. It was possible to cluster the isolates grown at 36 degrees C in three groups based on their two-dimensional protein synthesis analysis. The similarity index observed among the mycelial isolates was lower than that obtained with yeast cells, suggesting a more homogenous gene expression pattern in the host-adapted form than in the saprobic phase.

  19. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  20. Seasonal and experimental reactivation of Leydig cells of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, A

    1997-04-01

    The Leydig cells of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis, exhibit two well-defined periods of secretory activity that are intimately associated to the bat reproductive cycle. During the breeding season (August-September, late Winter and early Spring in the southern hemisphere), the interstitial tissue contains hypertrophic Leydig cells characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of pleomorphic mitochondria, depletion of lipid droplets, proliferation of membranes of agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and enlargement of the Golgi complexes. By contrast, from Spring to Fall concurrent with regression of seminiferous tubules, the Leydig cells acquire a quiescent appearance with reduction in size and volume of AER membranes, atrophy of the Golgi complex and a massive storage of lipid droplets. The changes occurring in Leydig cells during the breeding season can be duplicated experimentally in non-breeding bats with exogenous stimulation with hCG. The gonadotropic treatment induces rapid changes in both interstitial cells and seminiferous tubules. The latter present evident signs of reactivation including proliferation of the spermatogenic cell line, permeation of the tubular lumen and depletion of lipid droplets. The Leydig cells display similar features to those found in the bat during the mating season at the peak of secretory activity. The bat T. brasiliensis is an excellent model to correlate the morphological organization of the Leydig cells with either seasonal fluctuations of its secretory activity or after experimental stimulation with gonadotropins.

  1. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  2. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  3. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; de Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-01-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  4. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-08-22

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  5. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  6. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. PMID:27354446

  7. The epidermal cell structure of the secondary pollen presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) suggests a functional association with protruding onci in pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Tilney, Patricia M; van Wyk, Abraham E; van der Merwe, Chris F

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms "thickenings of Igersheim" and "bands of Igersheim" are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the Vanguerieae.

  8. The Epidermal Cell Structure of the Secondary Pollen Presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) Suggests a Functional Association with Protruding Onci in Pollen Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Patricia M.; van Wyk, Abraham E.; van der Merwe, Chris F.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms “thickenings of Igersheim” and “bands of Igersheim” are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the

  9. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  10. Cyclotide Discovery in Gentianales Revisited—Identification and Characterization of Cyclic Cystine-Knot Peptides and Their Phylogenetic Distribution in Rubiaceae Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koehbach, Johannes; Attah, Alfred F.; Berger, Andreas; Hellinger, Roland; Kutchan, Toni M.; Carpenter, Eric J.; Rolf, Megan; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Dessein, Steven; Greger, Harald; Gruber, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are a unique class of ribosomally synthesized cysteine-rich miniproteins characterized by a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three conserved disulfide-bonds in a knotted arrangement. Originally they were discovered in the coffee-family plant Oldenlandia affinis (Rubiaceae) and have since been identified in several species of the violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass families. However, the identification of novel cyclotide-containing plant species still is a major challenge due to the lack of a rapid and accurate analytical workflow in particular for large sampling numbers. As a consequence, their phylogeny in the plant kingdom remains unclear. To gain further insight into the distribution and evolution of plant cyclotides, we analyzed ~300 species of >40 different families, with special emphasis on plants from the order Gentianales. For this purpose, we have developed a refined screening methodology combining chemical analysis of plant extracts and bioinformatic analysis of transcript databases. Using mass spectrometry and transcriptome-mining, we identified nine novel cyclotide-containing species and their related cyclotide precursor genes in the tribe Palicoureeae. The characterization of novel peptide sequences underlines the high variability and plasticity of the cyclotide framework, and a comparison of novel precursor proteins from Carapichea ipecacuanha illustrated their typical cyclotide gene architectures. Phylogenetic analysis of their distribution within the Psychotria alliance revealed cyclotides to be restricted to Palicourea, Margaritopsis, Notopleura, Carapichea, Chassalia, and Geophila. In line with previous reports, our findings confirm cyclotides to be one of the largest peptide families within the plant kingdom and suggest that their total number may exceed tens of thousands. PMID:23897543

  11. Can One Satellite Data Set Validation Another? Validation of Envisat SCIAMACHY Data by Comparisons with NOAA-16 SBUV/2 and ERS-2 GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Bojkov, B. R.; Labow, G.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J.

    2004-01-01

    Validation of satellite data remains a high priority for the construction of climate data sets. Traditionally ground based measurements have provided the primary comparison data for validation. For some atmospheric parameters such as ozone, a thoroughly validated satellite data record can be used to validate a new instrument s data product in addition to using ground based data. Comparing validated data with new satellite data has several advantages; availability of much more data, which will improve precision, larger geographical coverage, and the footprints are closer in size, which removes uncertainty due to different observed atmospheric volumes. To demonstrate the applicability and some limitations of this technique, observations from the newly launched SCIAMACHY instrument were compared with the NOM-16 SBW/2 and ERS-2 GOME instruments. The SBW/2 data had all ready undergone validation by comparing to the total ozone ground network. Overall the SCIAMACHY data were found to low by 3% with respect to satellite data and 1% low with respect to ground station data. There appears to be seasonal and or solar zenith angle dependences in the comparisons with SBW/2 where differences increase with higher solar zenith angles. It is known that accuracies in both satellite and ground based total ozone algorithms decrease at high solar zenith angles. There is a strong need for more accurate measurement from and the ground under these conditions. At the present time SCIAMACHY data are limited and longer data set with more coverage in both hemispheres is needed to unravel the cause of these differences.

  12. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  13. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  14. Insights into a hotspot in the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Hemiptera, Triatominae) by analysis of D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Alevi, K C C; Banho, C A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-03-24

    The Brasiliensis subcomplex is a monophyletic group formed by the species Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. However, using cytogenetic data and experimental hybrid crosses, T. lenti and T. petrochiae were also grouped into this subcomplex. This study aims to analyze the properties of hotspot in the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S in all species of the Brasiliensis subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These species show two transversions at position 385 (G↔C and T↔G). We suggest that this mutation in haplotype 4 may be an initial molecular tool that supports the relationship of these species with the subcomplex. In addition to the transversion at haplotype 4, these species, aside from T. melanica, also possess a transversion at position 385 (G↔T) in haplotype 1. Thus, we describe the hotspot mutations of the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S for species in Brasiliensis subcomplex as follows: three transversions are present at position 385 of haplotypes 1 and 4, which are shared by members of the subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These transversions may be considered a synapomorphy between these species. However, we emphasize that new phylogenetic studies should be conducted to evaluate whether T. lenti and T. petrochiae are truly members of the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

  15. Developmental and reproductive patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis infected with Trypanosoma cruzi under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago G; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Gomes, Taís F; Sarquis, Otília; Sposina, Ricardo; Lima, Marli M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi-1 and Triatoma brasiliensis. A group of 1st instar nymphs was initially fed on T. cruzi-infected mice and a control group was fed on uninfected mice. From the second feeding onwards, both groups were otherwise fed on non-infected mice. The resulting adults were grouped in pairs: infected male/uninfected female, uninfected male/infected female, infected male and female and uninfected male/uninfected female. The infection affected only the 1st instar nymphs, which took significantly more time to reach the 2nd instar than uninfected nymphs. The differences in the molting time between the infected and uninfected nymphs from the 2nd to the 5th instars were not statistically significant. Both groups presented similar rates of nymphal mortality and reproductive performance was not significantly affected by infection in any of the treatments.

  16. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

  17. Growth and production of iron chelants by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial and yeast forms.

    PubMed

    Arango, R; Restrepo, A

    1988-04-01

    The mycelial and yeast forms of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were cultured in a chemically defined liquid medium with different iron concentrations and the growth measured spectrophotometrically. The iron binding capacity of culture supernatants was measured by a colorimetric assay. Both the mycelial and yeast forms were able to grow in media containing trace amounts of iron (0.02 mgl-1) but when the iron chelant 1.10 phenantroline was added there was a delay in the initiation of growth of the yeast and almost total inhibition of the mycelium. When iron excess was added to media containing phenantroline, this inhibitory effect was reversed, partially for the mycelial, and completely for the yeast form. For both mycelial and yeast forms, the iron binding capacity of the culture supernatants was greater in media with low iron concentrations.

  18. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, D; Restrepo, A

    1993-08-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection.

  19. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): free-living larval stages.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Microtopographic features of the various growth stages of the three free-living larval stages of the rat hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy. These worms have a rounded anterior end and an elongated tail. Cuticular annulations were observed along the body, which also bore two ribbon-like lateral alae. Two rings of six lip-like lappets were observed around the triradiate oral opening in all larval stages. The cephalic space contained two lateral amphidial pits. The excretory pore in the third anterior part was observed in a ventral view of the larvae. No deirids were observed. The anus with a crescent-shape opening was located posteriorly. Phasmidial apertures, only observed in the third-stage larvae, opened on the lateral alae in the tail region.

  20. Isolation and preliminary characterization of auxotrophic and morphological mutants of the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    San Blas, F; Centeno, S

    1977-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, which is known to be a very effective mutagen in many systems, was used to induce mutants in the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9, an imperfect fungus. Forty-three auxotrophic and 27 prototrophic morphological mutants were isolated after treatment with 50 mug of nitrosoguanidine per ml in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 5.0. Auxotrophic mutants required primarily either amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines. Some auxotrophs were also morphological mutants. The main morphological difference from the parental strain was the texture or the color of the yeast-like colonies. Only one prototrophic morphological mutant differed in the size and form of the yeastlike cells when compared with the parental strain. Suxotrophic mutants were used in pairwise combination to attempt heterokaryon formation without success. Images PMID:830638

  1. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Conversion of Yeastlike Forms into Mycelia in Submerged Culture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, J. R. Ramírez

    1971-01-01

    Details of the sequential morphological changes occurring during yeastlike to mycelial-form conversion of the dimorphic pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described and illustrated by photomicrographs. Conversion of yeastlike to hyphal morphology was initiated by changing the temperature of incubation from 37 to 23 C. Production by the parent yeastlike cells of elongated buds developing into hyphae started to be conspicuous after 24 hr of incubation at 23 C. After 120 hr of incubation, growth was almost exclusively filamentous. Direct transformation of parent yeastlike cells into hyphae was not observed. Dry weight increased continuously during the conversion process in spite of the gradual disappearance of the parent yeastlike cells. Concurrent studies showed that changes in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid content per unit dry weight are about the same whether the yeastlike cells are undergoing conversion at 23 C or growing normally at 37 C, and that deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis is apparently required for bud formation in both cases. Images PMID:5541529

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: conversion of yeastlike forms into mycelia in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Martínez, J R

    1971-02-01

    Details of the sequential morphological changes occurring during yeastlike to mycelial-form conversion of the dimorphic pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described and illustrated by photomicrographs. Conversion of yeastlike to hyphal morphology was initiated by changing the temperature of incubation from 37 to 23 C. Production by the parent yeastlike cells of elongated buds developing into hyphae started to be conspicuous after 24 hr of incubation at 23 C. After 120 hr of incubation, growth was almost exclusively filamentous. Direct transformation of parent yeastlike cells into hyphae was not observed. Dry weight increased continuously during the conversion process in spite of the gradual disappearance of the parent yeastlike cells. Concurrent studies showed that changes in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid content per unit dry weight are about the same whether the yeastlike cells are undergoing conversion at 23 C or growing normally at 37 C, and that deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis is apparently required for bud formation in both cases.

  3. Anthocyanins from Eugenia brasiliensis edible fruits as potential therapeutics for COPD treatment.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Paulino, Sturlainny; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Reynertson, Kurt A; Foronjy, Robert F; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Kennelly, Edward J

    2012-10-01

    Nine anthocyanins (1-9) from the edible fruits of Eugenia brasiliensis were identified by HPLC-PDA and LC-MS, and seven of these are described for the first time in this Brazilian fruit. Two of the major anthocyanins, delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9), were studied for their inhibitory activity against chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) production before and after cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatment of cells. In non-treated cells the amount of IL-8 was unchanged following treatment with cyanidin and delphinidin in concentrations 0.1-10 μM. Both delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9) decreased the production of IL-8 in treated cells, at 1 and 10 μM, respectively. Delphinidin (8) demonstrated IL-8 inhibition in the CSE treated cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. Anthocyanins from Eugenia brasiliensis edible fruits as potential therapeutics for COPD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Paulino, Sturlainny; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Foronjy, Robert F.; D Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nine anthocyanins (1–9) from the edible fruits of Eugenia brasiliensis were identified by HPLC-PDA and LC-MS, and seven of these are described for the first time in this Brazilian fruit. Two of the major anthocyanins, delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9), were studied for their inhibitory activity against chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) production before and after cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatment of cells. In non-treated cells the amount of IL-8 was unchanged following treatment with cyanidin and delphinidin in concentrations 0.1–10 M. Both delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9) decreased the production of IL-8 in treated cells, at 1 M and 10 M, respectively. Delphinidin (8) demonstrated IL-8 inhibition in the CSE treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25005941

  5. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  6. The proximal airway of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis: a minimum entropy production design.

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; Sabat, Pablo; Veloso, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system whose geometry and dimensions of branched structures are important factors in determining the efficiency of respiration. Small and flying endothermic animals have high-energy requirements, requiring morphological and physiological adaptations to reduce energy loss. Here we show that Tadarida brasiliensis, a nocturnal small bat whose energy requirements are exacerbated by this small size and by their frequent exposure to high altitude, has a different morphology in the proximal airway, sustained by a wider trachea and better scaling factors, than other non-flying mammals. This design allows a great decrease of the volume specific resistance of the proximal airway and in consequence a very low entropy production during breathing, approximately 1/18 of that expected for a non-flying mammals of similar body size.

  7. Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Dracunculidae) from the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Ophidia: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Santos, C P

    2009-02-01

    Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Dracunculidae), is described based on a single female specimen found in the body cavity of the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (L.) (Ophidia: Boidae), from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River delta, Brazil and one female previously recorded from the subcutaneous tissue of this host species imported from South America into Europe (ZOO in the Czech Republic). The new species is characterised mainly by markedly large, anteriorly protruding dorsal and ventral double papillae of the internal circle and small lateral papillae of the same circle, a widely rounded caudal end, the excretory pore situated just posterior to the nerve ring, a distinctly transversely striated cuticle and by the length (396-429 mum) of larvae from uterus. This is the first species of Dracunculus described from reptiles in South America.

  8. Selenoprotein Expression in Macrophages Is Critical for Optimal Clearance of Parasitic Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Shay, Ashley E.; James, Jamaal L.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Urban, Joseph F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections, providing protection from inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium induces a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a classically activated (pro-inflammatory; M1/CAM) toward an alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory; M2/AAM) phenotype, where cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent cyclopentenone prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) plays a key role. Here, we hypothesize that dietary selenium modulates macrophage polarization toward an AAM phenotype to assist in the increasing clearance of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite. Mice on a selenium-adequate (0.08 ppm) diet significantly augmented intestinal AAM presence while decreasing adult worms and fecal egg production when compared with infection of mice on selenium-deficient (<0.01 ppm) diet. Further increase in dietary selenium to supraphysiological levels (0.4 ppm) had very little or no impact on worm expulsion. Normal adult worm clearance and enhanced AAM marker expression were observed in the selenium-supplemented Trspfl/flCreWT mice that express selenoproteins driven by tRNASec (Trsp), whereas N. brasiliensis-infected Trspfl/flCreLysM selenium-supplemented mice showed a decreased clearance, with lowered intestinal expression of several AAM markers. Inhibition of the COX pathway with indomethacin resulted in delayed worm expulsion in selenium-adequate mice. This was rescued with 15d-PGJ2, which partially recapitulated the effect of selenium supplementation on fecal egg output in addition to increasing markers of AAMs in the small intestine. Antagonism of PPARγ blocked the effect of selenium. These results suggest that optimal expression of selenoproteins and selenium-dependent production of COX-derived endogenous prostanoids, such as Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2, may regulate AAM activation to enhance anti-helminthic parasite responses. PMID:26644468

  9. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production

    PubMed Central

    Dusotoit-Coucaud, Anaïs; Brunel, Nicole; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Lacointe, André; Julien, Jean-Louis; Chrestin, Hervé; Sakr, Soulaïman

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel®) on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Methods Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Key Results Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. Conclusion The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees. PMID:19567416

  10. Cloning and characterization of laccase DNA from the Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Laccase isozymes have been identified in several fungi. We report the cloning of 4 laccase genes from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. The lac1 gene contained a 1560-base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding 520 amino acids that was interrupted with 14 introns in genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated a multicopper oxidase signature 1 and 2 multicopper oxidase signature 2. The lac2 gene contained a 1566-bp ORF encoding 522 amino acids that was interrupted with 13 introns in genomic DNA. A number of different nucleotides were observed in whole regions containing the substitution of amino acid residues (lac2a and lac2b). The partial DNA fragments of lac3 and lac4 genes were subcloned using the semi-random two-step polymerase chain reaction method. The lac3 and lac4 genes contained coding sequences with a 1575-bp ORF encoding 525 amino acids and a 1584-bp ORF encoding 528 amino acids, respectively. However, the whole complementary DNA fragment of both laccases could not be amplified with polymerase chain reaction against the complementary DNA library; therefore, introns were deduced based on the GT-AG rule and multiple alignment of laccases from other fungi, which showed high identity. All laccases from A. brasiliensis conserved the fungal laccase signature sequence and suggest 2 subfamilies according to the location of introns and phylogenetic analysis. The genes lac2 and lac4 had a high degree of identity, and the lac2a gene was located upstream of the lac4 gene.

  11. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) predates human agricultural activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals) and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene. PMID:21457563

  12. Accurate Enumeration of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Hair Color and Mascara by Time-Lapse Shadow Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Saito, Mikako

    2015-01-01

    The growth of black mold (Aspergillus brasiliensis) in black-colored samples such as hair color and mascara was measured with an automatic count system based on time-lapse shadow image analysis (TSIA). A. brasiliensis suspended in a lecithin and polysorbate (LP) solution of each sample (hair color or mascara) was spread on a potato dextrose agar medium plate containing LP. The background image darkness of the agar plate could be adjusted to attain accurate colony counts. 95 colonies in hair color and 22 colonies in mascara could be automatically determined at 48 h. The accuracy of the colony counts could be confirmed from the timelapse image data. In contrast, conventional visual counting at a specified time could not determine the number of colonies or led to false colony counts.

  13. Enzymes in Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle in the Yeast and Mycelial Forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori; Carbonell, Luis M.

    1966-01-01

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Luis M. Carbonell. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1315–1320. 1966.—Enzymatic activities in glycolysis, the hexose monophosphate shunt, and the citric acid cycle in cell-free extracts of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined comparatively. Both forms have the enzymes of these pathways. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase of the mycelial form were higher than those of the yeast form. Another 15 enzymatic activities of the mycelial form were lower than those of the yeast form. The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed the most marked difference between the two forms, its activity in the mycelial form being about 20% of that in the yeast form. PMID:5924267

  14. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kanetsuna, F; Carbonell, L M

    1966-11-01

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Luis M. Carbonell. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1315-1320. 1966.-Enzymatic activities in glycolysis, the hexose monophosphate shunt, and the citric acid cycle in cell-free extracts of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined comparatively. Both forms have the enzymes of these pathways. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase of the mycelial form were higher than those of the yeast form. Another 15 enzymatic activities of the mycelial form were lower than those of the yeast form. The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed the most marked difference between the two forms, its activity in the mycelial form being about 20% of that in the yeast form.

  15. Chemical morphology of glucan and chitin in the cell wall of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, L M; Kanetsuna, F; Gil, F

    1970-02-01

    Short and thick fibers were observed on the outer surface of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and long and thin fibers were seen on the inner surface. The long fibers disappear with chitinase treatment and are composed of chitin. The short fibers disappear under alkali treatment and are composed of alpha-glucan. Comparisons with alpha-(1 --> 3)-glucan isolated from Aspergillus niger and Polyporus betulinus and with chitin from fungal origin support our point of view.

  16. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  17. Distributional potential of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex at present and under scenarios of future climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatoma brasiliensis complex is a monophyletic group, comprising three species, one of which includes two subspecific taxa, distributed across 12 Brazilian states, in the caatinga and cerrado biomes. Members of the complex are diverse in terms of epidemiological importance, morphology, biology, ecology, and genetics. Triatoma b. brasiliensis is the most disease-relevant member of the complex in terms of epidemiology, extensive distribution, broad feeding preferences, broad ecological distribution, and high rates of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; consequently, it is considered the principal vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil. Methods We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distributions of all members of the complex, and evaluated the potential for suitable adjacent areas to be colonized; we also present first evaluations of potential for climate change-mediated distributional shifts. Models were developed using the GARP and Maxent algorithms. Results Models for three members of the complex (T. b. brasiliensis, N = 332; T. b. macromelasoma, N = 35; and T. juazeirensis, N = 78) had significant distributional predictivity; however, models for T. sherlocki and T. melanica, both with very small sample sizes (N = 7), did not yield predictions that performed better than random. Model projections onto future-climate scenarios indicated little broad-scale potential for change in the potential distribution of the complex through 2050. Conclusions This study suggests that T. b. brasiliensis is the member of the complex with the greatest distributional potential to colonize new areas: overall; however, the distribution of the complex appears relatively stable. These analyses offer key information to guide proactive monitoring and remediation activities to reduce risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24886587

  18. De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

  19. Expression of glycoprotein gp43 in stage-specific forms and during dimorphic differentiation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mattar-Filho, R; Azevedo, M O; Pereira, M; Jesuino, R S; Salem-Izacc, S M; Brito, W A; Gesztesi, J L; Soares, R B; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the 43 kDa glycoprotein (gp43) was analysed in several Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. Using one- and two-dimensional analysis of crude cellular extracts, it was shown that protein expression in yeast and mycelium was dependent on the isolate analysed. In two strains, in both yeast and mycelium cells. gp43 was present, whereas expression was restricted to the yeast phase of two other strains. The clinical implications of this phase-specific gp43 expression are uncertain.

  20. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants.

  1. Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Gagini, Thalita; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine - already in clinical use against leishmaniasis - towards the pathogenic yeast form of S. brasiliensis isolates with low sensitivity to itraconazole or amphotericin B in vitro. Miltefosine had fungicidal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-2 µg ml(-1). Miltefosine exposure led to loss of plasma membrane integrity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a decrease in cytoplasmic electron density, alterations in the thickness of cell wall layers and accumulation of an electron-dense material in the cell wall. Flow cytometry analysis using an anti-melanin antibody revealed an increase in cell wall melanin in yeasts treated with miltefosine, when compared with control cells. The cytotoxicity of miltefosine was comparable to those of amphotericin B, but miltefosine showed a higher selectivity index towards the fungus. Our results suggest that miltefosine could be an effective alternative for the treatment of S. brasiliensis sporotrichosis, when standard treatment fails. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required to confirm the antifungal potential of miltefosine for the treatment of sporotrichosis.

  2. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  3. Estrogens inhibit mycelium-to-yeast transformation in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: implications for resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Salazar, M E; Cano, L E; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1984-01-01

    Evidence that disease due to the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis occurs post-puberty predominantly in males led us to hypothesize that hormonal factors critically affect its pathogenesis. We show here that estrogens inhibit mycelial- to yeast-form transformation of P. brasiliensis in vitro. Transformation of three isolates was inhibited to 71, 33, and 19% of the control values in the presence of 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M 17 beta-estradiol, respectively. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was active but less potent than estradiol, whereas testosterone, 17 alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and corticosterone were inactive. This function was specifically inhibited, since yeast-to-mycelium transformation, yeast growth, and yeast reproduction by budding were unaffected by 17 beta-estradiol. Of note is the fact that mycelium-to-yeast transformation occurs as the first step in vivo in the establishment of infection. The cytosol of the three isolates studied possesses a steroid-binding protein which has high affinity for 17 beta-estradiol. We believe that this binding protein represents a P. brasiliensis hormone receptor which can also recognize mammalian estrogens. We hypothesize that the ability of estrogen to decrease or delay mycelium-to-yeast transformation at the initial site of infection contributes to or is responsible for the marked resistance of females, and that the binder described is the molecular site of action. Images PMID:6500694

  4. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis.

  5. Influence of N-glycans on Expression of Cell Wall Remodeling Related Genes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fausto; Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina Campos; Pessoni, André Moreira; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Alegre-Maller, Ana Claudia Paiva; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. It is caused by the temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The P. brasiliensis cell wall is a dynamic outer structure, composed of a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, glucan and N-glycosylated proteins. These glycoproteins can interact with the host to affect infection rates, and are known to perform other functions. We inhibited N-linked glycosylation using tunicamycin (TM), and then evaluated the expression of P. brasiliensis genes related to cell wall remodeling. Our results suggest that cell wall synthesis related genes, such as β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3), 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), and α-1,4-amylase (PbAMY), as well as cell wall degrading related genes, such as N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (PbNAG1), α-1,3-glucanase (PbAGN), and β-1,3-glucanase (PbBGN1 and PbBGN2), have their expression increased by the N-glycosylation inhibition, as detected by qRT-PCR. The observed increases in gene expression levels reveal possible compensatory mechanisms for diminished enzyme activity due to the lack of glycosylation caused by TM. PMID:27226767

  6. Relative distribution of gastrin-, CCK-8-, NPY- and CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the digestive tract of dorado (Salminus brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Pereira, R T; Costa, L S; Oliveira, I R C; Araújo, J C; Aerts, M; Vigliano, F A; Rosa, P V

    2015-04-01

    The endocrine cells (ECs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa form the largest endocrine system in the body, not only in terms of cell numbers but also in terms of the different produced substances. Data describing the association between the relative distributions of the peptide-specific ECs in relation to feeding habits can be useful tools that enable the creation of a general expected pattern of EC distribution. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ECs immunoreactive for the peptides gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in different segments of the digestive tract of carnivorous fish dorado (Salminus brasiliensis) by using immunohistochemistry procedures. The distribution of endocrine cells immunoreactive for gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in digestive tract of dorado S. brasiliensis was examined by immunohistochemistry. The results describe the association between the distribution of the peptide-specific endocrine cells and feeding habits in different carnivorous fish. The largest number of endocrine cells immunoreactive for GAS, CCK-8, and CGRP were found in the pyloric stomach region and the pyloric caeca. However, NPY-immunoreactive endocrine cells were markedly restricted to the midgut. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells identified in S. brasiliensis is similar to that found in other carnivorous fishes.

  7. Identification and characterisation of elongation factor Tu, a novel protein involved in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Yamazaki, Daniella Sayuri; da Silva, Rosângela Aparecida Moraes; Santos, Cláudia Tavares; Santos-Filho, Norival Alves; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-11-01

    Paracoccidioides spp., which are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi, are responsible for the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America, the paracoccidioidomycosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the involvement of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction. Adhesive properties were examined using recombinant PbEF-Tu proteins and the respective polyclonal anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody. Immunogold analysis demonstrated the surface location of EF-Tu in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, PbEF-Tu was found to bind to fibronectin and plasminogen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and it was determined that the binding to plasminogen is at least partly dependent on lysine residues and ionic interactions. To verify the participation of EF-Tu in the interaction of P. brasiliensis with pneumocytes, we blocked the respective protein with an anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody and evaluated the consequences on the interaction index by flow cytometry. During the interaction, we observed a decrease of 2- and 3-fold at 8 and 24 h, respectively, suggesting the contribution of EF-Tu in fungal adhesion/invasion.

  8. Recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia: a possible mechanism of adherence to human type II alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Erika; Gonzalez, Angel; Muñoz, César; Urán, Marta E; Restrepo, Angela; John Hamilton, Andrew; Elena Cano, Luz

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses the recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia, as well as its possible role in the adherence of conidia to A549 cells. Adherence of conidia to immobilized laminin was shown to be specific, as anti-laminin antibodies, soluble laminin or the laminin-derived peptides IKVAV and CDPGYIGSR inhibited this interaction. RGD containing peptides and various monosaccharides had no effect on adherence, with the exception of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Pre-treatment of conidia with fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not with BSA, also resulted in significant inhibition, suggesting that P. brasiliensis conidia might cross-recognize host proteins involved in colonization. In assays using transmission electron microscopy, we observed internalization of conidia 30 min after exposition to A549 cells. Laminin present on the surface of A549 cells shown to serve as mediator of this interaction, with a significant decrease in fungal adherence when the epithelial cells were pre-treated with anti-laminin antibodies or when conidia were pre-incubated with either soluble laminin or the laminin-specific peptides. Together these results suggest that the recognition of laminin by P. brasiliensis conidia is a key process in the interaction with pulmonary epithelial cells, where this extracellular matrix protein acts as bridging molecule.

  9. The tiny difference between foraging and communication buzzes uttered by the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Tressler, Jedidiah; Keller, Halli; Vanzant, Marc; Ezell, Sarah; Smotherman, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Echolocating insectivorous bats consummate prey captures using a distinct vocal motor pattern commonly known as the terminal or feeding buzz, which is widely considered a fixed motor pattern executed independently of auditory feedback influences. The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, offers an opportunity to explore the role of sensory feedback in buzzing because they emit similar buzzes both in flight during foraging and while stationary as communication sounds. Here we compared the spectral and temporal patterns of foraging and communication buzzes to address whether or not auditory feedback may influence buzz patterns. We found that while foraging buzzes uttered in open space were composed of generic FM calls, communication buzzes were composed of an adapted CF-FM call similar to the call type used by T. brasiliensis when navigating in confined spaces. This provides the first evidence that some bats can make significant context-dependent changes in the spectral parameters of calls within their buzz. We also found that inter-pulse intervals, but not call durations, were different within the two buzz types. These observations indicate that though a common pattern generator hierarchically organizes all buzzes, T. brasiliensis retains a significant capacity to adapt the spectral and temporal patterns of elements within its buzzes.

  10. Roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise C; Turmelle, Amy S; Mendonça, Mary T; Navara, Kristen J; Kunz, Thomas H; McCracken, Gary F

    2009-04-01

    Bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. However, few studies have examined immune responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. We examined aspects of both innate and adaptive immune response in adult female Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges) in south-central Texas. Immune measurements included in vitro bactericidal ability of whole blood and in vivo T cell mediated response to mitogenic challenge. Bactericidal activity in T. brasiliensis varied with roosting ecology, but appears to be sensitive to colony-level effects. Blood from females living at one cave had significantly lower bactericidal ability than blood from females at three other sites. T cell mediated response in this species was associated with variation in roost ecology, with females from two caves having greater responses than females from two bridges. T cell mediated response and bactericidal activity were negatively correlated with one another within individuals that were tested for both. Variation in immunological response of T. brasiliensis is important for understanding the influence of the environment on the frequency and distribution of immunologically competent individuals and for understanding disease-host dynamics in this and other colonial species.

  11. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. Conclusion This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. PMID:20939907

  12. A new dammarane saponin and other triterpenoids from Siolmatra brasiliensis and evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of its extract.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa; Borges, Izabeau Pontes; da Silva, Virgínia Claudia; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2016-09-01

    Context Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill (Cucurbitaceae) is a climbing plant widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus symptoms. Objective This work evaluates the antidiabetic activity of an extract of S. brasiliensis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and promotes the phytochemical investigation to isolate the major compounds of the same extract. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into normal (N) and diabetic rats (DC) treated with water; diabetic rats treated with 3U insulin (DI) or with 250 (DSb250) or 500 mg/kg (DSb500) of hydroalcoholic extract of the stalks of S. brasiliensis, via oral gavage, for 21 days. Physiological and biochemical parameters classically altered in diabetes were monitored. The triterpenoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction under silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex-LH20 methods and their structures were determined by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and DC analysis. Results When compared with DC, DSb250 rats showed a reduction in the hyperglycemia (DC: 26.46 ± 0.69 versus DSb250: 19.67 ± 1.06 mmol/L) and glycosuria (DC: 43.02 ± 3.19 versus DSb250: 28.46 ± 2.14 mmol/24 h) and increase in hepatic glycogen (DC: 14.44 ± 1.26 versus DSb250: 22.08 ± 4.26 mg/g). Three known cucurbitacins were isolated from a hydroalcoholic extract of S. brasiliensis, i.e., cayaponosides A1, B4, D, and a new dammarane saponin 3-O-β-d-gentiobiosyl-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20-hydroxydammar-24-ene. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral data analysis of the natural products and their acetyl derivatives. Discussion and conclusion The known cucurbitacins and/or the new identified saponin may be related with the antidiabetic activity of S. brasiliensis.

  13. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and a key to genera of Neotropical Lasiopteridi unplaced to tribe.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J; Etienne, Jean

    2015-10-12

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, new genus, Anapeza Gagné, new genus, and Pellacara Gagné, new genus, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.; Anapeza tumida Gagné, new species, and Pellacara postica, new species, were both reared from Psychotria mapourioides DC. The three new genera belong to Lasiopteridi but are unassigned to tribe. A key to the adult stage of these and 23 other Neotropical genera of unplaced Lasiopteridi whose adults are known is provided.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes of a natural-rubber producing plant, Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Sando, Tomoki; Takeno, Shinya; Watanabe, Norie; Okumoto, Hiroshi; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Ogasawara, Naotake; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2008-11-01

    Natural rubber is synthesized as rubber particles in the latex, the fluid cytoplasm of laticifers, of Hevea brasiliensis. Although it has been found that natural rubber is biosynthesized through the mevalonate pathway, the involvement of an alternative 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is uncertain. We obtained all series of the MEP pathway candidate genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) information and degenerate PCR in H. brasiliensis. Complementation experiments with Escherichia coli mutants were performed to confirm the functions of the MEP pathway gene products of H. brasiliensis together with those of Arabidopsis thaliana, and it was found that 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase of H. brasiliensis were functionally active in the E. coli mutants. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the HbDXS2 gene in latex was relatively high as compared to those of other MEP pathway genes. However, a feeding experiment with [1-(13)C] 1-deoxy-D-xylulose triacetate, an intermediate derivative of the MEP pathway, indicated that the MEP pathway is not involved in rubber biosynthesis, but is involved in carotenoids biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis.

  15. The kex2 gene from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Emerson J; Daher, Bruno S; Andrade, Rosângela V; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Ildinete Silva; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2002-10-01

    Kexin-like protein is a component of the subtilase family of proteinases involved in the processing of proproteins to their active forms. Kexin-like proteins are also synthesized as a propeptide and this is involved in (auto)inhibition, correct folding and subcellular sorting of proteins. The kexin-like protein was described as the product of the kex2 gene for Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica and other fungi. Disruption of the kex2 gene in C. albicans and Y. lipolytica affects hyphae production and induces morphological cell defects, strongly suggesting a possible role of kexin-like proteins in dimorphism of human pathogenic fungi. In this work, we report the nucleotide sequence of the kex2 gene cloned from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pbkex2). An open reading frame (ORF) of 2622 bp was identified in the complete sequence, interrupted by only one intron of 93 bp. The 5' non-coding region contains consensus sequences such as canonical TATA, CAAT boxes and putative motifs for transcriptional factors binding sites, such as HSE-like regulating genes involved in thermo-dependent processes; Xbp1, reported as a transcriptional factor that may control genes involved in cell morphology; and StuAp, which may regulate spore differentiation and pseudohyphal growth in fungi. In the 3' non-coding region were observed the canonical motifs necessary for correct mRNA processing and polyadenylation. The deduced protein sequence consists of 842 amino acid residues, showing identity to kexin-like proteinases from A. niger (55%), Emericella nidulans (53%) and C. albicans (48%). Comparative sequence analysis of P. brasiliensis kexin-like protein reveals the presence of homologous regions related to a signal peptide, a propeptide, a subtilisin-like catalytic domain, a P domain, a S/T rich region and a transmembrane domain. A putative Golgi retrieval signal (YEFEMI) has also been found in the

  16. Investigation of rain-induced NOx and HCHO emissions from soils as viewed by the GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zörner, Jan; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Beirle, Steffen; Veres, Patrick; Williams, Jonathan; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Outside industrial areas, soil emissions of NOx (stemming from bacterial emissions of NO) represent a considerable fraction of total NOx emissions and may even dominate in remote tropical and agricultural areas. NOx fluxes from soils are controlled by abiotic and microbiological processes which depend on ambient environmental conditions, but are also strongly affected by agricultural management practices. Rain-induced spikes in NOx have been observed by in-situ measurements and also satellite observations, i.e. by Jaegle et al. (2004), Bertram et al. (2005), Ghude et al. (2010) and Hudman et al. (2010). The latter studies present the first estimation of soil NOx emissions derived from satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. However, since soil emissions over broad geographic regions remain difficult to measure or even estimate using bottom-up approaches, their representation in chemical models can still be improved by accurate satellite constraints. This study extends the previous research by investigating peaks in tropospheric NO2 concentrations after rain fall events following dry spells. Additionally, we examine the possibility for detection of HCHO emissions from wetted soils which has not been previously attempted by using satellite observations. A limited number of laboratory experiments on soil fluxes suggest that significant HCHO emissions from soil can occur. Vertical NO2 and HCHO columns retrieved from GOME-2 aboard METOP and SCIAMACHY aboard ENVISAT were used. An in-depth analysis of rain-induced soil emissions was conducted for not only broad seasonal and annual averages but also investigate the soil-temperature dependencies using TRMM precipitation data and model data from the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis project. Moreover, a thorough validity check and the crucial source partitioning of the measured NO2 and HCHO signals are conducted to evaluate whether the observed signals originate from fire, other anthropogenic and biogenic influences

  17. Chemical composition and severe ozone loss derived from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 observations during Arctic winter 2010/2011 in comparisons to Arctic winters in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Aschmann, J.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; von Savigny, C.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Bauer, R.; Khosrawi, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    Record breaking losses of ozone (O3) in the Arctic stratosphere have been reported in winter and spring 2011. Trace gas amounts and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions retrieved using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and scattering theory applied to the measurements of radiance and irradiance by satellite-born and ground-based instrumentation, document the unusual behaviour. A chemical transport model has been used to relate and compare Arctic winter-spring conditions in 2011 with those in previous years. We examine in detail the composition and transformations occurring in the Arctic polar vortex using total column and vertical profile data products for O3, bromine oxide (BrO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO), and PSCs retrieved from measurements made by the instrument SCIAMACHY onboard the ESA satellite Envisat, as well as the total column ozone amount, retrieved from the measurements of GOME-2 on the EUMETSAT operational meteorological polar orbiter Metop-A. In the late winter and spring 2010/2011 the chemical loss of O3 in the polar vortex is consistent with and confirms findings reported elsewhere. More than 70% of O3 was depleted between the 425 K and 525 K isentropic surfaces, i.e. in the altitude range ~16-20 km. In contrast, during the same period in the previous winter only slightly more than 20% depletion occurred below 20 km, whereas 40% of the O3 was removed above the 575 K isentrope (~23 km). This loss above the 575 K isentrope is explained by the catalytic destruction by the NOx descending from the mesosphere. At lower altitudes O3 loss results from processing by halogen driven O3 catalytic removal cycles, activated by the large volume of PSC generated throughout this winter and spring. The mid-winter 2011 conditions, prior to the catalytic cycles being fully effective, are also investigated. Surprisingly, a significant loss of O3 with 60% is observed in mid-January 2011 below 500 K (~19 km), which was

  18. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-05

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters.

  19. Systemic Identification of Hevea brasiliensis EST-SSR Markers and Primer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Benjun

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to systematically identify and preliminarily validate the Hevea brasiliensis expressed sequence tag (EST) information using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and provide evidence for further development of SSR molecular marker. The definition of general SSR features of Hevea EST splicing sequences and development of SSR primers founded the basis of diversity analysis and variety identification for Hevea tree resource. 1134 SSR loci were identified in the EST splicing sequence and distributed in 840 Unigene. The occurrence rate of SSR loci was 23.9%, and the average distribution distance of EST-SSR was 2.59 kb. The major repeat type was mononucleotide repeat motif, which accounted for 38.89%, while the corresponding value was 36.95% for dinucleotide repeat motif and 18.17% for trinucleotide repeat motif; the proportion of other motifs was only 5.99%. The superior repeat motifs for mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide were A/T, AG/CT, and AAG/CTT, respectively. 739 pair of primers were designed for 1134 SSR loci. PCR amplification was performed on Hevea Reyan5-11, Reyan87-6-47, and PR107, and 180 pairs of primers were selected which were able to amplify polymorphism bands. PMID:28232872

  20. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Atef; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Using standard morphological methods, we describe one new Leptopharynx species and a new subspecies of L. costatus, both from soil of the neotropic region. Further, we studied two populations of L. costatus costatus. Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec., which was discovered in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a large member (60 μm) of the genus with an enormous oral basket. It differs from similar congeners in having six monokinetids in kinety 6, widely spaced kinetids in kinety 1, and an average of 294 kinetids. Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec., which was discovered in southern Florida, makes a small (35 μm) and a large morph (55 μm) both with narrow oral basket. The small morph is inseparable from the small morph of L. costatus costatus, while the large morph has right-angled adoral membranelles and widely (vs. narrowly) spaced kinetids in kinety 1. The small morphs of a Brazilian and an Austrian L. costatus match Mexican and other European populations, all having on average 181–187 kinetids. As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled). PMID:21855305

  1. Purification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis catalase P: subsequent kinetic and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ronney Fernandes; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia; Winters, Michael S; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Catalases are essential components of the cellular equipment to cope with oxidative stress. Here we have purified a highly abundant catalase P of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PbCatP) that is preferentially expressed in the parasitic yeast phase. This oxidative stress-induced protein was isolated from yeast cells grown in the presence of 15 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We have used consecutive steps of protein precipitation and gel filtration chromatography to achieve the purified protein. Protein purification was validated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis. The purified enzyme showed strong similarity to small-subunit catalases. Like most monofunctional catalases, PbCatP is a homotetramer, resistant to inactivation by acidic conditions, temperature and denaturants. Furthermore, the kinetic behaviour of catalase P was observed to be different at low compared to high H(2)O(2) concentrations. The results demonstrated that a purified PbCatP is a homotetrameric enzyme, classified as a small subunit catalase.

  2. Identification and subcellular localization analysis of two rubber elongation factor isoforms on Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Nie, Zhiyi; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Zeng, Rizhong

    2017-02-01

    Rubber elongation factor (REF) is the most abundant protein found on the rubber particles or latex from Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree) and is considered to play important roles in natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. 16 BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE separations and mass spectrometric identification had revealed that two REF isoforms shared similar amino acid sequences and common C-terminal sequences. In this study, the gene sequences encoding these two REF isoforms (one is 23.6 kDa in size with 222 amino acid residues and the other is 27.3 kDa in size with 258 amino acid residues) were obtained. Their proteins were relatively enriched by sequential extraction of the rubber particle proteins and separated by 16 BAC/SDS-PAGE. The localization of these isoforms on the surfaces of rubber particles was further verified by western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy, which demonstrated that these two REF isoforms are mainly located on the surfaces of larger rubber particles and that they bind more tightly to rubber particles than the most abundant REF and SRPP (small rubber particle protein).

  3. Biochemical characterization of three phase partitioned naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Vinothkumar, V; Ragupathy, J; Reddy, D Amala

    2015-09-01

    Naringinase is a complex enzyme composed of α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase, which has a vast potential application in the field of industrial biotechnology. The novel aspect in the present study is employing a three-phase partitioning (TPP) technique for the purification of naringinase by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344. At optimum conditions of 28±2 °C and 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate along with a 1:1 ratio of t-butanol to crude extract, the purification is enhanced by 4.2-fold .Temperature and pH profile of TPP purified naringinase was found to be active with an optimal activity of 719.6 units at an elevated temperature of 60 °C. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) using naringin as substrate were 3.21 mM and 321 U/ml. The purified enzyme was not inhibited by any metal ions except Hg(2+) but completely inhibited by adding chelating agents such as EDTA and SDS at a concentration of 10 mM. These results can be inevitable to establish the TPP method to be an inexpensive, economical and attractive technology for better recovery and to find its application in the industrial sector.

  4. Phosphorylation is the major mechanism regulating isocitrate lyase activity in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aline H da Silva; Brock, Matthias; Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia F; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Troian, Rogério F; Góes, Alfredo M; Soares, Célia M de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2011-07-01

    The glyoxylate cycle plays an essential role for anaplerosis of oxaloacetate during growth of microorganisms on carbon sources such as acetate or fatty acids and has been shown to contribute to virulence of several pathogens. Here, we investigated the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the glyoxylate cycle key enzyme isocitrate lyase (PbICL) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Although sequence analyses on fungal isocitrate lyases revealed a high phylogenetic conservation, their regulation seems to differ significantly. Closely related Aspergillus species regulate the glyoxylate cycle at the transcriptional level, whereas Pbicl was constitutively expressed in yeast cells. However, only low PbICL activity was detected when cells were grown in the presence of glucose. Two-dimensional gel analyses with subsequent antibody hybridization revealed constitutive production of PbICL, but low PbICL activity on glucose coincided with extensive protein phosphorylation. Since an in vitro dephosphorylation of PbICL from glucose grown cells strongly increased ICL activity and resembled the phosphorylation pattern of highly active acetate grown cells, post-translational modification seems the main mechanism regulating PbICL activity in yeast cells. In agreement, a transfer of yeast cells from glucose to acetate medium increased PbICL activity without requirement of de novo protein synthesis. Thus, inactivation of PbICL by phosphorylation is reversible, denoting a new strategy for the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  5. Transcription regulation of the Pbgp43 gene by nitrogen in the human pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Antonio A; Malavazi, Iran; Goldman, Gustavo H; Puccia, Rosana

    2009-01-01

    We show indirect evidences for the possible involvement of NIT2-like binding motifs in transcription modulation of the PbGP43 gene, which codes for an important antigen from the human fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This investigation was motivated by the finding of 23 NIT2-like sites within the proximal -2047 nucleotides of the PbGP43 5' intergenic region from the Pb339 isolate. They compose four clusters, two of them identical. We found four NIT2-containing probes that were positive in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and further analyzed them. PbGP43 could be modulated by nitrogen primary sources in Pb339, Pb3 and Pb18 isolates, as observed by reverse transcription (RT) real time-PCR. Gene reporter assays conducted in Aspergillus nidulans suggested that the minimal fragment responsible for nitrogen modulation lies within -480 bp of the PbGP43 gene. This is the first report on PbGP43 transcription modulation in response to nitrogen primary sources, which might help understand its regulation during infection.

  6. Heterologous expression and characterization of processing α-glucosidase I from Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 9642.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Matsumoto, Yuji; Matsuda, Kana; Kurakata, Yuma; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    A gene for processing α-glucosidase I from a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus brasiliensis (formerly called Aspergillus niger) ATCC 9642 was cloned and fused to a glutathione S-transferase tag. The active construct with the highest production level was a truncation mutant deleting the first 16 residues of the hydrophobic N-terminal domain. This fusion enzyme hydrolyzed pyridylaminated (PA-) oligosaccharides Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA and the products were identified as Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(2)Man(4)-PA, respectively. Saturation curves were obtained for both Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA, and the K (m) values for both substrates were estimated in the micromolar range. When 1 μM Glc(3)Man(4)-PA was used as a substrate, the inhibitors kojibiose and 1-deoxynojirimycin had similar effects on the enzyme; at 20 μM concentration, both inhibitors reduced activity by 50%.

  7. Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana, Three New Sporothrix Species of Clinical Interest▿

    PubMed Central

    Marimon, Rita; Cano, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A.; Kawasaki, Masako; Guarro, Josep

    2007-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is the species responsible for sporotrichosis, a fungal infection caused by the traumatic implantation of this dimorphic fungus. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that this species constitutes a complex of numerous phylogenetic species. Since the delineation of such species could be of extreme importance from a clinical point of view, we have studied a total of 127 isolates, most of which were received as S. schenckii, including the available type strains of species currently considered synonyms, and also some close morphological species. We have phenotypically characterized all these isolates using different culture media, growth rates at different temperatures, and numerous nutritional tests and compared their calmodulin gene sequences. The molecular analysis revealed that Sporothrix albicans, S. inflata, and S. schenckii var. luriei are species that are clearly different from S. schenckii. The combination of these phenetic and genetic approaches allowed us to propose the new species Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana. The key phenotypic features for recognizing these species are the morphology of the sessile pigmented conidia, growth at 30, 35, and 37°C, and the assimilation of sucrose, raffinose, and ribitol. PMID:17687013

  8. Linear Epitopes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Other Fungal Agents of Human Systemic Mycoses As Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2017-01-01

    Dimorphic fungi are agents of systemic mycoses associated with significant morbidity and frequent lethality in the Americas. Among the pathogenic species are Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, which predominate in South America; Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides posadasii, and Coccidioides immitis, and the Sporothrix spp. complex are other important pathogens. Associated with dimorphic fungi other important infections are caused by yeast such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. or mold such as Aspergillus spp., which are also fungal agents of deadly infections. Nowadays, the actual tendency of therapy is the development of a pan-fungal vaccine. This is, however, not easy because of the complexity of eukaryotic cells and the particularities of different species and isolates. Albeit there are several experimental vaccines being studied, we will focus mainly on peptide vaccines or epitopes of T-cell receptors inducing protective fungal responses. These peptides can be carried by antibody inducing β-(1,3)-glucan oligo or polysaccharides, or be mixed with them for administration. The present review discusses the efficacy of linear peptide epitopes in the context of antifungal immunization and vaccine proposition.

  9. Characterization of a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase secreted by the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, M E; Gounaris, K; Selkirk, M E

    1996-01-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a small nematode parasite of the gastrointestinal tract of rodents, secretes an enzyme that cleaves the proinflammatory molecule platelet-activating factor to its inactive lyso-form. The enzyme activity of Ca(2+)-dependent and does not exhibit interfacial activation. It does not require the addition of reducing agents for maximal activity, and is not inhibited by thiol-active reagents. Sensitivity of inhibitors suggests the involvement of serine and histidine residues in the enzyme activity. As described for other platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases, it cannot cleave, nor is it inhibited by, long-chain diacyl phospholipids that are typical substrates for phospholipases A2. The purified enzyme was resolved by SDS/PAGE as a heterodimer composed of two protein subunits with apparent molecular masses of 38 and 25 kDa. The properties of the nematode enzyme thus differ from those described for the mammalian enzymes, but are more closely related to those of an acetylhydrolase than a phospholipase. PMID:8713083

  10. Virulence of a variant of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that exists in the yeast form at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Villar, L A; Restrepo, A

    1989-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (ATCC 60885) produces conidia that, when plated in enriched media and incubated at 21-25 degrees C, give rise to a yeast-form variant (YRT) (ATCC 46678). The virulence of this variant for BALB/c mice has been compared with that of the yeast and conidia produced by the parent isolate. Adult female mice were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) viable cells of YRT or yeast, or 5 x 10(5) viable conidia. Mice were weighed weekly, and three mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks post-inoculation and their organs weighed and prepared for determination of viable counts (colony forming units; c.f.u.). Animals infected with yeast cells or with conidia exhibited little weight loss in comparison with that seen in the YRT-infected mice which began to lose weight 1 week post-challenge. Organ weights increased in the YRT group, while the changes in the remaining two groups were minor. The c.f.u. from these organs also increased in the YRT-infected mice, whereas the infection in the yeast-and conidia-infected mice was self-limiting. A proportion (16.6%) of the YRT-infected animals died during the observation period. Conversely, no deaths occurred in the remaining groups. These results indicate that the YRT variant possesses increased virulence.

  11. Protective Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on STZ-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weifeng; Huang, Haiying; Chao, Ji; Lu, Wuchao; Guo, Jianyou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The present investigation examined the neuroprotective effect of Agaricus brasiliensis (AbS) against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered orally with AbS. Body weight, serum glucose, and behavioral parameters were measured before and at the end of the experiment to see the effect of AbS on these parameters. After 6 weeks of treatments, all animals were sacrificed to study various biochemical parameters. Treatment with AbS 80 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in body weight, pain threshold, and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose, LPO and NO level, Na-K-ATPase level, and TNF-α and IL-1β level as compared to vehicle treated diabetic animals in dose and time dependent manner. AbS can offer pain relief in PDN. This may be of potential benefit in clinical practice for the management of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24527050

  12. Fat content in migratory central Arizona Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Fat content of migratory Tadarida brasiliensis was determined during the spring, summer and fall of 1972 in the Verde Valley of Arizona. Fat indices were highest in March arrivals, generally declined throughout the summer, and were lowest in September. In both 1972 and 1973 bats had arrived at the study area by mid-March. In 1971 bats were last noted at the area in mid-October while in 1972 they had disappeared by late September. On the basis on physiological calculations it is estimated that bats collected in March 1972 possessed sufficient fat reserves to carry them a mean distance of 716 km north of the study area while September bats had only enough reserves to fly 386 km southward, about 160 km short of the nearest known Sonora wintering locality. It is suggested that in spring the bats may have a more rigidly timed migration and so put on excess fat to counter an uncertain environment to the north. The fall migration may be triggered by more unpredictable events, such as the passage of cold fronts, and less fat reserves may be required for movements into more favorable southern locales.

  13. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter.

  14. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  15. Parasites of the Brazilian flathead Percophis brasiliensis reflect West Atlantic biogeographic regions.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Pantoja, Camila; Pereira, Aldenice N; Luque, Jose L; Timi, Juan T

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of evaluating the utility of marine parasites as indicators of zoogeographical regions in the South West Atlantic, we analyzed data on assemblages of long-lived larval parasites of 488 specimens of Percophis brasiliensis distributed in 11 samples from nine localities covering the entire distribution of the species in the Argentine biogeographical Province. Near half a million long-lived parasite individuals belonging to 17 species present in the whole sample displayed clear latitudinal patterns. Data for parasite assemblages at infracommunity and component community levels were analysed in relation to the geographical distance. Significant similarity decay of parasite assemblages over distance was observed, with those based on abundances and mean abundances showing departures from predicted values of regressions. These departures were represented by higher dissimilarities between samples coming from different zoogeographical regions than between those caught within the same region, independently of the distance separating them. Consequently, zoogeographical regions were identified in a distance-decay context. Multivariate analyses corroborated a close fit of similarity between assemblages to existing zoogeographical classifications. Regressions representing distance decay of similarity, and the identification of their outliers, can therefore shed light on the existence of discontinuities or uniformities in the geographic distribution of parasite assemblages and, in turn, in the zoogeography of their fish hosts.

  16. Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  17. Divergent DNA methylation patterns associated with abiotic stress in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Uthup, Thomas K; Ravindran, Minimol; Bini, K; Thakurdas, Saha

    2011-11-01

    Cytosine methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism for gene-expression regulation and development in plants. Here, we report for the first time the identification of DNA methylation patterns and their putative relationship with abiotic stress in the tree crop Hevea brasiliensis (source of 99% of natural rubber in the world). Regulatory sequences of four major genes involved in the mevalonate pathway (rubber biosynthesis pathway) and one general defense-related gene of three high-yielding popular rubber clones grown at two different agroclimatic conditions were analyzed for the presence of methylation. We found several significant variations in the methylation pattern at core DNA binding motifs within all the five genes. Several consistent clone-specific and location-specific methylation patterns were identified. The differences in methylation pattern observed at certain pivotal cis-regulatory sites indicate the direct impact of stress on the genome and support the hypothesis of site-specific stress-induced DNA methylation. It is assumed that some of the methylation patterns observed may be involved in the stress-responsive mechanism in plants by which they adapt to extreme conditions. The study also provide clues towards the existence of highly divergent phenotypic characters among Hevea clones despite their very similar genetic make-up. Altogether, the observations from this study prove beyond doubt that there exist epigenetic variations in Hevea and environmental factors play a significant role in the induction of site-specific epigenetic mutations in its genome.

  18. Reactive oxygen species in Hevea brasiliensis latex and relevance to Tapping Panel Dryness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Leclercq, Julie; Montoro, Pascal

    2016-11-29

    Environmental stress can lead to oxidative stress resulting from an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and involves redox adjustments. Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers, which is a non-photosynthetic tissue particularly prone to oxidative stress. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the ROS production and ROS-scavenging systems in laticifers. These regulations have been the subject of intense research into a physiological syndrome, called Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD), affecting latex production in Hevea brasiliensis In order to prevent TPD occurrence, monitoring thiol content appeared to be a crucial factor of latex diagnosis. Thiols, ascorbate and γ-tocotrienol are the major antioxidants in latex. They are involved in membrane protection from ROS and likely have an effect on the quality of raw rubber. Some transcription factors might play a role in the redox regulatory network in Hevea, in particular ethylene response factors, which have been the most intensively studied given the role of ethylene on rubber production. Current challenges for rubber research and development with regard to redox systems will involve improving antioxidant capacity using natural genetic variability.

  19. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  20. The small RNA profile in latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees is affected by tapping panel dryness.

    PubMed

    Gébelin, Virginie; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Argout, Xavier; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong; Sarah, Gautier; Yang, Meng; Montoro, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Natural rubber is harvested by tapping Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg. Harvesting stress can lead to tapping panel dryness (TPD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are induced by abiotic stress and regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs. This study set out to sequence miRNAs expressed in latex cells and to identify TPD-related putative targets. Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on latex from trees affected by TPD using Solexa technology. The most abundant small RNA class size was 21 nucleotides for TPD trees compared with 24 nucleotides in healthy trees. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant MicroRNA database and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 19 additional conserved and four putative species-specific miRNA families not found in previous studies on rubber. The relative transcript abundance of the Hbpre-MIR159b gene increased with TPD. This study revealed a small RNA-specific signature of TPD-affected trees. Both RNA degradation and a shift in miRNA biogenesis are suggested to explain the general decline in small RNAs and, particularly, in miRNAs.

  1. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  2. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): parasitic larval stages and adults.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Specimens of the rat hookworm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were recovered from lungs (third- and fourth-stage larvae) and intestine (fourth-stage larvae and adults). The following features were studied in the different stages by scanning electron microscopy: cephalic structures, especially sense organs, synlophe, cervical region, and caudal part. The main differences between the third and fourth stages concerned the lip-like structures around the oral aperture, the appearance of the cephalic space with the presence of a cephalic cap in fourth-stage larvae, the pattern of longitudinal ridges, and sexual differentiation. Pore-like papillae, not seen in third-stage larvae, developed in later stages. Deirids were observed only in adults, and phasmids were poorly discerned. Some of these morphological features, such as the cephalic sense organ apertures and cuticle pores and micropores, can be observed only by scanning electron microscopy. The possible functions of these different structures and their relationship with the behavior of the worms during their life cycle are discussed.

  3. GP43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis inhibits macrophage functions. An evasion mechanism of the fungus.

    PubMed

    Flavia Popi, Ana Flavia; Lopes, José Daniel; Mariano, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Macrophages constitute one of the primary cellular mechanisms that impairs parasite invasion of host tissues. The phagocytic and microbicidal properties of these cells can be modulated by specific membrane receptors involved in cell-microorganism interactions. Gp43, the main antigen secreted by Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis, is a high mannose glycoprotein. The role played by gp43 in the pathogenesis of the disease is not completely known. Here, we describe the influence of this molecule on the interaction between peritoneal murine macrophages and Pb. Phagocytosis of Pb, live or heat-killed, by adherent peritoneal cells from both, B10.A (susceptible) and A/Sn (resistant) mice, was evaluated. Addition of different concentrations of gp43 to the culture medium inhibited, in a dose-dependent pattern, phagocytosis of live or heat-killed Pb by peritoneal macrophages from both B10.A and A/Sn mice. Gp43 also inhibits phagocytosis of zymosan particles but did not interfere with the uptake of opsonized sheep red blood cells. It was also shown that both gp43 and heat-killed Pb have an inhibitory effect on the release of NO by zymosan stimulated macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that gp43 inhibits the fungicidal ability of macrophages from both lineages. Based on these data, it is suggested that gp43 can be considered one of the evasion mechanisms for the installation of primary infection in susceptible hosts.

  4. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-08-04

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression profiles, and characterization of a novel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejun; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Changren; Zhao, Manman; Guo, Huina; Xia, Zhihui; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. Although the PPOs have been studied by several researchers, the isolation and expression profiles of PPO gene were not reported in rubber tree. In this study, a new PPO gene, HbPPO, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The sequence alignment showed that HbPPO indicated high identities to plant PPOs and belonged to dicot branch. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress/hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbPPO. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbPPO expression varied widely depending on different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being associated with tapping panel dryness, the HbPPO transcripts were regulated by ethrel, wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Moreover, the correlation between latex coagulation rate and PPO activity was further confirmed in this study. Our results lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbPPO in rubber tree.

  6. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; Bond, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood.

  7. The influence of natural rubber/Au nanoparticle membranes on the physiology of Leishmania brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Filho, Carlos G; Cabrera, Flávio C; Dos Santos, Renivaldo J; De Saja Saez, Jose Antonio; Job, Aldo E

    2012-02-01

    The development of nanotechnology has generated new means of disease diagnosis and treatment. Infectious diseases, including leishmaniasis, malaria, etc., have benefited from the advent of new nanomaterials and/or nanodevices capable of detecting specific antigens and antibodies with high specificity and low cost. In this paper, we present an investigation on a single-celled protozoan Leishmaniasis parasite, a disease considered of standard infectivity, given the high degree of immunological specificity. Natural rubber (NR) membranes incorporating gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were placed in the culture medium and the physiological behavior of Leishmania brasiliensis promastigotes was evaluated. The natural rubber membranes containing GNPs decreased the population growth rate, showing a lower index of living promastigotes (attached to the membrane surface) depending on the amount of nanoparticles deposited in the membrane surface. Such membranes may be used to develop a flexible band-aid for skin lesions from degenerative infection state, inhibiting the population growth of parasites in the lesions. In addition, natural rubber membranes would also stimulate angiogenesis in damaged tissues.

  8. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  9. Linear Epitopes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Other Fungal Agents of Human Systemic Mycoses As Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Luiz R.; Taborda, Carlos P.

    2017-01-01

    Dimorphic fungi are agents of systemic mycoses associated with significant morbidity and frequent lethality in the Americas. Among the pathogenic species are Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, which predominate in South America; Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides posadasii, and Coccidioides immitis, and the Sporothrix spp. complex are other important pathogens. Associated with dimorphic fungi other important infections are caused by yeast such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. or mold such as Aspergillus spp., which are also fungal agents of deadly infections. Nowadays, the actual tendency of therapy is the development of a pan-fungal vaccine. This is, however, not easy because of the complexity of eukaryotic cells and the particularities of different species and isolates. Albeit there are several experimental vaccines being studied, we will focus mainly on peptide vaccines or epitopes of T-cell receptors inducing protective fungal responses. These peptides can be carried by antibody inducing β-(1,3)-glucan oligo or polysaccharides, or be mixed with them for administration. The present review discusses the efficacy of linear peptide epitopes in the context of antifungal immunization and vaccine proposition. PMID:28344577

  10. Serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, L M; Thompson, A M

    2001-06-18

    Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that serotonin alters the processing of sound in the auditory brainstem of many mammalian species. The Mexican free-tailed bat is a hearing specialist, like other microchiropteran bats. At the same time, many aspects of its auditory brainstem are similar to those in other mammals. This dichotomy raises an interesting question regarding the serotonergic innervation of the bat auditory brainstem: Is the serotonergic input to the auditory brainstem similar in bats and other mammals, or are there specializations in the serotonergic innervation of bats that may be related to their exceptional hearing capabilities? To address this question, we immunocytochemically labeled serotonergic fibers in the brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis. We found many similarities in the pattern of serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem in Tadarida compared with other mammals, but we also found two striking differences. Similarities to staining patterns in other mammals included a higher density of serotonergic fibers in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in granule cell regions than in the ventral cochlear nucleus, a high density of fibers in some periolivary nuclei of the superior olive, and a higher density of fibers in peripheral regions of the inferior colliculus compared with its core. The two novel features of serotonergic innervation in Tadarida were a high density of fibers in the fusiform layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus relative to surrounding layers and a relatively high density of serotonergic fibers in the low-frequency regions of the lateral and medial superior olive.

  11. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  12. TRANSFORMATION OF MYCELIAL AND YEAST FORMS OF PARACOCCIDIOIDES BRASILIENSIS IN CULTURES AND IN EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATIONS.

    PubMed

    CARBONELL, L M; RODRIGUEZ, J

    1965-08-01

    Carbonell, Luis M. (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Joaquín Rodríguez. Transformation of mycelial and yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in cultures and in experimental inoculations. J. Bacteriol. 90:504-510. 1965.-Experimental transformations of mycelial to yeast and yeast to mycelial forms in culture, and mycelial to yeast forms in tissue, were studied. All the transitional forms that appeared in culture were also seen in tissue, but in fewer number. Most of the hyphae in culture were transformed into yeast, but only a few in tissue. Yeast appeared in testicle around the 3rd day after inoculation, but on the 10th day in subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenicity of mycelium was high, since yeast was found in almost all of the organs inoculated with mycelium. Histologically, an acute inflammation occurred first, owing to the inoculation of mycelium, followed by a giant-cell granuloma with abundant hyphae detritus. These giant cells almost disappeared about 10 days after inoculation, giving place to a second giant-cell granuloma with yeast forms.

  13. Transformation of Mycelial and Yeast Forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Cultures and in Experimental Inoculations

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.; Rodríguez, Joaquín

    1965-01-01

    Carbonell, Luis M. (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Joaquín Rodríguez. Transformation of mycelial and yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in cultures and in experimental inoculations. J. Bacteriol. 90:504–510. 1965.—Experimental transformations of mycelial to yeast and yeast to mycelial forms in culture, and mycelial to yeast forms in tissue, were studied. All the transitional forms that appeared in culture were also seen in tissue, but in fewer number. Most of the hyphae in culture were transformed into yeast, but only a few in tissue. Yeast appeared in testicle around the 3rd day after inoculation, but on the 10th day in subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenicity of mycelium was high, since yeast was found in almost all of the organs inoculated with mycelium. Histologically, an acute inflammation occurred first, owing to the inoculation of mycelium, followed by a giant-cell granuloma with abundant hyphae detritus. These giant cells almost disappeared about 10 days after inoculation, giving place to a second giant-cell granuloma with yeast forms. Images PMID:14329466

  14. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida).

    PubMed

    Omar, Atef; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Using standard morphological methods, we describe one new Leptopharynx species and a new subspecies of L. costatus, both from soil of the neotropic region. Further, we studied two populations of L. costatus costatus. Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec., which was discovered in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a large member (60μm) of the genus with an enormous oral basket. It differs from similar congeners in having six monokinetids in kinety 6, widely spaced kinetids in kinety 1, and an average of 294 kinetids. Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec., which was discovered in southern Florida, makes a small (35μm) and a large morph (55μm) both with narrow oral basket. The small morph is inseparable from the small morph of L. costatus costatus, while the large morph has right-angled adoral membranelles and widely (vs. narrowly) spaced kinetids in kinety 1. The small morphs of a Brazilian and an Austrian L. costatus match Mexican and other European populations, all having on average 181-187 kinetids. As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled).

  15. Erythropoiesis in the yolk sac of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R J; Cabral-Anderson, L J

    1976-12-01

    The process of erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis in the yolk sac of the bat (Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala) has been studied through the use of both light and electron microscopy. Stem cells arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm and transform into primitive erythroblasts. Differentiation involves either contact or association with the endodermal cells, since all erythropoietic activity occurs on the endodermal side of the expanding vascular bed, and many of the cells are in close apposition to the lateral or basal plasma membranes of the endodermal cells. Endodermal cells also phagocytize developing primitive erythroblasts during the later stage of the process when erythropoiesis is subsiding in the yolk sac. Cells destined to become the endothelium of the expanding vascular bed also arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm. Their process of differentiation involves the development of cytoplasmic extensions that may surround a group of differentiating erythroblasts, enclosing them in the newly formed lumen of the blood vessel. The cytoplasmic extensions make contact and develop junctional complexes with similar processes from other cells to complete the lumen of the lengthening vascular bed. Cells of the granulocyte series or megakaryocytes are not observed in the yolk sac of the bat as has been described in certain other species.

  16. DDT and the decline of free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R

    2001-05-01

    DDT is believed to have caused the population of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at Carlsbad Cavern to decline severely after 1936. Nevertheless, previous data supporting this hypothesis are limited to a single study from 1974, which indicated that 20% of young free-tails from the cavern may have died of DDE poisoning during their first southward migration. In this study I compared organochlorine residues among samples of free-tails collected in Carlsbad Cavern in 1930, 1956, 1965, 1973, and 1988. Samples of skin cut from dry museum specimens were chemically analyzed, except for the 1973 data, which were derived from analyses of whole bats minus gastrointestinal tracts. Accumulated residue levels of DDT compounds in bats from 1965 and 1956 exceeded those in 1973 bats by approximately 4.8 times and approximately 2.7 times, respectively. This suggests that lethal effects of DDT compounds were substantially greater in the 1950s and 1960s than in the 1970s. Residues in 1988 bats resembled those for 1973 bats. It is concluded that DDT played a major role in this severe population decline. These results can be applied by management personnel in evaluating the present and future status of this population regarding persisting organochlorine insecticides as well as other agricultural chemicals now in use. The case of the Carlsbad colony is discussed relative to the general issue of other bat population declines.

  17. Genetic variation and migration in the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana).

    PubMed

    Russell, A L; Medellín, R A; McCracken, G F

    2005-06-01

    Incomplete lineage sorting can genetically link populations long after they have diverged, and will exert a more powerful influence on larger populations. The effects of this stochastic process can easily be confounded with those of gene flow, potentially leading to inaccurate estimates of dispersal capabilities or erroneous designation of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). We have used phylogenetic, population genetic, and coalescent methods to examine genetic structuring in large populations of a widely dispersing bat species and to test hypotheses concerning the influences of coalescent stochasticity vs. gene flow. The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, exhibits variation in both migratory tendency and route over its range. Observations of the species' migratory behaviour have led to the description of behaviourally and geographically defined migratory groups, with the prediction that these groups compose structured gene pools. Here, we used mtDNA sequence analyses coupled with existing information from allozyme, banding, and natural history studies to evaluate hypotheses regarding the relationship between migration and genetic structure. Analyses of molecular variance revealed no significant genetic structuring of behaviourally distinct migratory groups. Demographic analyses were consistent with population growth, although the timing of population expansion events differs between migratory and nonmigratory populations. Hypotheses concerning the role of gene flow vs. incomplete lineage sorting on these data are explored using coalescent simulations. Our study demonstrates the importance of accounting for coalescent stochasticity in formulating phylogeographical hypotheses, and indicates that analyses that do not take such processes into account can lead to false conclusions regarding a species' phylogeographical history.

  18. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): lethal brain concentrations.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Kroll, J C

    1977-12-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  19. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  20. Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), a Major Allergen Component in Hevea brasiliensis Latex Has Amyloid Properties

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

  1. A new PCR primer for the identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis based on rRNA sequences coding the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 5 x 8S regions.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Sano, A; Mikami, Y; Watanabe, K; Aoki, F H; Branchini, M L; Negroni, R; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    2000-08-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes including the 5.8S ribosomal (r)RNA of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were amplified and the DNA sequences were determined. Based on a comparison of the sequence information, a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair was designed for specific amplification of DNA for P. brasiliensis. This primer pair amplified a 418-bp DNA sequence and was 100% successful in identifying 29 strains of P. brasiliensis (including the reference strains) isolated from the regions of Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Argentina or from different sources. The results of specificity tests of these primers to compare the fungus with those of Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are also reported.

  2. Analysis of the genetic polymorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides cerebriformis "Moore" by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 28S ribosomal DNA sequencing--Paracoccidioides cerebriformis revisited.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Levi, José Eduardo; Dantas, Kátia Cristina; Martins, José Eduardo Costa

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the genetic polymorphism of six samples of P. brasiliensis (113, 339, BAT, T1F1, T3B6, T5LN1), with four samples of P. cerebriformis (735, 741, 750, 361) from the Mycological Laboratory of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis (RAPD). RAPD profiles clearly segregated P. brasiliensis and P. cerebriformis isolates. However, the variation on band patterns among P. cerebriformis isolates was high. Sequencing of the 28S rDNA gene showed nucleotide conservancy among P. cerebriformis isolates, providing basis for taxonomical grouping, and disclosing high divergence to P. brasiliensis supporting that they are in fact two distinct species. Moreover, DNA sequence suggests that P. cerebriformis belongs in fact to the Aspergillus genus.

  3. [The evaluation of ketoconazole in mice inoculated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by liver and spleen histopathology and by the intradermal paracoccidioidin reaction].

    PubMed

    Silva, M R; de Paiva e Rosália, L F; Jesuino, S A

    1994-01-01

    Male albino mice were inoculated intravenously with 0.5 x 10(7) viable yeast forms of P. brasiliensis (strain 2052). These animals were treated with two doses of ketoconazole (50 and 100 mg/kg) during fifty days and the sacrificed. We studied the presence of P. brasiliensis, the inflammatory granulomatous response of liver and spleen and the anti P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test after 48 hours. It was observed that: 1. animals infected and treated with ketoconazole showed reduction in the number of fungi in the organs studied; 2. there was no difference in the number of granulomas among animals treated and non-treated; 3. the cutaneous delayed tests intensity was similar in all animals.

  4. Isolation and structure elucidaton of polyphenols from Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis with antiinflammatory property

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Okoye, Festus Basden Chied; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols isolated from the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumuor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Semi-preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (n-BuOH) fractions of the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of four polyphenols: 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG) (1); (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3″Me) (2); rutin (3) and peltatoside (4). Compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant while 1 was isolated for the first time in nature. These compounds (1-4) were readily identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and cytokine (TNF-α) levels in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, the study showed that the quercetin diglycosides showed stronger inhibition of proinflammatory mediators than the epicatechin derivates. These data provide evidence that polyphenolic compounds isolated from the mistletoe parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α. PMID:26417309

  5. Depletion of Neutrophils Promotes the Resolution of Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Julián Camilo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stages of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are characterized by granulomatous lesions which promote the development of pulmonary fibrosis leading to the loss of respiratory function in 50% of patients; in addition, it has been observed that neutrophils predominate during these chronic stages of P. brasiliensis infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of the neutrophil during the chronic stages of experimental pulmonary PCM and during the fibrosis development and tissue repair using a monoclonal specific to this phagocytic cell. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 1.5x106 P. brasiliensis yeast cells. A monoclonal antibody specific to neutrophils was administered at 4 weeks post-inoculation followed by doses every 48h during two weeks. Mice were sacrificed at 8 and 12 weeks post-inoculation to assess cellularity, fungal load, cytokine/chemokine levels, histopathological analysis, collagen and expression of genes related to fibrosis development. Depletion of neutrophils was associated with a significant decrease in the number of eosinophils, dendritic cells, B cells, CD4-T cells, MDSCs and Treg cells, fungal load and levels of most of the pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines evaluated, including IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β1. Recovery of lung architecture was also associated with reduced levels of collagen, high expression of TGF-β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and -14, and decreased expression of tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2, and MMP-8. Depletion of neutrophils might attenuate lung fibrosis and inflammation through down-regulating TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-17, MMP-8 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that neutrophil could be considered as a therapeutic target in pulmonary fibrosis induced by P. brasiliensis. PMID:27690127

  6. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection.

  7. Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetidae), Derived Polysaccharides Exert Immunomodulatory Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fang, Leilei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Huan; Wei, Weilu; Li, Yingrui

    2016-01-01

    The royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis is a widely consumed mushroom around the world. In this study, the immunoregulatory potential of A. brasiliensis polysaccharides was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the polysaccharides remarkably increased the spleen and thymus indexes in mice, and this effect was influenced significantly by age (the adult and the juvenile). The spleen index increased by 27.28% in adult mice treated with the polysaccharides, whereas the increase in juvenile mice was just 12.59% at the dose of 150 mg·kg-1·d-1. Moreover, the effect of the polysaccharides on the thymus and spleen indexes in adult mice was obvious both in males and females. The carbon clearance ability (phagocytic index) was improved with increasing doses, (32.81% at 120 mg·kg-1·d-1, and 38.34% at 150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in mice treated with the polysaccharides. In vitro, the polysaccharides increased the RAW264.7 cell proliferation with 34.78% at 25 µg/mL and 26.78% at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, the polysaccharides also promoted mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the cells, indicating that the polysaccharides induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF pathways. In conclusion, these results suggest that A. brasiliensis polysaccharides induce a very promising immunostimulation effect in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it should be explored as a novel natural functional food additive.

  8. Immunization with recombinant Pb27 protein reduces the levels of pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inflammatory response against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Elis Araujo; Martins, Estefânia Mara do Nascimento; Boelone, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis in which the host response to the infectious agent typically consists of a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process. This condition causes lesions that impair lung function and lead to chronic pulmonary insufficiency resulting from fibrosis development, which is a sequel and disabling feature of the disease. The rPb27 protein has been studied for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against PCM. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown a protective effect of rPb27 against PCM. However, these studies have not determined whether rPb27 immunization prevents lung fibrosis. We therefore conducted this study to investigate fibrosis resulting from infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the lungs of animals immunized with rPb27. Animals were immunized with rPb27 and subsequently infected with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis. Fungal load was evaluated by counting colony-forming units, and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to evaluate fibrosis at 30 and 90 days post-infection. The levels of CCR7, active caspase 3, collagen and cytokines were analyzed. At the two time intervals mentioned, the rPb27 group showed lower levels of fibrosis on histology and reduced levels of collagen and the chemokine receptor CCR7 in the lungs. CCR7 was detected at higher levels in the control groups that developed very high levels of pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, the immunized groups showed high levels of active caspase 3, IFN-γ, TGF-β and IL-10 in the early phase of P. brasiliensis infection. Immunization with Pb27, in addition to its protective effect, was shown to prevent pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP Markers Development for Rubber Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25048025

  10. Inhibitory effect of deferoxamine or macrophage activation on transformation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia ingested by macrophages: reversal by holotransferrin.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Gomez, B; Brummer, E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1994-04-01

    Conidia of P. brasiliensis ingested by murine macrophages at 37 degrees C showed enhanced transformation to yeast cells and further intracellular growth compared with conidia in culture medium alone. Treatment of macrophages with the iron chelator deferoxamine inhibited the intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. Cytokine-activated macrophages could also exert this inhibitory effect. Holotransferrin reversed the inhibitory effect of either deferoxamine or activated macrophages on intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. These results indicate that iron restriction is one of the mechanisms by which activated macrophages control the intracellular transformation of ingested conidia and growth of yeast cells.

  11. Inhibitory effect of deferoxamine or macrophage activation on transformation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia ingested by macrophages: reversal by holotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, L E; Gomez, B; Brummer, E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1994-01-01

    Conidia of P. brasiliensis ingested by murine macrophages at 37 degrees C showed enhanced transformation to yeast cells and further intracellular growth compared with conidia in culture medium alone. Treatment of macrophages with the iron chelator deferoxamine inhibited the intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. Cytokine-activated macrophages could also exert this inhibitory effect. Holotransferrin reversed the inhibitory effect of either deferoxamine or activated macrophages on intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. These results indicate that iron restriction is one of the mechanisms by which activated macrophages control the intracellular transformation of ingested conidia and growth of yeast cells. PMID:8132359

  12. The fine structure of the excretory system in adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) and a suggested function for the 'excretory glands'.

    PubMed

    Lee, D L

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the excretory system, including the subventral glands, of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis has been described. The walls of the lateral excretory canals contain canaliculi which open into the lumen of the canal. It is suggested that these canals play a role in osmoregulation and excretion. The sub-ventral glands contain two types of secretory granule and contain non-specific esterase, cholinesterase and aminopeptidase. It is suggested that these glands are not excretory but play an important role in feeding.

  13. New report of parasite-fauna of the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis, Geoffroy, 1824) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pamela; Fredes, Fernando; Raffo, Eduardo; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz, Lisandro; Cid, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and ninety five specimens of free tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) obtained from two regions of Chile were analized to determine parasite infection. From those specimens the endoparasites identified were: Trematoda: Acanthatrium lunatum, Limatuoides limatulus and Paralecithodendrium carlsbadensis; Cestoda: Vampirolepis sp.; Nematoda: Nochtia pilosus and Anoplostrongylus paradoxus. The ectoparasites identified were Chiroptonyssus robustipes, Ewingnana inaequalis and Notoedres lasionycteris all of them are acari species. Even thought the bat specimens are from the same species on both survey sites, the results differ for each site when the parasite species identified are compared.

  14. Recombinant Paracoccin Reproduces the Biological Properties of the Native Protein and Induces Protective Th1 Immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis Almeida, Fausto Bruno; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Hanna, Ebert Seixas

    2014-01-01

    Background Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. Methodology/principal findings The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein—including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition—showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls), mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated inflammation. The

  15. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  16. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  17. A novel and enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT 1435: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Lilian L; Costa, Bruna Z; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Santos, Clelton A; Crucello, Aline; Fávaro, Marianna T P; Santiago, André S; Mendes, Juliano S; Marsaioli, Anita J; Souza, Anete P

    2013-10-01

    A novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT1435 (AbEH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells with a 6xHis-tag and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Gel filtration analysis and circular dichroism measurements indicated that this novel AbEH is a homodimer in aqueous solution and contains the typical secondary structure of an α/β hydrolase fold. The activity of AbEH was initially assessed using the fluorogenic probe O-(3,4-epoxybutyl) umbelliferone and was active in a broad range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-45°C); showing optimum performance at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The Michaelis constant (KM) and maximum rate (Vmax) values were 495μM and 0.24μM/s, respectively. Racemic styrene oxide (SO) was used as a substrate to assess the AbEH activity and enantioselectivity, and 66% of the SO was hydrolyzed after only 5min of reaction, with the remaining (S)-SO ee exceeding 99% in a typical kinetic resolution behavior. The AbEH-catalyzed hydrolysis of SO was also evaluated in a biphasic system of water:isooctane; (R)-diol in 84% ee and unreacted (S)-SO in 36% ee were produced, with 43% conversion in 24h, indicating a discrete enantioconvergent behavior for AbEH. This novel epoxide hydrolase has biotechnological potential for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides or vicinal diols.

  18. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and

  19. Physiological and molecular responses to variation of light intensity in rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-feng

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of most important factors to plants because it is necessary for photosynthesis. In this study, physiological and gene expression analyses under different light intensities were performed in the seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) clone GT1. When light intensity increased from 20 to 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), there was no effect on the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), indicating that high light intensity did not damage the structure and function of PSII reaction center. However, the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electron transfer rate (ETR), and coefficient of photochemical fluorescence quenching assuming interconnected PSII antennae (qL) were increased significantly as the light intensity increased, reached a maximum at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased from 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). These results suggested that the PSII photochemistry showed an optimum performance at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity. The chlorophyll content was increased along with the increase of light intensity when it was no more than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Since increasing light intensity caused significant increase in H2O2 content and decreases in the per unit activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD, but the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was preserved at a low level even under high light intensity of 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), suggesting that high light irradiation did not induce membrane lipid peroxidation in rubber tree. Moreover, expressions of antioxidant-related genes were significantly up-regulated with the increase of light intensity. They reached the maximum expression at 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased at 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1). In conclusion, rubber tree could endure strong light irradiation via a specific mechanism. Adaptation to high light intensity is a complex process by regulating antioxidant enzymes activities, chloroplast formation, and

  20. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm−1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1→6)-(1→3)-β-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1→3)-β-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1→3)-β-D-gluco-(1→2)-β-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 μg/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 μg/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 μg/mL). PMID:23511057

  1. Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on plantlets subjected to severe abiotic stress using the Solexa technique. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant microRNA database (PMRD) and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 48 conserved miRNA families already characterized in other plant species, and 10 putatively novel miRNA families. The results showed the most abundant size for miRNAs to be 24 nucleotides, except for seven families. Several MIR genes produced both 20-22 nucleotides and 23-27 nucleotides. The two miRNA class sizes were detected for both conserved and putative novel miRNA families, suggesting their functional duality. The EST databases were scanned with conserved and novel miRNA sequences. MiRNA targets were computationally predicted and analysed. The predicted targets involved in "responses to stimuli" and to "antioxidant" and "transcription activities" are presented. Conclusions Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs when the complete genome is not yet available. Our study provided additional information for evolutionary studies and revealed potentially specific regulation of the control of redox status in Hevea. PMID:22330773

  2. Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. Results The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. Conclusions Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation. PMID:23324139

  3. High yield production of a mutant Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase in Pichia pastoris and its purification.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sven; Nieveler, Jens; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Schmid, Rolf D

    2006-04-05

    The mutant M301A of the acetylcholinesterase B from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (NbAChE) was produced in a high-cell-density fermentation of a recombinant methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Dissolved oxygen (DO) spikes were used as an indicator for feeding the carbon source. Wet cell weight (WCW) reached after 8 days a maximum value of 316 g/L and the OD600 at this time was 280. The acetylcholinesterase activity increased up to 6,600 U/mL corresponding to an expression rate of 2 g of NbAChE per liter supernatant. The specific activity of the mutant NbAChE was determined after purification as 3,300 U/mg. Active site titration with chlorpyrifos, a strong AChE inhibitor, yielded in a specific activity of 3,400 U/mg. The enzyme was secreted by Pichia pastoris. Therefore, it could be concentrated from culture broth by cross-flow-filtration (50 kDa cut-off membrane). It was further purified in one-step anion-exchange chromatography, using a XK 50/20 column filled with 125 mL Q Sepharose HP. Mutant NbAChE was purified 1.9-fold up to a purity of 97% and a yield of 87%. The isolated enzyme was nearly homogenous, as seen on the silver stained SDS-PAGE as well as by a single peak after gel filtration. This extraordinary high expression rate and the ease of purification is an important prerequisite for their practical application, for example in biosensors for the detection of neurotoxic insecticides.

  4. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, F T G S; Camelini, C M; Cordeiro, M N S; Mascarello, A; Malagoli, B G; Larsen, I V; Rossi, M J; Nunes, R J; Braga, F C; Brandt, C R; Simões, C M O

    2013-06-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurring during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14% sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm(-1) in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1→6)-(1→3)-β-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1→3)-β-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1→3)-β-D-gluco-(1→2)-β-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC₅₀=605.6 μg/mL) and MI-S (EC₅₀=342.1 μg/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC₅₀>1500 μg/mL).

  5. Insights into rubber biosynthesis from transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis latex.

    PubMed

    Chow, Keng-See; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Bahari, Azlina; Tan, Siang-Hee; Harikrishna, K; Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2007-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is the most widely cultivated species for commercial production of natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene). In this study, 10,040 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from the latex of the rubber tree, which represents the cytoplasmic content of a single cell type, in order to analyse the latex transcription profile with emphasis on rubber biosynthesis-related genes. A total of 3,441 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained after quality editing and assembly of EST sequences. Functional classification of UTs according to the Gene Ontology convention showed that 73.8% were related to genes of unknown function. Among highly expressed ESTs, a significant proportion encoded proteins related to rubber biosynthesis and stress or defence responses. Sequences encoding rubber particle membrane proteins (RPMPs) belonging to three protein families accounted for 12% of the ESTs. Characterization of these ESTs revealed nine RPMP variants (7.9-27 kDa) including the 14 kDa REF (rubber elongation factor) and 22 kDa SRPP (small rubber particle protein). The expression of multiple RPMP isoforms in latex was shown using antibodies against REF and SRPP. Both EST and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated REF and SRPP to be the most abundant transcripts in latex. Besides rubber biosynthesis, comparative sequence analysis showed that the RPMPs are highly similar to sequences in the plant kingdom having stress-related functions. Implications of the RPMP function in cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in the context of transcript abundance and differential gene expression are discussed.

  6. Variation of soil fertility and carbon sequestration by planting Hevea brasiliensis in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-Man; Wang, Ru-Song; Jiang, Ju-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The development of rubber industry depends on the sustainable management of rubber plantation. To evaluate the environmental effects of planting Hevea brasiliensis on a subsystem of tropical forest ecosystem, the variation of soil fertility and carbon sequestration under rubber plantation within 30-year life period were investigated in Hainan Island. Results showed that (1) with the increase of stand age of rubber plantation, soil fertility decreased all along. From 1954 to 1995, soil organic matter, total N, available K and available P decreased by 48.2%, 54.1%, 56.7% and 64.1%, respectively. (2) If the complete return of litters was considered without additional fertilizer application to the soil of the rubber plantations, the consumption periods for P, N, K, Mg were only 825 years, 329 years, 94 years and 65 years, respectively. To improve soil fertility is essential for rubber plantation development. (3) The C sequestration of rubber trees per hectare accounts for 272.08 t within 30-year life period and 57.91% of them was fixed in litters. In comparison with C sequestration by rain forest (234.305 t/hm2) and by secondary rain forest (150.203 t/hm2), rubber forest has more potentials for C fixation. On the base of above results, the following measures would benefit the maintenance of soil fertility and the development of rubber industry, including applying fertilizer to maintain the balance of soil nutrients, intercropping leguminous plant to improve soil fertility, reducing the collection of litters, optimizing soil properties to improve element P availability such as applying CaCO3. The information gathered from the study can be used as baseline data for the sustainable management of rubber plantation elsewhere.

  7. Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Duan, Cuifang; Kuswanhadi; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Rio, Maryannick; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Herlinawati, Eva; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Leclercq, Julie; Bonnot, François; Tang, Chaorong; Hu, Songnian; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea.

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the metacaspase gene family in Hevea brasiliensi