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Sample records for brasiliensis gomes rubiaceae

  1. Comparative study on the technological properties of latex and natural rubber from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work reports a systematic comparative study of the properties of natural lattices and rubbers extracted from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis [(Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] (clone RRIM 600) trees from 11 collections in Brazil throughout 2004. Natural rubber latex particl...

  2. Phytoalexin induction in rubiaceae.

    PubMed

    Braga, M R; Claudia, M; Young, M; Dietrich, S M; Gottlieb, O R

    1991-06-01

    Phytoalexin responses were measured by modified drop-diffusate and facilitated diffusion techniques after fungal inoculation of leaves of 32 Rubiaceae species from Brazilian forest and savanna. Such responses presented a trend similar to that previously observed for a broad sample of dicotyledonous plants and are more frequently positive for the more primitive (or slower growing) trees than for the advanced (or faster growing) herbs. Fifteen of these species analyzed during a one-year period showed that positive phytoalexin responses are stronger for the rainy (and hotter) than for the dry (and cooler) season. Species that contain relatively large quantities of phenolics gave invariably negative responses. Positive responses are not necessarily associated with the appearance of new substances within leaf tissue and are thus caused by inhibitins rather than by phytoalexins. These results are discussed recognizing that the tested plants are subject to the multifarious influences of their natural environment and of a possible conjugate-caused compartmentation of plant metabolites.

  3. GOME Observations of Atmospheric SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Beirle, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Hollwedel, J.; Kraus, S.; Kühl, S.; Shangavi, S.; Platt, U.; Wilms-Grabe, W.; Wagner, T.

    2003-04-01

    The GOME instrument on board ERS-2 has been proven to be sensitive to various tropospheric trace gases, like NO2, SO2, HCHO, H2O, BrO, and O4. Thus many important atmospheric phenomena (like biomass burning, anthropogenic pollution, long range transport of trace gases, etc.) can be monitored on a global scale and over an extended period of time (from 1995 to present). Satellite in particular, observations allow to monitor the temporal as well as the spatial variability of atmospheric trace gases. In this contribution we focus on GOME measurement of tropospheric SO2. SO2 is emitted from both natural (like Vulcaneos) and anthropogenic sources (like industrial emissions and heating during winter). Several case studies of high atmospheric SO2 concentrations measured by GOME are presented.

  4. GOME wavelength calibration using solar and atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspar, C.; Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral information in the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) solar irradiance spectra and GOME earth radiance spectra are used in conjunction with the GOME solar reference spectrum to provide absolute vacuum internal wavelength calibration for GOME. Two methods for wavelength calibration of GOME data are investigated. The first employs chi-square minimization of a merit function involving wavelength and the GOME slit function. It is quite robust and requires little GOME data in the processing (calibration window regions from 15 to 40 pixels). The second employs cross correlation of GOME data and the solar reference spectrum in the Fourier transform domain, using a procedure in the image reduction and analysis facility (IRAF) software system developed for the determination of galaxy redshifts. It also requires small amounts of GOME data (calibration window regions with from 10 to 15 pixels). Both methods provide absolute wavelength calibration accurate to a small fraction of a GOME pixel across the entire GOME spectrum, and to 0.001 nm over much of the range.

  5. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  6. US Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Geary, J. C.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAGW-2541 through September 30, 1997. The research performed under this grant includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, sensitivity and instrument studies to define GOME and SCIAMACHY instruments, consultation on optical and detector issues for both GOME and SCIAMACHY, consultation and development for SCIAMACHY near-real-time (NRT) and off-line (OL) data products, and development of infrared line-by-line atmospheric modeling and retrieval capability for SCIAMACHY. The European Space Agency selected the SAO to participate in GOME validation and science studies, part of the overall ERS AO. This provided access to all GOME data; The SAO activities that are carried out as a result of selection by ESA were funded by the present grant. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS- 2 satellite on April 20, 1995, and remains working in normal fashion. SCIAMACHY is currently scheduled for launch in early 2000. The first two European ozone monitoring instruments (OMI), to fly on the q series of operational meteorological satellites being planned by Eumetsat, have been selected to be GOME-type instruments (the first, in fact, will be the refurbished GOME flight spare). K. Chance is the U.S. member of the OMI Users Advisory Group.

  7. Defining the mammalian CArGome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Chen, Guang; Streb, Jeffrey W.; Long, Xiaochun; Yang, Yumei; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Miano, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) binds a 1216-fold degenerate cis element known as the CArG box. CArG boxes are found primarily in muscle- and growth-factor-associated genes although the full spectrum of functional CArG elements in the genome (the CArGome) has yet to be defined. Here we describe a genome-wide screen to further define the functional mammalian CArGome. A computational approach involving comparative genomic analyses of human and mouse orthologous genes uncovered >100 hypothetical SRF-dependent genes, including 10 previously identified SRF targets, harboring a conserved CArG element within 4000 bp of the annotated transcription start site (TSS). We PCR-cloned 89 hypothetical SRF targets and subjected each of them to at least two of several validations including luciferase reporter, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and mRNA expression following RNAi knockdown of SRF; 60/89 (67%) of the targets were validated. Interestingly, 26 of the validated SRF target genes encode for cytoskeletal/contractile or adhesion proteins. RNAi knockdown of SRF diminishes expression of several SRF-dependent cytoskeletal genes and elicits an attending perturbation in the cytoarchitecture of both human and rodent cells. These data illustrate the power of integrating existing algorithms to interrogate the genome in a relatively unbiased fashion for cis-regulatory element discovery. In this manner, we have further expanded the mammalian CArGome with the discovery of an array of cyto-contractile genes that coordinate normal cytoskeletal homeostasis. We suggest one function of SRF is that of an ancient master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:16365378

  8. Cell scientist to watch - Edgar Gomes.

    PubMed

    2017-01-15

    Edgar Gomes earned his PhD at the University of Coimbra in Portugal under the supervision of Carlos Duarte. He then travelled to the USA to train as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Gregg Gundersen at Columbia University in New York. Before moving back to Portugal in 2014, Edgar was a group leader in the Myology Institute at the University of Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris (France) as an INSERM Avenir Fellow. His lab investigates the mechanisms of nuclear positioning in skeletal muscle and in migrating cells.

  9. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  10. A new cloud algorithm for gome data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, M.; Beierle, S.; Friedeburg, C.; Hollwedel, J.; Khokhar, F.; Kühl, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wilms-Grabe, W.; Wagner, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on the ERS-2 satellite allows the measurement of many tropospheric trace gases (e.g. NO_2, SO_2, BrO, HCHO, H_2O) using the DOAS technique. Cloud algorithms are essential for the accurate retrieval of the tropospheric vertical column density of these trace gases. A new algorithm using PMD-data is presented. The results are validated through comparison with other algorithms (e.g. FRESCO, CRUSA). Problems found in existing algorithms such as overestimated cloud fractions over desert regions and negative values over oceans are significantly improved with the new algorithm. Also other possible errorsources like the systematic intensity decrease across the subpixels influences the calculation of the cloud fractions. The new algorithm tries to correct this effect.

  11. Tropospheric Formaldehyde Measurements from the ESA GOME Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Martin, R. V.; Fiore, A.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on the European Space Agency's ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995. GOME measures the Earth's atmosphere in the nadir geometry, using a set of spectrometers that cover the UV and visible (240-790 nm) at moderate resolution (0.2 nm in the UV, 0.4 nm in the visible), employing silicon diode array detectors. GOME takes some 30,000 spectra per day, obtaining full global coverage in three days. We directly fit GOME radiance spectra using nonlinear least-squares analysis to obtain column amounts of several trace species with significant tropospheric concentrations, including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements of HCHO due to biogenic activity in the troposphere are presented here.

  12. NLC occurrence frequency retrieval from SCIAMACHY, GOME and GOME-2 nadir data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, Martin; Von Savigny, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Noctilucent clouds NLCs are clouds occurring in the polar summer mesopause region at about 82-86 km altitude, and they can be observed poleward of about 50 degrees latitude. Due to their high altitude, they can scatter sunlight to the ground, even if it is dark at the ground, which makes them a fascinating bright phenomenon in the summer night sky. First observations of NLCs were reported in the 1880ies after the eruption of the Krakatau volcano. Afterwards they were seen every year and current long time studies show, that their occurrence rate is well anticorrelated with solar activity and it increased over time for the last decades. Ever since the NLCs were observed it was discussed whether their increasing occurrence rate can be interpreted as a sign of climate change in the upper atmosphere. With the SCIAMACHY, GOME and GOME 2 nadir measurements, which are very similar for each instrument a long time dataset of over 20 years of data is available to retrieve NLC occurrence frequencies. All three instruments have a very stable local times with descending nodes ranging between 9:30 a.m. and 10:30 a.m.. We present the algorithm to retrieve NLC occurrence frequencies from these instruments and results of this retrieval.

  13. U.S. Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAGW-2541 from April 1, 1996 through March 31, 1997. The research performed during this reporting period includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, consultation and development for SCIAMACHY near-real-time (NRT) and off-line (OL) data products, and development of infrared line-by-line atmospheric modeling and retrieval capability for SCIAMACHY. SAO also continues to participate in GOME validation studies, to the limit that can be accomplished at the present level of funding. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995, and remains working in normal fashion. SCIAMACHY is currently in instrument characterization. The first two European ozone monitoring instruments (OMI), to fly on the Metop series of operational meteorological satellites being planned by Eumetsat, have been selected to be GOME-type instruments (the first, in fact, will be the refurbished GOME flight spare). K. Chance is the U.S. member of the OMI Users Advisory Group.

  14. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor); Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents h m the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBUV, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  15. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents from the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBW, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  16. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  17. US Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Geary, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The research performed during this reporting period includes development and maintenance of scientific software for the GOME retrieval algorithms, consultation on operational software development for GOME, further sensitivity and instrument studies to help finalize the definition of the SCIAMACHY instrument, and consultation on optical and detector issues for both GOME and SCIAMACHY. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment was successfully launched on the ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995, during this reporting period, and is working in the expected fashion. The European Space Agency has made their selections from responses to the Announcement of Opportunity for GOME validation and science studies, part of the overall ERS AO. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposal has been selected. These proposals are primarily for access to the data; ESA does not provide research funding for the selected investigations. The SAO activities that are carried out as a result of selection by ESA are funded by the present grant, to the limit that can be accomplished at the present level of funding. SCIAMACHY is currently in Phase C/D. Instrument design is almost finalized and selection of infrared detectors from the initial production run has been made.

  18. Sommera cusucoana, a new species of Rubiaceae from Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Dietzsch, Anke C.; Kelly, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sommera cusucoana Lorence, D. Kelly & A. Dietzsch, sp. nov., (Rubiaceae), a new species from Honduras, differs from the other Mesoamerican Sommera species by the combination of large, obovate leaves with long red petioles, glabrous or glabrate intervenal areas, red stipules, lax, sparsely pubescent inflorescences with red axes, flowers with red hypanthium and calyx, long fruiting pedicels, and dark red mature fruits. It is known only from the type locality in Cusuco National Park. PMID:26751914

  19. Mitochondrial PCR-RFLP Assay to Distinguish Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma from Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis Subspecies (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis sensu lato (s.l.), the main vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil, is a species complex comprising four species, one with two subspecies (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki, and T. melanica), and each taxon displaying distinct ecological requirements. In order to evaluate the genetic relationships among nine T. brasiliensis s.l. populations from northeastern Brazil, we analyzed their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences and suggested a PCR-RFLP assay to distinguish between T. b. macromelasoma and T. b. brasiliensis subspecies. All the specimens were morphologically identified as T. b. brasiliensis. The resulting phylogenies identified two major clades that are congruent with the geographical populations studied. Based on collection sites and in accordance with type-location, one clade was identified as the subspecies T. b. macromelasoma. The second clade grouped T. b. brasiliensis populations. Restriction endonuclease sites were observed in the sequences and used in PCR-RFLP assays, producing distinct fingerprints for T. b. macromelasoma and T. b. brasiliensis populations. The results suggest that these are different species and that gene flow occurs only among T. b. brasiliensis populations, possibly associated with human activity in the area.

  20. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  1. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A J L; Yamaguishi, A T; Chaves, L J; Coelho, A S G; Lima, J S; Telles, M P C

    2015-07-03

    Herein, we describe 34 microsatellite loci developed using an enrichment genomic library for the tree species Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae). Thirty-five individuals were genotyped using 34 primers to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 20. The average number of alleles was 8.11, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.62 to 0.94. These microsatellite primers will be useful in population genetics studies for this species.

  3. Spectral surface albedo derived from GOME-2/Metop measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflug, Bringfried; Loyola, Diego

    2009-09-01

    Spectral surface albedo is an important input for GOME-2 trace gas retrievals. An algorithm was developed for estimation of spectral surface albedo from top-of-atmosphere (TOA)-radiances measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME-2 flying on-board MetOp-A. The climatologically version of this algorithm estimates Minimum Lambert-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) for a fixed time window and can use data of many years in contrast to the Near-real time version. Accuracy of surface albedo estimated by MLER-computation increases with the amount of available data. Unfortunately, most of the large GOME pixels are partly covered by clouds, which enhance the LER-data. A plot of LER-values over cloud fraction is used within this presentation to account for this influence of clouds. This "cloud fraction plot" can be applied over all surface types. Surface albedo obtained using the "cloud fraction plot" is compared with reference surface albedo spectra and with the FRESCO climatology. There is a general good agreement; however there are also large differences for some pixels.

  4. Tropical tropospheric column ozone from GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II using the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Weber, Mark; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Burrows, P. John

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone column can be retrieved with the Convective Clouds Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al., 1998) using total ozone column and cloud retrievals. The CCD technique uses the clear-sky and above-cloud ozone column measurements to derive a monthly mean tropospheric column amount by the subtraction of the above cloud column from the total column. An important assumption here is that stratospheric ozone is nearly invariant with longitude, which is only approximately true in the tropical region. A CCD algorithm has been developed and is applied to GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II measurements so that a unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (20oN - 20oS) can be created starting in 1995. First results of the CCD application that includes validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data will be presented.

  5. An Improved Retrieval of Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Bucsela, Eric; Gleason, James F.; Palmer, Paul I.; Bey, Isabelle; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument that improves in several ways over previous retrievals, especially in the accounting of Rayleigh and cloud scattering. Slant columns, which are directly fitted without low-pass filtering or spectral smoothing, are corrected for an artificial offset likely induced by spectral structure on the diffuser plate of the GOME instrument. The stratospheric column is determined from NO2 columns over the remote Pacific Ocean to minimize contamination from tropospheric NO2. The air mass factor (AMF) used to convert slant columns to vertical columns is calculated from the integral of the relative vertical NO2 distribution from a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological data (Global Earth Observing System (GEOS)-CHEM), weighted by altitude dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer), using local surface albedos determined from GOME observations at NO2 wavelengths. The AMF calculation accounts for cloud scattering using cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and cloud optical thickness from a cloud retrieval algorithm (GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm). Over continental regions with high surface emissions, clouds decrease the AMT by 20- 30% relative to clear sky. GOME is almost twice as sensitive to tropospheric NO2 columns over ocean than over land. Comparison of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns for July 1996 with GEOS-CHEM values tests both the retrieval and the nitrogen oxide radical (NOx) emissions inventories used in GEOS-CHEM. Retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns over the United States, where NOx emissions are particularly well known, are within 18% of GEOS-CHEM columns and are strongly spatially correlated (r = 0.78, n = 288, p less than 0.005). Retrieved columns show more NO2 than GEOS-CHEM columns over the Transvaal

  6. An Improved Retrieval of Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Bucsela, Eric; Gleason, James F.; Palmer, Paul I.; Bey, Isabelle; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument that improves in several ways over previous retrievals, especially in the accounting of Rayleigh and cloud scattering. Slant columns, which are directly fitted without low-pass filtering or spectral smoothing, are corrected for an artificial offset likely induced by spectral structure on the diffuser plate of the GOME instrument. The stratospheric column is determined from NO2 columns over the remote Pacific Ocean to minimize contamination from tropospheric NO2. The air mass factor (AMF) used to convert slant columns to vertical columns is calculated from the integral of the relative vertical NO2 distribution from a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological data (Global Earth Observing System (GEOS)-CHEM), weighted by altitude dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer), using local surface albedos determined from GOME observations at NO2 wavelengths. The AMF calculation accounts for cloud scattering using cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and cloud optical thickness from a cloud retrieval algorithm (GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm). Over continental regions with high surface emissions, clouds decrease the AMT by 20- 30% relative to clear sky. GOME is almost twice as sensitive to tropospheric NO2 columns over ocean than over land. Comparison of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns for July 1996 with GEOS-CHEM values tests both the retrieval and the nitrogen oxide radical (NOx) emissions inventories used in GEOS-CHEM. Retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns over the United States, where NOx emissions are particularly well known, are within 18% of GEOS-CHEM columns and are strongly spatially correlated (r = 0.78, n = 288, p less than 0.005). Retrieved columns show more NO2 than GEOS-CHEM columns over the Transvaal

  7. Primers for Clinical Detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    San-Blas, Gioconda; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Barreto, Laura; Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Bagagli, Eduardo; Olivero de Briceño, Rosa; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2005-01-01

    From a 0.72-kb fragment universally generated in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains, primers were designed and tested on genomic DNA of this and other pathogenic fungi. They were specific and highly sensitive for P. brasiliensis DNA. Positive results were obtained when these were tested in clinical samples. PMID:16081993

  8. Molecular detection and identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, G S; Aleff, R A; Kline, B C; da Silva Lacaz, C

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 800 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the 28S ribosomal gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were sequenced, and a 14-base DNA probe specific for this species was identified. Hybridization results showed that the probe identified P. brasiliensis ribosomal DNA in a panel of ribosomal DNAs representing a total of 48 species of fungi. PMID:9196219

  9. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  10. Phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae): its evolutionary and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiwu; Tu, Tieyao; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Zhu, Chengjie; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2014-09-01

    Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae) is an enigmatic, monotypic genus endemic to southwestern China. Its generic status has never been doubted because it is morphologically unique by having rosette habit, showy, long-corolla-tubed flowers, and multi-seeded indehiscent berry-like fruits. The genus has been postulated to be a relict in the broad-leaved forests of China, and to be related to the genus Wendlandia, which was placed in the subfamily Cinchonoideae and recently classified in the tribe Augusteae of the subfamily Dialypetalanthoideae. Using combined evidence from palynology, cytology, and DNA sequences of nuclear ITS and four plastid markers (rps16, trnT-F, ndhF, rbcL), we assessed the phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus in Rubiaceae. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the genus deeply nested within Wendlandia. This relationship is corroborated by evidence from palynology and cytology. Using a relaxed molecular clock method based on five fossil records, we dated the stem age of Wendlandia to be 17.46 my and, the split between G. acaulis and related Wendlandia species in southwestern China to be 2.11mya. This young age, coupled with the derived position in Wendlandia, suggests an evolutionary derivation rather than an evolutionary relict of G. acaulis. Its rosette habit and large showy flowers, which are very distinctive from other Wendlandias, are interpreted as a result of recent rapid adaptation to rock and cliff habitats.

  11. Operational trace gas column observations from GOME-2 on MetOp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valks, Pieter; Hao, Nan; Pinardi, Gaia; Hedelt, Pascal; Liu, Song; Van Roozendael, Michel; De Smedt, Isabelle; Theys, Nicolas; Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris

    2017-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the operational GOME-2 trace gas column products developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Atmospheric Composition Monitoring (AC-SAF). We present an overview of the retrieval algorithms for ozone, OClO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde, and we show examples of various applications such as air quality and climate monitoring, using observations from the GOME-2 instruments on MetOp-A and MetOp-B. Total ozone and the minor trace gas columns from GOME-2 are retrieved with the latest version 4.8 of the GOME Data Processor (GDP), which uses an optimized Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, with air mass factor conversions based on the LIDORT model. Improved total and tropospheric NO2 columns are retrieved in the visible wavelength region between 425 and 497 nm. SO2 emissions from volcanic and anthropogenic sources can be measured by GOME-2 using the UV wavelength region around 320 nm. For formaldehyde, an optimal DOAS fitting window around 335 nm has been determined for GOME-2. The GOME-2 trace gas columns have reached the operational EUMETSAT product status, and are available to the users in near real time (within two hours after sensing by GOME-2). The use of trace gas observations from the GOME-2 instruments on MetOp-A and MetOp-B for air quality purposed will be illustrated, e.g. for South-East Asia and Europe. Furthermore, comparisons of the GOME-2 satellite observations with ground-based measurements will be shown. Finally, the use of GOME-2 trace-gas column data in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) will be presented.

  12. Development of a prototype algorithm for the operational retrieval of height-resolved products from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurr, Robert J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) level 2 products of total ozone column amounts have been generated on a routine operational basis since July 1996. These products and the level 1 radiance products are the major outputs from the ERS-2 ground segment GOME data processor (GDP) at DLR in Germany. Off-line scientific work has already shown the feasibility of ozone profile retrieval from GOME. It is demonstrated how the retrievals can be performed in an operational context. Height-resolved retrieval is based on the optimal estimation technique, #and cloud-contaminated scenes are treated in an equivalent reflecting surface approximation. The prototype must be able to handle GOME measurements routinely on a global basis. Requirements for the major components of the algorithm are described: this incorporates an overall strategy for operational height-resolved retrieval from GOME.

  13. Development of a prototype algorithm for the operational retrieval of height-resolved products from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurr, Robert J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) level 2 products of total ozone column amounts have been generated on a routine operational basis since July 1996. These products and the level 1 radiance products are the major outputs from the ERS-2 ground segment GOME data processor (GDP) at DLR in Germany. Off-line scientific work has already shown the feasibility of ozone profile retrieval from GOME. It is demonstrated how the retrievals can be performed in an operational context. Height-resolved retrieval is based on the optimal estimation technique, #and cloud-contaminated scenes are treated in an equivalent reflecting surface approximation. The prototype must be able to handle GOME measurements routinely on a global basis. Requirements for the major components of the algorithm are described: this incorporates an overall strategy for operational height-resolved retrieval from GOME.

  14. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) in the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) have come to light and are described herein: Coprosma fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Coprosma meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and Coprosma temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR) and two into the Endangered (EN) category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp.), Cyrtandra (8 spp.), Bidens (8 spp.), Melicope (7 spp.), and Ixora (7 spp.). PMID:22171184

  15. An empirical sun-glint index for GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Lang, Rüdiger; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Sun-glint has high impact on several kinds of remote sensing applications over oceans, e.g. ocean color, detection of oil spills, retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties, or the retrieval of trace gas columns from spectral measurements. Here we investigate to what extent information about sun-glint can be derived from spectrally resolved measurements from satellite, e.g. GOME-2, covering the UV/vis spectral range, but with rather coarse spatial resolution. Several different quantities are investigated, e.g. radiance, operational cloud products, a color index, polarization state (Stokes fraction), and the oxygen column density. From the combination of color index and Stokes fraction, it is possible to differentiate between the occurrence of sun-glint and clouds, and an empirical sun-glint flag can be defined on the high spatial resolution of GOME-2 PMD measurements. This flag can be used to either exclude sun-glint situations, or to explicitly select them for their well-defined radiative transfer conditions and high reflectance. Going beyond simple flagging, a float sun-glint index might allow for a gradual quantification or correction of sun-glint effects, with potential applications in various fields of research (work in progress).

  16. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  17. Validation of GOME-2/Metop total column water vapour with ground-based and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalakoski, Niilo; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sofieva, Viktoria; Tamminen, Johanna; Grossi, Margherita; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The total column water vapour product from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 on board Metop-A and Metop-B satellites (GOME-2/Metop-A and GOME-2/Metop-B) produced by the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) is compared with co-located radiosonde observations and global positioning system (GPS) retrievals. The validation is performed using recently reprocessed data by the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7. The time periods for the validation are January 2007-July 2013 (GOME-2A) and December 2012-July 2013 (GOME-2B). The radiosonde data are from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ground-based GPS observations from the COSMIC/SuomiNet network are used as the second independent data source. We find a good general agreement between the GOME-2 and the radiosonde/GPS data. The median relative difference of GOME-2 to the radiosonde observations is -2.7 % for GOME-2A and -0.3 % for GOME-2B. Against the GPS, the median relative differences are 4.9 % and 3.2 % for GOME-2A and B, respectively. For water vapour total columns below 10 kg m-2, large wet biases are observed, especially against the GPS retrievals. Conversely, at values above 50 kg m-2, GOME-2 generally underestimates both ground-based observations.

  18. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Raquel Das Neves; Correa, Rafael; Burgel, Pedro Henrique; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti

    2013-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent systemic mycosis that is geographically confined to Latin America. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β that is mainly derived from the activation of the cytoplasmic multiprotein complex inflammasome is an essential host factor against opportunistic fungal infections; however, its role in infection with a primary fungal pathogen, such as P. brasiliensis, is not well understood. In this study, we found that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells responded to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection by releasing IL-1β in a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRP3 dependent manner. In addition, P. brasiliensis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was dependent on potassium (K+) efflux, reactive oxygen species production, phagolysosomal acidification and cathepsin B release. Finally, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, we demonstrated that IL-1β signaling has an important role in killing P. brasiliensis by murine macrophages. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome senses and responds to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection and plays an important role in host defense against this fungus. PMID:24340123

  19. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  20. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elida G; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Brígido, Marcelo de Macedo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Survival of pathogenic fungi inside human hosts depends on evasion from the host immune system and adaptation to the host environment. Among different insults that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has to handle are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the human host cells, and by its own metabolism. Knowing how the parasite deals with reactive species is important to understand how it establishes infection and survives within humans. The initiative to describe the P. brasiliensis transcriptome fostered new approaches to study oxidative stress response in this organism. By examining genes related to oxidative stress response, one can evaluate the parasite's ability to face this condition and infer about possible ways to overcome this ability. We report the results of a search of the P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tag database for homologous sequences involved in oxidative stress response. We described several genes coding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, for example, catalase and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxiredoxin, cytochrome c peroxidase, glutathione synthesis enzymes, thioredoxin, and the transcription factors Yap1 and Skn7. The transcriptome analysis of P. brasiliensis reveals a pathogen that has many resources to combat reactive species. Besides characterizing the antioxidant defense system in P. brasiliensis, we also compared the ways in which different fungi respond to oxidative damage, and we identified the basic features of this response.

  1. GOME Total Ozone and Calibration Error Derived Usign Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local stiucture as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The lb detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  2. GOME Total Ozone and Calibration Error Derived Usign Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local stiucture as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The lb detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  3. GOME total ozone and calibration error derived using Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local structure as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The 1b detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  4. GOME and Sciamachy data access using the Netherlands Sciamachy Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; de Vreede, Ernst; van de Vegte, John; van Hees, Ricard; van der Neut, Ian; Stammes, Piet; Pieters, Ankie; van der A, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    The Netherlands Sciamachy Data Center (NL-SCIA-DC) provides access to satellite data from the GOME and Sciamachy instruments for over 10 years now. GOME and Sciamachy both measure trace gases like Ozone, Methane, NO2 and aerosols, which are important for climate and air quality monitoring. Recently (February 2010) a new release of the NL-SCIA-DC provides an improved processing and archiving structure and an improved user interface. This Java Webstart application allows the user to browse, query and download GOME and Sciamachy data products, including KNMI and SRON GOME and Sciamachy products (cloud products, CH4, NO2, CO). Data can be searched on file and pixel level, and can be graphically displayed. The huge database containing all pixel information of GOME and Sciamachy is unique and allows specific selection, e.g., selecting cloud free pixels. Ordered data is delivered by FTP or email. The data available spans the mission times of GOME and Sciamachy, and is constantly updated as new data becomes available. The data services future upgrades include offering additional functionality to end-users of Sciamachy data. One of the functionalities provided will be the possibility to select and process Sciamachy products using different data processors, using Grid technology. This technology was successfully researched and will be made operationally available in the near future.

  5. A Comparative Study of Metal Levels in Leaves of Some Al‐accumulating Rubiaceae

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, STEVEN; WATANABE, TOSHIHIRO; DESSEIN, STEVEN; SMETS, ERIK; ROBBRECHT, ELMAR

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu and Ca were analysed in leaves of ten Rubiaceae species, most of which are Al accumulators, and these were compared with concentrations in one species of Melastomataceae. Quantitative data confirmed the distribution of Al accumulation as previously determined by semi‐quantitative tests, and suggest that there is an apparent congruency between the shoot Al concentration and the number of accumulators within a certain genus or tribe. Al accumulators within the Rubiaceae are most characteristic of the Rubioideae subfamily, although a second origin is likely in at least a few members of the tribes Vanguerieae and Alberteae. While the leaf Si concentration in Melastomata malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) was negligible, all Rubiaceae studied showed relatively high Si levels (mostly >3000 mg kg–1). It is hypothesized that an Al–Si complex is formed in the shoot tissues of Al‐accumulating Rubiaceae and that this may contribute to Al detoxification. However, the Si : Al mole ratio tended to differ widely among species. There was no significant correlation between Al and the other metals analysed. A remarkably high Mn concentration was found in Coptosapelta olaciformis Elm. PMID:12714364

  6. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Frederic; Groeninckx, Inge; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The tribe Spermacoceae is essentially a herbaceous Rubiaceae lineage, except for some species that can be described as ‘woody’ herbs, small shrubs to treelets, or lianas. Its sister tribe Knoxieae contains a large number of herbaceous taxa, but the number of woody taxa is higher compared to Spermacoceae. The occurrence of herbaceous and woody species within the same group raises the question whether the woody taxa are derived from herbaceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness represents the ancestral state (i.e. primary woodiness). Microscopic observations of wood anatomy are combined with an independent molecular phylogeny to answer this question. Methods Observations of wood anatomy of 21 woody Spermacoceae and eight woody Knoxieae species, most of them included in a multi-gene molecular phylogeny, are carried out using light microscopy. Key Results Observations of wood anatomy in Spermacoceae support the molecular hypothesis that all the woody species examined are secondary derived. Well-known wood anatomical characters that demonstrate this shift from the herbaceous to the woody habit are the typically flat or decreasing length vs. age curves for vessel elements, the abundance of square and upright ray cells, or even the (near-) absence of rays. These so-called paedomorphic wood features are also present in the Knoxieae genera Otiophora, Otomeria, Pentas, Pentanisia and Phyllopentas. However, the wood structure of the other Knoxieae genera observed (Carphalea, Dirichletia and Triainolepis) is typical of primarily woody taxa. Conclusions In Spermacoceae, secondary woodiness has evolved numerous times in strikingly different habitats. In Knoxieae, there is a general trend from primary woodiness towards herbaceousness and back to (secondary) woodiness. PMID:19279041

  7. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions using the GOME-2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focusses on the GOME-2 SO2 column products from the METOP-A and B satellites. The GOME-2 SO2 column product has been developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic SO2 provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. Volcanic eruptions may bring ash and gases (e.g. SO2) high up into the atmosphere, where a long-range transport can occur. SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic activity and an excellent tracer for volcanic eruption clouds, especially if ash detection techniques fail. SO2 can affect aviation safety: In the cabin it can cause disease and respiratory symptoms, whereas in its hydrogenated form H2SO4 it is highly corrosive and can cause damage to jet engines as well as pitting of windscreens. We will present results for volcanic events retrieved from GOME-2 solar backscattered measurements in the UV wavelength region around 320nm using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. SO2 columns are generated operationally by DLR with the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7 and are available in near-real-time, i.e. within two hours after sensing. Using data from both MetOp satellites allows for a daily global coverage. We will furthermore present current improvements to the GOME-2 SO2 column product.

  8. Improvement of total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Valks, Pieter; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Huan, Yu; Beirle, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the development and refinement of novel scientific algorithms for the retrieval of total and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns for the GOME-2 satellite instrument. NO2 plays significant roles in atmospheric chemistry. It is strongly related to ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and is regarded as an important air pollutant and ozone precursor in the troposphere. Total NO2 columns from GOME-2 are retrieved with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method using the large 425-497 nm wavelength fitting window in order to increase the signal to noise ratio. The tropospheric NO2 column is derived using an improved Stratospheric-Tropospheric separation (STS) algorithm, followed by an air mass factor (AMF) conversion calculated with the LIDORT model. For the calculation of the tropospheric AMF, improved GOME-2 cloud parameters are used and a new surface albedo (LER) climatology based on GOME-2 observations for 2007-2013 is applied. We present the improvements in the NO2 retrieval algorithm, and we show examples of air quality applications with GOME-2 NO2 data.

  9. Improved retrieval of total and tropospheric NO2 column for GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Valks, Pieter; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Yu, Huan; Beirle, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the algorithm refinement for the retrieval of total and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns for the GOME-2 satellite instrument. The improved algorithm will be implemented in the upcoming version of the operational GOME Data Processor (GDP) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). A larger 425-497 nm wavelength fitting window is used in the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval of the NO2 slant column density. The reference spectra are updated, and the GOME-2 slit function variations over time and along orbit is taken into account. In addition, the effect of the new level 1b data version 6.1 on the retrieved NO2 slant column is analyzed. The STRatospheric Estimation Algorithm from Mainz (STREAM) is applied to determine the stratospheric column density of NO2. For the calculation of the tropospheric AMF, a new surface albedo climatology based on GOME-2 observations for 2007-2013 and a priori NO2 profile obtained from the chemical transport model IMAGESv2 are used. We present the improvements in the NO2 retrieval algorithm and show comparisons with OMI NO2 data. Furthermore, we show examples of air quality applications with GOME-2 NO2 data.

  10. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  11. Overinfection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Gouty Crystal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Abadía, F.; Vélez, J. D.; Zárate-Correa, L. C.; Carrascal, E.; Guarín, N.; Castañeda-Ramírez, C. R.; Cañas, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic South American systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). The main clinical form of disease is pulmonary, but all organs may be involved. We report a case of overinfection by P. brasiliensis in chronic gouty arthritis affecting the proximal phalanx of the right hallux. The patient required proximal amputation and long-term antifungal therapy. PMID:23251162

  12. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Loyola, D.; Gimeno García, S.; Romahn, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) and to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud top height (CTH), cloud top pressure (CTP), cloud top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than six years of GOME-2A data (February 2007-June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing angle dependent and latitude dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with co-located AVHRR geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15±0.20. From operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its extremely fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA by using the polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  13. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2004-09-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2) is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities.

    Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2). We use this data (1997-2001) to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information.

    The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories.

    The small spatial extent of NO2 "hot spots" allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale.

    The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT), OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA) or GOME II (to be launched 2005) with an improved spatial resolution.

  14. The GODFIT Direct Fitting Algorithm: A New Approach for Total Ozone Retrieval From GOME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurr, R. J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lambert, J.; Fayt, C.

    2004-05-01

    We present a new Direct Fitting algorithm (GODFIT) for the retrieval of total ozone amounts from nadir viewing remote sensing spectrometers (such as GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2) which take earthshine measurements in the UV ozone Huggins bands. The algorithm is designed for direct comparison with measurements, and all radiative transfer (RT) calculations are done from scratch. We use the linearized RT model LIDORT, which has a single-call facility for simultaneous computations of radiances and fast analytic calculations of Jacobians with respect to surface and atmospheric properties. RT calculations require an input profile of ozone partial columns; we use a column-classified ozone profile climatology (the TOMS Version 8 data set) which provides a unique map between the fitted total column and the input RT profile. To compensate for lack of knowledge of tropospheric aerosol, we perform calculations in a Rayleigh atmosphere and fit for the surface albedo as an internal closure parameter; the algorithm is less sensitive to the presence of aerosol than DOAS-AMF algorithms customarily used for this retrieval. The Ring effect is important in the UV, and GODFIT contains a new treatment for the correction of interference effects due to the filling-in of ozone molecular features by inelastic rotational Raman scattering. The algorithm is flexible and direct, and operates without the need for extensive look-up tables. The algorithm was applied to a subset of some 2000 GOME orbits used in validation studies for the total ozone product. The algorithm can process one orbit (~2000 scenes) in under half an hour. Results were compared with ground data from a well-documented network of surface stations, with TOMS total ozone measurements (Version 8), and also with GOME-derived columns from the latest version of the GDP (operational GOME Data Processor DOAS-type total ozone algorithm). With the new results, previously observed seasonality and solar angle dependencies are greatly

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. PMID:28348912

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  17. Nuclear staining of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, J G; Restrepo, B I; Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A

    1987-10-01

    More than 80% of the conidia produced by two different isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, were found to be uninucleate; however, when they were incubated at 37 degrees C and began to transform into yeast cells, they became bi- or multi-nucleated, so that when most of the conidia had already transformed into yeast cells (72-96 h), there were at least four or five nuclei per cell in approximately 80% of the conidia examined.

  18. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes.

  19. Bioinformatics of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis EST Project.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Marcelo M; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Oliveira, Adilton G; Inoue, Marcus K; Anjos, Daniel S; Sandes, Edans F O; Gondim, João J; Carvalho, Maria José de A; Almeida, Nalvo F; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares

    2005-06-30

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic mycosis of Latin America. This fungus presents a dimorphic character; it grows as a mycelium at room temperature, but it is isolated as yeast from infected individuals. It is believed that the transition from mycelium to yeast is important for the infective process. The Functional and Differential Genome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Project--PbGenome Project was developed to study the infection process by analyzing expressed sequence tags--ESTs, isolated from both mycelial and yeast forms. The PbGenome Project was executed by a consortium that included 70 researchers (professors and students) from two sequencing laboratories of the midwest region of Brazil; this project produced 25,741 ESTs, 19,718 of which with sufficient quality to be analyzed. We describe the computational procedures used to receive process, analyze these ESTs, and help with their functional annotations; we also detail the services that were used for sequence data exploration. Various programs were compared for filtering and grouping the sequences, and they were adapted to a user-friendly interface. This system made the analysis of the differential transcriptome of P. brasiliensis possible.

  20. GOME level 1-to-2 data processor version 3.0: a major upgrade of the GOME/ERS-2 total ozone retrieval algorithm.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Robert; Loyola, Diego; Thomas, Werner; Balzer, Wolfgang; Mikusch, Eberhard; Aberle, Bernd; Slijkhuis, Sander; Ruppert, Thomas; van Roozendael, Michel; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Soebijanta, Trisnanto

    2005-11-20

    The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) was launched in April 1995, and the GOME data processor (GDP) retrieval algorithm has processed operational total ozone amounts since July 1995. GDP level 1-to-2 is based on the two-step differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) approach, involving slant column fitting followed by air mass factor (AMF) conversions to vertical column amounts. We present a major upgrade of this algorithm to version 3.0. GDP 3.0 was implemented in July 2002, and the 9-year GOME data record from July 1995 to December 2004 has been processed using this algorithm. The key component in GDP 3.0 is an iterative approach to AMF calculation, in which AMFs and corresponding vertical column densities are adjusted to reflect the true ozone distribution as represented by the fitted DOAS effective slant column. A neural network ensemble is used to optimize the fast and accurate parametrization of AMFs. We describe results of a recent validation exercise for the operational version of the total ozone algorithm; in particular, seasonal and meridian errors are reduced by a factor of 2. On a global basis, GDP 3.0 ozone total column results lie between -2% and +4% of ground-based values for moderate solar zenith angles lower than 70 degrees. A larger variability of about +5% and -8% is observed for higher solar zenith angles up to 90 degrees.

  1. Intercomparison of 4 Years of Global Formaldehyde Observations from the GOME-2 and OMI Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Stravrakou, Trissevgeni; Muller, Jean-Francois; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Formaldehyde (H2CO) tropospheric columns have been retrieved since 2007 from backscattered UV radiance measurements performed by the GOME-2 instrument on the EUMETSAT METOP-A platform. This data set extends the successful time-series of global H2CO observations established with GOME/ ERS-2 (1996-2003), SCIAMACHY/ ENVISAT (2003-2012), and OMI on the NASA AURA platform (2005-now). In this work, we perform an intercomparison of the H2CO tropospheric columns retrieved from GOME-2 and OMI between 2007 and 2010, respectively at BIRA-IASB and at Harvard SAO. We first compare the global formaldehyde data products that are provided by each retrieval group. We then investigate each step of the retrieval procedure: the slant column fitting, the reference sector correction and the air mass factor calculation. New air mass factors are computed for OMI using external parameters consistent with those used for GOME-2. By doing so, the impacts of the different a priori profiles and aerosol corrections are quantified. The remaining differences are evaluated in view of the expected diurnal variations of the formaldehyde concentrations, based on ground-based measurements performed in the Beijing area.

  2. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  3. A preliminary comparison between TOVS and GOME level 2 ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathman, William; Monks, Paul S.; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Burrows, John P.

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary comparison between total column ozone concentration values derived from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has been carried out. Two comparisons of ozone datasets have been made: a) TOVS ozone analysis maps vs. GOME level 2 data; b) TOVS data located at Northern Hemisphere Ground Ozone Stations (NHGOS) vs. GOME data. Both analyses consistently showed an offset in the value of the total column ozone between the datasets [for analyses a) 35 Dobson Units (DU); and for analyses b) 10 DU], despite a good correlation between the spatial and temporal features of the datasets. A noticeably poor correlation in the latitudinal bands 10°/20° North and 10°/20° South was observed—the reasons for which are discussed. The smallest region which was statistically representative of the ozone value correlation dataset of TOVS data at NHGOS and GOME level-2 data was determined to be a region that was enclosed by effective radius of 0.75 arc-degrees (83.5km).

  4. (13)C-NMR Spectral Data of Alkaloids Isolated from Psychotria Species (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho Junior, Almir Ribeiro de; Vieira, Ivo Jose Curcino; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; S Lima, Mary Anne; Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; José Maria, Edmilson; Oliveira, Daniela Barros de

    2017-01-11

    The genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) comprises more than 2000 species, mainly found in tropical and subtropical forests. Several studies have been conducted concerning their chemical compositions, showing that this genus is a potential source of alkaloids. At least 70 indole alkaloids have been identified from this genus so far. This review aimed to compile (13)C-NMR data of alkaloids isolated from the genus Psychotria as well as describe the main spectral features of different skeletons.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1. PMID:22535940

  6. Thyroid peroxidase inhibition by Kalanchoe brasiliensis aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C; Rosenthal, D; Carvalho, D P

    2000-05-01

    Flavonoids are known inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and some are components of Kalanchoe brasiliensis, a plant used in popular medicine to treat tissue injuries, enlarged ganglia and peptic ulcer. As K. brasiliensis extract is currently used, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of K. brasiliensis aqueous extract on TPO activity. We show here that TPO iodide-oxidation activity was significantly inhibited by K. brasiliensis aqueous extract and that TPO inhibition seems to be competitive, since the enzyme V(max) was unchanged and K(m) for iodide was significantly increased in the presence of the plant extract. Furthermore, TPO inhibitory activity produced by K. brasiliensis extract was unchanged after boiling or by incubation with hepatic enzymes (activated S9 fraction), suggesting that at least the antithyroid component of this plant infusion could probably reach systemic circulation. We also report that K. brasiliensis aqueous extract is able to scavenge H(2)O(2), in vitro. As H(2)O(2) is an essential TPO cofactor, it is possible that the H(2)O(2) trapping effect of K. brasiliensis may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the iodide-oxidation reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Thus, K. brasiliensis aqueous extract has antithyroid effects in vitro, suggesting that its chronic consumption could contribute to the development of goitre and hypothyroidism, mainly in areas of low iodine intake.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

  8. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar.

  9. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  10. A Revised Time Tree of the Asterids: Establishing a Temporal Framework For Evolutionary Studies of the Coffee Family (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Niklas; Kainulainen, Kent; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.; Smedmark, Jenny E. E.; Bremer, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Divergence time analyses in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) have all relied on the same Gentianales crown group age estimate, reported by an earlier analysis of the asterids, for defining the upper age bound of the root node in their analyses. However, not only did the asterid analysis suffer from several analytical shortcomings, but the estimate itself has been used in highly inconsistent ways in these Rubiaceae analyses. Based on the original data, we here reanalyze the divergence times of the asterids using relaxed-clock models and 14 fossil-based minimum age constraints. We also expand the data set to include an additional 67 taxa from Rubiaceae sampled across all three subfamilies recognized in the family. Three analyses are conducted: a separate analysis of the asterids, which completely mirrors the original asterid analysis in terms of taxon sample and data; a separate analysis of the Gentianales, where the result from the first analysis is used for defining a secondary root calibration point; and a combined analysis where all taxa are analyzed simultaneously. Results are presented in the form of a time-calibrated phylogeny, and age estimates for asterid groups, Gentianales, and major groups of Rubiaceae are compared and discussed in relation to previously published estimates. Our updated age estimates for major groups of Rubiaceae provide a significant step forward towards the long term goal of establishing a robust temporal framework for the divergence of this biologically diverse and fascinating group of plants. PMID:25996595

  11. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  12. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound.

  13. Redox properties of Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grime (Fabaceae) stem bark ethanol extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Dias, A S; Lima, A C B; Santos, A L M L; Rabelo, T K; Serafini, M R; Andrade, C R; Fernandes, X A; Moreira, J C F; Gelain, D P; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2013-01-01

    The redox properties of the hydroethanol extract (EE) and its ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol (HMF) fractions obtained from Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark were evaluated. EAF had the highest total phenol content (848.62 ± 78.18 mg g⁻¹), while EE showed the highest content of catechin (71.2 µg g⁻¹). EE, EAF and HMF exhibited the highest levels of antioxidant activity at 100 and 1000 µg mL⁻¹ when the non-enzymatic antioxidant potential was evaluated by the total reactive antioxidant potential, total antioxidant reactivity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. In addition, EAF and HMF showed SOD-like activity. The results for EE, EAF and HMF in this study showed that A. cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark have redox properties and may be able to help the endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems to keep the redox balance.

  14. Long-term analysis of GOME in-flight calibration parameters and instrument degradation.

    PubMed

    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Slijkhuis, Sander; Aberle, Bernd; Loyola, Diego

    2008-09-10

    Since 1995, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has measured solar and backscattered spectra in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range. Now, the extensive data set of the most important calibration parameters has been investigated thoroughly in order to analyze the long-term stability and performance of the instrument. This study focuses on GOME in-flight calibration and degradation for the solar path. Monitoring the sensor degradation yields an intensity decrease of 70% to 90% in 240-316 nm and 35% to 65% in 311-415 nm. The spectral calibration is very stable over the whole period, although a very complex interaction between predisperser temperature and wavelength was found. The leakage current and the pixel-to-pixel gain increased significantly during the mission, which requires an accurate correction of the measured radiance and irradiance signals using proper calibration parameters. Finally, several outliers in the data sets can be directly assigned to instrument and satellite anomalies.

  15. SO2 columns over China: Temporal and spatial variations using OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huanhuan, Yan; Liangfu, Chen; Lin, Su; Jinhua, Tao; Chao, Yu

    2014-03-01

    Enhancements of SO2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources over China were shown in this paper by using OMI and GOME-2 observations. The temporal and spatial variations of SO2 columns over China were analyzed for the time period 2005-2010. Beijing and Chongqing showed a high concentration in the SO2 columns, attributable to the use of coal for power generation in China and the characteristic of terrain and meteorology. The reduction of SO2 columns over Beijing and surrounding provinces in 2008 was observed by OMI, which confirms the effectiveness of strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic before and during 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The SO2 columns over China from GOME-2 (0.2-0.5 DU) were lower than those from OMI (0.6-1 DU), but both showed a decrease in SO2 columns over northern China since 2008 (except an increase in OMI SO2 in 2010).

  16. Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

  17. Simulations of Solar Induced Fluorescence compared to observations from GOSAT and GOME-2 Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Berry, J. A.; Frankenberg, C.; Joiner, J.; Van der Tol, C.; Lee, J. E.; Denning, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) are currently retrieved from the GOSAT and GOME-2 satellites, and will become available from OCO-2 shortly. The GOSAT (and OCO-2) satellite has a midday overpass time, while GOME-2 has a variable observation of approximately 0800-1100 local time. Previous studies have demonstrated a linear relationship between SIF and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), but lack the ability to investigate causes of spatiotemporal variability. We demonstrate an ability to simulate SIF using a landsurface model (the Simple Biosphere Model; SIB) for direct comparison to observations. We calculate fluorescence yield based on known relationships between photosynthesis and fluorescence, and calculate total SIF using existing leaf-to-canopy scaling factors. We find that simulated SIF exceeds GOSAT retrieved SIF, especially in tropical and Boreal forests. Simulated SIF exceeds GOME-2 values in Boreal forest and in lower-productivity areas such as marginal desert and tundra. Observed SIF GOME-2 in croplands is significantly higher than simulations. SIF simulated for low- and high-productivity grassland and savanna show much less seasonal and interannual amplitude when compared to values from both satellites, implicating that model phenology and/or response to meteorological forcing is damped. Simulated SIF seasonal cycles are similar to observed from both satellites, and simulations are able to reproduce drought events such as occurred in Russia in 2010 and the Central USA in 2012. As simulated SIF more closely resembles observations, model estimates of GPP become more robust, as does our ability to understand and recreate the mechanisms involved in vegetation response to seasonal cycles and anomalous stress events such as drought.

  18. 7-year temporal trend of anthropogenic SO2 emissions over China identified from GOME observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    Fossil fuels such as coal and oil contain significant amounts of sulfur When burned this sulfur is generally converted to SO2 The GOME observations showed enhancements of SO2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources These enhancements are identified from the regions with extensive burning of coal smelting of metal ores and heavy industrial activities such as from China Eastern USA the Arabian Peninsula Eastern Europe South Africa and particularly Norilsk Russia Also a comparison with GOME observations of anthropogenic NO2 column amounts is presented In this paper we present time series of SO2 SCDs over China We analyzed GOME data for the time period 1996-2002 Time series over the highly industrialized regions Beijing and Shanghai showed a slight increase in the SO2 SCD attributable to the increased use of coal for power generation in China Zhou 2001 Especially during the GOME-period 1996-2001 coal consumption and SO2 time series reflect similar behaviour However Richter et al 2005 calculated a significant increase in the NO2 concentrations over the industrial areas of China for the time period of 1996-2004 Additionally preliminary results of atmospheric SO2 from SCIAMACHY on board EnviSAT-1 since March 2002 instrument with broader spectral and better spatial resolution is presented The better spatial resolution will help to study and localize the impacts of SO2 emissions on a finer spatial scale References Richter A J P Burrows H Nuess C Granier and U Niemeier Increase in tropospheric nitrogen

  19. Tropospheric ozone and ozone profiles retrieved from GOME-2 and their validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, G. M.; Siddans, R.; Kerridge, B. J.; Latter, B. G.; Richards, N. A. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and assesses the performance of the RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) ozone profile retrieval scheme for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) with a focus on tropospheric ozone. Developments to the scheme since its application to GOME-1 measurements are outlined. These include the approaches developed to account sufficiently for UV radiometric degradation in the Hartley band and for inadequacies in knowledge of instrumental parameters in the Huggins bands to achieve the high-precision spectral fit required to extract information on tropospheric ozone. The assessment includes a validation against ozonesondes (sondes) sampled worldwide over 2 years (2007-2008). Standard deviations of the ensemble with respect to the sondes are considerably lower for the retrieved profiles than for the a priori, with the exception of the lowest subcolumn. Once retrieval vertical smoothing (averaging kernels) has been applied to the sonde profiles there is a retrieval bias of 6% (1.5 DU) in the lower troposphere, with smaller biases in the subcolumns above. The bias in the troposphere varies with latitude. The retrieval underestimates lower tropospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) (15-20% or ~ 1-3 DU) and overestimates it in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) (10% or 2 DU). The ability of the retrieval to reflect the geographical distribution of lower tropospheric ozone, globally (rather than just ozonesonde launch sites) is demonstrated by comparison with the chemistry transport model TOMCAT. For a monthly mean of cloud-cleared GOME-2 pixels, a correlation of 0.66 is found between the retrieval and TOMCAT sampled accordingly, with a bias of 0.7 Dobson Units. GOME-2 estimates higher concentrations in NH pollution centres but lower ozone in the Southern Ocean and South Pacific, which is consistent with the comparison to ozonesondes.

  20. An Advanced Cloud Product For The Interpretation of Tropospheric Data From Gome and Sciamachy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Friedeburg, Christoph V.; Grzegorski, Michael; Wenig, Mark; Platt, Ulrich

    During the last years advanced algorithms for the analysis of tropospheric trace gases from satellite have been developed. In particular, it was possible to determine tro- pospheric column densities of BrO, NO2, HCHO, SO2, H2O, O2, and (O2)2 from observations of GOME. However, all of these data products are strongly affected by clouds, which (a) shield the atmosphere below the cloud cover and (b) show typically a larger albedo compared to the earths surface. These effects strongly limit the quan- titative analysis of tropospheric trace gas products. Already existing cloud algorithms are based on spatially resolved intensity measurements and on the measurement of the O2-A-band absorption. However, both quantities show important shortcomings, especially over snow and ice surfaces. We investigate a large variety of cloud sensitive parameters measured by GOME including also the polarisation of the measured light and in particular various absorption bands of the oxygen dimer O4 (at 360, 380, 477, 577, and 630 nm) as well as the Ring effect. It turned out that several of these quan- tities are well suited for the characterisation of clouds even over bright surfaces. Here present first results of a GOME cloud product for polar regions.

  1. Retrieval Of Cloud Pressure And Chlorophyll Content Using Raman Scattering In GOME Ultraviolet Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Joiner, Joanna; Vasikov, Alexander; Flittner, David; Gleason, James; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable cloud pressure estimates are needed for accurate retrieval of ozone and other trace gases using satellite-borne backscatter ultraviolet (buv) instruments such as the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME). Cloud pressure can be derived from buv instruments by utilizing the properties of rotational-Raman scattering (RRS) and absorption by O2-O2. In this paper we estimate cloud pressure from GOME observations in the 355-400 nm spectral range using the concept of a Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (LER) surface. GOME has full spectral coverage in this range at relatively high spectral resolution with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. This allows for much more accurate estimates of cloud pressure than were possible with its predecessors SBUV and TOMS. We also demonstrate the potential capability to retrieve chlorophyll content with full-spectral buv instruments. We compare our retrieved LER cloud pressure with cloud top pressures derived from the infrared ATSR instrument on the same satellite. The findings confirm results from previous studies that showed retrieved LER cloud pressures from buv observations are systematically higher than IR-derived cloud-top pressure. Simulations using Mie-scattering radiative transfer algorithms that include O2-O2 absorption and RRS show that these differences can be explained by increased photon path length within and below cloud.

  2. Identification, origin, and evolution of leaf nodulating symbionts of Sericanthe (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Robbrecht, Elmar; van Wyk, Braam; Van Oevelen, Sandra; Verstraete, Brecht; Prinsen, Els; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial leaf symbiosis is an intimate association between bacteria and plants in which endosymbionts are housed within leaf nodules. This phenomenon has been reported in three genera of Rubiaceae (Pavetta, Psychotria, and Sericanthe), but the bacterial partner has only been identified in Psychotria and Pavetta. Here we report the identification of symbiotic bacteria in two leaf nodulating Sericanthe species. Using 16S rRNA data and common housekeeping genetic markers (recA and gyrB) we studied the phylogenetic relationships of bacterial endosymbionts in Rubiaceae. Endosymbionts of leaf nodulating Rubiaceae were found to be closely related and were placed as a monophyletic group within the genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria). The phylogenetic analyses revealed a pattern of strict host specificity and placed the two investigated endosymbionts at two distinct positions in the topology of the tree, suggesting at least two different evolutionary origins. The degree of sequence divergence between the Sericanthe endosymbionts and their relatives was large enough to propose the Sericanthe endosymbionts as new species ('Candidatus Burkholderia andongensis' and 'Candidatus Burkholderia petitii'). In a second part of this study, the pylogenetic relationships among nodulating and non-nodulating Sericanthe species were investigated using sequence data from six chloroplast regions (rps16, trnG, trnL-trnF, petD, petA-psbJ, and atpI-atpH). Overall, genetic variation among the plastid markers was insufficient to enable phylogenetic estimation. However, our results could not rule out the possibility that bacterial leaf symbiosis originated once in a common ancestor of the Sericanthe species.

  3. Hydrolytic enzymes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Bruno; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Siqueira, Saulo J L de; Parachin, Nádia S; Torres, Fernando A G

    2005-06-30

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. The yeast form of this pathogen is found in the animal host whereas the mycelial form is recovered from living and non-living organic material. The sole carbon source available in these habitats is represented by polysaccharides from the plant cell wall. Hydrolytic enzymes are necessary to convert these polymers into simple sugars for fungal metabolism. We report on the presence of ortholog genes of hydrolytic enzymes identified in the P. brasiliensis transcriptome and on hydrolytic activities in supernatants of induced P. brasiliensis cultures of mycelium and yeast cells. Enzymatic assays have shown cellulase and xylanase activities, both being higher in mycelium than in the yeast form. Amylase and chitinase activities were detected only in mycelium. Data so far reinforce the idea that mycelial P. brasiliensis is a saprobe.

  4. Galium shinasii (Rubiaceae): a new species of Galium L. from Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Şık, Levent; Yıldırım, Hasan; Pirhan, Ademi Fahri; Altıoğlu, Yusuf; Gemici, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Galium shinasii Yıldırım (Rubiaceae), is described as a new species from Malatya Province in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The new species is morphologically related to Galium cornigerum Boiss. & Hausskn. Galium lasiocarpum and Galium sorgereae Ehrend. and Schönb. but clearly differs from them based on the morphological differences presented in the species description. In addition, the conservation status, the distribution map, and notes on the biogeography and ecology of the new species are given. PMID:28127242

  5. Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Saludes, Jonel P; Garson, Mary J; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2002-11-01

    A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.

  6. Development of an OClO Slant Column Product for the GOME-2 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion by catalytic reactions involving halogens is one of the most prominent examples of anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere. In spite of the rapid and successful international action to reduce emissions of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances leading to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone depletion in polar spring is still observed in both hemispheres on a regular basis. For the coming years, slow ozone recovery is expected but individual years will still see very low ozone columns depending on meteorology and possible interactions with climate change. Monitoring of both ozone and ozone depleting substances in the stratosphere remains a priority to ensure that the predicted reduction in halogen levels and recovery of ozone columns is taking place as predicted. One way to observe stratospheric chlorine activation is by measurements of OClO which can be detected by UV/visible remote sensing from the ground and from satellite. While the link between OClO levels and chlorine activation is complicated by the fact that a) OClO is not directly involved in ozone depletion but is produced by reaction of BrO and ClO and b) is rapidly photolysed at daylight, the long existing data series from both ground-based and satellite observations makes it an interesting tracer of chlorine activation. The GOME-2 instruments on the MetOp series of satellites are nadir viewing UV/vis spectrometers having the spectral coverage and resolution needed for Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy retrievals of OClO. With their combined lifetime of more than 15 years, they can provide a long-term data set. However, previous attempts to create an OClO product for GOME-2 suffered from large scatter in the OClO data and time-dependent offsets. Here we present an improved OClO slant column retrieval for the two instruments GOME2-A and GOME2-B. The data is shown to be of similar quality as for earlier instruments such as SCIAMACHY, and is consistent

  7. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed.

  8. [Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, M G; Guarneri, A A; Pires, H H; Diotaiuti, L; Lazzari, C R

    2000-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution.

  9. Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, W P K; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L C; Karunanayake, E H; Priyanka, U M S

    2002-01-01

    Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance.

  10. Evaluating a new homogeneous total ozone climate data record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Labow, G.; Frith, S.; Spurr, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 ± 1% level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3% requirement of the European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change

  11. A new scientific product of water vapor derived from GOME, SCHIAMACHY and GOME-2 based on look-up-table AMF approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Lampel, Johannes; Grossi, Margherita; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Water vapour (H2O) is a key component of the Earth atmosphere and has a strong impact on the Earth's radiative balance. Satellite observations offer the unique opportunity to study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O on a global scale. The operational DLR H2O total column products of GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 are retrieved using the absorptions of H2O and of molecular oxygen (O2) in the spectral range from 614-683.2 nm (http://atmos.eoc.dlr.de/gome/product_h2o.html). This algorithm is robust and easy to implement and is almost independent of external data sets. However the operational retrieval also has its limitations: 1) the differences in vertical profiles of H2O and O2 can lead to large errors for individual observations (especially if clouds are present); 2) the retrieval contains a number of corrections, which complicate a detailed error analysis; 3) the retrieval does not explicitly account for the impact of strong absorptions on the effective light path and terrain height variations. In order to overcome these limitations, a new H2O retrieval has been developed based on a look-up-table (LUT) approach. The input to the LUT is the H2O slant column densities (SCDs) as derived from the DOAS analysis as well as information about the cloud properties and the observation geometry. The output is the corresponding H2O VCD. The LUT is computed for all relevant viewing geometries, H2O VCD scenarios, terrain heights, surface albedos, and cloud scenarios using the Radiative Transfer Model LIDORT. In order to explicitly represent retrieved H2O SCDs of real observations, the LUT is generated by retrieving a series of synthetic spectra covering all LUT scenarios. The synthetic spectra are generated at high spectral resolution (1pm) and then convoluted with the instrument slit function, and analysed in the same way as observed spectra to retrieve H2O SCDs.

  12. Evaluating a New Homogeneous Total Ozone Climate Data Record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koukouli, M.E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3 percent requirement of the European Space

  13. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  14. Colleters in Rubiaceae from forest and savanna: the link between secretion and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Canaveze, Yve; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate colleters' secretory function, on cellular level, in Rubiaceae species from contrasting environments looking to explore the association between secretion and environment. We collected samples from eight species of Rubiaceae growing in forest and savanna having standard-type colleters with diverse histochemistry (hydrophilic, lipophilic and mixed secretions) and processed for both conventional and cytochemical study under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The standard colleters, although similar in morphology and anatomy, exhibited marked differences on cellular level, especially in the abundance and topology of Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids when comparing forest and savanna species. These differences were clearly aligned with the chemical nature of the secretions they produce, with predominance of hydrophilic secretions in forest species and lipophilic or mixed secretions in savanna species. The combination of methods in electron microscopy revealed the sites of synthesis and intracellular compartmentation of substances, the mechanisms of their secretion from the protoplast and confirmed the involvement of the outer walls of the epithelial cells in the elimination of exudates to the gland surface. Our study suggests a potential environment-associated plasticity of the secretory cells of standard-type colleters in modulating their secretory function performance.

  15. (1) Request for a binding decision on whether Ferdinanda (Compositae) and Ferdinandea (Rubiaceae) are sufficiently alike to be confused

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Ferdinandusa is an attractive, widespread shrub in tropical America, a member of the family Rubiaceae, and is sometimes cultivated for its bright showy flowers. It is a later name for the genus Ferdinandea, which has been confused with the genus Ferdinanda. By officially establishing that ...

  16. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  17. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  18. Investigation of BrO in volcanic plumes: Comparing satellite data from OMI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnach, Simon; Hörmann, Christoph; Sihler, Holger; Bobrowski, Nicole; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Dinger, Florian; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    It has been repeatedly shown in the past by measurements from the ground and from space that volcanic plumes contain widely varying amounts of bromine monoxide (BrO). The relative amount of BrO in a volcanic plume, i. e. with respect to sulphur dioxide (SO2), is mainly affected by degassing composition as well as chemical processes, but the reasons for the variation is still not fully understood. Our study aims at obtaining a better understanding of bromine emissions from volcanoes. The high spatial resolution of current satellite instruments such as OMI (13x24 km2) and GOME-2 (40x80 km2), and particularly that of future instruments like TROPOMI (3.5x7 km2) allows to resolve the volcanic plume of eruptive events and makes. The combination of the high spatial resolution and the global coverage of satellite instruments make it possible to study the spatial variability of trace gases in a large number of volcanic plumes from a large number of volcanoes. In this study, we investigate the BrO and SO2 distribution as well as the BrO/SO2 ratio within volcanic plumes observed by OMI since 2007. We apply a plume detection algorithm which uses the retrieved SO2 column for plume identification. These data obtained from OMI measurements are compared to plumes identified from GOME-2 data. Differences in the number of identified plumes and the degree of agreement regarding the retrieved spatial distribution of BrO and SO2, as well as the calculated BrO/SO2 ratio between plumes observed by both instruments, are discussed. Differences are mainly attributed to the differences between the two instruments with respect to spatial resolution and overpass time (GOME-2 at 9:30, OMI at 13:30 local time).

  19. Equatorial Kelvin wave signatures in ozone profile measurements from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; van Oss, R. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates the ability to derive height-resolved information on equatorial Kelvin wave activity from three different Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profile data sets. The ozone profiles derived using the Ozone Profile Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) based on optimal estimation and the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) both show Kelvin wave signals in agreement with previously identified signals in the GOME total ozone columns. However, because of the inadequate vertical resolution, these two data sets are not able to resolve the vertical structure of the Kelvin wave activity. The third data set, consisting of assimilated OPERA ozone profiles, does provide height-resolved information on Kelvin wave activity that is consistent with results from the analysis of GOME total ozone columns and ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) temperature data. Largest Kelvin-wave-induced perturbations of up to 0.69 DU/km coincide with the maximum vertical gradient in ozone around 35 hPa and show an in-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40 as expected from theoretical considerations. These results indicate that the ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere and in the total column of ozone are transport related. Between 10 and 1 hPa, large Kelvin-wave-induced fluctuations in ozone mixing ratio are present that, however, because of their small contribution to the total column, do not constitute a large contribution to the total ozone column perturbations. The ozone perturbations between 10 and 1 hPa show an out-of-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40, indicating that the perturbations can either be caused by transport effects or photochemical influences.

  20. Recent Developments To The RAL Joint IASI+GOME-2 Ozone Profile Retrievals Using TIR, UV And Visible Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Georgina; Siddans, Richard; Latter, Barry; Kerridge, Brian; Waterfall, Alison

    2013-12-01

    We present results from recent developments of the RAL Ozone Profile optimal estimation retrieval scheme. The algorithm produces both a GOME-2 only and a joint IASI and GOME-2 profile product, both of which have sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. The joint product has been selected for the ESA Climate Change Initiative Ozone nadir prototype product, for which data will be disseminated to the climate modelling community. Time-series and highlights from several years of the single and joint MetOp-A GOME-2 and IASI retrievals are presented. We further present results of the introduction of measurements from the Chappuis ozone bands to add near-surface ozone information to the retrieval under certain atmospheric and surface conditions.

  1. Variability in Tropospheric Ozone over China Derived from Assimilated GOME-2 Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Kelder, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    A tropospheric ozone dataset is derived from assimilated GOME-2 ozone profiles for 2008. Ozone profiles are retrieved with the OPERA algorithm, using the optimal estimation method. The retrievals are done on a spatial resolution of 160×160 km on 16 layers ranging from the surface up to 0.01 hPa. By using the averaging kernels in the data assimilation, the algorithm maintains the high resolution vertical structures of the model, while being constrained by observations with a lower vertical resolution.

  2. Hydrocarbon Emissions Constrained By Formaldehyde Column Measurements from Gome-2 and OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde retrieved from the spaceborne instruments GOME2 and OMI are used to constrain the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic emissions of formaldehyde precursors NMVOC at the global scale. To this end, those emissions are varied and optimized in the (updated) IMAGESv2 model. The adjoint model technique is used to minimize the bias of the model with observations from either GOME2 or OMI. The optimisation is performed on a monthly basis at the model resolution (2°x2.5°). The a priori biogenic emissions are provided by the MEGAN-ECMWF-v2 inventory for isoprene and from a previous optimization of methanol emissions based on IASI columns. Biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions are taken from GFEDv3 and from a combination of the RETRO global inventory with the regional inventory REASv2.Given the different local overpass times of GOME2 (9h30 LT) and OMI (13h40 LT), the factors which might affect the diurnal cycle of formaldehyde in the model (chemistry, diurnal profile of emissions, mixing) are examined through sensitivity calculations. The simulated diurnal cycle is evaluated against ground-based measurements obtained by either the MAX-DOAS technique (in Europe, China, and Africa) or by FTIR (in the Indian Ocean). The agreement between simulated and observed normalized columns is found to be generally better in the summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in the winter.Both optimizations infer a reduction of the global biogenic emissions of isoprene (by 10-15%), which is largest (up to a factor of 2) over Eastern U.S. according to GOME2 and over Western Amazonia according to OMI. Those reductions and evaluated by comparisons with arcraft observations for different years (ARCTAS and INTEX-A). Northern Australia, Southern China and Northern Africa are also regions where both sensors indicate an overestimation of MEGAN. Biomass burning emissions appear to be likewise overestimated in Central Canada

  3. Detection of BrO plumes over various sources using OMI and GOME-2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sora; Richter, Andreas; Blechschmidt, Anne-Marlene; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) play important roles in the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere. They are responsible for ozone depletion through catalytic reaction cycles, changes in the OH/HO2 and NO/NO2 ratios, and oxidation of compounds such as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS). Thus, monitoring of halogen oxides is important for understanding global atmospheric oxidation capacity and climate change. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is one of the most common active halogen oxides. In the troposphere, large amounts of bromine are detected in Polar Regions in spring, over salt lakes, and in volcanic plumes. In this study, we analyse BrO column densities using OMI and GOME-2 observations. The measured spectra from both UV-visible nadir satellites were analyzed using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method with different settings depending on the instrumental characteristics. Large amounts of volcanic BrO from the Kasatochi eruption in 2008 were detected for 6 days from August 8 to August 13. Especially large BrO amounts were found in the plume center for 3 days from August 9 to 11 with slant column densities (SCD) of up to ˜1.6x1015 molecules cm-2 and ˜5.5x1014 molecules cm-2 in OMI and GOME-2 measurements, respectively. In addition to the volcanic sources, events of widespread BrO enhancements were also observed over the Arctic and Antarctic coastal regions during the spring time by both satellites. As the overpass time of the two instruments is not the same, differences between the two data sets are expected. In this study, the agreement between OMI and GOME-2 BrO data is investigated using both the operational products and different DOAS fits. Systematic differences are found in BrO slant columns and fitting residuals, both being larger in the case of OMI data. In addition, results are sensitive to the choice of fitting window. From a monitoring point of view, due to the higher spatial resolution of OMI compared

  4. Cryptic Chromosomal Diversity in the Complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel Araújo; Argolo, Leandro Araújo; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Diniz, Débora; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Among American cichlids, Geophagus stands out as a species-rich genus widespread over neotropical region. Despite their diversity and confusing taxonomy, only few and basic chromosomal reports are available in populations/species along Atlantic coast, hindering our understanding about evolutionary trends in this genus. Therefore, detailed chromosomal studies were performed in "Geophagus" brasiliensis complex from coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil, totalizing seven populations of Geophagus brasiliensis and one of Geophagus itapicuruensis. All samples shared a diploid number (2n) of 48 divided into 2 submetacentric and 46 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes with (peri)centromeric heterochromatin, hypothesized as a symplesiomorphy for Geophagini. Although G. itapicuruensis and two populations of G. brasiliensis presented single NORs on short arms, multiple GC-rich rDNA sites were observed in the remaining G. brasiliensis samples, ranging from three to six NOR-bearing chromosomes. Inversely, 5S rDNA sites were invariably located at interstitial region on a st/a pair, nonsyntenic to NORs. A compilation of the data set in Geophagus shows that their chromosomal evolution has been driven by pericentric inversions and microstructural changes. Besides, the divergence found in northeastern Brazil places this region as a biodiversity hotspot. A taxonomic revision in the complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis is recommended with the support of cytogenetic analyses.

  5. Human neutrophils produce extracellular traps against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Susana P; Cano, Luz E; López, Juan A; Hernandez, Orville; González, Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophils play an important role as effector cells and contribute to the resistance of the host against microbial pathogens. Neutrophils are able to produce extracellular traps (NETs) in response to medically important fungi, including Aspergillus spp., Candida albicans and Cryptococcus gattii. However, NET production in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has yet to be studied. We have demonstrated that human neutrophils produce NETs against both conidia and yeasts of P. brasiliensis. Although the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) did not alter NET production against conidia, it partially suppressed NET formation against P. brasiliensis yeasts. Cytochalasin D or IFN-γ did not affect the production of NETs against the fungus. Additionally, a mutant strain of P. brasiliensis with reduced expression of an alternative oxidase induced significantly higher levels of NETs in comparison with the WT strain. Finally, c.f.u. quantification of P. brasiliensis showed no significant differences when neutrophils were treated with DPI, DNase I or cytochalasin D as compared with untreated cells. These data establish that NET formation by human neutrophils appears to be either dependent or independent of reactive oxygen species production, correlating with the fungal morphotype used for stimulation. However, this mechanism was ineffective in killing the fungus.

  6. Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jayashree, Radha; Rekha, Karumamkandathil; Sushmakumari, Sreedharannair; Sobha, Sankaren; Kumari Jayasree, Parukkuttyamma; Kala, Radha Gopikkuttanunithan; Thulaseedharan, Arjunan

    2006-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. At present, more than 9.5 million hectares in about 40 countries are devoted to rubber tree cultivation with a production about 6.5 million tons of dry rubber each year. The world supply of natural rubber is barely keeping up with a global demand for 12 million tons of natural rubber in 2020. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) is a complex physiological syndrome widely found in rubber tree plantations, which causes severe yield and crop losses in natural rubber producing countries. Currently, there is no effective prevention or treatment for this serious malady. As it is a perennial tree crop, the integration of specific desired traits through conventional breeding is both time-consuming and labour-intensive. Genetic transformation with conventional breeding is certainly a more promising tool for incorporation of agronomically important genes that could improve existing Hevea genotype. This chapter provides an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for rubber tree using immature anther-derived calli as initial explants. We have applied this protocol to generate genetically engineered plants from a high yielding Indian clone RRII 105 of Hevea brasiliensis (Hb). Calli were co-cultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a plasmid vector containing the Hb superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene and the reporter gene used was beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA). The selectable marker gene used was neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and kanamycin was used as selection agent. We found that a suitable transformation protocol for Hevea consists of a 3-d co-cultivation with Agrobacterium in the presence of 20 mM acetosyringone, 15 mM betaine HCl, and 11.55 mM proline followed by selection on medium containing 300 mg/L kanamycin. Transformed calli surviving on medium containing 300 mg/L kanamycin showed a strong GUS-positive reaction. Upon subsequent subculture into

  7. [Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, L J; Mondragón-González, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; López-Martínez, R; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bonifaz, A; Anides Fonseca, A; Araiza, J; Vega-López, F

    2004-01-01

    Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients' sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  8. Ultrastructure of Dimorphic Transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M ⇌ Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M → Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y → M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M → Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y → M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon. Images PMID:5359610

  9. Overview and perspectives the transcriptome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rosângela V; Da Silva, Silvana P; Torres, Fernando A G; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio José; Silva-Pereira, Ildenete; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia Maria P; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Carvalho, Maria Joseá A; Almeida, Nalvo F; Brigido, Marcelo M; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-12-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America that affects 10 million individuals. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. This review shows the results of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome project which generated 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phases. Computer analysis using the tools of bioinformatics revealed several aspects from the transcriptome of this pathogen such as: general and differential metabolism in mycelium and yeast cells; cell cycle, DNA replication, repair and recombination; RNA biogenesis apparatus; translation and protein fate machineries; cell wall; hydrolytic enzymes; proteases; GPI-anchored proteins; molecular chaperones; insights into drug resistance and transporters; oxidative stress response and virulence. The present analysis has provided a more comprehensive view of some specific features considered relevant for the understanding of basic and applied knowledge of P. brasiliensis.

  10. Characterization of the cellular antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form.

    PubMed Central

    Casotto, M

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic components of the yeast extract of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Linder 2511 cultured for 3, 8, 20, 30, and 60 days were examined by the Western blot (immunoblot) technique. The 3-day extract was chosen for characterization of the antigenic components because its stability did not vary with time and it contained all antigens identified by patient sera. Antibodies to cross-reacting antigens of P. brasiliensis extracts were detected in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. The 58-, 57-, 21-, and 16-kilodalton (kDa) antigens were specific for P. brasiliensis, while the 48- and 45-kDa antigens were specific for paracoccidioidomycosis. The Western blot technique is a useful tool for the diagnosis of disease and revealed heterogeneity in the responses of patient sera. The combination of the 58-, 57-, and 45-kDa proteins confirmed a diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (87% of the cases). Images PMID:2380351

  11. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; da Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2009-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%. PMID:24031439

  12. Chemodiversity of tryptamine-derived alkaloids in six Costa Rican Palicourea species (Rubiaceae-Palicoureeae).

    PubMed

    Berger, Andreas; Tanuhadi, Elias; Brecker, Lothar; Schinnerl, Johann; Valant-Vetschera, Karin

    2017-11-01

    We report 14 harmala and tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids with various tri-, tetra- and pentacyclic cores from leaves and stem bark of six species of the large and complex neotropical genus Palicourea. Among them is the previously undescribed compound deoxostrictosamide which is related to strictosamide, a key intermediate in camptothecin biosynthesis. In addition, we describe the occurrence of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-1-one for the first time within Rubiaceae and ophiorine A and B, two alkaloids with an unusual core bearing a betaine function and a zwitterion as new for the genus. Although the other compounds are already known from other species, their degree of structural diversity highlights the remarkable biosynthetic capabilities of the genus Palicourea. Furthermore, the present paper provides additional support for the hypothesis that tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids represent a distinct chemosystematic feature for the genus Palicourea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and characterization of 32 microsatellite loci in Genipa americana (Rubiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Manoel, Ricardo O.; Freitas, Miguel L. M.; Barreto, Mariana A.; Moraes, Mário L. T.; Souza, Anete P.; Sebbenn, Alexandre M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the tree species Genipa americana (Rubiaceae) for further population genetic studies. • Methods and Results: We identified 144 clones containing 65 repeat motifs from a genomic library enriched for (CT)8 and (GT)8 motifs. Primer pairs were developed for 32 microsatellite loci and validated in 40 individuals of two natural G. americana populations. Seventeen loci were polymorphic, revealing from three to seven alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.24 to 1.00 and from 0.22 to 0.78, respectively. • Conclusions: The 17 primers identified as polymorphic loci are suitable to study the genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in G. americana. PMID:25202610

  14. Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Van Oevelen, Sandra; De Block, Petra; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Prinsen, Els; Dessein, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three genera in the Rubiaceae (Pavetta, Psychotria and Sericanthe) harbour bacterial endosymbionts within leaf nodules or galls. The present paper identifies the bacterial endophytes in three leaf-nodulating Pavetta species. In order to reveal their identity and assess their phylogenetic position, 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB genes were sequenced from an extensive sampling of Burkholderia strains. This multigene approach results in a robust phylogeny, which places the bacterial endosymbionts of Pavetta at two distinct positions within the genus Burkholderia (class Betaproteobacteria), suggesting that leaf-nodulating endosymbionts within Pavetta have different origins. The endophytes of nodulated Psychotria species were recognized as the closest relatives to the Pavetta endosymbionts. Our results suggest that the endosymbionts of Pavetta represent novel species, which can be classified as 'Candidatus Burkholderia hispidae', 'Candidatus Burkholderia rigidae' and 'Candidatus Burkholderia schumannianae'.

  15. Spontaneous photosensitization by Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook. f. (Rubiaceae), in sheep from Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Micheloud, J F; Colque-Caro, L A; Comini, L R; Cabrera, J L; Núñez-Montoya, S; Martinez, O G; Gimeno, E J

    2017-07-21

    Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook. f. (Rubiaceae) is a phototoxic plant. It grows in the Andean area of northwest of Argentina, and it causes significant economic losses in the livestock. This plant induces dermal lesions by photosensitization probably due to its content of photosensitizing anthraquinones. This paper describes an outbreak of poisoning in Corriedale sheepfold, which had an incidence of 49%. Ear skin biopsies and blood samples were collected of six affected animals. Liver enzymes remained within the reference limits. Histopathologically, a deep necrotizing dermatitis was identified in all samples. H. pustulata was identified in the areas of grazing. Anthraquinone concentration in leaves was 0.84% p/p, expressed as rubiadin. All findings allow us to conclude that the diagnosis is a primary photosensitization. Huge regional economic losses could be attributed to H. pustulata poisoning, although its toxicity has been little studied.

  16. Alternative Oxidase Mediates Pathogen Resistance in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Ruiz, Orville; Gonzalez, Angel; Almeida, Agostinho J.; Tamayo, Diana; Garcia, Ana Maria; Restrepo, Angela; McEwen, Juan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus. Survival of P. brasiliensis inside the host depends on the adaptation of this fungal pathogen to different conditions, namely oxidative stress imposed by immune cells. Aims and Methodology In this study, we evaluated the role of alternative oxidase (AOX), an enzyme involved in the intracellular redox balancing, during host-P. brasiliensis interaction. We generated a mitotically stable P. brasiliensis AOX (PbAOX) antisense RNA (aRNA) strain with a 70% reduction in gene expression. We evaluated the relevance of PbAOX during interaction of conidia and yeast cells with IFN-γ activated alveolar macrophages and in a mouse model of infection. Additionally, we determined the fungal cell's viability and PbAOX in the presence of H2O2. Results Interaction with IFN-γ activated alveolar macrophages induced higher levels of PbAOX gene expression in PbWt conidia than PbWt yeast cells. PbAOX-aRNA conidia and yeast cells had decreased viability after interaction with macrophages. Moreover, in a mouse model of infection, we showed that absence of wild-type levels of PbAOX in P. brasiliensis results in a reduced fungal burden in lungs at weeks 8 and 24 post-challenge and an increased survival rate. In the presence of H2O2, we observed that PbWt yeast cells increased PbAOX expression and presented a higher viability in comparison with PbAOX-aRNA yeast cells. Conclusions These data further support the hypothesis that PbAOX is important in the fungal defense against oxidative stress imposed by immune cells and is relevant in the virulence of P. brasiliensis. PMID:22039556

  17. Expression and Trans-Specific Polymorphism of Self-Incompatibility RNases in Coffea (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michael D.; Davis, Aaron P.; Anthony, François; Yoder, Anne D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is widespread in the angiosperms, but identifying the biochemical components of SI mechanisms has proven to be difficult in most lineages. Coffea (coffee; Rubiaceae) is a genus of old-world tropical understory trees in which the vast majority of diploid species utilize a mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The S-RNase GSI system was one of the first SI mechanisms to be biochemically characterized, and likely represents the ancestral Eudicot condition as evidenced by its functional characterization in both asterid (Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae) and rosid (Rosaceae) lineages. The S-RNase GSI mechanism employs the activity of class III RNase T2 proteins to terminate the growth of “self” pollen tubes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Coffea GSI and specifically examine the potential for homology to S-RNase GSI by sequencing class III RNase T2 genes in populations of 14 African and Madagascan Coffea species and the closely related self-compatible species Psilanthus ebracteolatus. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences aligned to a diverse sample of plant RNase T2 genes show that the Coffea genome contains at least three class III RNase T2 genes. Patterns of tissue-specific gene expression identify one of these RNase T2 genes as the putative Coffea S-RNase gene. We show that populations of SI Coffea are remarkably polymorphic for putative S-RNase alleles, and exhibit a persistent pattern of trans-specific polymorphism characteristic of all S-RNase genes previously isolated from GSI Eudicot lineages. We thus conclude that Coffea GSI is most likely homologous to the classic Eudicot S-RNase system, which was retained since the divergence of the Rubiaceae lineage from an ancient SI Eudicot ancestor, nearly 90 million years ago. PMID:21731641

  18. Calculation of smoke plume mass from passive UV satellite measurements by GOME-2 polarization measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.; Fromm, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Wallow wildfire of 2011 was one of the most devastating fires ever in Arizona, burning over 2,000 km2 in the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The fire originated in the Bear Wallow Wilderness area in June, 2011, and raged for more than a month. The intense heat of the fire caused the formation of a pyro-convective cloud. The resulting smoke plume, partially located above low-lying clouds, was detected by several satellite instruments, including GOME-2 on June 2. The UV Aerosol Index, indicative of aerosol absorption, reached a maximum of 12 on that day, pointing to an elevated plume with moderately absorbing aerosols. We have performed extensive model calculations assuming different aerosol optical properties to determine the total aerosol optical depth of the plume. The plume altitude, needed to constrain the aerosol optical depth, was obtained from independent satellite measurements. The model results were compared with UV Aerosol Index and UV reflectances measured by the GOME-2 polarization measurement devices, which have a spatial resolution of roughly 10x40 km2. Although neither the exact aerosol optical properties nor optical depth can be obtained with this method, the range in aerosol optical depth values that we calculate, combined with the assumed specific extinction mass factor of 5 m2/kg lead us to a rough estimate of the smoke plume mass that cannot, at present, be assessed in another way.

  19. Melatonin production in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Peres, Rafael; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspardo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Neto, José Cipolla

    2014-04-01

    The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the tree of life, in animals, plants, and fungi, supporting a deep evolutionary origin for this signaling molecule. However, some key groups have not been studied. Echinoderms, deuterostome animals, are one of these groups. Herein we study the presence of melatonin and enzymes of its pathway in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis. We demonstrate that E. brasiliensis produces endogenous melatonin, in the gonads, under a circadian pattern with a nocturnal peak of production. We also show that the enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present and are probably regulating the melatonin production.

  20. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  1. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  2. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jader; Marcet, Paula L; Takiya, Daniela M; Mendonça, Vagner J; Belintani, Tiago; Bargues, Maria D; Mateo, Lucia; Chagas, Vivian; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Costa, Jane; da Rosa, João A; Almeida, Carlos E

    2017-02-20

    "Triatoma brasiliensis species complex" was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of "Brasiliensis subcomplex" which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads. Panstrongylus megistus was included in the analysis as it was previously found related to T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps. The results of both molecular and morphometric approaches clearly grouped the species analyzed into two monophyletic units, supported by both genetic and wing variability. The first one (G1) comprises the four species originally included in the T. brasiliensis species complex plus T. lenti and T. petrocchiae. The second group (G2) was composed by T. melanocephala, T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps, and remarkably, P. megistus if considering wing variability and phylogenetic results. Nevertheless, geometric morphometrics of heads provided a quantitative measurement that discriminates Panstrongylus from the Triatoma species based on the position of the antennal insertion relative to eyes, as it is used as the generic distinctive character. The discrepancy among approaches questions the validity of this character to define Panstrongylus genus. Independently of the chosen group definition -"T. brasiliensis species complex" or "Brasiliensis subcomplex"-we propose to delimit it to species of G1 that are all associated with the Caatinga biome in the Brazilian Northeast. G2 are the ones associated with the Atlantic Forest biome.

  3. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R.; Frith, S. M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-09-01

    We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI). Total ozone column observations - based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm - from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1°× 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of chemistry-climate model simulations.

  4. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R.; Frith, S. M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI). Total ozone column observations - based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm - from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1° × 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of Chemistry-Climate Model simulations.

  5. The GOME-2 Level 1 Instrument Degradation Model Version 1 and its Application for Atmospheric Composition Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckle, R.; Lang, R.; Retscher, C.; Poli, G.; Lindstrot, R.; Lacan, A.; Trollope, E.; Munro, R.

    2015-12-01

    GOME-2 on Metop-A and -B is suffering from signal degradation in the shorter wavelength regime below 420 nm, like many instruments of this type. During its 8 years in orbit to date, GOME-2 on Metop-A has acquired enough data to enable correction of most (though not all) aspects of its signal degradation using a combination of empirical and instrument model correction. We present the first version of the GOME-2 Metop-A degradation model which covers the full spectral range between 240 nm and 790 nm and also includes signal correction for two polarisation measurement devices (PMDs). We discuss the individual model components, including a correction of the solar-spectrum and the calibration of the solar diffuser, a stray-light correction in the region below 295 nm, an angular correction of all earthshine data, as well as a correction in the spectral domain for low frequency patterns. The first version of the dataset covers the time period from launch until the start of tandem operations in July 2013, when the swath of GOME-2 Metop-A was reduced from 1920 km to 960 km. We will discuss the individual degradation components accounted for, their physical origin, and will show the first results of the corrected spectra and their impact on level-2 retrieval quality. We also present the roadmap towards the implementation of a near real-time correction scheme of GOME-2 level-1 data and discuss various options concerning its potential operational and offline functionalities.

  6. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  7. Overview of the O3M SAF GOME-2 operational atmospheric composition and UV radiation data products and data availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassinen, S.; Balis, D.; Bauer, H.; Begoin, M.; Delcloo, A.; Eleftheratos, K.; Gimeno Garcia, S.; Granville, J.; Grossi, M.; Hao, N.; Hedelt, P.; Hendrick, F.; Hess, M.; Heue, K.-P.; Hovila, J.; Jønch-Sørensen, H.; Kalakoski, N.; Kauppi, A.; Kiemle, S.; Kins, L.; Koukouli, M. E.; Kujanpää, J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Lang, R.; Lerot, C.; Loyola, D.; Pedergnana, M.; Pinardi, G.; Romahn, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Lutz, R.; De Smedt, I.; Stammes, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Tamminen, J.; Theys, N.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Valks, P.; Zerefos, C.; Zimmer, W.; Zyrichidou, I.

    2016-02-01

    The three Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007-2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. Besides ozone chemistry, the GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) products are important e.g. for air quality studies, climate modelling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The heritage for GOME-2 is in the ERS/GOME and Envisat/SCIAMACHY instruments. The current Level 2 (L2) data cover a wide range of products such as ozone and minor trace gas columns (NO2, BrO, HCHO, H2O, SO2), vertical ozone profiles in high and low spatial resolution, absorbing aerosol indices, surface Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity database, clear-sky and cloud-corrected UV indices and surface UV fields with different weightings and photolysis rates. The Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) processes and disseminates data 24/7. Data quality is guaranteed by the detailed review processes for the algorithms, validation of the products as well as by a continuous quality monitoring of the products and processing. This paper provides an overview of the O3M SAF project background, current status and future plans for the utilisation of the GOME-2 data. An important focus is the provision of summaries of the GOME-2 products including product principles and validation examples together with sample images. Furthermore, this paper collects references to the detailed product algorithm and validation papers.

  8. Use of GOME measurements for the examination of the nitrogen oxide budget in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, O.; Rohrer, F.; Toenges, N.; Schultz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Ozone in the troposphere is controlled by stratospheric-tropospheric exchange (STE) and in-situ production which depends on the concentration of precursors such as the nitrogen oxides NO_X. Due to the short tropospheric lifetime of NO_X in the troposphere of about one day its global distribution strongly corresponds to the distribution of emissions. We want to quantify the relative contributions and the geographic distributions of individual NO_X emission sources using a variety of novel satellite data. The use of these data can give additional information about the distribution and the relative importance of different types of sources (anthropogenic, lightning, biomass burning, and soil emissions). In a first step nitrogen dioxide NO_2 measured by the GOME satellite has been compared to night-time light emissions observed from space from the DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS). The area of lighting as seen from space is closely correlated with the power consumption and CO_2 -emissions in that area and can therefore serve as a proxy for fossil fuel consumption. For comparison we performed a run with the global chemical transport model MOZART-2 which shows a strong pattern correlation to the EDGAR-2 emission database used in this model. It turns out that the light density at the Earth's surface shows a better correlation with tropospheric NO_2 measured by GOME (R=0.63) than the estimated anthropogenic emissions in the EDGAR database (R=0.52) which are widely used in global chemistry models. Recently satellite datasets of global lightning flash frequencies (NASA LIS/OTD) and fire counts (ATSR) became available. The empirical combination of lighting and lightning improves the correlation coefficient with GOME NO_2 to R=0.77 thus explaining 60 % of the total variance of measured NO2. Emissions from biomass burning are more difficult to derive from satellite observations. We want to make use of ATSR fire counts in combination with the AVHRR NDVI product for the

  9. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uieda, W

    1998-10-01

    This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  10. 5-Lipoxygenase Activity Increases Susceptibility to Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Moreira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Leukotrienes and lipoxins are lipid mediators produced after 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation that exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of 5-LO enzymatic activity in PCM using an experimental model of P. brasiliensis infection. B6.129 wild-type (B6.129) and 5-LO-deficient (5-LO−/−) mice were intravenously inoculated with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18), and the survival rate of the infected mice was investigated on different days after yeast infection. 5-LO−/− mice exhibited an increased survival rate associated with a decreased number of CFU. The resistance of 5-LO−/− during PCM was associated with augmented nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation of compact granulomas. In addition, the absence of 5-LO was associated with a diminished number of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, higher levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, and increased T-bet (a T-box transcription factor that directs Th1 lineage commitment) mRNA levels in the lungs. Taken together, our results show for the first time that 5-LO enzymatic activity increases susceptibility to P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention during PCM. PMID:23381993

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  13. NO2 evolution at global level using the space instruments SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Adrian; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Bocaneala, Corina; Voiculescu, Mirela; Puiu Georgescu, Lucian

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the amount of NO2 at global level above twenty five worldwide urban agglomerations or station during 2002-2015. Tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD) are derived from various satellite UV-Vis instruments: SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) onboard Envisat, OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) onboard AURA and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Measurements-2) onboard Metop-A& B. Possible dependence of the evolution of the density of NO2 molecules above the major cities on demographic, economic, industry characteristics are investigated. Causes for various trends of the NO2 column, depending on geographical characteristics, altitude, are also analysed.

  14. Area Sulphur Dioxide Emissions over China Extracted from GOME2/MetopA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Zyrichidou, I.; van der A, R.; Ding, Jieying; Hedelt, P.; Valks, P.; Fioletov, V.

    2016-08-01

    As part of EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project, http://www.marcopolo.eu/, the long trends of atmospheric sulphur dioxide, SO2, have been studied from a spade of satellite instruments and algorithms [Koukouli et al., 2016]. Point sources with negative trends have been identified, pointing to the implementation of air quality technologies, as well as locations with positive trends, pointing to the Chinese economy and industry increasing need for energy.Using mathematical tools, as well as apriori SO2 emission fields used in a renowned regional chemistry transport model, we investigate the possibility of improving the current emission fields by calculating a top-down emission inventory for China based on GOME2/MetopA SO2 measurements.

  15. Effective cloud fractions of GOME-2 measurements using an enhanced HICRU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihler, Holger; Beirle, Steffen; Grzegorski, Michael; Hörmann, Christoph; Lampel, Johannes; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The physics of clouds is one of the most important drivers of meteorology and the climate system. Apart from this, the distribution of clouds interferes with the majority of satellite measurement techniques. Tropospheric trace gas retrievals are particularly sensitivity to the distribution of clouds within the field-of-view of the instrument, because already small cloud fractions have the potential to alter the measurement error and significantly increase the uncertainty of the measurement. Hence, the accuracy of tropospheric trace gas retrievals depends on the accuracy of the cloud fraction, particularly for small cloud fractions. The original HICRU Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities (HICRU) algorithm has been specifically developed for the retrieval of small cloud fractions at high accuracy. This is achieved by inferring a clear sky top of atmosphere reflectance map from the dataset itself, minimising the influence of instrument degradation and/or insufficient calibration. HICRU thus requires a minimum of a-priori knowledge. So far, this approach was limited to measurements at sufficiently small viewing angles, such as GOME and SCIAMACHY, for which the use of a single, viewing-angle independent background albedo map is justified. Here, we demonstrate how this empirical approach may be enhanced by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. It then becomes applicable to satellite instruments like GOME-2, OMI, and the upcoming TROPOMI/S5P with viewing angles up to 45 or even 70 degrees, by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. Furthermore, the enhanced HICRU algorithm comprises an advanced treatment of the temporal evolution using a spatially averaged Fourier series fit. The enhanced HICRU has the potential to be applied also to instruments with moderate spectral resolution like MERIS, MODIS, or AVHRR as well.

  16. GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.; Huang, G.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown from sensitivity studies that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis ozone band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins ozone bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI (Earth Venture Instrument) TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels ( 290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interferences from surface reflectance and aerosols and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on combining EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) derived from ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra with MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm. The impacts of various types of aerosols and surface BRDF on the retrievals will be investigated. In addition, we will also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We will evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval based on fitting quality and validation against ozonesonde observations.

  17. Improvement of GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra and MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm using two approaches: fitting several EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and scaling reflectance spectra. We also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval. These results clearly show the potential of using the visible to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval.

  18. Monitoring the Bardarbunga eruption using GOME-2/Metop-A & -B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2015-04-01

    We will present here the results of the Bardarbunga eruption monitored by the GOME-2 instrument aboard MetOp-A & -B. After increased seismic activity in August, the Icelandic volcano Bardarbunga (Bárðarbunga) erupted on 31 August 2014. Since 1 September the GOME-2 instruments aboard the MetOp-A and -B satellites detect a continuous emission of sulphur-dioxide (SO2) emitted from the Holuhraun fissure at the flanks of the Bardarbunga volcano. At the beginning the emitted SO2 was mainly transported to the north-eastern direction over Scandinavia and Russia. However, on September 22 an SO2 cloud was even moving over Europe and could be detected at the Hohenpeissenberg and Schneefernerhaus observatories. SO2 emissions are a good indicator for volcanic activity, since besides weak anthropogenic emissions there are no other known sources for atmospheric SO2, which can cause respiratory problems in the local population and the aircraft passengers. Furthermore in form of acid rain it increases the oxidation of aircraft components. It was found that for some volcanic eruptions SO2 can be a good proxy for the much harder to detect volcanic ash. Volcanic ash can be hazardous not only for the local population but also for aviation since it can cause total engine failure if it melts and then congeals in the engine. Furthermore ash is highly abrasive to engine turbine vanes and propellers. Under the leadership of IMF, DLR-EOC provides operational trace gas measurements, including total SO2 columns, in near-real-time (i.e., within 2 hours of recording) in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF).

  19. Cryptic dioecy in Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae): a species with stigma-height dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ai-Min; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Dian-Xiang; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolutionary transitions from heterostyly to dioecy have been proposed in several angiosperm families, particularly in Rubiaceae. These transitions involve the spread of male and female sterility mutations resulting in modifications to the gender of ancestral hermaphrodites. Despite sustained interest in the gender strategies of plants, the structural and developmental bases for transitions in sexual systems are poorly understood. Methods Here, floral morphology, patterns of fertility, pollen-tube growth and floral development are investigated in two populations of the scandent shrub Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae), native to southern China, by means of experimental and open-pollinations, light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with paraffin sectioning. Key Results Mussaenda pubescens has perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers and populations with two style-length morphs but only weak differentiation in anther position (stigma-height dimorphism). Experimental pollinations demonstrated that despite morphological hermaphroditism, the species is functionally dioecious. The long-styled (L) morph possesses sterile pollen and functions as a female, whereas the short-styled (S) morph is female sterile and functions as a male. Self- and intra-morph pollinations of the S-morph were consistent with those expected from dimorphic incompatibility. The two populations investigated were both S-morph (male) biased. Investigations of early stages of floral development indicated patterns typical of hermaphroditic flowers, with no significant differences in organ growth between the floral morphs. Meiosis of microspore mother cells was of the simultaneous type with tetrads isobilateral in shape. The tapetal cells in anther walls of the L-morph became vacuolized during meiosis I, ahead of the uninucleate microspore stage in the S-morph. In the L-morph, the microspore nucleus degenerated at the tetrad stage resulting in male

  20. Comparison of total water vapor column from GOME-2 on MetOp-A against ground-based GPS measurements at the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Román, R; Antón, M; Cachorro, V E; Loyola, D; Ortiz de Galisteo, J P; de Frutos, A; Romero-Campos, P M

    2015-11-15

    Water vapor column (WVC) obtained by GOME-2 instrument (GDP-4.6 version) onboard MetOp-A satellite platform is compared against reference WVC values derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) instruments from 2007 to 2012 at 21 places located at Iberian Peninsula. The accuracy and precision of GOME-2 to estimate the WVC is studied for different Iberian Peninsula zones using the mean (MBE) and the standard deviation (SD) of the GOME-2 and GPS differences. A direct comparison of all available data shows an overestimation of GOME-2 compared to GPS with a MBE of 0.7 mm (10%) and a precision quantified by a SD equals to 4.4mm (31%). South-Western zone presents the highest overestimation with a MBE of 1.9 mm (17%), while Continental zone shows the lowest SD absolute value (3.3mm) due mainly to the low WVC values reached at this zone. The influence of solar zenith angle (SZA), cloud fraction (CF), and the type of surface and its albedo on the differences between GOME-2 and GPS is analyzed in detail. MBE and SD increase when SZA increases, but MBE decreases (taking negative values) when CF increases and SD shows no significant dependence on CF. Under cloud-free conditions, the differences between WVC from GOME-2 and GPS are within the WVC error given by GOME-2. The changes of MBE and SD on Surface Albedo are not so evident, but MBE slightly decreases when the Surface Albedo increases. WVC from GOME-2 is, in general, more precise for land than for sea pixels.

  1. Screening of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from Some Plants of Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Elya, Berna; Basah, Katrin; Mun'im, Abdul; Yuliastuti, Wulan; Bangun, Anastasia; Septiana, Eva Kurnia

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as a serious global health problem that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 DM is more common in diabetic populations. In this type of DM, inhibition of α-glucosidase is a useful treatment to delay the absorption of glucose after meals. As a megabiodiversity country, Indonesia still has a lot of potential unexploited forests to be developed as a medicine source, including as the α-glucosidase inhibitor. In this study, we determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 80% ethanol extracts of leaves and twigs of some plants from the Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Inhibitory activity test of the α-glucosidase was performed in vitro using spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC50 117.20 μg/mL), thirty-seven samples of forty-five were shown to be more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values in the range 2.33–112.02 μg/mL. PMID:22187534

  2. Screening of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from some plants of Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae.

    PubMed

    Elya, Berna; Basah, Katrin; Mun'im, Abdul; Yuliastuti, Wulan; Bangun, Anastasia; Septiana, Eva Kurnia

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as a serious global health problem that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 DM is more common in diabetic populations. In this type of DM, inhibition of α-glucosidase is a useful treatment to delay the absorption of glucose after meals. As a megabiodiversity country, Indonesia still has a lot of potential unexploited forests to be developed as a medicine source, including as the α-glucosidase inhibitor. In this study, we determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 80% ethanol extracts of leaves and twigs of some plants from the Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Inhibitory activity test of the α-glucosidase was performed in vitro using spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC(50) 117.20 μg/mL), thirty-seven samples of forty-five were shown to be more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC(50) values in the range 2.33-112.02 μg/mL.

  3. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P < 0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.

  4. Strictosidinic acid, isolated from Psychotria myriantha Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae), decreases serotonin levels in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Farias, F M; Passos, C S; Arbo, M D; Barros, D M; Gottfried, C; Steffen, V M; Henriques, A T

    2012-09-01

    Psychotria is a complex genus whose neotropical species are known by the presence of glucosidic monoterpene indole alkaloids. These compounds are able to display a large range of effects on the central nervous system, such as anxiolytic, antidepressant, analgesic, and impairment of learning and memory acquisition. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects displayed by strictosidinic acid, isolated from Psychotria myriantha Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae) leaves, on monoamine levels in rat hippocampus and on monoamine oxidase activity. A significance (p<0.01) of 83.5% reduction in 5-HT levels was observed after intra-hippocampal injection (20 μg/μl). After treatment by intraperitoneal route (10 mg/kg), a 63.4% reduction in 5-HT levels and a 67.4% reduction in DOPAC values were observed. The results indicate that strictosidinic acid seems to act on 5-HT system in rat hippocampus, possibly inhibiting precursor enzymes of 5-HT biosynthesis. The decrease verified in DOPAC levels suggests a role of strictosidinic acid in the dopaminergic transmission, probably due to an inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity, confirmed by the enzymatic assay, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on MAO A in rat brain mitochondria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering.

  6. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Conserva, Lucia Maria; Ferreira, Jesu Costa

    2012-01-01

    Borreira and Spermacoce are genera of Rubiaceae widespread in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Based on its fruits morphology they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. Whereas the discussion is still unclear, in this work they were considered as synonyms. Some species of these genera play an important role in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Some of these uses include the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage, urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60 compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles. This paper briefly reviews the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera.

  7. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jason T.; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Chau, Marian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  8. Borreria and Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae): A review of their ethnomedicinal properties, chemical constituents, and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Conserva, Lucia Maria; Ferreira, Jesu Costa

    2012-01-01

    Borreira and Spermacoce are genera of Rubiaceae widespread in tropical and subtropical America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Based on its fruits morphology they are considered by many authors to be distinct genera and most others, however, prefer to combine the two taxa under the generic name Spermacoce. Whereas the discussion is still unclear, in this work they were considered as synonyms. Some species of these genera play an important role in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Some of these uses include the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage, urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60 compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles. This paper briefly reviews the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera. PMID:22654404

  9. Polar tropospheric BrO from GOME: timeseries and analysis of area covered by BrO 'clouds'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollwedel, J.; Beirle, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, F.; Kühl, S.; Kraus, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.; Wilms-Grabe, W.

    2003-04-01

    The GOME instrument aboard ERS-2 is measuring trace gases since 1995. With the DOAS method it is possible to extract vertical column densities of BrO (and other species) from the GOME spectra. The importance of BrO for the ozone depletion in the stratosphere is well known. BrO can also be liberated by heterogenous reactions on the surfaces of halogen rich aerosols, especially over the one year old sea ice. This mechanism is known as the Bromine explosion leading to the 'tropospheric ozone hole' in polar spring. Because of the global coverage and the long time series, comparisons of year-to-year variations are feasible. We focus especially on the comparison of the time and spatial variability of BrO events by analyzing time series and the extent of areas covered by BrO 'clouds'.

  10. Functional genome of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Torres, Fernando A G; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Carvalho, Maria José A; Andrade, Rosângela V; Nicola, André M; Teixeira, Marcus M; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-09-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the cellular differentiation process that this fungus undergoes from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process a network of Brazilian laboratories carried out a transcriptome project for both cell types. This review focuses on the data analysis yielding a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism and the molecular adaptations during dimorphism in P. brasiliensis from analysis of 6022 groups, related to expressed genes, which were generated from both mycelium and yeast phases.

  11. General metabolism of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Arraes, Fabrício B M; Benoliel, Bruno; Burtet, Rafael T; Costa, Patrícia L N; Galdino, Alexandro S; Lima, Luanne H A; Marinho-Silva, Camila; Oliveira-Pereira, Luciana; Pfrimer, Pollyanna; Procópio-Silva, Luciano; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Annotation of the transcriptome of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has set the grounds for a global understanding of its metabolism in both mycelium and yeast forms. This fungus is able to use the main carbohydrate sources, including starch, and it can store reduced carbons in the form of glycogen and trehalose; these provide energy reserves that are relevant for metabolic adaptation, protection against stress and infectivity mechanisms. The glyoxylate cycle, which is also involved in pathogenicity, is present in this fungus. Classical pathways of lipid biosynthesis and degradation, including those of ketone body and sterol production, are well represented in the database of P. brasiliensis. It is able to synthesize de novo all nucleotides and amino acids, with the sole exception of asparagine, which was confirmed by the fungus growth in minimal medium. Sulfur metabolism, as well as the accessory synthetic pathways of vitamins and co-factors, are likely to exist in this fungus.

  12. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber. PMID:23375136

  13. Is success a sin? A conversation with the reverend Peter J. Gomes. Interview by David A. Light.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P J

    2001-09-01

    The difficult task of achieving worldly success while also storing up spiritual treasure is perennially with us, in good times and in bad. Today, however, as the economy has cooled and companies have demonstrated their mortality, questions about meaning and value appear more relevant, even urgent. HBR associate editor David A. Light recently spoke with the Reverend Peter J. Gomes, one of the nation's best-known preachers and the minister at Harvard University's Memorial Church, about why and how it is both possible and necessary to reconcile a life of success with a life of faith. To do so, says Gomes, you must first "get used to it"--come to terms with the age-old tension between being rich in spirit and rich in worldly goods. Second, you should "get over it"--arrive at an understanding of the value and responsibilities associated with power and wealth. Finally, "get on with it"--figure out how you can live your life spiritually while continuing to lead in the business world. For those wondering how to get on with spiritual development, Gomes cites the growing phenomenon of senior executives gathering with peers--out of shared need, not shared accomplishment--to pray, study sacred texts, and share their religious life together. He counsels that it's never too late to get on with it: We can amend life at any time, whether we're 35, 45, or 75. Gomes concludes that business will continue to be one of the most significant forces in American culture, but it will always struggle against people's need for a perspective that is beyond this world's.

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    PubMed Central

    ARANTES, Thales Domingos; BAGAGLI, Eduardo; NIÑO-VEGA, Gustavo; SAN-BLAS, Gioconda; THEODORO, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  15. Partial purification of protective antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    The purification of antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, through their ability to provoke cellular proliferation of immune cells and through their recognition by antibodies, led to an antigenic preparation which was extracted from adult worms and which contained only two proteins (MW 14 and 43 Kd). Mice which were vaccinated by the oral route after the entrapment of these two proteins in liposomes were strongly protected.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Vilela, Fabiana C; da Rocha, Cláudia Q; Dias, Danielle F; Cavalcante, Gustavo P; Freitas, Lissara A S; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-01-27

    In Brazilian folk medicine, the leaves of Garcinia brasiliensis are used to treat tumors, inflammation of the urinary tract and arthritis as well as to relieve pain. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding Garcinia brasiliensis is limited; there are no reports related to its possible anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. This study employed in vivo inflammatory and nociceptive models to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Garcinia brasiliensis. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Garcinia brasiliensis ethanolic extract (GbEE) in rats. Formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were used to investigate the antinociceptive activity in mice. GbEE at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan, inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity, and in the model of chronic inflammation using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats, the GbEE significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. The extracts at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg, p.o., clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity, except for the first phase of the formalin test. GbEE markedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory action in rats and antinociceptive activity in mice, which supports previous claims of the traditional use of species of the Garcinia genus for inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A linear method for the retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Guanter, L.; Joiner, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global retrievals of near-infrared sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have been achieved in the last years by means of a number of space-borne atmospheric spectrometers. Here, we present a new retrieval method for medium spectral resolution instruments such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY). Building upon the previous work by Joiner et al. (2013), our approach solves existing issues in the retrieval such as the non-linearity of the forward model and the arbitrary selection of the number of free parameters. In particular, we use a backward elimination algorithm to optimize the number of coefficients to fit, which reduces also the retrieval noise and selects the number of state vector elements automatically. A sensitivity analysis with simulated spectra has been utilized to evaluate the performance of our retrieval approach. The method has also been applied to estimate SIF from real spectra from GOME-2 and for the first time, from SCIAMACHY. We find a good correspondence of the absolute SIF values and the spatial patterns from the two sensors, which suggests the robustness of the proposed retrieval method. In addition, we examine uncertainties and use our GOME-2 retrievals to show empirically the low sensitivity of the SIF retrieval to cloud contamination.

  18. A linear method for the retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Guanter, L.; Joiner, J.

    2015-06-01

    Global retrievals of near-infrared sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have been achieved in the last few years by means of a number of space-borne atmospheric spectrometers. Here, we present a new retrieval method for medium spectral resolution instruments such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). Building upon the previous work by Guanter et al. (2013) and Joiner et al. (2013), our approach provides a solution for the selection of the number of free parameters. In particular, a backward elimination algorithm is applied to optimize the number of coefficients to fit, which reduces also the retrieval noise and selects the number of state vector elements automatically. A sensitivity analysis with simulated spectra has been utilized to evaluate the performance of our retrieval approach. The method has also been applied to estimate SIF at 740 nm from real spectra from GOME-2 and for the first time, from SCIAMACHY. We find a good correspondence of the absolute SIF values and the spatial patterns from the two sensors, which suggests the robustness of the proposed retrieval method. In addition, we compare our results to existing SIF data sets, examine uncertainties and use our GOME-2 retrievals to show empirically the relatively low sensitivity of the SIF retrieval to cloud contamination.

  19. Proteomics analysis of latex from Hevea brasiliensis (clone RRIM 600).

    PubMed

    Habib, Mohd Afiq Hazlami; Yuen, Gan Chee; Othman, Fazilah; Zainudin, Nurul Nabilah; Latiff, Aishah Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Nazri

    2017-04-01

    The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina; Molina, Raphael Fagnani Sanchez; Albe, Bernardo Paulo; Cunha, Cláudia da Silva; Burger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate extracellular matrix turnover, inflammation and immunity. We studied MMP-9 and MMP-2 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. At 15 and 120 days after infection (DAI) with virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, MMP-9 was positive by immunohistochemistry in multinucleated giant cells, in mononuclear cells with macrophage and lymphocyte morphologies and also in fungal cells in the lesions of susceptible and resistant mice. Using gelatin zymography, pro- and active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were detected in all infected mice, but not in controls. Gelatinolytic activity was not observed in P. brasiliensis extracts. Semiquantitative analysis of gelatinolytic activities revealed weak or absent MMP-2 and strong MMP-9 activity in both mouse strains at 15 DAI, declining at 120 DAI. Avirulent P. brasiliensis-infected mice had residual lesions with MMP-9-positive pseudoxantomatous macrophages, but no gelatinase activity at 120 DAI. Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. PMID:19765107

  1. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated from armadillos is virulent to Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Peraçoli, M T; Sugizaki, M F; Mendes, R P; Naiff, R; Montenegro, M R

    1999-12-01

    Isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis may vary in virulence according to time of in vitro subcultivation. The present study compared the morphology and pathogenicity to hamsters of two P. brasiliensis isolates: one obtained from human lesions and maintained in the laboratory for several years (Pb-18) and the other isolate recovered from hamsters inoculated with organ homogenates from armadillos (Pb-T). The microscopic morphology of Pb-18 and Pb-T showed yeast cells with similar diameter. However, Pb-T produced a significantly higher number of buds per mother cell than Pb-18. Besides, the mycelial form of Pb-T developed abundant sporulation during 8 weeks of culture which was absent in the Pb-18 isolate. Virulence studies demonstrated that mortality rates, antibody levels, fungal load and extent of lesions in the organs were significantly higher in animals infected with Pb-T. The results demonstrated that Pb-T recently isolated from an animal was more virulent than Pb-18. These differences between the two P. brasiliensis isolates may be indicators of virulence attenuation in this fungal species.

  2. Validation of GOME-2/MetOp-A total water vapour column using reference radiosonde data from GRUAN network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Loyola, D.; Román, R.; Vömel, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of this article is to validate the total water vapour column (TWVC) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensor and generated using the GOME Data Processor (GDP) retrieval algorithm developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). For this purpose, spatially and temporally collocated TWVC data from highly accurate sounding measurements for the period January 2009-May 2014 at six sites are used. These balloon-borne data are provided by GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN). The correlation between GOME-2 and sounding TWVC data is reasonably good (determination coefficient (R2) of 0.89) when all available radiosondes (1400) are employed in the inter-comparison. When cloud-free cases (544) are selected by means of the satellite cloud fraction (CF), the correlation exhibits a remarkable improvement (R2 ~ 0.95). Nevertheless, analyzing the six datasets together, the relative differences between GOME-2 and GRUAN data shows mean values (in absolute term) of 19% for all-sky conditions and 14% for cloud-free cases, which evidences a notable bias in the satellite TWVC data against the reference balloon-borne measurements. The satellite-sounding TWVC differences show a strong solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence for values above 50° with a stable behaviour for values below this zenith angle. The smallest relative differences found in the inter-comparison (between -5 and +3%) are achieved for those cloud-free cases with SZA below 50°. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of the influence of cloud properties (CF, cloud top albedo (CTA) and cloud top pressure (CTP)) on the satellite-sounding differences reveals, as expected, a large effect of clouds in the GOME-2 TWVC data. For instance, the relative differences exhibit a large negative dependence on CTA, varying from +5 to -20% when CTA rises from 0.3 to 0.9. Finally, the satellite-sounding differences also show a negative dependence on the reference TWVC values, changing from

  3. A linear method for the retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Philipp; Guanter, Luis; Joiner, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Global retrievals of near-infrared sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have been achieved in the last several years by means of space-borne atmospheric spectrometers. SIF is an electromagnetic signal emitted by the chlorophyll-a of photosynthetically active vegetation in the 650-850 nm spectral range. It represents a part of the excess energy during the process of photosynthesis and provides a measure of photosynthetic activity. The key challenge to retrieve SIF from space is to isolate the signal from the about 100 times more intense reflected solar radiation in the measured top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance spectrum. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that a number of satellite sensors provide the necessary spectral and radiometric performance to evaluate the in-filling of solar Fraunhofer lines and/or atmospheric absorption features by SIF. We will present recent developments for the retrieval of SIF from medium spectral resolution space-borne spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY). Building upon the previous work by Joiner et al. 2013, our approach solves existing issues in the retrieval such as the non-linearity of the forward model and the arbitrary selection of the number of free parameters. In particular, we use a backward elimination algorithm to optimize the number of coefficients to fit, which reduces also the retrieval noise and selects the number of state vector elements automatically. A sensitivity analysis with simulated spectra has been utilized to evaluate the performance of our retrieval approach. The method has also been applied to estimate SIF from real spectra from GOME-2 and for the first time, from SCIAMACHY. We are able to present a time series of GOME-2 SIF results covering the 2007-2011 time period and SCIAMACHY SIF results between 2003-2011. This represents an almost one decade long record of global SIF. We

  4. Studies of the latex of Brazilian IAC series clones from Hevea brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber is an important commodity industrial crop that mainly derives from Hevea brasiliensis. Most natural rubber production is in Southeast Asia, but significant cultivar development takes place in Brazil, the original origin of current commercial H. brasiliensis cultivars. Thus it is criti...

  5. Intracellular multiplication of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in macrophages: killing and restriction of multiplication by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of coculturing yeast-form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with murine cells was studied. Coculture of resident peritoneal or pulmonary macrophages with P. brasiliensis for 72 h dramatically enhanced fungal multiplication 19.3 +/- 2.4- and 4.7 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with cocultures with lymph node cells or complete tissue culture medium alone. Support of P. brasiliensis multiplication by resident peritoneal macrophages was macrophage dose dependent. Lysates of macrophages, supernatants from macrophage cultures, or McVeigh-Morton broth, like complete tissue culture medium, did not support multiplication of P. brasiliensis in 72-h cultures. Time course microscopic studies of cocultures in slide wells showed that macrophages ingested P. brasiliensis cells and that the ingested cells multiplied intracellularly. In sharp contrast to resident macrophages, lymphokine-activated peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages not only prevented multiplication but reduced inoculum CFU by 96 and 100%, respectively, in 72 h. Microscopic studies confirmed killing and digestion of P. brasiliensis ingested by activated macrophages in 48 h. These findings indicate that resident macrophages are permissive for intracellular multiplication of P. brasiliensis and that this could be a factor in pathogenicity. By contrast, activated macrophages are fungicidal for P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:2744848

  6. Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Diana; Hernández, Orville; Muñoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; González, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination. PMID:23827999

  7. Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Diana; Hernández, Orville; Muñoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; González, Angel

    2013-06-01

    The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

  8. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar Escobar, Diego Fernando; Torres, Alba Marina

    2013-06-01

    Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae) is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n = 1 400), and moisture content of seeds (n = 252). Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n = 200), followed by imbibition (n=252) and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n = 300 seeds). Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n = 100 seeds). We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44%) and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior) and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) Anthers Reveals Candidate Genes for Tapetum and Pollen Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Lin; Twell, David; Kuang, Yanfeng; Liao, Jingping; Zhou, Xianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the anther transcriptome on non-model plants without a known genome are surprisingly scarce. RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling provides a comprehensive approach to identify candidate genes contributing to developmental processes in non-model species. Here we built a transcriptome library of developing anthers of Hamelia patens and analyzed DGE profiles from each stage to identify genes that regulate tapetum and pollen development. In total 7,720 putative differentially expressed genes across four anther stages were identified. The number of putative stage-specific genes was: 776 at microspore mother cell stage, 807 at tetrad stage, 322 at uninucleate microspore stage, and the highest number (1,864) at bicellular pollen stage. GO enrichment analysis revealed 243 differentially expressed and 108 stage-specific genes that are potentially related to tapetum development, sporopollenin synthesis, and pollen wall. The number of expressed genes, their function and expression profiles were all significantly correlated with anther developmental processes. Overall comparisons of anther and pollen transcriptomes with those of rice and Arabidopsis together with the expression profiles of homologs of known anther-expressed genes, revealed conserved patterns and also divergence. The divergence may reflect taxon-specific differences in gene expression, the use RNA-seq as a more sensitive methodology, variation in tissue composition and sampling strategies. Given the lack of genomic sequence, this study succeeded in assigning putative identity to a significant proportion of anther-expressed genes and genes relevant to tapetum and pollen development in H. patens. The anther transcriptome revealed a molecular distinction between developmental stages, serving as a resource to unravel the functions of genes involved in anther development in H. patens and informing the analysis of other members of the Rubiaceae. PMID:28119704

  10. Structural Evidence in Plectroniella armata (Rubiaceae) for Possible Material Exchange between Domatia and Mites

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Patricia M.; van Wyk, Abraham E.; van der Merwe, Chris F.

    2012-01-01

    Domatia are small structures on the lower surface of a leaf, usually taking the form of cavities, pouches, domes with an opening, or hairs (or a combination of these), and located in the axils between the main veins. They are found in many dicotyledons including certain members of the Rubiaceae. As part of an ongoing study of selected southern African members of the tribe Vanguerieae of this family, their structure in transverse section was investigated. In some taxa, such as Plectroniella armata, light microscopic (LM) observations revealed large numbers of stomata in the domatia as well as a number of channel-like structures extending across the cuticle toward the cavity of the domatia. The cuticle of the epidermis lining the domatia also appeared thicker than in other parts of the leaves. The epidermis in P. armata was also examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Domatia have been shown to house mainly mites, many of which are predatory or fungivorous, in a symbiotic (mutualistic) relationship with the plant. To date, much research has focussed on the role of domatia in providing shelter for various organisms, their eggs and their young. However, the TEM study revealed the apparent “channels” and thick cuticle seen under LM to be electron dense non-cellulosic branching fibrils within pronounced, often closely spaced cuticular folds. The functional significance of these fibrils and folds requires further investigation. Folding of cell walls and membranes at ultrastructural level is usually functionally associated with an increased surface area to facilitate active exchange of compounds/metabolites. This may indicate that translocation of substances and/or other forms of communication is possible between the domatium and its inhabitants. This therefore suggests a far more active role for the leaf in the symbiotic relationship than was previously thought. More work is required to test such a possibility. PMID:22792206

  11. Estimating the lifetime of boundary layer NO_x for different polluted regions using GOME data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Hollwedel, J.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO_2=NO_x) are important trace gases with impact on health, rain acidity and especially ozone production and OH concentration in the troposphere. NO_2 is detectable from satellite platforms using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Tropospheric column densities can be retrieved by estimating and subtracting the stratospheric fraction. A major goal of NO_2 retrievals from satellites is to estimate actual NO_x emissions. Therefore, knowledge of the lifetime τ of NO_x is essential. τ is highly variable due to its dependency on factors like OH concentration, humidity, actinic flux or wind transport. Typical values in the troposphere range from hours to days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GOME NO_2 data to estimate mean lifetimes of boundary layer NO_x for different regions and seasons. For this task, we investigate the weekly cycle of NO_2 in industrialized regions. Anthropogenic activities are reduced during the weekend. Hence, we find significant reduction (up to 50%) of tropospheric NO_2 on Sunday compared to working days. Furthermore, the weekend minimum of emissions also affects the Monday levels of NO_2. Thus the specific shape of the weekly cycle allows us to deduce τ. With this method, for instance for Germany, we obtain the mean lifetime of boundary layer NO_x to be 6 hours in summer and about 24 hours in winter.

  12. Genetic diversity of the Neotropical tree Hancornia speciosa Gomes in natural populations in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, H J; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva Junior, J F; Alzate-Marin, A L; Moraes Filho, R M

    2015-12-22

    Mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) is a fruit tree of the Apocynaceae family, which is native to Brazil and is a very important food resource for human populations in its areas of occurrence. Mangabeira fruit is collected as an extractive activity, and no domesticated varieties or breeding programs exist. Due to a reduction in the area of ecosystems where it occurs, mangabeira is threatened by genetic erosion in Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the genetic diversity of 38 mangabeira individuals collected from natural populations in Pernambuco State using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The ISSR methodology generated a total of 93 loci; 10 were monomorphic and 83 were polymorphic. The average number of loci per primer was 15.5, ranging from 9 (#UBC 866) to 21 (#UBC 834). The results showed a high level of genetic diversity (0.30), and found that only around 30% of genetic variability is distributed among populations (GST = 0.29, ФST = 0.30), with the remainder (ФCT = 70%) found within each population, as expected for forest outcrossing species. Estimates for historic gene flow (1.18) indicate that there is some isolation of these populations, and some degree of genetic differentiation.

  13. Systematic aerosol characterization by combining GOME-2 UV Aerosol Indices with trace gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M.; Stammes, P.; Wagner, T.

    2012-04-01

    The task of determining aerosol type using passive remote sensing instruments is a daunting one. First, because the variety in aerosol (optical) properties is very large; and second, because the effect of aerosols on the detected top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum is smooth and mostly featureless. In addition, spectrometers like GOME-2 have a coarse spatial resolution, which makes aerosol characterization even more difficult due to interferences with clouds. On account of these problems, we do not attempt to derive aerosol properties from single measurements: instead, we combine time series of UV Aerosol Index and trace gas concentrations to derive the dominating aerosol type for each season. Aside from the Index values and trace gas concentrations themselves, the correlation between UV Aerosol Indices (which are indicative of aerosol absorption) with NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO columns - or absence of it - provides clues to the (main) source of the aerosols in the investigated region and time range. For example: a high correlation of HCHO and Absorbing Aerosol Index points to aerosols from biomass burning, highly correlated CHOCHO, HCHO, and SCattering Index indicate biogenic secondary organic aerosols, and coinciding high NO2 concentrations with high SCattering Index values are associated with industrial and urban aerosols. We here present case studies for several regions to demonstrate the suitability of our approach. Then, we introduce a method to systematically derive the dominating aerosol type on a global scale on time scales varying from monthly to yearly.

  14. Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) as a potential anti-diabetic drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline C; Pereira, Ana Bárbara D; Moreira, Carolina C L; Botion, Leida M; Lemos, Virgínia S; Braga, Fernão C; Cortes, Steyner F

    2015-02-23

    The leaves of Hancornia speciosa Gomes are traditionally used to treat diabetes in Brazil. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential anti-diabetic effect of Hancornia speciosa extract and derived fractions. The ethanolic extract from Hancornia speciosa leaves and chromatographic fractions thereof were evaluated on α-glucosidase assay, on hyperglycemic effect and glucose uptake. The chemical composition of the extract and its most active fraction was investigated by ESI-LC-MS. The ethanolic extract and derived fractions inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro. However, only the crude extract and the dichloromethane fraction inhibited the hyperglycemic effect induced by starch or glucose. Both the extract and dichloromethane fraction were also able to increase glucose uptake in adipocytes. Bornesitol, quinic acid, and chorogenic acid were identified in the extract, along with flavonoid glycosides, whereas the dichloromethane fraction is majorly composed by esters of lupeol and/or α/β-amirin. Hancornia speciosa has a potential anti-diabetic effect through a mechanism dependent on inhibition of α-glucosidase and increase on glucose uptake. These results give support to the use on traditional medicine of this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) from Mus musculus in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Goswami, Urvashi; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2016-01-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India. Sequence analysis of cox1 gene in this study revealed that the present specimen showed close identity with the same species available in GenBank, confirming that the species is N. brasiliensis. This study represents the first record of molecular identification of N. brasiliensis from India and the protein structure to better understand the comparative phylogenetic characteristics. PMID:28095659

  16. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  17. Pollen carryover: experimental comparisons between morphs of Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae), a distylous, bird-pollinated, tropical treelet.

    PubMed

    Feinsinger, P; Busby, W H

    1987-09-01

    In the Monteverde (Costa Rica) cloud forest, the distylous treelet Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae) is pollinated by the hummingbird Lampornis calolaema. Only intermorph pollinations result in seed set. In a series of 47 experimental trials, we compared pollen carryover from thrum (short-styled) flowers to pin (long-styled) flowers with carryover from pin to thrum flowers. In one experiment, captive L. calolaema first probed 2 flowers of one style morph, then a series of 20 flowers of the other style morph. In the second experiment, 2 flowers of a frequent associate of P. lasiorrachis, the treelet Cephaelis elata (Rubiaceae), intervened between donor and recipient Palicourea flowers. We assessed intermorph pollinations by counting pollen tubes in recipients' styles. Without Cephaelis intervening, thrum donors transferred many fewer total grains to pins than did pin donors to thrums. However, thrum grains were dispersed more evenly among recipient pin flowers than were pin grains among thrum recipients. As a result, the potential for paternal reproductive success was at least as great for thrum flowers as for pins. With insertion of Cephaelis flowers into the foraging sequence, the magnitude of differences between carryover patterns declined.

  18. Proposals to reject the names Spermacoce stigosa and S. hyssopifolia Sm. and conserve the names S. hyssopifolia Wild. Es oem. & Schult. (Rubiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Spermacoce is a wide spread, common weed that frequently occurs in agricultural situations, and is a member of the family Rubiaceae. Diodella apiculata is a wide spread weedy species found in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, all the way to Argentina. Two earlier names, S....

  19. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  20. A new long-term total column water vapour product from ESA's GOME Evolution project: results from comparisons to ground-based and in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielczok, Anja; Schröder, Marc; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Loyola, Diego; Hollmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The objective of ESA's GOME Evolution project is to provide the EO user community with improved GOME Level 1 data products, based on updated GOME calibration algorithms and improved in-flight calibration characterization for the complete mission. In addition an improved Level 2 water vapour algorithm was developed and corresponding Level 2 and Level 3 H2O data products of the full mission were reprocessed and - together with the Level 1 data - distributed to the EO user community. The GOME Evolution total column water vapour (TCWV) data products were compared to radiosonde observations from Analysed RadioSoundings Archive (ARSA) and to ground-based data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data provided by NCAR. The quality of the GOME Evolution TCWV data record is assessed in terms of bias, RMSD and stability. Here we focus on results from the comparisons to ARSA and GNSS and discuss associated results in terms of GCOS requirements and results from the GEWEX water vapor assessment (G-VAP, http://www.gewex-vap.org).

  1. A Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycan shares serologic and functional properties with cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscila C; Cordero, Radames J B; Fonseca, Fernanda L; Peres da Silva, Roberta; Ramos, Caroline L; Miranda, Kildare R; Casadevall, Arturo; Puccia, Rosana; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Guimaraes, Allan J; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2012-11-01

    The cell wall of the yeast form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is enriched with α1,3-glucans. In Cryptococcus neoformans, α1,3-glucans interact with glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a heteropolysaccharide that is essential for fungal virulence. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of P. brasiliensis glycans sharing properties with cryptococcal GXM. Protein database searches in P. brasiliensis revealed the presence of sequences homologous to those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of GXM and capsular architecture in C. neoformans. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised to cryptococcal GXM bound to P. brasiliensis cells. Using protocols that were previously established for extraction and analysis of C. neoformans GXM, we recovered a P. brasiliensis glycan fraction composed of mannose and galactose, in addition to small amounts of glucose, xylose and rhamnose. In comparison with the C. neoformans GXM, the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction components had smaller molecular dimensions. The P. brasiliensis components, nevertheless, reacted with different GXM-binding mAbs. Extracellular vesicle fractions of P. brasiliensis also reacted with a GXM-binding mAb, suggesting that the polysaccharide-like molecule is exported to the extracellular space in secretory vesicles. An acapsular mutant of C. neoformans incorporated molecules from the P. brasiliensis extract onto the cell wall, resulting in the formation of surface networks that resembled the cryptococcal capsule. Coating the C. neoformans acapsular mutant with the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction resulted in protection against phagocytosis by murine macrophages. These results suggest that P. brasiliensis and C. neoformans share metabolic pathways required for the synthesis of similar polysaccharides and that P. brasiliensis yeast cell walls have molecules that mimic certain aspects of C. neoformans GXM. These findings are important because they provide additional evidence for

  2. Differential gene expression analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis during keratinocyte infection.

    PubMed

    Peres da Silva, Roberta; Matsumoto, Marcelo Teruyuki; Braz, Jaqueline Derissi; Voltan, Aline Raquel; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Mendes Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2011-03-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic fungal diseases in Latin America. This initiates in lung tissue and can subsequently disseminate to other tissues. Clinical manifestations range from localized forms to disseminated disease that can progress to lethality, probably depending on the relationships among the virulence of the fungus, the immune response and the ability to interact with the surface structures and invade epithelial cells and mononuclear cells of the host. It is generally regarded as a multifocal disease, with oral lesions as the prominent feature. The aim of this study was to evaluate P. brasiliensis yeast infection in normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs). The differential expression of mRNAs and proteins was also determined when the fungus was placed in contact with the cell in order to characterize differentially expressed genes and proteins during P. brasiliensis infection. After contact with NOKs, the fungus appeared to induce alterations in the cells, which showed cellular extensions and cavitations, probably resulting from changes in the actin cytoskeleton seen at 5 and 8 h after infection. Levels of protein expression were higher after reisolation of the fungus from infected NOK culture compared with culture of the fungus in medium. The analysis identified transcripts related to 19 proteins involved in different biological processes. Transcripts were found with multiple functions including induction of cytokines, protein metabolism, alternative carbon metabolism, zinc transport and the stress response during contact with NOKs. The proteins found suggested that the yeast was in a stress situation, as indicated by the presence of RDS1. Nevertheless, the yeast seemed to be proliferating and metabolically active, as shown by the presence of a proteasome, short-chain acetylator, glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase and ADP/ATP carrier transcripts. Additionally, metabolic pathways may

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p < 0.001). IVM had no inhibitory effect on the development of mycetoma. Furthermore, DEC treatment was associated with a significant enhancement of ROI expression (p < 0.05) by polymorphonuclear neutrophils at day 3 after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to N. brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p < 0.01). Significant changes in antibody response were not observed. By all parameters tested, DEC was superior to IVM regarding immunostimulatory potency. In conclusion, DEC expressed an in vivo influence on the immune status during the infection by N. brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination.

  4. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 micrograms of both sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne per ml. A significant decreases in susceptibility was demonstrated for one isolate obtained from a patient relapsing during sulfonamide therapy. Images PMID:7416744

  5. Ammonia utilization by the bruchid beetle,Caryedes brasiliensis [Bruchidae].

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, G A; Janzen, D H

    1985-04-01

    The seed predator,Caryedes brasiliensis [Bruchidae] generates appreciable ammonia in its dietary use and detoxification ofL-canavanine and its catabolic product,L-canaline.L-Canavanine is a toxic allelochemical ofDioclea megacarpa seeds, the food of the developing larvae. Bruchid beetle larvae rely upon glutamic acid dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase to use ammonia for glutamic acid synthesis from 2-oxoglutaric acid and conversion of the former to glutamine. These reactions provide the larvae with a means for metabolically eliminating ammonia. Proline serves as a carbon skeleton source for glutamic acid formation.

  6. Relationship between MODIS fire counts and GOME-2 tropospheric NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schönhardt, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning has an ongoing role in determining the composition of Earth's surface and atmosphere. The term biomass burning comprises prescribed and wild fires (vegetation fires), as well as biofuel use, such as wood or peat for heating and cooking. Biomass burning represents an important source of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, but also chemically active gases such as CO and NO2 are observed in the plumes. Even though vegetation fire emission inventories have improved considerably in recent years, large uncertainties remain in the temporally and spatially highly variable biomass burning emissions, especially due to uncertainties in input parameters. While satellite observed CO emissions from biomass burning have been investigated in great detail in the last years, NO2 has received much less attention. This can be explained by difficulties posed by the short atmospheric lifetime of NO2 and its photochemical equilibrium with NO but also the complicated retrieval of NO2 due to the presence of smoke and aerosols in the biomass burning plumes. Here, we present the relationship between observed fire counts and NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities from MODIS and GOME-2 measurements, respectively. The MOZART model for 1997 was used to determine monthly averaged air-mass factors and cloud fraction was derived by the FRESCO algorithm from SCIAMACHY measurements. The results show good correlation values (> 0.7) in many parts of the world, especially in the Subtropics. Future work will be further improvement of the retrieval for specific biomass burning situations in order to estimate total emissions from biomass burning for representative biomass burning regions by the use of appropriate models.

  7. Developmental toxicity evaluation of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) Landrum, (E)-methyl isoeugenol chemotype, in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bruce Soares; Machado, Katia Borges; de Paula, José Realino; de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Cuvinel, Wilson de Melo; Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane Santana

    2017-10-02

    Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) Landrum (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine. Studies have established the botanical characterization, phytochemistry profile, and pharmacological potential of this species, including antibiotic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite its widespread use, no previous study has been conducted regarding its toxicological profile, especially during pregnancy. Thus, this study investigated the developmental toxicity of the dry leaf extract of the P. pseudocaryophyllus, (E)-methyl isoeugenol chemotype, in rats. First, the dry leaf extract was prepared by a spray-drying technique. Then, pregnant Wistar rats were orally treated with dry extract at doses of 0, 2000, 2500, or 3000 mg/kg from gestational day 6 through 15 (organogenesis period). On gestational day 21, the rats underwent cesarean sections and the reproductive outcomes and biochemistry parameters related to hepatic and renal markers were evaluated. Additionally, the fetuses were examined for external and skeletal variations and malformations. The spray-drying technique preserved the phytocomplex components and showed a satisfactory yield. No relevant differences were seen in the food consumption, reproductive performances, and hepatic and renal biochemical parameters between groups. However, there was a decrease in body weight gain of the dams during the organogenesis period and an increase of minor skeletal variations in the offspring (increased fetal incidences only of delayed ossification of the metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges, sternebra, and rudimentary ribs) treated with the dry extract. The extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus, (E)-methyl isoeugenol chemotype, showed low maternal toxicity and induced minor skeletal variations in the offspring. Birth Defects Research 109:1292-1300, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx and reservoir species) are important trace gases in the troposphere with impact on human health, atmospheric chemistry and climate. Besides natural sources (lightning, soil emissions) and biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of the total production of NOx. Since human activity in industrialized countries largely follows a seven-day cycle, fossil fuel combustion is expected to be reduced during weekends. This "weekend effect" is well known from local, ground based measurements, but has never been analysed on a global scale before. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows measurements of NO2 column densities. By estimating and subtracting the stratospheric column, and considering radiative transfer, vertical column densities (VCD) of tropospheric NO2 can be determined (e.g. Leue et al., 2001). We demonstrate the statistical analysis of weekly cycles of tropospheric NO2 VCDs for different regions of the world. In the cycles of the industrialized regions and cities in the US, Europe and Japan a clear Sunday minimum of tropospheric NO2 VCD can be seen. Sunday NO2 VCDs are about 25-50% lower than working day levels. Metropolitan areas with other religious and cultural backgrounds (Jerusalem, Mecca) show different weekly patterns corresponding to different days of rest. In China, no weekly pattern can be found. The presence of a weekly cycle in the measured tropospheric NO2 VCD may help to identify the different anthropogenic source categories. Furthermore, we estimated the lifetime of tropospheric NO2 by analysing the mean weekly cycle exemplarily over Germany, obtaining a value of about 6 h in summer and 18-24 h in winter.

  9. Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: A signature of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M.; Wagner, T.

    2003-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx) are important trace gases in the troposphere with impact on human health, atmospheric chemistry and climate. Besides natural sources (lightning, soil emissions) and biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of the total production of NOx. Since human activity in industrialized countries largely follows an artificial seven-day cycle, fossil fuel combustion is expected to be reduced during weekends. This "weekend effect" is well known from local, ground based measurements, but has never been analysed on a global scale before. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows measurements of NO2 column densities. Applying sophisticated algorithms, vertical column densities (VCD) of tropospheric NO2 can be determined. We demonstrate the statistical analysis of weekly cycles of tropospheric NO2 VCDs for different regions of the world. In the cycles of the industrialized regions and cities in the US, Europe and Japan a clear Sunday minimum of tropospheric NO2 VCD can be seen. Sunday NO2 VCDs are about 25-50% lower than working day levels. Metropolitan areas with other religious and cultural backgrounds (Jerusalem, Mecca) show different weekly patterns corresponding to different days of rest. In China, no weekly pattern can be found. The presence of a weekly cycle in the measured tropospheric NO2 VCD allows the identification of anthropogenic sources. In addition, the fraction of emissions subjected to a weekly cycle (mainly transport, power generation) with respect to a constant background (all kind of natural sources, biomass burning, heavy industry) can be estimated. Furthermore, we estimated the lifetime of tropospheric NO2 by analysing the mean weekly cycle over Germany in detail, obtaining a value of about 12 h.

  10. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-10-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. Cloud cover is taken into account by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit. In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast). The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, solar noon UV index and daily maximum photolysis frequencies of ozone and nitrogen dioxide at the surface level. The quantities are computed in a 0.5°×0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid and stored as daily files in the hierarchical data format (HDF5) within 2 weeks from sensing. The product files are archived in the O3M SAF distributed archive and can be ordered via the EUMETSAT Data Centre.

  11. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Yakov; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Fiedler, Lars; Dyer, Richard; Eisinger, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument's health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument's degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  12. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Y.; Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Fiedler, L.; Dyer, R.; Eisinger, M.

    2009-12-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument’s health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument’s degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  13. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  14. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results using GOME-2 and OMI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2014-06-27

    Inverse modeling using satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns has been extensively used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide independent global NO2 column measurements on a nearly daily basis at around 9:30 and 13:30 local time across the equator, respectively. Anthropogenic NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI) methods to these two sets of measurements show substantial differences. We improve the DI method by conducting model simulation, satellite retrieval, and inverse modeling sequentially on a daily basis. After each inversion, we update anthropogenic NOx emissions in the model simulation with the newly obtained a posteriori results. Consequently, the inversion-optimized emissions are used to compute the a priori NO2 profiles for satellite retrievals. As such, the a priori profiles used in satellite retrievals are now coupled to inverse modeling results. The improved procedure was applied to GOME-2 and OMI NO2 measurements in 2011. The new daily retrieval-inversion (DRI) method estimates an average NOx emission of 6.9 Tg N/yr over China, and the difference between using GOME-2 and OMI measurements is 0.4 Tg N/yr, which is significantly smaller than the difference of 1.3 Tg N/yr using the previous DI method. Using the more consistent DRI inversion results, we find that anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to be higher in winter and summer than spring (and possibly fall) and the weekday-to-weekend emission ratio tends to increase with NOx emission in China.

  15. Trends in formaldehyde columns over the Amazon rainforest, as observed from space with SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Lerot, Christophe; Yu, Huan; François, Hendrick; Gielen, Clio; Pinardi, Gaia; Muller, Jean-François; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric formaldehyde (H2CO) is a central carbonyl compound of tropospheric chemistry. It is produced by the oxidation of a large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from biogenic, pyrogenic or anthropogenic emission sources. Tropical vegetation, in particular the Amazon forest that represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, emit a wide range of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Those play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and climate, by changing the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and thus the lifetimes of other key trace gases such as CO and CH4, and by producing organic aerosols. Satellite observations of H2CO, bringing information at the global scale and over decades, are essential to trace and understand the nature and the spatio-temporal evolution of VOC emissions. We have been developing algorithms to retrieve formaldehyde columns from satellite nadir UV spectral measurements, and we have processed the full level-1 datasets of GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, GOME-2/METOPA&B and OMI/AURA (De Smedt et al., 2008; 2012; 2015). Resulting H2CO products are openly distributed via the TEMIS website (http://h2co.aeronomie.be). In this work, we use the morning and afternoon H2CO columns between 2004 and 2014, respectively composed by the SCIAMACHY and GOME2 A&B datasets, and from the OMI observations, to study the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of H2CO over the Amazon rainforest. The highest H2CO columns worldwide are observed, with morning columns markedly higher than early afternoon. Very large variations between the dry and the wet seasons occur each year. Importantly, in some areas of the forest, mainly in the Rondonia Brazilian State, we observe a net decrease of the H2CO columns. We find very high correlation coefficients between the satellite H2CO columns and the reported deforestation fires that have significantly decreased in Rondonia since 2004 [INPE].

  16. The anti-inflammatory effect of Agaricus brasiliensis is partly due to its linoleic acid content.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Papawee; Kawano, Yasuhiro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2017-10-12

    For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity. This study found that linoleic acid isolated from A. brasiliensis inhibited NO production and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and NOS2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Linoleic acid also suppressed the expression of NF-κB subunit p50 and restored PPARα. This leads to the conclusion that linoleic acid from A. brasiliensis could reduce NO production and inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells by the inhibition of p50 and via the activation of PPARα. This study suggests that linoleic acid present in A. brasiliensis could play a role in the prevention of inflammatory diseases for which this edible mushroom is already known.

  17. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induced M1 polarization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated. Herein, we verified that EVs from P. brasiliensis induce the production of proinflammatory mediators by murine macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of EV to macrophages also promoted transcription of the M1-polarization marker iNOs and diminish that of the M2 markers Arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1. Furthermore, the augmented expression of M2-polarization markers, stimulated by IL-4 plus IL-10, was reverted toward an M1 phenotype in response to secondary stimulation with EVs from P. brasiliensis. The ability of EVs from P. brasiliensis to promote M1 polarization macrophages favoring an enhanced fungicidal activity, demonstrated by the decreased CFU recovery of internalized yeasts, with comparable phagocytic efficacy. Our results suggest that EVs from P. brasiliensis can modulate the innate immune response and affect the relationship between P. brasiliensis and host immune cells. PMID:27775058

  18. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  19. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Liu, X.; Dufour, G.; Cai, Z.; Hoepfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Sellitto, P.; Foret, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Orphal, J. J.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J.; Flaud, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality, which directly affects human health in megacities and causes damages to ecosystems. Monitoring tropospheric ozone is a key societal issue which can be addressed at the regional scale by spaceborne observation. However, current satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) observations show limited sensitivity to ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, up to 3 km asl of altitude above sea level), which is the major concern for air quality. In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyze real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the LMT, in good agreement with the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. In this case study, when high ozone concentrations extend vertically above 3 km asl, they are similarly observed over land by both the multispectral and IASI retrievals. On the other hand, ozone plumes located below 3 km asl are only clearly depicted by the multispectral retrieval (both over land and over ocean

  20. Expression of alpha tubulin during the dimorphic transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, W P; Soares, R B; Jesuino, R S; Izacc, S M; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    2001-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the expression of (alpha-tubulin during the dimorphic transition of the human-pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The alpha-tubulin from P. brasiliensis was recognized by a commercially available anti-tubulin antibody and was developmentally regulated during the dimorphic form transition. We detected at least two alpha-tubulin isoforms in the mycelial state and only one isoform in the yeast forms. This finding suggests specific roles for the alpha-tubulin isoforms in P. brasiliensis's yeast and mycelial forms.

  1. Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients.

    PubMed

    Macoris, S A G; Sugizaki, M F; Peraçoli, M T S; Bosco, S M G; Hebeler-Barbosa, F; Simões, L B; Theodoro, R C; Trinca, L A; Bagagli, E

    2006-05-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.

  2. A critical analysis of isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from soil.

    PubMed

    Franco, M; Bagagli, E; Scapolio, S; da Silva Lacaz, C

    2000-06-01

    The present review is a critical analysis of positive and negative reports of the isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from soil. The strains isolated from soil or soil-contaminated material (dogfood, penguin feces) by Batista et al. in Recife, Brazil, Negroni in the Argentinian Chaco, Albornoz in rural Venezuela, Silva-Vergara et al. in Ibiá, Brazil, Ferreira et al. in Uberlândia, Brazil, and Gezuele et al. at the Uruguayan base in the Antarctic region, presented mycological characteristics consistent with P. brasiliensis. In most of these studies, morphological characterization was complemented with an evaluation of virulence and antigenicity, and biochemical or molecular analysis. These isolations, therefore, can be considered true, supporting the concept of soil as an important element in the ecology of the pathogen. The large number of negative reports in attempts involving soil samples and the low repeatability of isolation of the fungus from the same area indicate that the specific conditions supporting growth of the pathogen in soil have not been fully clarified.

  3. Susceptibility and resistance of inbred mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Calich, V. L.; Singer-Vermes, L. M.; Siqueira, A. M.; Burger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nine different inbred strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis showed significantly varying patterns of susceptibility. The A/SN strain was found to be the most resistant, while BIOD2/nSn, BIO.A and BIOD2/oSn the most susceptible strains. These susceptibility differences were not dependent on the size of challenge inocula and sex of animals. All strains studied showed a mean survival time proportional to the size of inocula used. Although almost all infected male mice presented a shorter survival time when compared with females, significant mortality differences between sexes were found only in two of the strains studied, namely BALB/c and BIOD2/nSn. The H-2 region did not influence the susceptibility pattern since the A/SN and BIO.A strains share the same H-2 haplotype and were respectively highly resistant and susceptible to P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the presence of C5 and unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide had no influence on the mortality data observed. Specific antibodies were detected only in a small number of animals and titres were consistently low, appearing later in the resistant (A/SN) than in a susceptible strain (BIO.A). Omentum, spleen and liver were the most affected organs in both strains, but the susceptible mice had more granulomatous lesions and earlier dissemination of the fungus. PMID:4063162

  4. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees.

  5. A cytological study on Kelloggia (Rubiaceae), an intercontinental disjunct genus between eastern Asia and western North America.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tie-Yao; Sun, Hang; Bartholomew, Bruce; Nie, Ze-Long

    2006-07-01

    A cytological study was carried out for the first time on four populations of the only two species of Kelloggia (Rubiaceae), which occur disjunctly in eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.) and western North America (K. galioides Torr.). The consistent mitotic prophase chromosome condensation pattern and interphase nuclei type were determined for both species. The chromosome base number of the genus is suggested to be x = 11. The karyotype of 2n = 22 = 2x = 16m + 6sm was examined for both species. The karyotypical asymmetry of 1A and 2A was found in K. chinensis and K. galioides, respectively. According to the predominant evolutionary direction of karyotype asymmetry in angiosperms, K. galioides (2A) seems slightly more evolved than K. chinensis (1A). Our finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the Old World origin of Kelloggia based on molecular study.

  6. Development of SSR markers for Psychotria homalosperma (Rubiaceae) and cross-amplification in four other species1

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Kyoko; Watanabe, Kenta; Kato, Hidetoshi; Sugawara, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty-six microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were characterized in Psychotria homalosperma (Rubiaceae), an endemic evergreen tree in the Bonin Islands, Japan, to investigate the genetic structure and gene flow of the species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we developed 26 SSR markers for P. homalosperma with perfect motifs from di- to pentanucleotide repeats. Of these, the Chichijima and Hahajima island populations of P. homalosperma had mean allele numbers of 6.50 and 6.81, respectively. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.578 and 0.606, respectively. In addition, 10 and eight of these markers were successfully amplified for P. boninensis and P. serpens, respectively, occurring in the same or adjacent areas. Conclusions: The SSR markers developed in this study will be useful for future studies concerning the population genetics of P. homalosperma and will facilitate the development of a conservation strategy. PMID:27213122

  7. Tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements in urban and rural regions as seen by IASI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; George, M.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Wespes, C.; Loyola, D.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.

    2013-09-01

    ozone (O3) columns in urban and rural regions as seen by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are analyzed along with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Results over nine cities of the Northern Hemisphere for the period 2008-2011 show a typical seasonal behavior of tropospheric O3, with a first maximum reached in late spring because of stratospheric intrusion mainly and a continuous rise till the summer because of the anthropogenic-based ozone production. Over the East Asian cities, a decrease in the O3 tropospheric column is detected during the monsoon period. Seasonal cycling of tropospheric NO2 shows consistent higher values during winter because of the higher anthropogenic sources and longer lifetime. In rural regions, a complex relation between the O3 and NO2 columns is found, with good correlation in summer and winter. O3 concentrations in rural sites are found to be comparable to those closest to the anthropogenic emission sources, with peak values in spring and summer. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of pollutant emissions in the Beijing region during the Olympic Games of 2008 compared to the same summer period in the following 3 years is studied. GOME-2 NO2 measurements show a reduction up to 54% above Beijing during this period compared to the following 3 years. IASI O3 measurements show an increase of 12% during July 2008 followed by a decrease of 5-6% during the months of August and September.

  8. Dynamical control of NH and SH winter/spring total ozone from GOME observations in 1995-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Dhomse, S.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2003-06-01

    The abnormal high wave activity in austral spring 2002 led to the first observation of a major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere resulting in a net winter increase of mid- to high latitude total ozone until September 2002. In previous years chemical ozone depletion inside the Antarctic vortex was sufficiently high to reduce mean total ozone south of 50° in September to values slightly below that of March (fall) as observed by GOME during the period 1995-2001. This unusual event permits us to examine the interannual variability in total ozone and OClO (the latter being an indicator of the level of chlorine activation inside the polar vortex) as measured by GOME combining data from the southern and northern hemisphere. It is shown that the absolute winter eddy heat flux between 43° and 70° latitudes at 100 hPa correlates extremely well (r = 0.97) with spring-to-fall ratio of total ozone polewards of 50° and anti-correlates with the winter integrated maximum OClO column amounts (r = -0.94) using this combined data set. The unusual ozone ratio for austral winter/spring 2002 lies almost midway between typical values for Antarctica and those for recent cold Arctic winter/spring seasons.

  9. Application of OMI, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 satellite SO2 retrievals for detection of large emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Loyola, D. G.; Valks, P.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from space-based spectrometers are in a relatively early stage of development. Factors such as interference between ozone and SO2 in the retrieval algorithms often lead to errors in the retrieved values. Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensors, averaged over a period of several years, were used to identify locations with elevated SO2 values and estimate their emission levels. About 30 such locations, detectable by all three sensors and linked to volcanic and anthropogenic sources, were found after applying low and high spatial frequency filtration designed to reduce noise and bias and to enhance weak signals to SO2 data from each instrument. Quantitatively, the mean amount of SO2 in the vicinity of the sources, estimated from the three instruments, is in general agreement. However, its better spatial resolution makes it possible for OMI to detect smaller sources and with additional detail as compared to the other two instruments. Over some regions of China, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data show mean SO2 values that are almost 1.5 times higher than those from OMI, but the suggested spatial filtration technique largely reconciles these differences.

  10. Application of OMI, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 Satellite SO2 Retrievals for Detection of Large Emission Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fioletov, V.E.; McLinden, C. A.; Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Loyola, D. G.; Valks, P.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Retrievals of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from space-based spectrometers are in a relatively early stage of development. Factors such as interference between ozone and SO2 in the retrieval algorithms often lead to errors in the retrieved values. Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensors, averaged over a period of several years, were used to identify locations with elevated SO2 values and estimate their emission levels. About 30 such locations, detectable by all three sensors and linked to volcanic and anthropogenic sources, were found after applying low and high spatial frequency filtration designed to reduce noise and bias and to enhance weak signals to SO2 data from each instrument. Quantitatively, the mean amount of SO2 in the vicinity of the sources, estimated from the three instruments, is in general agreement. However, its better spatial resolution makes it possible for OMI to detect smaller sources and with additional detail as compared to the other two instruments. Over some regions of China, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data show mean SO2 values that are almost 1.5 times higher than those from OMI, but the suggested spatial filtration technique largely reconciles these differences.

  11. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stubi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and the geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of data set content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile data sets retrieved at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL, United Kingdom), using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 (i.e. the second generation Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment on the first Meteorological Operational Satellite) measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO GAW). This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile data sets with user requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and from climate modellers.

  12. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stübi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2014-11-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of dataset content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile datasets retrieved at KNMI and RAL, using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch. This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile datasets with user requirements from GCOS and from climate modellers.

  13. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-05-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. The input total ozone product is generated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) also within the O3M SAF framework. Polar orbiting satellites provide global coverage but infrequent sampling of the diurnal cloud cover. The diurnal variation of the surface UV radiation is extremely strong due to modulation by solar elevation and rapidly changing cloud cover. At the minimum, one sample of the cloud cover in the morning and another in the afternoon are needed to derive daily maximum and daily integrated surface UV radiation quantities. This is achieved by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit (daytime descending node around 09:30 LT) and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit (daytime ascending node around 14:30 LT). In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast) using commercial telecommunication satellites for broadcasting the data to the user community. The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated UVB and UVA radiation, solar noon UV Index and daily maximum photolysis

  14. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Guenther, A.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the adjoint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chemical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model resolution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME-2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cycle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon maxima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening maxima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich regions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043). The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly polluted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inventory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, however, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and reductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in particular over the northeast

  15. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Guenther, A.

    2015-04-01

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the adjoint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chemistry-transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model resolution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME-2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cycle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at 7 sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modelled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon maxima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening maxima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich regions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is found to be generally better in summer (with a clear afternoon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043). The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly polluted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inventory (24.6 vs. 25.5 in the a priori) with, however, pronounced increases in the Northeast China and reductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC), in particular over the Northeast, likely

  16. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  17. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  18. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-05-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  19. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators.

  20. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  3. In vitro effects of natural killer cells against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, B E; Murphy, J W

    1984-01-01

    Recently, data have been reported suggesting natural killer (NK) cells may function in natural resistance against a fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. The primary objective of this study was to examine the reactivity of murine splenic cells against another fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Levels of NK activity in effector cell pools were varied by: (i) removing nylon wool-adherent cells, (ii) fractionating splenic cells on Percoll discontinuous gradients, (iii) using old and young effector cell donor mice, (iv) using donors from different strains, and (v) pretreating donors with NK-augmenting and -depressing agents. The various effector cell pools were simultaneously used in the 4-h 51Cr release assay with YAC-1 targets to determine the NK reactivity and in the in vitro growth inhibition assay against P. brasiliensis yeast phase targets. In each case, the level of NK reactivity correlated with the ability of the effector cells to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. brasiliensis. NK activity and P. brasiliensis growth-inhibiting ability could be augmented by fractionation of splenic cells through nylon wool or Percoll gradients. The effector cells responsible for the NK activity and P. brasiliensis growth inhibition were characterized as being nylon wool nonadherent, being found in the low-density fractions from Percoll discontinuous gradients, and having no detectable Thy-1 antigen or immunoglobulin but having asialo GM1 on their surface. These data support the contention that NK or NK-like cells are responsible for limiting the in vitro growth of P. brasiliensis. PMID:6500701

  4. Inhibition of human neutrophil apoptosis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: role of interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Acorci, M J; Dias-Melicio, L A; Golim, M A; Bordon-Graciani, A P; Peraçoli, M T S; Soares, A M V C

    2009-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis that presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Because of the great number of neutrophils polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. This fungus is found intracellularly in PMN and monocytes/macrophages, suggesting that it is capable of evading damage and surviving inside these cells. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether P. brasiliensis can prolong the lifetime of PMN, and if this process would be related with IL-8 levels. PMN apoptosis and intracellular levels of IL-8 were analysed by flow cytometry and culture supernatants IL-8 levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that coincubation with P. brasiliensis yeast cells results in an inhibition of PMN apoptosis, which was associated with increase in IL-8 production by these cells. Cocultures treatment with monoclonal antibody anti-IL-8 reversed the inhibitory effect of P. brasiliensis on PMN apoptosis, besides to increase spontaneous apoptosis of these cells. These data show that, in contrast to other microbial pathogens that drive phagocytes into apoptosis to escape killing, P. brasiliensis can extend the lifetime of normal human PMN by inducing autocrine IL-8 production.

  5. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  6. [Isolation of an Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigen from solid culture media].

    PubMed

    Gago, J; Godio, C; Ochoa, L; Negroni, R; Nejamkis, M R

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop in solid medium a fast method to obtain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) with a high yield. Four culture media were assayed: Sabouraud honey-agar, Sabouraud dextrose-agar, tomato -agar-medium (TOM) and a medium based on grape pulp. The most exhuberant growth was observed in medium based on grape pulp. Antigen was prepared in microscale at 6, 10 and 15 days incubation of solid cultures and the crude product concentrated by means of Centriplus tubes (Helena, France). Isolated antigens were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by immunolabelling and detection of the characteristic gp45 antigen employing human and Pb-infected rat sera. Best results were observed after 10 days culture in grape medium. None of the other three media afforded comparable results.

  7. Experimental model of arthritis induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazin, Samia Khalil; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; Puccia, Rosana; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is highly prevalent in Brazil, where it is the principal cause of death by systemic mycoses. The disease primarily affects men aged 30-50 year old and usually starts as a pulmonary focus and then may spread to other organs and systems, including the joints. The present study aimed to develop an experimental model of paracoccidioidomycotic arthritis. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 48) were used, divided in 6 groups: test groups EG/15 and EG/45 (received one dose of 100 μl of saline containing 10(5) Pb viable yeasts in the knee); heat killed Pb-group HK/15 and HK/45 (received a suspension of 10(5) Pb nonviable yeasts in the knee) and control groups CG/15 and CG/45 (received only sterile saline in the knee). The rats were killed 15 and 45 days postinoculation. In contrast with the control rats, the histopathology of the joints of rats of the test groups (EG/15 and EG/45) revealed a picture of well-established PCM arthritis characterized by extensive sclerosing granulomatous inflammation with numerous multiple budding fungal cells. The X-ray examination revealed joint alterations in these groups. Only metabolic active fungi evoked inflammation. The experimental model was able to induce fungal arthritis in the knees of the rats infected with metabolic active P. brasiliensis. The disease tended to be regressive and restrained by the immune system. No evidence of fungal dissemination to the lungs was observed.

  8. Immunochemistry of the Group-Specific Polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Zamora, Abel; Bojalil, L. F.

    1965-01-01

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio (Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México, D.F., México), Abel Zamora, and L. F. Bojalil. Immunochemistry of the group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 90:571–574. 1965.—The group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis was further purified, yielding an amorphous white material with the following characteristics: [α]D20 = + 48; nitrogen, 0.5%; phosphorus, 0.1%; and ash as sodium, 0.8%. The polymer is made of d-arabinose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 3:1, and no other sugars were detected. Mild hydrolysis liberates mainly arabinose. The polysaccharide consumes 3.46 μmoles of periodate per mg of polymer in 15 days at 4 C (this value remains constant after 4 more days). Oxidation results in destruction of two of the arabinose, with the formation of two glycerols after borohydride reduction and hydrolysis. The polysaccharide oxidized by periodate and reduced under mild acid hydrolysis at 20 C yields glycerol and a polymer formed by galactose and arabinose (in a ratio of 1:1) which is resistant to a second oxidation. Therefore, the polysaccharide is probably formed by a main chain of glactose linked 1,3 and arabinose linked 1,2 or 1,3 or both, and nonreducing side chains of arabofuranose residues. The intact polysaccharide cross-reacts with sera from patients with active tuberculosis, and this, as well as the homologous reaction, is abolished by oxidation with periodate. PMID:16562050

  9. Transporters in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome: insights on drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane da Silva; Albuquerque, Flávia Caixeta; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira; Oliveira, Gina Camilo de; Almeida, Mauro Fernandes de; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz

    2005-06-30

    In the struggle for life, the capacity of microorganisms to synthesize and secrete toxic compounds (inhibiting competitors) plays an important role in successful survival of these species. This ability must come together with the capability of being unaffected by these same compounds. Several mechanisms are thought to avoid the toxic effects. One of them is toxin extrusion from the intracellular environment to the outside vicinity, using special transmembrane proteins, referred to as transporters. These proteins are also important for other reasons, since most of them are involved in nutrient uptake and cellular excretion. In cancer cells and in pathogens, and particularly in fungi, some of these proteins have been pointed out as responsible for an important phenotype known as multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present study, we tried to identify in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome, transporter-ortholog genes from the two major classes: ATP binding cassette and major facilitator superfamily transporter. We found 22 groups with good similarity with other fungal ATP binding cassette transporters, and four Paracoccidioides brasilienses assembled expressed sequence tags that probably code for major facilitator superfamily proteins. We also focused on fungicide resistance orthologs already characterized in other pathogenic fungi. We were able to find homologs to C. albicans CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDR5 and Aspergillus AtrF genes, all of them related to azole resistance. As current treatment for paracoccidioidomycosis mainly uses azole derivatives, the presence of these genes can be postulated to play a similar role in P. brasiliensis, warning us for the possibility of resistant isolate emergence.

  10. Evaluation of GOME Satellite Measurements of Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO using Regional Data from Aircraft Campaigns in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. V.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T.B.; Nicks, D.K.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.P.; Jacob, D.J.; Sturges, E.D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compare tropospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument with in situ measurements over eastern Texas and the southeast United States. On aveiage, the GOME and in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns are consistent despite pronounced sampling differences. The geometric mean in situ to GOME ratios over the campaign are 1.08 for NO2 and 0.84 for HCHO, with corresponding geometric standard deviations of 1.27 and 1.38. The correlation of the observed column spatial variability between the two NO2 measurement sets is encouraging before (r2 = 0.54, n = 18) and after (r2 = 0.67, n = 18) correcting for a sampling bias. Mean relative vertical profiles of HCHO and NO2 calculated with a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-CHEM) and used in the GOME retrieval are highly consistent with in situ measurements; differences would affect the retrieved NO2 and HCHO columns by a few percent. GOME HCHO columns over eastern Texas include contributions from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions but are dominated by biogenic VOC emissions at the regional scale in August-September when HCHO columns are within 20% of those over the southeastern United States. In situ measurements show that during summer the lowest 1500 m (the lower mixed layer) contains 75% of the tropospheric NO2 column over Houston and Nashville, and 60% of the HCHO column over Houston. Future validation of space-based measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns over polluted regions should include coincident in situ measurements that span the entire satellite footprint, especially in the heterogeneous mixed layer.

  11. Evaluation of GOME Satellite Measurements of Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO using Regional Data from Aircraft Campaigns in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. V.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T.B.; Nicks, D.K.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.P.; Jacob, D.J.; Sturges, E.D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compare tropospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument with in situ measurements over eastern Texas and the southeast United States. On aveiage, the GOME and in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns are consistent despite pronounced sampling differences. The geometric mean in situ to GOME ratios over the campaign are 1.08 for NO2 and 0.84 for HCHO, with corresponding geometric standard deviations of 1.27 and 1.38. The correlation of the observed column spatial variability between the two NO2 measurement sets is encouraging before (r2 = 0.54, n = 18) and after (r2 = 0.67, n = 18) correcting for a sampling bias. Mean relative vertical profiles of HCHO and NO2 calculated with a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-CHEM) and used in the GOME retrieval are highly consistent with in situ measurements; differences would affect the retrieved NO2 and HCHO columns by a few percent. GOME HCHO columns over eastern Texas include contributions from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions but are dominated by biogenic VOC emissions at the regional scale in August-September when HCHO columns are within 20% of those over the southeastern United States. In situ measurements show that during summer the lowest 1500 m (the lower mixed layer) contains 75% of the tropospheric NO2 column over Houston and Nashville, and 60% of the HCHO column over Houston. Future validation of space-based measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns over polluted regions should include coincident in situ measurements that span the entire satellite footprint, especially in the heterogeneous mixed layer.

  12. The direct fitting approach for total ozone column retrievals: a sensitivity study on GOME-2/MetOp-A measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, A.; Borsdorff, T.; aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the direct fitting approach to retrieve total ozone columns from the clear sky Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2/MetOp-A (GOME-2/MetOp-A) measurements between 325 and 335 nm in the period 2007-2010. The direct fitting of the measurement is based on adjusting the scaling of a reference ozone profile and requires accurate simulation of GOME-2 radiances. In this context, we study the effect of three aspects that introduce forward model errors if not addressed appropriately: (1) the use of a clear sky model atmosphere in the radiative transfer demanding cloud filtering, (2) different approximations of Earth's sphericity to address the influence of the solar zenith angle, and (3) the need of polarization in radiative transfer modeling. We conclude that cloud filtering using the operational GOME-2 FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) cloud product, which is part of level 1B data, and the use of pseudo-spherical scalar radiative transfer is fully sufficient for the purpose of this retrieval. A validation with ground-based measurements at 36 stations confirms this showing a global mean bias of -0.1 % with a standard deviation (SD) of 2.7 %. The regularization effect inherent to the profile scaling approach is thoroughly characterized by the total column averaging kernel for each individual retrieval. It characterizes the effect of the particular choice of the ozone profile to be scaled by the inversion and is part of the retrieval product. Two different interpretations of the data product are possible: first, regarding the retrieval product as an estimate of the true column, a direct comparison of the retrieved column with total ozone columns from ground-based measurements can be done. This requires accurate a priori knowledge of the reference ozone profile and the column averaging kernel is not needed. Alternatively, the retrieval product can be interpreted as an effective column defined by the total column

  13. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P-F; Guenther, Alex B.

    2015-10-26

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the ad-joint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chem-ical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model res-olution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME- 2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cy-cle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon max-ima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening max-ima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich re-gions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear after-noon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043).The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly pol-luted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inven-tory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, how-ever, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and re-ductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in

  14. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and MetOp-B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 09:30 and 13:30 LT are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15 % when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally, regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features

  15. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-Visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the along-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 9.30 a.m. and 13.30 p.m. are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15% when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features are

  16. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 μM strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 μM, while the MLC is around 30 μM. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 μM), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 μM of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 μM exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is

  17. Observing atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) from space: validation and intercomparison of six retrievals from four satellites (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B, OMPS) with SEAC4RS aircraft observations over the southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Yu, Karen; Travis, Katherine R.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; De Smedt, Isabelle; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly; Li, Can; Ferrare, Richard; Fried, Alan; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Richter, Dirk; Scarino, Amy Jo; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Wolfe, Glenn M.

    2016-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) column data from satellites are widely used as a proxy for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but validation of the data has been extremely limited. Here we use highly accurate HCHO aircraft observations from the NASA SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) campaign over the southeast US in August-September 2013 to validate and intercompare six retrievals of HCHO columns from four different satellite instruments (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B and OMPS; for clarification of these and other abbreviations used in the paper, please refer to Appendix A) and three different research groups. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used as a common intercomparison platform. All retrievals feature a HCHO maximum over Arkansas and Louisiana, consistent with the aircraft observations and reflecting high emissions of biogenic isoprene. The retrievals are also interconsistent in their spatial variability over the southeast US (r = 0.4-0.8 on a 0.5° × 0.5° grid) and in their day-to-day variability (r = 0.5-0.8). However, all retrievals are biased low in the mean by 20-51 %, which would lead to corresponding bias in estimates of isoprene emissions from the satellite data. The smallest bias is for OMI-BIRA, which has high corrected slant columns relative to the other retrievals and low scattering weights in its air mass factor (AMF) calculation. OMI-BIRA has systematic error in its assumed vertical HCHO shape profiles for the AMF calculation, and correcting this would eliminate its bias relative to the SEAC4RS data. Our results support the use of satellite HCHO data as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low mean bias. There is no evident pattern in the bias, suggesting that a uniform correction factor may be applied to the data until better understanding is achieved.

  18. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Klaes, D.; Poli, G.; Retscher, C.; Lindstrot, R.; Huckle, R.; Lacan, A.; Grzegorski, M.; Holdak, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Livschitz, J.; Eisinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterisation activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The quality of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarises a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages (http://www.eumetsat.int) and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  19. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  20. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-03-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-01-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained. PMID:9067645

  3. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of <30 DU uniformly distributed south of 35 S during all seasons, and relatively high tropospheric column ozone of >33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements in urban and rural regions as seen by IASI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; George, M.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.; Wespes, C.; Layola, D.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.

    2013-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) columns in urban and rural regions as seen by the infrared sounder IASI are analyzed along with GOME-2 tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Results over nine cities of the Northern Hemisphere for the period 2008-2011 show a typical seasonal behavior of tropospheric O3, with a first maximum reached in late spring because of stratospheric intrusion mainly, and a continuous rise till the summer because of the anthropogenic based ozone production. Over the East Asian cities, a decrease in the O3 tropospheric column is detected during monsoon period. Seasonal cycling of tropospheric NO2 shows consistent higher values during winter because of the higher anthropogenic sources and longer lifetime. In rural regions, a complex relation between the O3 and NO2 column is found, with higher linearity in summer. O3 concentrations in rural sites are found to be comparable to those found closest to the anthropogenic emission sources, with peak values in spring and summer. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of pollutant emissions in China during the Olympic games of 2008 is studied. GOME-2 NO2 measurements show a reduction up to 54% above Beijing during this period compared to the following three years. IASI O3 measurements show an increase of 12% during July 2008 followed by a decrease of 5-6% during the months of August and September. A significant reduction in O3 tropospheric column values is also detected in the area downwind, few hundreds of kilometers to the south of Beijing.

  6. Yearly averaged BrO and SO2 emissions from Ambrym volcano as seen by the GOME-2 satellite instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoermann, C.; Sihler, H.; Bobrowski, N.; Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2013-12-01

    Since bromine monoxide (BrO) of volcanic origin was detected for the first time in the plume of the Soufrière Hills volcano by ground-based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements in 2003, this species has been regularly observed by ground-based instruments at several quiescent-degassing volcanoes worldwide. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument (GOME-2) has proven to be capable of monitoring volcanic BrO in volcanic plumes also from space, during both, minor and major eruptions. However, long-term measurements of BrO at continuous passively degassing volcanoes are usually only provided from ground-based observations due to their higher sensitivity to weaker emissions. Here, we present the first space-based observations of enhanced BrO abundances in the vicinity of the mostly quiescent-degassing Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) by yearly averaged GOME-2 satellite data in the years 2007-2012. The observed spatial BrO distribution in the plume is compared to the corresponding mean distribution of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2), which is commonly used as a tracer for volcanic emissions due to its relatively long lifetime and strong absorption features in the UV wavelength range. The averaged data shows distribution patterns of both species up to distances of 100 km from the volcano and a clear linear correlation with mean BrO/SO2 ratio of 5 x 10^-5 to 1 x 10^-4 throughout the investigated time period. In addition, an estimation of the lower limit of the total sulphur and bromine emissions will be given.

  7. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Megretskaia, Inna A.; Chatfield, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of <30 DU uniformly distributed south of 35 S during all seasons, and relatively high tropospheric column ozone of >33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-12-19

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  10. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution.

  11. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  12. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  13. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  14. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:7650207

  15. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-08-07

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections.

  17. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-06-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates.

  18. Morphology, secretion composition, and ecological aspects of stipular colleters in Rubiaceae species from tropical forest and savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Nogueira, Anselmo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Colleters are secretory structures that produce and release mucilage or a mucilage-resin mixture protecting meristems and young structures against desiccation, herbivores, and pathogens. The secretions may vary in colleters of same or different types, indicating that the functionality of colleters may be more specific than previously thought. In this study, we compared 17 Rubiaceae species from savanna and forest environment focusing on colleter secretions and its ecological role. First, we evaluated the morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of stipular colleters using light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the phenology, microclimate, and the proportion of damaged apices in the savanna and forest species. We recorded standard-type colleters, variable in distribution and size, in 14 of the 17 studied species. The secretion varied from predominantly hydrophilic, mixed to predominantly lipophilic. During the budding period, secretion covered the vegetative apices. Savanna species had a prevalence of lipid secretion in habitats with higher luminosity, which had a lower proportion of damaged apices. In contrast, forest species occurred in habitats with lower luminosity and had a higher proportion of damaged apices, in general with the absence of lipids in the colleters. These results highlight that colleters with similar morphology clearly differed in secretions among species, especially between species from savanna and forest, in which the colleters appear potentially associated with protection against irradiation in savanna, but not in the forest environment.

  19. Monophyly of Kelloggia Torrey ex Benth. (Rubiaceae) and evolution of its intercontinental disjunction between western North America and eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Wen, Jun; Sun, Hang; Bartholomew, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    Kelloggia Torrey ex Bentham (Rubiaceae) consists of two species disjunctly distributed in western North America (K. galioides Torrey) and the western part of eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.). The two species exhibit a high level of morphological divergence. To test its monophyly and to infer its biogeographic history, we estimated the phylogeny of Kelloggia and its relatives from sequences of three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL gene, atpB-rbcL spacer, and rps16 intron). The monophyly of Kelloggia was strongly supported, and it forms a sister relationship with the tribe Rubieae. The divergence time between the two disjunct species of Kelloggia was estimated to be 5.42 ± 2.32 million years ago (mya) using the penalized likelihood method based on rbcL sequence data with fossil calibration. Our result does not support the Madrean-Tethyan hypothesis, which assumes an earlier divergence time of 20-25 mya. Ancestral area analysis, as well as dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analysis, suggests the Asian origin of Kelloggia and the importance of Eurasia in the diversification of its close relatives in the Rubieae-Theligoneae-Paederieae group. The intercontinental disjunction in Kelloggia is suggested to have evolved via long-distance dispersal from Asia into western North America.

  20. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Luciana B; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-03-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flower was relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5 J) and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30 kJ) would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura), the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis), and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris). The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.

  1. Effects of indiscriminate foraging by tropical hummingbirds on pollination and plant reproductive success: experiments with two tropical treelets (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Feinsinger, Peter; Busby, William H; Tiebout, Hary M

    1988-08-01

    In cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, two common treelets (Palicourea lasiorrachis and Cephaelis elata, both Rubiaceae) depend simultaneously on one hummingbird population (Lampornis calolaema) for pollination. Both species are distylous and self-incompatible. In laboratory experiments, we examined possible effects of indiscriminate foraging by hummingbirds among flowers of both species, as observed in the field, on pollination of Palicourea. In each of 35 trials, captive L. calolaema probed 2 flowers from pin plants of Palicourea followed by 20 thrum flowers of the same species, with either 0, 2, or 10 Cephaelis flowers intervening. We assessed pollen transfer by staining and counting pin pollen tubes growing in thrum styles; counts of 0, 1, or ≥2 pollen tubes relate directly to seed output (0, 1, or 2 seeds per fruit, respectively). Intervening Cephaelis flowers sharply reduced pollen receipt by thrum flowers of Palicourea and reduced some aspects of pollen dispersal from pins as well, thereby curtailing maternal and paternal reproductive potential of Palicourea. Such effects of interspecific pollen loss on reproductive output may lead to strong competition among some, though not all, combinations of plant species pollinated by L. calolaema or of other plant combinations that share animal pollinators.

  2. Morphology, secretion composition, and ecological aspects of stipular colleters in Rubiaceae species from tropical forest and savanna.

    PubMed

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Nogueira, Anselmo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Colleters are secretory structures that produce and release mucilage or a mucilage-resin mixture protecting meristems and young structures against desiccation, herbivores, and pathogens. The secretions may vary in colleters of same or different types, indicating that the functionality of colleters may be more specific than previously thought. In this study, we compared 17 Rubiaceae species from savanna and forest environment focusing on colleter secretions and its ecological role. First, we evaluated the morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of stipular colleters using light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the phenology, microclimate, and the proportion of damaged apices in the savanna and forest species. We recorded standard-type colleters, variable in distribution and size, in 14 of the 17 studied species. The secretion varied from predominantly hydrophilic, mixed to predominantly lipophilic. During the budding period, secretion covered the vegetative apices. Savanna species had a prevalence of lipid secretion in habitats with higher luminosity, which had a lower proportion of damaged apices. In contrast, forest species occurred in habitats with lower luminosity and had a higher proportion of damaged apices, in general with the absence of lipids in the colleters. These results highlight that colleters with similar morphology clearly differed in secretions among species, especially between species from savanna and forest, in which the colleters appear potentially associated with protection against irradiation in savanna, but not in the forest environment.

  3. Evolutionary Relationships and Biogeography of the Ant-Epiphytic Genus Squamellaria (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) and Their Taxonomic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological research on ant/plant symbioses in Fiji, combined with molecular phylogenetics, has brought to light four new species of Squamellaria in the subtribe Hydnophytinae of the Rubiaceae tribe Psychotrieae and revealed that four other species, previously in Hydnophytum, need to be transferred to Squamellaria. The diagnoses of the new species are based on morphological and DNA traits, with further insights from microCT scanning of flowers and leaf δ13C ratios (associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism). Our field and phylogenetic work results in a new circumscription of the genus Squamellaria, which now contains 12 species (to which we also provide a taxonomic key), not 3 as in the last revision. A clock-dated phylogeny and a model-testing biogeographic framework were used to infer the broader geographic history of rubiaceous ant plants in the Pacific, specifically the successive expansion of Squamellaria to Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji. The colonization of Vanuatu may have occurred from Fiji, when these islands were still in the same insular arc, while the colonization of the Solomon islands may have occurred after the separation of this island from the Fiji/Vanuatu arc. Some of these ant-housing epiphytes must have dispersed with their specialized ants, for instance attached to floating timber. Others acquired new ant symbionts on different islands. PMID:27028599

  4. Temporal auditory summation in the echolocating bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Thaller, J

    1994-06-15

    Auditory thresholds improve with increasing signal duration within the maximum integration time of the auditory system, a phenomenon called temporal summation. The temporal summation function is a basic characteristic of particular relevance for bat sonar, as it determines the ability to detect targets with short echolocation calls. Temporal summation was studied in 6 Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in a forced two-choice behavioural test. Masked auditory thresholds for 40-kHz test tone pulses with durations between 2 ms and 400 ms were determined in broadband noise of two different spectrum levels (-18 dB, +17 dB). At both masker levels, thresholds decreased by considerably more than 10 dB per decade of duration. The time constants of the summation functions, which are a measure of the maximum integration time, shortened significantly with increasing masker level from 62 ms to 14 ms. The steep summation functions are only partly accounted for by spectral splatter. This suggests that the bats are capable of a neural overintegration of sound intensity. Finally, it is shown that such short time constants are typical for echolocating animals, and the implications of the found summation functions for echolocation are considered.

  5. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gabriel Capella; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Arantes, Thales Domingos; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens. PMID:23903981

  6. Geodermatophilus brasiliensis sp. nov., isolated from Brazilian soil.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, Marcelo; Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Stackebrandt, Erko; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive bacterial isolate, designated Tü 6233(T), with rudimentary, coral-pink vegetative mycelium that formed neither aerial mycelium nor spores, was isolated from a Brazilian soil sample. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. Cell-wall hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose as the diagnostic sugar. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(17 : 1)ω8c and the predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown glycophospholipid and an unknown phospholipid. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 75.4 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with members of the genus Geodermatophilus was 94.2-98.7%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain Tü 6233(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus brasiliensis sp. nov., with the type strain Tü 6233(T) ( = DSM 44526(T) = CECT 8402(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  7. Reaginic antibodies and immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Valerie E.; Ogilvie, Bridget M.

    1967-01-01

    1. Passive transfer of immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis with pooled antiserum from immune rats was neutralized in vivo by intravenous injection of small amounts of a saline extract of adult worms. This inhibition of protection was associated with systemic anaphylaxis and appeared to result from the neutralization of protective antibodies. 2. Serum from infected rats was fractionated by G-200 Sephadex gel-filtration. Reaginic antibodies were shown to be intermediate in molecular size between 7S and 19S globulins in sera from both singly and multiply infected animals. In immunoelectrophoresis they migrated with fast immunoglobulins but could not be related to either IgG or IgA rat immunoglobulins. The same serum fractions gave both homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and systemic anaphylaxis. 3. Blocking antibodies were found both in the 7S and 19S fractions after separation on G-200 Sephadex. These antibodies were found in sera from rats immunized with worm extracts as well as in sera from singly and multiply infected animals. 4. The saline extract of adult worms was fractionated on G-200 Sephadex. The isolated antigenic material (allergen) for both homologous PCA and systemic anaphylaxis seemed to be a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000–17,000. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 6FIG. 8 PMID:6066617

  8. Isolation and purification of two immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Rodriguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    Two immunogenic proteins from a crude extract of Nocardia brasiliensis were purified to homogeneity. A 61-kDa protein (P61) was isolated from a 50% ammonium sulfate precipitate in two steps. Initially, P61 was obtained by electroelution in a 10% nondenatured preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In a second step, the eluate from the nondenatured gel was run in a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) preparative polyacrylamide gel. After elution, a single band was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot (immunoblot). Also, a 24-kDa immunogenic protein (P24) was isolated by gel filtration in a Sephadex G-100 column and then by electroelution in a 12% nondenatured polyacrylamide gel. In a previous paper, we showed by Western blot assays that these proteins are recognized by the sera of mycetoma patients and not by sera from mycobacterial-infected or healthy individuals. We consider these proteins to be good candidates for the study of the host-parasite relationship in nocardial infections. The possible clinical application of these purified antigens in a serological diagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:1583118

  9. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research.

  10. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

  11. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals.

  12. The mitochondrial genome from the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria Angélica G; Tambor, José Humberto M; Nobrega, Francisco G

    2007-07-01

    We present here the sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the pathogenic thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, agent of an endemic disease in most South American countries. The sequenced genome has 71 334 bp and is organized as a circular molecule with two gaps of unknown size flanking the middle exon of the nad5 gene. We located genes coding for the three subunits of the ATP synthase (atp6, atp8 and atp9), the apocytochrome b (cob), three subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme complex (cox1, cox2 and cox3), seven subunits of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, nad6 and nad4L) and the large (rnl) and small (rns) subunits of ribosomal RNA. Two maturases and a ribosomal protein (rms5) are located inside introns. Twenty-five tRNAs were identified with acceptors for all 20 amino acids. Seven polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts (140-240 bp) have been found in this genome. All genes are in the same orientation over the genome, while their order is closest to the mitochondrial genomes from Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus nidulans.

  13. Heterologous expression, purification, and immunological reactivity of a recombinant HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Daniela A; Zancopé-Oliveira, Roseli M; Sueli, M; Felipe, S; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M; Deepe, George S; Soares, Célia M A

    2002-03-01

    The complete coding cDNA of HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was overexpressed in an Escherichia coli host to produce high levels of recombinant protein. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. A total of 169 human serum samples were tested for reactivity by Western blot analysis with the purified HSP60 recombinant protein. Immunoblots indicated that the recombinant P. brasiliensis HSP60 was recognized by antibodies in 72 of 75 sera from paracoccidioidomycosis patients. No cross-reactivity was detected with individual sera from patients with aspergillosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis. Reactivity to HSP60 was observed in sera from 9.52% of control healthy individuals and 11.5% of patients with histoplasmosis. The high sensitivity and specificity (97.3 and 92.5%, respectively) for HSP60 suggested that the recombinant protein can be used singly or in association with other recombinant antigens to detect antibody responses in P. brasiliensis-infected patients.

  14. Heterologous Expression, Purification, and Immunological Reactivity of a Recombinant HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Daniela A.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Roseli M.; Sueli, M.; Felipe, S.; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Deepe Jr., George S.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The complete coding cDNA of HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was overexpressed in an Escherichia coli host to produce high levels of recombinant protein. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. A total of 169 human serum samples were tested for reactivity by Western blot analysis with the purified HSP60 recombinant protein. Immunoblots indicated that the recombinant P. brasiliensis HSP60 was recognized by antibodies in 72 of 75 sera from paracoccidioidomycosis patients. No cross-reactivity was detected with individual sera from patients with aspergillosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis. Reactivity to HSP60 was observed in sera from 9.52% of control healthy individuals and 11.5% of patients with histoplasmosis. The high sensitivity and specificity (97.3 and 92.5%, respectively) for HSP60 suggested that the recombinant protein can be used singly or in association with other recombinant antigens to detect antibody responses in P. brasiliensis-infected patients. PMID:11874881

  15. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Ascaridia galli: mitochondrial respiration in free-living and parasitic stages.

    PubMed

    Fry, M; Jenkins, D C

    1983-08-01

    Aerobic respiratory pathways have been delineated and respiratory efficiency has been assessed in mitochondria isolated from embryonated eggs, infective larvae, and adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Ascaridia galli. Mitochondrial respiration in free-living stages of N. brasiliensis is mediated mainly by a mammalian-like antimycin A- and cyanide-sensitive pathway; specific respiratory activity is high and oxidative phosphorylation efficient. In mitochondria of adult N. brasiliensis, antimycin A- and cyanide-sensitive respiration is decreased relative to respiration though an alternative pathway, and specific respiratory activity and mitochondrial efficiency are lower. Respiration in mitochondria from embryonated eggs and tissues of adult A. galli is comparable, and apparently mediated by an antimycin A- and cyanide-insensitive alternative respiratory pathway; no evidence for the presence of a mammalian-like respiratory pathway in embryonated eggs of A. galli was found. The results of this study are compared to mitochondrial respiration in eggs, larvae, and adult body wall muscle of Ascaris suum.

  17. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rua, Cintia P J; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Appolinario, Luciana R; Venas, Tainá M; Garcia, Gizele D; Carvalho, Lucas S; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Valle, Rogério A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  18. Purinergic effects of a hydroalcoholic Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) extract on liver functions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Andrea L; Eler, G Jacklin; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane M

    2010-06-23

    The effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) on functional parameters in the perfused rat liver were examined with emphasis on its content of nucleotides and nucleosides. Several nucleosides and nucleotides were identified in the A. brasiliensis extract, which was active on several liver functions. A significant part of the effects is the result of the purinergic action of nucleosides and nucleotides: pressure increment, glycogenolysis stimulation, transient inhibition of oxygen consumption, and redox state changes. Other phenomena such as the stimulation of gluconeogenesis, ureogenesis, and oxygen consumption are more likely consequences of the metabolic transformation of substrates contained within the extract, especially amino acids. It seems apparent that consumption of A. brasiliensis represents not only the ingestion of metabolic precursors but also the ingestion of substances that, even at low concentrations, can exert important signaling functions in the liver as well as in the organism as a whole.

  19. Royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis Ka21 (higher Basidiomycetes), as a functional food in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Liu, Ying; Motoi, Masuro; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis, is used as a natural health product. In Japan, however, the quality control of some of these mushroom products has been viewed as a safety problem. Focusing on the quality control of A. brasiliensis KA21, we have performed several safety studies. To date, we have established evidence that this mushroom can be used safely as an immunostimulant and to mediate biochemical parameters associated with obesity or diabetes. Furthermore, to improve the manufacturing process of this mushroom, we have studied the relationship between its pharmaceutical actions and the conditions of its cultivation and thermal management. The purpose of this review is to report the findings of basic and clinical studies of the fruit body of A. brasiliensis KA21.

  20. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  1. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)).

  2. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  3. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    PubMed

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  4. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  5. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, D M; Marmontel, M; Rosas, F W; Santos, F R

    2007-12-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  6. [Luís Gomes Ferreira reports on the health of slaves in his work entitled Erário mineral (1735)].

    PubMed

    Eugênio, Alisson

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the reports of Luís Gomes Ferreira published in his manual on practical medicine entitled Erário mineral, of 1735, on the most common illnesses in captivity. It is shown that such reports can be interpreted as a criticism of the social relations of the slave era by issuing some warnings to the landowners who failed to look after the health of their slaves.

  7. Rubipodanin A, the First Natural N-Desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-Type Cyclopeptide from Rubia podantha, Indicating an Important Role of the N9-Methyl Group in the Conformation and Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Si-Meng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    One new cyclic hexapeptide named rubipodanin A (1), which is the first identified natural N-desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptide, together with six known Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides (2-7) were obtained using the TLC cyclopeptide protosite detection method with ninhydrin from the roots and rhizomes of Rubia podantha. The cyclopeptide structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, IR, UV and MS. The solution conformation and biological activities of 1 and RA-V (4) were evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the N9-methyl group plays a vital role in the maintenance of the conformation and bioactivity.

  8. Rubipodanin A, the First Natural N-Desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-Type Cyclopeptide from Rubia podantha, Indicating an Important Role of the N9-Methyl Group in the Conformation and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    One new cyclic hexapeptide named rubipodanin A (1), which is the first identified natural N-desmonomethyl Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptide, together with six known Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides (2–7) were obtained using the TLC cyclopeptide protosite detection method with ninhydrin from the roots and rhizomes of Rubia podantha. The cyclopeptide structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, IR, UV and MS. The solution conformation and biological activities of 1 and RA-V (4) were evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the N9-methyl group plays a vital role in the maintenance of the conformation and bioactivity. PMID:26694544

  9. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  10. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  11. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Soares, C M; Madlun, E E; da Silva, S P; Pereira, M; Felipe, M S

    1995-01-01

    We initially used 25 different random primers in order to test their ability to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments from the dimorphic human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. From the tested primers we chose five to distinguish between seven isolates of this microorganism. The DNA amplification patterns allowed clear differentiation of the seven isolates into two distinct groups with only 35% genomic identity. One of these groups contained two subgroups with 81% genetic similarity. The random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis method proved to be a good tool for analyzing and comparing different genomes of P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:7714219

  12. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase.

  13. TLR9 Activation Dampens the Early Inflammatory Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting Host Survival

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Alves, Ana G.; Lobo-Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Saraiva, Ana Laura; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Romani, Luigina; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis and regulation of the immune response. However, the role of TLR9 during the infection by this fungus remains unclear. Methodology/Principal findings We used in vitro and in vivo models of infection by P. brasiliensis, comparing wild type and TLR9 deficient (−/−) mice, to assess the contribution of TLR9 on cytokine induction, phagocytosis and outcome of infection. We show that TLR9 recognizes either the yeast form or DNA from P. brasiliensis by stimulating the expression/production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow derived macrophages, also increasing their phagocytic ability. We further show that TLR9 plays a protective role early after intravenous infection with P. brasiliensis, as infected TLR9−/− mice died at higher rate during the first 48 hours post infection than wild type mice. Moreover, TLR9−/− mice presented tissue damage and increased expression of several cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The increased pattern of cytokine expression was also observed during intraperitoneal infection of TLR9−/− mice, with enhanced recruitment of neutrophils. The phenotype of TLR9−/− hosts observed during the early stages of P. brasiliensis infection was reverted upon a transient, 48 hours post-infection, neutrophil depletion. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that TLR9 activation plays an early protective role against P. brasiliensis, by avoiding a deregulated type of inflammatory response associated to neutrophils that may lead to tissue damage. Thus

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  15. New method for estimating digestion of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by phagocytic cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Goihman-Yahr, M; Essenfeld-Yahr, E; Albornoz, M C; Yarzábal, L; de Gómez, M H; San Martín, B; Ocanto, A; Convit, J

    1979-01-01

    We describe a method by which phagocytosis and digestion of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells by polymorphonuclear leukocytes or other phagocytic cells may be estimated. Suspensions of P. brasiliensis in its yeastlike phase were sonicated, counted, and incubated with known numbers of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. At given intervals, cytocentrifuge droplets were stained by a variation of Papanicolaou's method. Stained preparations were examined with phase-contrast optics. Digested organisms showed total or partial disappearance of protoplasm. Green-stained cell walls resisted digestion. The proportion of digested cells as a function of time was estimated. Images PMID:90683

  16. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  17. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P < 0.05), as well as higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than other plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations on MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  18. Discovery of a new species of Caloptilia (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) from east and central Africa with its suggested associated host (Gentianales: Rubiaceae) and natural enemies (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    De Prins, Jurate; Gumovsky, Alex; De Coninck, Eliane

    2015-05-18

    A new species of the leaf-mining moth genus Caloptilia (Gracillariidae), C. mwamba sp. nov., suggested to be associated with Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K.Schum. (Rubiaceae) is described from east and central Africa. The taxonomic relationships of the new species with its congeners from the Oriental and the Palaearctic regions are discussed. Newly obtained taxonomic and biological data are linked with the DNA barcode workbench in BOLD, providing the molecular, machine-readable identification tag of the new species. New distribution and morphological data for two parasitoid species, Afrotroppopsis risbeci Gumovsky, 2007 and Zaommomentedon newbyi (Kerrich, 1969) (Eulophidae), which were found to be associated with C. mwamba sp. nov., are presented.

  19. Production of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigens for immunodiffusion tests.

    PubMed Central

    De Camargo, Z; Unterkircher, C; Campoy, S P; Travassos, L R

    1988-01-01

    Growth curves of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis B-339 based on total and viable cell counts were determined. Crude culture filtrate antigens were obtained after 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days of incubation. Different patterns of proteins were obtained by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-immunoglobulin G complex made with immunoglobulin G from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, with subsequent analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning densitometry. Three major proteins were excreted during the time course of a 30-day culture: a doublet at 20 to 21 kilodaltons (kDa) and molecules of 43 and 52 kDa. The 43-kDa antigen was present throughout the growth period, and its level reached a peak on days 15 to 20 and then decreased considerably toward day 30. The antigenic preparations collected on days 7, 10, 15, and 20 gave better reactions in immunodiffusion tests than those collected on days 25 and 30. The 7-day exoantigen gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 100% on immunodiffusion. The main line of precipitation had a very high intensity, showing a total identity with that of a previously purified glycoprotein of 43 kDa. A 7-day crude exoantigen displayed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, being reproducible from batch to batch and retaining its activity for years when kept lyophilized. A protocol is recommended for the production of a stable diagnostic antigen to be used in immunodiffusion tests for paracoccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:3141460

  20. Evolution of Growth Habit, Inflorescence Architecture, Flower Size, and Fruit Type in Rubiaceae: Its Ecological and Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.; Ekman, Stefan; McDowell, Timothy D.; Bremer, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae) display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a Bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1) self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2) changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to “a high degree of specialization and developmental burden”; 3) head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards dioecy. A

  1. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC (Rubiaceae) Sensitizes THP-1 Cells to Radiation-induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lisa; Buckner, Alison; Buckner, Carly A.; Cano, Pablo; Lafrenie, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC (Rubiaceae), known as Cat's Claw or Uña de gato, is a traditionally used medicinal plant native to Peru. Some studies have shown that U. tomentosa can act as an antiapoptotic agent and enhance DNA repair in chemotherapy-treated cells although others have shown that U. tomentosa enhanced apoptosis. Objective: To determine if treatment with U. tomentosa can significantly enhance cell death in THP-1 cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: THP-1 monocyte-like cells were treated with ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa in the presence or absence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and then exposed to ionizing radiation. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays and the effects on cell cycle measured by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Changes in cell signaling were determined by immunoblotting and cytokine ELISA and activation of apoptosis measured by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation analysis. Results: Treatment of THP-1 cells with U. tomentosa had a small effect on cell proliferation. However, when the U. tomentosa-pretreated cells were also subjected to 5–9 Gy ionizing radiation, they showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. Treatment with U. tomentosa also decreased the expression of Cyclin E and Cyclin B, key regulators of normal cell cycle progression, and decreased the phosphorylation of various stress-activated, cell survival proteins including p38, ERK, and SAP/JNK kinase. Conclusions: These results suggest that U. tomentosa could be useful in enhancing cell death following anticancer therapies including ionizing radiation. SUMMARY Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa increases their susceptibility to X-rays. The combination of Uncaria tomentosa and X-ray exposure strongly inhibits cell signaling and promotes apoptosis. Abbreviations Used: LPS

  2. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC (Rubiaceae) Sensitizes THP-1 Cells to Radiation-induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lisa; Buckner, Alison; Buckner, Carly A; Cano, Pablo; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC (Rubiaceae), known as Cat's Claw or Uña de gato, is a traditionally used medicinal plant native to Peru. Some studies have shown that U. tomentosa can act as an antiapoptotic agent and enhance DNA repair in chemotherapy-treated cells although others have shown that U. tomentosa enhanced apoptosis. To determine if treatment with U. tomentosa can significantly enhance cell death in THP-1 cells exposed to ionizing radiation. THP-1 monocyte-like cells were treated with ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa in the presence or absence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and then exposed to ionizing radiation. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays and the effects on cell cycle measured by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Changes in cell signaling were determined by immunoblotting and cytokine ELISA and activation of apoptosis measured by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation analysis. Treatment of THP-1 cells with U. tomentosa had a small effect on cell proliferation. However, when the U. tomentosa-pretreated cells were also subjected to 5-9 Gy ionizing radiation, they showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. Treatment with U. tomentosa also decreased the expression of Cyclin E and Cyclin B, key regulators of normal cell cycle progression, and decreased the phosphorylation of various stress-activated, cell survival proteins including p38, ERK, and SAP/JNK kinase. These results suggest that U. tomentosa could be useful in enhancing cell death following anticancer therapies including ionizing radiation. Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa increases their susceptibility to X-rays. The combination of Uncaria tomentosa and X-ray exposure strongly inhibits cell signaling and promotes apoptosis. Abbreviations Used: LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, TNF: Tumor necrosis factor: IL-1, Interleukin-1: SDS: Sodium

  3. Reproductive ecology of distylous Palicourea Padifolia (Rubiaceae) in a tropical montane cloud forest. I. Hummingbirds' effectiveness as pollen vectors.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Jiménez, Leonor; González, Clementina; Hernández, Angélica

    2004-07-01

    The adaptiveness of distyly has been typically investigated in terms of its female function, specifically pollen receipt. However, pollen loads on stigmas can only provide moderate support for Darwin's hypothesis of the promotion of legitimate crosses. To determine the effectiveness of hummingbirds as pollen vectors between floral morphs and the consequences in terms of male (pollen transfer) and female function (pollen receipt) in Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae), floral visitors, their foraging modes, and temporal patterns of floral visitation were observed and documented. Differences in pollen and stigma morphology, pollen flow, rates of pollen deposition, and/or stigmatic pollen loads were then evaluated for their contribution toward differences in reproductive output between floral morphs. A pollination experiment with stuffed hummingbirds that varied in bill size was done to evaluate the contribution of bill variation toward differences between floral morphs in pollen receipt and pollen transfer and female reproductive output. Anthers of long-styled flowers contained significantly more and smaller pollen grains than those of short-styled flowers, independently of corolla and anther lengths. The shape and orientation of the stigma lobes differed between morphs and were significantly longer among short-styled flowers. Hummingbird visitation rates did not differ significantly between floral morphs, and foraging movements from focal plants towards neighboring plants were independent of floral morph. Stigmatic pollen loads under field conditions and those after controlled hummingbird visitation, along with rates of pollen accumulation through the day indicated that stigmas of short-styled flowers receive proportionately more legitimate (intermorph) pollen grains than did those of long-styled flowers. However, the species of hummingbird was marginally significant in explaining variation in pollen deposition on stigmas. Lastly, intermorph pollinations of P

  4. Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: its ecological and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Ekman, Stefan; McDowell, Timothy D; Bremer, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae) display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1) self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2) changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to "a high degree of specialization and developmental burden"; 3) head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards dioecy. A single

  5. Between-year Changes in Functional Gender Expression of Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae), a Distylous, Hummingbird-pollinated Shrub

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ, CLEMENTINA; ORNELAS, JUAN FRANCISCO; JIMÉNEZ, LEONOR

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Because distylous species have two hermaphroditic style-length floral morphs, they face two sex allocation problems: the equilibrium morph ratio and the optimal allocation to pollen and seed production in each floral morph. Gender specialization is expected among distylous species when floral morphs differ in reproductive output. However, spatio-temporal variability in female reproductive output between morphs needs to be investigated to fully understand patterns of sexual expression and gender specialization in distylous plants. Between-year variation in flower and fruit production of hummingbird-pollinated Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae) was examined, focusing on functional gender expression of long- and short-styled morphs and comparing their reproductive performance in five consecutive years (1998–2002). • Methods Between-year variation in inflorescence, floral bud and fruit production was monitored and quantified. These traits were then used as parameters to determine functional gender differences between floral morphs through time. • Key Results Inflorescence production varied among years but no significant differences were found between floral morphs. Long-styled plants initiated more floral buds per inflorescence every year than short-styled plants, suggesting higher allocation to pollinator attraction and, potentially, an increase in male fitness through pollen donation. Although fruit production was similar between morphs, their functional gender shifted across years. • Conclusions The gender expression inconsistency across years is surprising because a number of floral characters and attributes that contribute to differently attracting and rewarding effective pollinators in P. padifolia suggest gender specialization. The evidence that morphs of distylous species might specialize in functional gender mostly comes from differences among populations in seed production and non-equilibrium morph ratios based on 1-year field

  6. OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetopA Sulphur Dioxide Estimates; The Case of Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Theys, N.; Brenot, H.; van Gent, J.; Hendrick, F.; Wang, T.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Lichtenberg, G.; Richter, A.; Krotkov, N.; Li, C.; van der A, R.

    2015-11-01

    The EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project focuses on deriving emission estimates from space, http://www.marcopolo-panda.eu. Long term satellite observations of Sulphur Dioxide, SO2, over the greater China area from the SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME2/MetopA and OMI/Aura missions are compared and their relative strong points and limitations are discussed. For each satellite instrument, two different datasets are being analyzed in the same manner. Rigorous spatiotemporal statistical analysis based on novel analysis techniques is performed for each data set in order to reduce noise and biases and enhance pollution signals in satellite datasets. Furthermore, identification of point sources such as power plants, smelters and urban agglomerations, as well as definition of their relative contribution to the regional SO2 levels, form the main findings of this investigation. Trend analyses and their statistical representation help locate regions of interesting SO2 loading in China.

  7. Evaluation of satellite sulphur dioxide estimates from OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetopA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Valks, Pieter; Hedelt, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Günter; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project focuses on deriving emission estimates from space and their refinement by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. Satellite observations of suphur dioxide, SO2, over the greater China area are analyzed using novel techniques [Fioletov et al., 2011; 2013] in order to enhance the observational signal and provide a robust SO2 dataset for the region. Observations from the SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME2/MetopA and OMI/Aura missions are assessed in this work and their relative strengths and shortcomings discussed at length. Rigorous screening is applied to and presented for each data source, including a full length spatiotemporal statistical analysis. Furthermore, identification of point sources such as power plants and urban agglomerations, as well as the definition of their relative contribution to the general SO2 levels, form the basis of this investigation.

  8. Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates to amphotericin B, azoles, and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Gagini, Thalita Braga; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Castro, Rafaela; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Nucci, Marcio; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (PSC), voriconazole (VRC), and terbinafine (TRB) against 32 Brazilian isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis, including 16 isolates from a recent (2011-2012) epidemic in Rio de Janeiro state, was examined. We describe and genotype new isolates and clustered them with 16 older (from 2004 or earlier) S. brasiliensis isolates by phylogenetic analysis. We tested both the yeast and the mycelium form of all isolates using broth microdilution methods based on the reference protocols M38-A2 and M27-A3 (recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Considering minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), TRB was found to be the most active drug in vitro for both fungal forms, followed by PSC. Several isolates showed high MICs for AMB and/or ITC, which are currently used as first-line therapy for sporotrichosis. VRC displayed very low activity against S. brasiliensis isolates. The primary morphological modification observed on treated yeasts by transmission electron microscopy analysis was changes in cell wall. Our results indicate that TRB is the antifungal with the best in vitro activity against S. brasiliensis and support the use of TRB as a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.

  9. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  10. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  11. Vaccination of mice with liposome-entrapped adult antigens of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    An immunization procedure was developed to induce protection of mice against the gastrointestinal helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Mice immunized by the oral route with antigens which were released by adult worms during their in vitro survival in a detergent-containing medium and which were entrapped in liposomes were protected against a challenge infection.

  12. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  13. Psychophysical frequency modulation thresholds in a FM-bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, E; Schmidt, S

    1993-05-01

    Echolocating bats hunting flying insects discriminate complex temporal patterns of acoustic stimuli. For bats using frequency modulated sonar calls (FM bats), there are no behavioral data on the perception of sinusoidally frequency modulated (SFM) stimuli. Discrimination performance for SFM stimuli of varying modulation depth was measured in 4 Tadarida brasiliensis in a two-alternative, forced choice procedure. A center frequency of 40 kHz was modulated with rates between 10 and 2000 Hz. It was found that discrimination performance improved from a mean threshold modulation depth of 3.05 kHz at a modulation rate of 2000 Hz to 1.58 kHz at a modulation rate of 10 Hz. Psychoacoustical modulation depth thresholds of T. brasiliensis are thus distinctly larger than those observed in bat species emitting constant frequency (CF) components followed by an FM-sweep, in active echolocation experiments. The modulation thresholds of T. brasiliensis are discussed in connection with the ability of bats to discriminate insect wingbeats. A comparison between non-echolocating mammals and the FM bat T. brasiliensis shows that the ability to echolocate is not reflected in the modulation thresholds.

  14. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-10-30

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.

  15. Inhibition of growth of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by ajoene.

    PubMed Central

    San-Blas, G; San-Blas, F; Gil, F; Mariño, L; Apitz-Castro, R

    1989-01-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived compound that prevents platelet activation, inhibited the growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a fungal pathogen for humans, by affecting the integrity of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. This action may be the basis for the study of ajoene as a possible specific antifungal drug. Images PMID:2817865

  16. Immunological characterization of a recombinant 27-kilodalton antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, B L; Garcia, A M; Restrepo, A; McEwen, J G

    1996-03-01

    We report the expression in Escherichia coli of a 27-kDa antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. When analyzed by immunoblotting, this recombinant antigenic protein was recognized by antibodies present in the sera of 40 of the 44 paracoccidioidomycosis patients studied. No cross-reactions were observed with sera from patients with other mycoses (histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, sporotrichosis, and chromoblastomycosis) or with tuberculosis.

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Interferes on Dendritic Cells Maturation by Inhibiting PGE2 Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis, endemic in most Latin American countries, especially in Brazil, whose etiologic agent is the thermodimorphic fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides, comprising cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The mechanisms involved in the initial interaction of the fungus with cells of the innate immune response, as dendritic cells (DCs), deserve to be studied. Prostaglandins (PGs) are eicosanoids that play an important role in modulating functions of immune cells including DCs. Here we found that human immature DCs derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 release substantial concentrations of PGE2, which, however, were significantly inhibited after challenge with P. brasiliensis. In vitro blocking of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by monoclonal antibodies showed the involvement of mannose receptor (MR) in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. In addition, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs do not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones, as well as do not produce IL-12 p70 or adequate concentrations of TNF-α. Assays using exogenous PGE2 confirmed an association between PGE2 inhibition and failure of cells to phenotypically mature in response to P. brasiliensis. We conclude that a P. brasiliensis evasion mechanism exists associated to a dysregulation on DC maturation. These findings may provide novel information for the understanding of the complex interplay between the host and this fungus. PMID:25793979

  18. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp) encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP), was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization. PMID:21080956

  19. A Morphological and Cytochemical Study of the Interaction between Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda R. G.; Filgueira, Absalom L.; de Souza, Wanderley

    2004-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P. brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together, these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular P. brasiliensis.

  20. Cell-free antigens of Sporothrix brasiliensis: antigenic diversity and application in an immunoblot assay.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Reis, Rosani Santos; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Peralta, José Mauro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis diagnosed by isolation of the fungus in culture. Serological tests for help in diagnosis in general do not use purified or recombinant antigens, because there is a paucity of described immunoreactive proteins, especially for the new described Sporothrix species, such as Sporothrix brasiliensis. This study aims to characterise antigens from S. brasiliensis and verify their application in serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis. An immunoblot assay allied with computer-based analysis was used to identify putative antigenic molecules in a cell-free extracts of both morphological phases of this fungus, and to delineate antigenic polymorphism among seven S. brasiliensis isolates and one S. schenckii Brazilian strain. The mycelial and yeast phase of the fungus originated 14 and 23 reactive bands, respectively, which were variable in intensity. An 85 kDa antigen, verified in the yeast phase of the fungus, was observed in all strains used and the immunodominant protein was identified. This protein, however, cross-react with serum samples from patients infected with other pathogens. The results show that the S. brasiliensis cell-free antigen extract is a single and inexpensive source of antigens, and can be applied on the sporotrichosis serodiagnosis.

  1. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  2. Comparison of various techniques for determining viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Cano, L E; de Bedout, C; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

    1982-01-01

    The viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells was determined by colony-forming units, direct fluorescent staining, and production of germ tubes in slide culture. The first procedure was unreliable and time consuming; the latter two showed better correlation with hemacytometer total cell counts and required significantly less time. PMID:7107858

  3. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  4. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  5. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: assessing catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Alessandra S; Andrade, Rosângela V; de Carvalho, Maria J; Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Campos, Elida G

    2008-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that infects humans and establishes infection in the yeast form. We are interested in the mechanisms this fungus uses to evade the human immune system, and in its survival strategies within infected host cells. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in host defence, but are detoxified by pathogen-derived antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of P. brasiliensis catalase and cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP) antioxidant enzymes upon culture treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is described. High H(2)O(2) concentrations (up to 100 mm) still permitted 70-100% survival of exponential and stationary phase yeast cells, though stationary phase cells were consistently more resistant. P. brasiliensis has both cytosolic and peroxisomal catalase isoenzymes and a single cytochrome-c peroxidase. High-dose treatments with H(2)O(2) led to an early increase in total catalase and CCP enzymatic activities, indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. The expression levels of the catalase genes increased three to fourfold when the cells were treated with 50 mm H(2)O(2) for 40 or 50 min. Lipid peroxidation, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid method, was relatively low upon treatment with H(2)O(2), which was consistent with our results demonstrating that P. brasiliensis has a powerful antioxidant defence system enabling it to survive H(2)O(2)-mediated stress.

  6. Genetic differentiation of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) from East and Southeast Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims to clarify genetic differentiation of the Drosophila parasitoid Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera; Figitidae; Eucoilinae) based on the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and three nuclear DNA regions, the inter-transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) ...

  7. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nyaka Ngobisa, A. I. C.; Zainal Abidin, M. A.; Wong, M. Y.; Wan Noordin, M. W. D.

    2013-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis. PMID:25288924

  8. Molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in road-killed wild animals.

    PubMed

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Griese, Juliana; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Macoris, Severino Assis Graça; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Barrozo, Lígia; Tavares, Patrícia Morais e Silva; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections have been little studied in wild and/or domestic animals, which may represent an important indicator of the presence of the pathogen in nature. Road-killed wild animals have been used for surveillance of vectors of zoonotic pathogens and may offer new opportunities for eco-epidemiological studies of paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM). The presence of P. brasiliensis infection was evaluated by Nested-PCR in tissue samples collected from 19 road-killed animals; 3 Cavia aperea (guinea pig), 5 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating-fox), 1 Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), 1 Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), 2 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Eira barbara (tayra), 2 Gallictis vittata (grison), 2 Procyon cancrivorus (raccoon) and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine). Specific P. brasiliensis amplicons were detected in (a) several organs of the two armadillos and one guinea pig, (b) the lung and liver of the porcupine, and (c) the lungs of raccoons and grisons. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals from endemic areas might be more common than initially postulated. Molecular techniques can be used for detecting new hosts and mapping 'hot spot' areas of PCM.

  9. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form (in vitro) in Nocardia brasiliensis. The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately < 200 nucleotides) was determined by RNA next-generation sequencing in both conditions. A total of seventy ncRNAs were identified in both conditions. Among these ncRNAs, 18 were differentially expressed, 12 were located within intergenic regions, and 2 were encoded as antisense of 2 different genes. Finally, 10 of these ncRNAs were studied by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and/or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, 3 transcripts corresponded to tRNA-derived fragments (tRNAs(Cys, Met, Thr)), and one transcript was overlapped between an intergenic region and the 5´end of the 23S rRNA. Expression of these last four transcripts was increased during N. brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  10. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Terçarioli, Gisela Ramos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Reis, Gabriela Martins; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bosco, Sandra De Moraes Gimenes; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al) in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al. PMID:17953742

  11. Pulmonary cavitation and skin lesions mimicking tuberculosis in a HIV negative patient caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; Unterstell, Natasha; Carlos Gripp, Alexandre; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Brota, Arles; Dias, Emylli; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa R; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV negative male presented with multiple pulmonary cavitation and skin abscesses up to 15 cm in diameter mimicking tuberculosis. Sporothrix brasiliensis was isolated and patient responded well to amphotericin B followed by itraconazole, except the skin lesions that had to be surgical drained to obtain cure. PMID:24432220

  12. IL-4Rα-Associated Antigen Processing by B Cells Promotes Immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Jennifer C.; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; McSorley, Henry J.; Ndlovu, Hlumani; Bobat, Saeeda; Kimberg, Matti; Kirstein, Frank; Cutler, Anthony J.; DeWals, Benjamin; Cunningham, Adam F.; Brombacher, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, B cell function in protective TH2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα−/− mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4+ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88−/− B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24204255

  13. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  14. Cell signaling pathways in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--inferred from comparisons with other fungi.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Larissa; Araújo, Marcus A M; Amaral, André; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Martins, Natália F; Felipe, M S

    2005-06-30

    The human fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an ascomycete that displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic transition, appearing as a mycelium at 22 degrees C and as a yeast at 37 degrees C, this latter being the virulent form. We report on the in silico search made of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome-expressed sequence tag database for components of signaling pathways previously known to be involved in morphogenesis and virulence in other species of fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Using this approach, it was possible to identify several protein cascades in P. brasiliensis, such as i) mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling for cell integrity, cell wall construction, pheromone/mating, and osmo-regulation, ii) the cAMP/PKA system, which regulates fungal development and virulence, iii) the Ras protein, which allows cross-talking between cascades, iv) calcium-calmodulin-calcineurin, which controls cell survival under oxidative stress, high temperature, and membrane/cell wall perturbation, and v) the target of rapamycin pathway, controlling cell growth and proliferation. The ways in which P. brasiliensis responds to the environment and modulates the expression of genes required for its survival and virulence can be inferred through comparison with other fungi for which this type of data is already available.

  15. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Machado, Ana Caroline Sá; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-05-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  16. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Machado, Ana Caroline Sá; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis. PMID:28443986

  17. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  18. L-Canavanine, a Dietary Nitrogen Source for the Seed Predator Caryedes brasiliensis (Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, G A; Hughes, C G; Janzen, D H

    1982-07-23

    Larvae of the bruchid beetle Caryedes brasiliensis (Bruchidae) develop entirely within the seed of the neotropical legume Dioclea megacarpa. The seed contains an appreciable concentration of L-canavanine, a potent antimetabolite and structural analog of L-arginine. This bruchid beetle uses the nitrogen stored in this toxic allelochemical as an effective dietary nitrogen source for amino acid biosynthesis.

  19. Avoidance of nonprotein amino acid incorporation into protein by the seed predator,Caryedes brasiliensis (Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, G A; Janzen, D H

    1983-09-01

    Larvae of the bruchid beetle,Caryedes brasiliensis (Bruchidae) have the ability to avoid significant incorporation ofL-canavanine, the guanidinooxy structural analog ofL-arginine, into de novo synthesized proteins. This ability is related to a highly discriminatory protein-synthesizing system which exhibits marked ability to avoid processing an array of nonprotein amino acids structurally related to arginine.

  20. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  1. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  2. Life history traits and host specificity of Japanese Trachyaphthona species (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), candidates as biological control agents against skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae),in Southeastern U.S. & Hawaii.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae), is native to Asia and has been recognized as an invasive weedy vine of natural areas in Florida and Hawaii. It has overgrown on native vegetation and caused serious damage. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been considering use of Trachyaphthona sor...

  3. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  4. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L; Campos, Claudia B L; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-05

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25°C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Humoral Immunity through Immunoglobulin M Protects Mice from an Experimental Actinomycetoma Infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium. PMID:15385456

  6. Functional and structural optimization of the respiratory system of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae): does airway geometry matter?

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; Atala, Cristian; Olivares, Ricardo; Guajardo, Francisco; Figueroa, Daniela P; Sabat, Pablo; Rosenmann, Mario

    2005-10-01

    We studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat Tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, Abrothrix andinus and A. olivaceus. Tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. The blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. In consequence, T. brasiliensis has an oxygen diffusion capacity two or three times higher than that of the rodents. In Tadarida brasiliensis the characteristics of the lung were accompanied by geometrical changes in the proximal airway, such as high physical optimization as a consequence of small variations in the symmetry and the scaling ratio of the bronchial diameters. These may constitute an efficient way to save energy in respiratory mechanics and are the first report of airway adjustments to decrease entropy generation in bats.

  7. Role of protein kinase C in cytokine secretion by lung epithelial cells during infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Cristiane; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Barros, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli; Suzuki, Erika

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinases C (PKCs) in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by human lung epithelial A549 cells during infection with the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Rottlerin and the broad spectrum PKC inhibitor Go 6983 reduced cytokine levels in A549 cell–P. brasiliensis cultures. Next, by western blot, we verified that infection with this fungus led to phosphorylation of PKC δ (Thr505). By using a peptide inhibitor for PKC δ or PKC δ short interfering RNA technique, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549–P. brasiliensis cultures were also reduced. Together, these results indicate that P. brasiliensis promotes IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by A549 cells in a PKC δ-dependent manner. PMID:26152710

  8. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-07

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

  9. Redescription of Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup 1858), a senior synonym of Urophycis latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 (Gadiformes: Phycidae).

    PubMed

    Lemes, Paola C R; Loeb, Marina V; Santificetur, César; Melo, Marcelo R S

    2016-02-29

    Urophycis Gill 1864 is a genus of demersal fish composed by eight valid species with anti-tropical distributions in the western Atlantic. Only two species occur in the South Atlantic: U. brasiliensis (Kaup 1858) and U. mystacea Miranda Ribeiro 1903. These species have similar ranges from southeastern Brazil to northern Argentina, but U. brasiliensis occurs in more shallow waters than U. mystacea. Both species are important fishery resources in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Herein, we redescribe U. brasiliensis based on comparison of types and additional specimens, including the description of the Sagitta otolith, formerly place U. latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 as a junior synonym of U. brasiliensis, and provide an updated map of distribution.

  10. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  11. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

  12. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the medicinal plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and related species1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Monteiro, Mariza; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, José B.; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. • Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S. goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. • Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners. PMID:25202555

  13. Surface NO2 fields derived from joint use of OMI and GOME-2A observations with EMEP model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Svendby, Tove; Stebel, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Emitted primarily by transport and industry, NO2 has a major impact on health and economy. In contrast to the very sparse network of air quality monitoring stations, satellite data of NO2 is ubiquitous and allows for quantifying the NO2 levels worldwide. However, one drawback of satellite-derived NO2 products is that they provide solely an estimate of the entire tropospheric column, whereas what is generally needed for air quality applications are the concentrations of NO2 near the surface. Here we derive surface NO2 concentration fields from OMI and GOME-2A tropospheric column products using the EMEP chemical transport model as auxiliary information. The model is used for providing information of the boundary layer contribution to the total tropospheric column. For preparation of deriving the surface product, a comprehensive model-based analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of the NO2 surface-to-column ratio in Europe was carried out for the year 2011. The results from this analysis indicate that the spatial patterns of the surface-to-column ratio vary only slightly. While the highest ratio values can be found in some shipping lanes, the spatial variability of the ratio in some of the most polluted areas of Europe is not very high. Some but not all urban agglomeration shows high ratio values. Focusing on the temporal behavior, the analysis showed that the European-wide average ratio varies throughout the year. The surface-to-column ratio increases from January all the way through April when it reaches its maximum, then decreases relatively rapidly to average levels and then stays mostly constant throughout the summer. The minimum ratio is observed in December. The knowledge gained from analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of the surface-to-column ratio was then used to produce surface NO2 products from the daily NO2 data for OMI and GOME-2A. This was carried out using two methods

  14. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Uilson P.; Campos, Jaqueline F.; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Uilson P; Campos, Jaqueline F; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS and

  16. In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Nana, Huguette Magnifouet; Ngane, Rosalie Annie Ngono; Gatsing, Donatien; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; Rovito, Roberta; Cagno, Valeria; Cagliero, Cecilia; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Lembo, David

    2013-10-16

    Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition. The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4. The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml. The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective modern anti-HSV-2 medication also active

  17. In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition. Methods The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4. Results The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective

  18. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafaela A; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Teixeira, Pedro A C; Sanches, Glenda F; Teixeira, Marcus M; Quintella, Leonardo P; Almeida, Sandro R; Costa, Rosane O; Camargo, Zoilo P; Felipe, Maria S S; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  19. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection. PMID:26360774

  20. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in an area where the fungus was recently isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Martinez, R; Camargo, Z P; Malta, M H; Maffei, C M; Chadu, J B

    2000-06-01

    Natural infection of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Northern Brazil was reported in 1986, raising great interest in the understanding of the role of this mammal in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus. Recently, P. brasiliensis was isolated from the soil of Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Armadillos captured in this area were evaluated for the presence of P. brasiliensis in the viscera and infection was detected in 4/16 animals (25%). Fungal yeast phase cells were observed in three of the four infected armadillos by direct microscopic examination and by the indirect immunofluorescence test carried out on homogenized tissues. P. brasiliensis was isolated from three armadillos whose homogenized viscera had been injected into Swiss mice. The new strains (Ibiá-T1, Ibiá-T2 and Ibiá-T3) were identified as P. brasiliensis on the basis of macro- and micromorphology, thermodimorphism, production and serologic activity of exoantigens, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detection of the gp43 gene. The lethality and lesions caused to the mice from which the strains were recovered confirmed the virulence of the isolates. We conclude that P. brasiliensis infects armadillos in locations with different geoclimatic characteristics and vegetation cover. The direct observation of yeast cells in tissues and the multiple visceral involvement, including the lungs, suggests the occurrence of paracoccidioidomycosis disease in these mammals and supports their role as wild hosts in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus.

  1. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  2. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  3. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  4. Estimating the NO(x) produced by lightning from GOME and NLDN data: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beirle, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stohl, A.; Cummins, K. L.; Turner, T.; Boccippio, D.; Cooper, O. R.; Wenig, M.; Grzegorski, M.; Platt, U.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular in catalytic ozone production. Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere s oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning produced NO(x) (LNO(x)) are of the order of 5 Tg [N] per year with still high uncertainties in the range of one order of magnitude. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows the retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 on a global scale. Here we present the GOME NO2 measurement directly over a large convective system over the Gulf of Mexico. Simultaneously, cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes are counted by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN(TradeMark)), and extrapolated to include intracloud (IC)+CG flashes based on a climatological IC:CG ratio derived from NASA s space-based lightning sensors. A series of 14 GOME pixels shows largely enhanced column densities over thick and high clouds, coinciding with strong lightning activity. The enhancements can not be explained by transport of anthropogenic NO(x) and must be due to fresh production of LNO(x). A quantitative analysis, accounting in particular for the visibility of LNO, from satellite, yields a LNO, production of 90 (32-240) moles of NO(x), or 1.3 (0.4-3.4) kg [N], per flash. If simply extrapolated, this corresponds to a global LNO(x) production of 1.7 (0.6-4.7) Tg [N]/yr.

  5. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-Spectral-Resolution Near-Infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Guanter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 0.5. We also show

  6. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  7. Estimating the NO(x) produced by lightning from GOME and NLDN data: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beirle, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stohl, A.; Cummins, K. L.; Turner, T.; Boccippio, D.; Cooper, O. R.; Wenig, M.; Grzegorski, M.; Platt, U.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular in catalytic ozone production. Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere s oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning produced NO(x) (LNO(x)) are of the order of 5 Tg [N] per year with still high uncertainties in the range of one order of magnitude. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows the retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 on a global scale. Here we present the GOME NO2 measurement directly over a large convective system over the Gulf of Mexico. Simultaneously, cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes are counted by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN(TradeMark)), and extrapolated to include intracloud (IC)+CG flashes based on a climatological IC:CG ratio derived from NASA s space-based lightning sensors. A series of 14 GOME pixels shows largely enhanced column densities over thick and high clouds, coinciding with strong lightning activity. The enhancements can not be explained by transport of anthropogenic NO(x) and must be due to fresh production of LNO(x). A quantitative analysis, accounting in particular for the visibility of LNO, from satellite, yields a LNO, production of 90 (32-240) moles of NO(x), or 1.3 (0.4-3.4) kg [N], per flash. If simply extrapolated, this corresponds to a global LNO(x) production of 1.7 (0.6-4.7) Tg [N]/yr.

  8. Global observations of glyoxal columns from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A sensors and comparison with multi-year simulations by the IMAGES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerot, Christophe; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Hendrick, François; De Smedt, Isabelle; Müller, Jean-François; Volkamer, Rainer; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from both natural and human activities play a key role in air quality. Information on their atmospheric concentrations can be derived using remote sensing techniques for a limited number of species, including formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO). The latter is mostly produced in the atmosphere as an intermediate product in the oxidation of other non-methane VOCs. It is also directly emitted from fire events and combustion processes. Owing to its short lifetime, elevated glyoxal concentrations are observed near emission sources. Measurements of atmospheric glyoxal concentrations therefore provide quantitative information on the different types of VOC emission and can help to better assess the quality of current inventories. In addition, glyoxal is also known to significantly contribute to the total budget of secondary organic aerosols. Global observations of glyoxal columns have been realized from different space-borne spectrometers using the well-known DOAS retrieval technique. In the past, we developed an algorithm to retrieve glyoxal columns from spectra measured by the GOME-2 instrument aboard METOP-A (Lerot et al., 2010). Specificities of this algorithm were an original two-step approach in the DOAS fit to minimize the impact of spectral interferences with the liquid water absorption as well as the use of a priori information from the Chemical Transport Model IMAGES in the air mass factor calculation. In this work, we present the adaptation of this algorithm to the OMI sensor on the AURA platform. The time series of glyoxal columns derived from OMI and GOME-2 are compared in different parts of the world and a high level of consistency is found. The OMI glyoxal data product is found to be very stable over the entire duration of the mission, in contrast to the GOME-2 product which is affected by instrumental degradation. We present validation results using several years of MAX-DOAS glyoxal measurements

  9. A Common Caatinga Cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an Important Ecotope of Wild Triatoma brasiliensis Populations in the Jaguaribe Valley of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M.; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

  10. Retrieval of Ozone Column Content from Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements During SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III, POAM III,THOMAS and GOME Measurements. Comparison with SAGE 111, POAM 111, TOMS and GOME Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Pitts, M.

    2003-01-01

    retrievals during selected DC-8 latitudinal and longitudinal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite sensors. To enable this comparison, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution, fast response in-situ ozone measurements acquired during the DC-8 ascent at the start of each science flight.

  11. Retrieval of Ozone Column Content from Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements During SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III, POAM III,THOMAS and GOME Measurements. Comparison with SAGE 111, POAM 111, TOMS and GOME Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Pitts, M.

    2003-01-01

    retrievals during selected DC-8 latitudinal and longitudinal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite sensors. To enable this comparison, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution, fast response in-situ ozone measurements acquired during the DC-8 ascent at the start of each science flight.

  12. Mutants of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9 affected in dimorphism.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, F; San-Blas, G

    1992-01-01

    Morphological mutants were isolated after nitrosoguanidine treatment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9. Two of these mutants, Pb257 and Pb258, developed a typical mycelia at 23 degrees C, however, the yeast cells which developed at 37 degrees C were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. A third mutant, strain Pb267, was thermosensitive, grew as yeast-like cells at 23 degrees C, but was unable to survive at 37 degrees C. Morphological observations as well as serological and segregation tests confirmed that the mutant strains originated from P. brasiliensis. Cell wall chemical analyses of the mutant strains grown at 23 degrees C indicated the presence of alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble polysaccharides absent in the parental wild-type strain Pb9 grown under the same conditions. The phenotypes shown by the mutant strains may be related to deficiencies in the proper synthesis of cell wall components of the mycelial phase of this fungus.

  13. [Soil moisture content and fine root biomass of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations at different ages].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi-Hao; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Hua, Yuan-Gang; Yang, Li-Fu; Wang, Zhen-Hui

    2011-02-01

    By using soil core sampling method, this paper studied the soil moisture regime of rubber plantations and the fine root biomass of Hevea brasiliensis in immature period (5 a), early yielding period (9 a), and peak yielding period (16 a). With the increasing age of rubber trees, the soil moisture content of rubber plantations increased but the fine root biomass decreased. The soil moisture content at the depth of 0-60 cm in test rubber plantations increased with soil depth, and presented a double-peak pattern over the period of one year. The fine root biomass of rubber trees at different ages had the maximum value in the top 10 cm soil layers and decreased with soil depth, its seasonal variation also showed a double-peak pattern, but the peak values appeared at different time. Soil moisture content and soil depth were the main factors affecting the fine root biomass of H. brasiliensis.

  14. Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia by pulmonary macrophages and the effect of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Arango, R; Salazar, M E; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    The ability of conidia, the infectious form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, to be killed in vitro by murine pulmonary macrophages was studied. Mice were immunized by intravenous injection of killed conidia, which resulted in cellular immunity demonstrated by delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and macrophage migration inhibition factor production in vitro. Resident pulmonary macrophages from non-immune mice were able to significantly kill the conidia (28%). Such macrophages treated with supernatants (cytokines) from antigen-stimulated immune mononuclears had a markedly enhanced ability to kill conidia (73%). These results show that activated pulmonary macrophages are potent killers of conidia of P. brasiliensis and that immune mononuclears play a role in activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages may be important for pulmonary defense against the initial stages of infection with this fungus.

  15. Annotated mitochondrial genome with Nanopore R9 signal for Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jodie; Camberis, Mali; Bouchery, Tiffany; Blaxter, Mark; Le Gros, Graham; Eccles, David A

    2017-01-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a nematode parasite of rodents, has a parasitic life cycle that is an extremely useful model for the study of human hookworm infection, particularly in regards to the induced immune response. The current reference genome for this parasite is highly fragmented with minimal annotation, but new advances in long-read sequencing suggest that a more complete and annotated assembly should be an achievable goal. We de-novo assembled a single contig mitochondrial genome from N. brasiliensis using MinION R9 nanopore data. The assembly was error-corrected using existing Illumina HiSeq reads, and annotated in full (i.e. gene boundary definitions without substantial gaps) by comparing with annotated genomes from similar parasite relatives. The mitochondrial genome has also been annotated with a preliminary electrical consensus sequence, using raw signal data generated from a Nanopore R9 flow cell.

  16. THE POWER OF THE SMALL: THE EXAMPLE OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CONIDIA

    PubMed Central

    RESTREPO, Angela; CANO, Luz Elena; GONZALEZ, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensis interactions. PMID:26465363

  17. Immunoglobulin and complement in tissues of mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Mancilla, R; Fresan, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks after mice had been infected in the footpad with cells of Nocardia brasiliensis, immunoglobulin and C3 deposits were observed in tissue from the inoculation site. Both immunoglobulin and C3 were found in the actinomycotic granules that characterize the mycetoma and in the surrounding inflammatory zones, in which plasma cells were also present. Although anti-N. brasiliensis specificity was evidenced at 14 days postinfection in an eluate of infected tissue by an immunoenzymatic assay, no such antibody was found in the serum until 45 days postinfection. Immune complexes in the lesions, as indicated by the presence of C3, may also contribute to the pathology of the disease. Images PMID:6852920

  18. Statistical based media optimization and production of naringinase using Aspergillus brasiliensis 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Kirthika, J; Ragupathy, J; Nilanee, K; Manickam, A

    2014-03-01

    Statistics based optimization, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to screen and optimize the media components for the production of naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344, using solid state fermentation. Cassava waste (CW) was used as both the solid support and carbon source for the growth of A. brasiliensis. Based on the positive influence of the Pareto chart obtained from PBD on naringinase activity, three media components--maltose, peptone and calcium chloride were screened. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed using these three factors at three levels, for further optimization, and the second order polynomial equation was derived, based on the experimental data. Derringer's desired function methodology showed that the concentrations of maltose (7.74 g/L), peptone (4.19 g/L) and calcium chloride (7.63 mM) were the optimal levels for maximal naringinase activity (889.91 U/mg) which were validated through experiments.

  19. Biochemical differentiation of mycelium and yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Matos, Tatiana G. F.; de Abreu, Geraldo M. A.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). The most prominent difference between both forms is probably the cell wall polysaccharide, being 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts, but a plethora of other differences have already been described. In this work, we performed a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis to compare the yeast and mycelia forms of P. brasiliensis and found additional biochemical differences. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis induces an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors chronic infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Perez-Liñan, Amira R; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-07-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.

  1. Transcriptome characterization of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by EST analysis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, M S S; Andrade, R V; Petrofeza, S S; Maranhão, A Q; Torres, F A G; Albuquerque, P; Arraes, F B M; Arruda, M; Azevedo, M O; Baptista, A J; Bataus, L A M; Borges, C L; Campos, E G; Cruz, M R; Daher, B S; Dantas, A; Ferreira, M A S V; Ghil, G V; Jesuino, R S A; Kyaw, C M; Leitão, L; Martins, C R; Moraes, L M P; Neves, E O; Nicola, A M; Alves, E S; Parente, J A; Pereira, M; Poças-Fonseca, M J; Resende, R; Ribeiro, B M; Saldanha, R R; Santos, S C; Silva-Pereira, I; Silva, M A S; Silveira, E; Simões, I C; Soares, R B A; Souza, D P; De-Souza, M T; Andrade, E V; Xavier, M A S; Veiga, H P; Venancio, E J; Carvalho, M J A; Oliveira, A G; Inoue, M K; Almeida, N F; Walter, M E M T; Soares, C M A; Brígido, M M

    2003-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a pathogenic fungus that undergoes a temperature-dependent cell morphology change from mycelium (22 degrees C) to yeast (36 degrees C). It is assumed that this morphological transition correlates with the infection of the human host. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the mycelium (M) and yeast (Y) forms by EST sequencing in order to generate a partial map of the fungus transcriptome. Individual EST sequences were clustered by the CAP3 program and annotated using Blastx similarity analysis and InterPro Scan. Three different databases, GenBank nr, COG (clusters of orthologous groups) and GO (gene ontology) were used for annotation. A total of 3,938 (Y = 1,654 and M = 2,274) ESTs were sequenced and clustered into 597 contigs and 1,563 singlets, making up a total of 2,160 genes, which possibly represent one-quarter of the complete gene repertoire in P. brasiliensis. From this total, 1,040 were successfully annotated and 894 could be classified in 18 functional COG categories as follows: cellular metabolism (44%); information storage and processing (25%); cellular processes-cell division, posttranslational modifications, among others (19%); and genes of unknown functions (12%). Computer analysis enabled us to identify some genes potentially involved in the dimorphic transition and drug resistance. Furthermore, computer subtraction analysis revealed several genes possibly expressed in stage-specific forms of P. brasiliensis. Further analysis of these genes may provide new insights into the pathology and differentiation of P. brasiliensis.

  2. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  3. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results. Images PMID:1612736

  4. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-07-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results.

  5. Immunological characterization of a recombinant 27-kilodalton antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, B L; Garcia, A M; Restrepo, A; McEwen, J G

    1996-01-01

    We report the expression in Escherichia coli of a 27-kDa antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. When analyzed by immunoblotting, this recombinant antigenic protein was recognized by antibodies present in the sera of 40 of the 44 paracoccidioidomycosis patients studied. No cross-reactions were observed with sera from patients with other mycoses (histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, sporotrichosis, and chromoblastomycosis) or with tuberculosis. PMID:8991645

  6. High frequency of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus): an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Bagagli, E; Franco, M; Bosco, S De M G; Hebeler-Barbosa, F; Trinca, L A; Montenegro, M R

    2003-06-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has been isolated from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in different regions where paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM) is endemic. The link between PCM and these animals has provided the first valuable clue in the effort to elucidate the ecological niche of P. brasiliensis. The present study was aimed at correlating P. brasiliensis infection in armadillos with local ecological features and, if possible, the presence of the fungus in the soil in the Botucatu hyperendemic area of PCM. In this region the mean temperature ranges from 14.8 to 25.8 degrees C and the annual average precipitation is 1520 mm. The sites where 10 infected animals (positive group) were collected were studied and compared with the sites where five uninfected animals were found. The occurrence of the fungus in soil samples collected from the positive armadillos' burrows and foraging sites was investigated by the indirect method of animal inoculation. Environmental data from the sites of animal capture, such as temperature, rainfall, altitude, vegetation, soil composition, presence of water and proximity of urban areas, were recorded. All 37 soil samples collected from the sites had negative fungal cultures. Positive animals were found much more frequently in sites with disturbed vegetation, such as riparian forests and artificial Eucalyptus or Pinus forests, in altitudes below 800 m, near water sources. The soil type of the sites of positive animals was mainly sandy, with medium to low concentrations of organic matter. The pH was mainly acidic at all the sites, although the concentrations of aluminum cations (H+Al) were lower at the sites where positive animals were found. Positive armadillos were also captured in sites very close to urban areas. Our data and previous studies indicate that P. brasiliensis occurs preferentially in humid and shady disturbed forests in a strong association with armadillos.

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection. PMID:22547544

  8. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic α-Galactosyl epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Ganiko, Luciane; Medeiros, Lia C Soares; Miranda, Kildare; Silva, Luiz S; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Almeida, Igor C; Puccia, Rosana

    2011-03-01

    Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic α-linked galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing α-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-α-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal α-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-α-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with α-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying α-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-α-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with α-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after β-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and α-galactosyl epitopes.

  9. [Comparative study of the pathogenicity and antigenicity of 6 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains].

    PubMed

    Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Iovannitti, C A; de Elías Costa, M R

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of antigenicity and pathogenicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immunodiffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A) presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B) presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in histologic sections stained by H&E; C) culture of lung and D) immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow: As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both Morphological Phases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2010-01-01

    Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 μg/ml). Inhibition of the yeast phase ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall β-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the β-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal phases. PMID:20937789

  11. Brasilinolide A, a new macrolide antibiotic produced by Nocardia brasiliensis: producing strain, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Nemoto, A; Tojyo, T; Kadowaki, K; Shigemori, H; Kobayashi, J

    1997-12-01

    A new 32-membered macrolide antibiotic, brasilinolide A was isolated from the fermentation broth of Nocardia sp. IFM 0406. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotic was only active against Aspergillus niger, but not active against other fungi including yeasts as well as other filamentous like fungi and bacteria. Brasilinolide A exerted an immunosuppressive activity in the assay system of a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).

  12. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kenneth R.; Lorence, David H.; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai‘i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7–10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20–28 mm long; flowers 6–8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4–8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua‘i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  13. Tropospheric O3 over Indonesia during biomass burning events measured with GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and compared with backtrajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    During the dry season, biomass burning is an important source of ozone precursors for the tropical troposphere, and ozone formation can occur in biomass burning plumes originating in Indonesia and northern Australia. Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment) data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone production over this region during the El Niño event in September 1997 compared to a so called "normal" year 1998. Large scale biomass burning occurred over Kalimantan in 1997 caused by the absence of the northern monsoon rains, leading to significant increases in tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM). Backtrajectory calculations show that Indonesia is influenced every summer by the emissions of trace gases from biomass buring over northern Australia. But in 1997 over Indonesia an increasing of tropospheric ozone amounts can be observed caused by the fires over Indonesia itself as well as by northern Australia. The analysis of the measurements of BIBLE-A (Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment) and using ATSR (Along the Track Scanning Radiometer) data show differences in the view to the intensity of fire counts and therefore in the amount of the emission of precursors of tropospheric ozone comparing September 1997 to September 1998.

  14. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model

    PubMed Central

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Moraes da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction. PMID:26552324

  15. In vitro Paracoccidioides brasiliensis biofilm and gene expression of adhesins and hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Voltan, Aline Raquel; Braz, Jaqueline Derissi; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that initially infect the lungs but can also spread throughout the body. The spreading infection is most likely due to the formation of a biofilm that makes it difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. Biofilm formation is crucial for the development of infections and confines the pathogen to an extracellular matrix. Its presence is associated with antimicrobial resistance and avoidance of host defenses. This current study provides the first description of biofilm formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and an analysis of gene expression, using real-time PCR, associated with 3 adhesins and 2 hydrolytic enzymes that could be associated with the virulence profile. Biofilm formation was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. P. brasiliensis was able to form mature biofilm in 144 h with a thickness of 100 μm. The presence of a biofilm was found to be associated with an increase in the expression of adhesins and enzymes. GP43, enolase, GAPDH and aspartyl proteinase genes were over-expressed, whereas phospholipase was down-regulated in biofilm. The characterization of biofilm formed by P. brasiliensis may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis as well as the search for new therapeutic alternatives; while improving the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:26055497

  16. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM.

  17. An Hcp100 gene fragment reveals Histoplasma capsulatum presence in lungs of Tadarida brasiliensis migratory bats.

    PubMed

    González-González, A E; Aliouat-Denis, C M; Carreto-Binaghi, L E; Ramírez, J A; Rodríguez-Arellanes, G; Demanche, C; Chabé, M; Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Taylor, M L

    2012-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum was sampled in lungs from 87 migratory Tadarida brasiliensis bats captured in Mexico (n=66) and Argentina (n=21). The fungus was screened by nested-PCR using a sensitive and specific Hcp100 gene fragment. This molecular marker was detected in 81·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73·4-89·7] of all bats, representing 71 amplified bat lung DNA samples. Data showed a T. brasiliensis infection rate of 78·8% (95% CI 68·9-88·7) in bats captured in Mexico and of 90·4% (95% CI 75·2-100) in those captured in Argentina. Similarity with the H. capsulatum sequence of a reference strain (G-217B) was observed in 71 Hcp100 sequences, which supports the fungal findings. Based on the neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony Hcp100 sequence analyses, a high level of similarity was found in most Mexican and all Argentinean bat lung samples. Despite the fact that 81·6% of the infections were molecularly evidenced, only three H. capsulatum isolates were cultured from all samples tested, suggesting a low fungal burden in lung tissues that did not favour fungal isolation. This study also highlighted the importance of using different tools for the understanding of histoplasmosis epidemiology, since it supports the presence of H. capsulatum in T. brasiliensis migratory bats from Mexico and Argentina, thus contributing new evidence to the knowledge of the environmental distribution of this fungus in the Americas.

  18. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 135 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Azevedo, Maristella O; Soares, Célia M A

    2004-06-01

    A 630 bp cDNA encoding an L35 ribosomal protein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, designated as Pbl35, was cloned from a yeast expression library. Pbl35 encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 14.5 kDa and a pI of 11.0. The deduced PbL35 shows significant conservation in respect to other described ribosomal L35 proteins from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Motifs of ribosomal proteins are present in PbL35, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) that could be related to the protein addressing to the nucleolus for the ribosomal assembly. The mRNA for PbL35, about 700 nucleotides in length, is expressed at a high level in P. brasiliensis. The PbL35 and the deduced amino acid sequence constitute the first description of a ribosomal protein in P. brasiliensis. The cDNA was deposited in GenBank under accession number AF416509.

  20. Monofunctional catalase P of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification, characterization, molecular cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sabrina F I; Bailão, Alexandre M; Barbosa, Mônica S; Jesuino, Rosalia S A; Felipe, M Sueli Soares; Pereira, Maristela; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2004-01-30

    Within the context of studies on genes from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) potentially associated with fungus-host interaction, we isolated a 61 kDa protein, pI 6.2, that was reactive with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. This protein was identified as a peroxisomal catalase. A complete cDNA encoding this catalase was isolated from a Pb cDNA library and was designated PbcatP. The cDNA contained a 1509 bp ORF containing 502 amino acids, whose molecular mass was 57 kDa, with a pI of 6.5. The translated protein PbCATP revealed canonical motifs of monofunctional typical small subunit catalases and the peroxisome-PTS-1-targeting signal. The deduced and the native PbCATP demonstrated amino acid sequence homology to known monofunctional catalases and was most closely related to catalases from other fungi. The protein and mRNA were diminished in the mycelial saprobic phase compared to the yeast phase of infection. Protein synthesis and mRNA levels increased during the transition from mycelium to yeast. In addition, the catalase protein was induced when cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. The identification and characterization of the PbCATP and cloning and characterization of the cDNA are essential steps for investigating the role of catalase as a defence of P. brasiliensis against oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms. These results suggest that this protein exerts an influence in the virulence of P. brasiliensis.

  1. Chitinase from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: molecular cloning, structural, phylogenetic, expression and activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Sheyla M R C; Cruz, Aline H S; Jesuino, Rosália S A; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Molinari-Madlum, Eugênia E W I; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2006-03-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a chitinase (Pbcts1) was cloned by screening a cDNA library from the yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The cDNA consists of 1888 bp and encodes an ORF of 1218 bp corresponding to a protein of 45 kDa with 406 amino acid residues. The deduced PbCTS1 is composed of two signature family 18 catalytic domains and seems to belong to fungal/bacterial class. Phylogenetic analysis of PbCTS1 and other chitinases suggests the existence of paralogs of several chitinases to be grouped based on specialized functions, which may reflect the multiple and diverse roles played by fungi chitinases. Glycosyl hydrolase activity assays demonstrated that P. brasiliensis is able to produce and secrete these enzymes mainly during transition from yeast to mycelium. The fungus should be able to use chitin as a carbon source. The presence of an endocytic signal in the deduced protein suggests that it could be secreted by a vesicular nonclassical export pathway. The Pbcts1 expression in mycelium, yeast, during differentiation from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells obtained from infected mice suggests the relevance of this molecule in P. brasiliensis electing PbCTS1 as an attractive drug target.

  2. Identification, N-terminal region sequencing and similarity analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A F; Sousa, M V; Silva, S P; Jesuíno, R S; Soares, C M; Felipe, M S

    1999-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis in Latin America. This human pathogen is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelium (26 degrees C) and in infected tissues as a yeast form (36 degrees C). The in vitro differentiation process is reversible and dependent on temperature shift. In the present study, the total proteins from both forms of P. brasiliensis (isolate Pb01) were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified. Two of these proteins, PbM46 (mycelium) and PbY20 (yeast), were submitted to automated protein sequencing of their N-terminal regions. The 15 amino acid residue sequence of PbM46, AITKIFALKVYDSSG, is similar to enolases from several sources, and specially those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (80%) and Candida albicans (67%), when compared to the NR database at NCBI using the BLASTP program. The 34 amino acid residue sequence of PbY20, APKIAIVFYSLYGHIQKLAEAQKKGIEAAGGTAD, could probably represent an allergen protein since it is very similar (90%) to the minor allergen protein of Alternaria alternata and 82% similar to the allergen protein of Cladosporium herbarum. This comparative analysis of proteins from mycelium and yeast forms has allowed the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins, probably related to differential gene expression in P. brasiliensis.

  3. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification.

  4. In Vitro Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to Essential Oils of Lamiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Silva, Anna Luiza; Dias de Castro, Luciana Laitano; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Ferraz, Vanny; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Zanette, Régis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the chemical, cytotoxic and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis properties of commercial essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.). Chemical composition of the oils was identified through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and cytotoxicity was performed through MTT assay in VERO cell line. Anti-S. brasiliensis activity was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 guidelines using isolates obtained from cats and dogs. The major compounds found were carvacrol in the oregano oil (73.9 %) and 1,8-cineole in rosemary and marjoram oils (49.4 and 20.9 %, respectively). All S. brasiliensis isolates were susceptible to the plant oils, including itraconazole-resistant ones. Marjoram and rosemary oils showed MIC90 of 0.56 and 1.12 mg ml(-1), and MFC90 of 4.5 and 9 mg ml(-1), respectively. For oregano oil, a strong antifungal activity was observed with MIC90 and MFC90 values ≤0.07 mg ml(-1). The weakest cytotoxicity was observed for rosemary oil. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these essential oils in sporotrichosis.

  5. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  6. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    PubMed

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Virulence profiles of ten Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Hebeler-Barbosa, F; Montenegro, M R; Bagagli, E

    2003-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus, has been confirmed as the primary natural reservoir of this fungus. Its geographic distribution is similar to that of human PCM. In this study, virulence profiles of 10 P. brasiliensis isolates from different armadillos and of two clinical isolates were tested in an experimental hamster model. Pathogenicity was evaluated by counting cfu and performing histopathological analysis in the testis, liver, spleen and lung. Circulating specific antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All isolates from armadillos were virulent in the model, with dissemination to many organs. The clinical isolates, which had long been stored in cultured collections, were less virulent. The isolates were classified into four virulence categories according to number of cfu per gram of tissue: very high, high, intermediate and low. This study confirms that armadillos harbor pathogenic genotypes of P. brasiliensis, probably the same ones that infect humans.

  8. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice during infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, S; Tobon, A; Trujillo, J; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a feared sequelae of paracoccidioidomycosis. We sought to determine if mice exposed to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia would develop pulmonary fibrosis. BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with P. brasiliensis conidia and sacrificed at regular intervals. One lung was sectioned for histopathology and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, trichromic and argentic stains; the other lung was homogenized and cultured to determine the viability of the fungus. One week post-challenge, only small peribronchial foci were apparent. After 4 weeks, reticular fibres appeared disorganized and disrupted. Six to 8 weeks later peribronchial infiltrates were larger and appeared surrounded by reticular fibres; thick collagen I fibres were noticed in the infiltrated areas at this time. On weeks 10-12, infiltrates were confluent and reticular fibres were concentrated around the inflammatory foci; collagenization was apparent. Observations up to 16 weeks revealed diffuse involvement of the lung parenchyma with extensive collagenization. Lung cultures were always positive. We suggest that inhalation of P. brasiliensis conidia induces adverse lung responses leading to changes in the proportion of collagen fibres I and III.

  9. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces Formation of Foamy Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24936860

  10. Identification and functional characterization of HbOsmotin from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheng; Sun, Yong; Wang, Dan; Wang, Limin; Li, Ling; Meng, Xueru; Feng, Weiqiang; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-12-01

    Latex in the laticiferous cell network of Hevea brasiliensis tree is composed of cytoplasm that synthesizes natural rubber. Ethylene stimulation of the tree bark enhances latex production partly by prolonging the duration of latex flow during the tapping process. Here, we identified an osmotin-like cDNA sequence (HbOsmotin) from H. brasiliensis that belongs to the pathogenesis-related 5 (PR-5) gene family. The HbOsmotin protein is present in the lutoids of latex in H. brasiliensis, whereas in onion epidermal cells, this protein is predominantly distributed around the cell wall, suggesting that it may be secreted from the cytoplasm. We investigated the effects of exogenous ethylene on HbOsmotin transcription and protein accumulation in rubber latex, and further determined the protein function after osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. In regularly tapped trees, HbOsmotin expression was drastically inhibited in rubber latex after tapping, although the expression was subsequently recovered by ethylene stimulation. However, in virgin plants that had never been tapped, exogenous ethylene application slightly decreased HbOsmotin expression. HbOsmotin overexpression in Arabidopsis showed that HbOsmotin reduced the osmotic stress tolerance of the plant, which likely occurred by raising the water potential. These data indicated that HbOsmotin may contribute to osmotic regulation in laticiferous cells.

  11. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model.

    PubMed

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction.

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms.

  13. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  14. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  15. A Model-Data Fusion Approach for Constraining Modeled GPP at Global Scales Using GOME2 SIF Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Lewis, P.; Guanter, L.; Koehler, P.; Bacour, C.; Peylin, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.; Chevallier, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the fate of the ecosystem carbon, C, stocks and their sensitivity to climate change relies heavily on our ability to accurately model the gross carbon fluxes, i.e. photosynthesis and respiration. However, there are large differences in the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) simulated by different land surface models (LSMs), not only in terms of mean value, but also in terms of phase and amplitude when compared to independent data-based estimates. This strongly limits our ability to provide accurate predictions of carbon-climate feedbacks. One possible source of this uncertainty is from inaccurate parameter values resulting from incomplete model calibration. Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) has been shown to have a linear relationship with GPP at the typical spatio-temporal scales used in LSMs (Guanter et al., 2011). New satellite-derived SIF datasets have the potential to constrain LSM parameters related to C uptake at global scales due to their coverage. Here we use SIF data derived from the GOME2 instrument (Köhler et al., 2014) to optimize parameters related to photosynthesis and leaf phenology of the ORCHIDEE LSM, as well as the linear relationship between SIF and GPP. We use a multi-site approach that combines many model grid cells covering a wide spatial distribution within the same optimization (e.g. Kuppel et al., 2014). The parameters are constrained per Plant Functional type as the linear relationship described above varies depending on vegetation structural properties. The relative skill of the optimization is compared to a case where only satellite-derived vegetation index data are used to constrain the model, and to a case where both data streams are used. We evaluate the results using an independent data-driven estimate derived from FLUXNET data (Jung et al., 2011) and with a new atmospheric tracer, Carbonyl sulphide (OCS) following the approach of Launois et al. (ACPD, in review). We show that the optimization reduces the strong positive

  16. Investigation of NOx emissions and NOx-related chemistry in East Asia using CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, C. K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Woo, J. H.; Hong, J. H.

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the estimation accuracy of NOx emissions over East Asia with particular focus on North China and South Korea due to their strong source (North China)-receptor (South Korea) relationship. In order to determine contributions of North China emissions to South Korean air quality accurately, it is important to examine the accuracy of the emission inventories of both regions. In this study, NO2 columns from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over South Korea (receptor region) for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China (source region) for all seasons with the exception of summer. It is believed that there might be some estimation error in the NOx emissions as well as large uncertainty in NOx loss rates over North China and South Korea. Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry in East Asia. It was found that the rates of NOx loss determined by CMAQ modeling studies might be significantly low due to the possible overestimation of biogenic isoprene emissions during summer, particularly in China. In addition, due to the possible overestimation of isoprene emissions, the CMAQ-modeled NO2/NOx ratios might show an incorrectly high level, compared with the actual NO2/NOx ratios. In addition to the retarded NOx chemical loss rates and overestimated NO2/NOx ratios, the omission of soil NOx emissions over North China during summer can lead to an underestimation of NOx emissions over North

  17. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB.

    PubMed

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for additional studies on the pathogenesis of P. brasiliensis.

  18. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  19. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  20. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS) is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin. PMID:20034376

  1. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Trevizani, Nathália Abreu Borges; Dias, Letícia Sena; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça de; Melo, Bernardino Vaz de; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  2. IgM and IgG antibody response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in naturally infected wild armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G F; Deps, P; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Camargo, Z P

    2004-08-01

    We studied the extent to which wild nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, produce immune humoral responses specifically directed against characteristic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens. Such antibody production might reflect direct contact with the ecological microniche of P. brasiliensis, or might merely reflect inhalation of widely distributed airborne propagules. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed containing purified glycoprotein gp43 and gp70 antigens from P. brasiliensis as well as cross-reactive antisera originally targeted against human IgM (mu chain) and armadillo anti-IgG (gamma-chain). It was used to detect and classify IgM and IgG antibodies to P. brasiliensis in the armadillo. In a serological survey of 47 wild armadillos, IgM antibodies to gp43 were detected in seven animals (14.8%), and IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (42.5%). IgM antibodies to gp70 were detected in 10 (21.3%) animals and IgG antibodies were detected in 18 (38.3%). These results, showing a pattern consistent with infection, suggest that P. brasiliensis is enzootic in armadillos. How the animals became exposed could not be determined.

  3. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis.

  4. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae) from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S C; Ferreira, F S; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ávila, R W; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Guarnieri, M C

    2012-11-01

    The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  5. Lactic dehydrogenase virus infection enhances parasite egg production and inhibits eosinophil and mast cell responses in mice infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, M; Yamada, M; Arizono, N; Hayashi, T

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection on the protective immune responses to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were studied. Mice with chronic LDV infection showed significantly higher levels of parasite egg production than non-LDV-infected (control) mice after N. brasiliensis infection. Concurrent LDV infection also suppressed peripheral blood eosinophilia and the lung mastocytosis induced by this nematode. LDV infection showed higher expression levels of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA in lymph nodes compared with control mice before N. brasiliensis infection. In addition, the IgG2a production in LDV-infected mice was higher than that in control mice before and after N. brasiliensis infection. These results suggest that LDV infection modulates protective immune responses against N. brasiliensis infection by the activation of T-helper type 1 cells. PMID:9659227

  6. New methods for retrieval of chlorophyll red fluorescence from hyper-spectral satellite instruments: simulations and application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Guanter, L.; Middleton, E.

    2016-12-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. Phytoplankton in oceans emits entirely in the red (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far-red (> 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. We examine new ways to use existing hyper-spectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (< 712nm) over both land and ocean, providing complementary information to that from the far-red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY, were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm), but offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF emissions. We conducted retrievals of red SIF using an extensive database of simulated radiances covering a wide range of conditions. Our new algorithm produces good agreement between the simulated truth and retrievals and shows the potential of the O2 bands for noise reduction in red SIF retrievals as compared with approaches that rely solely on solar Fraunhofer line filling. Biases seen with existing satellite data, most likely due to instrumental artifacts that vary in time, space, and with instrument, must be addressed in order to obtain reasonable results. Our 8+ year GOME-2 record of red SIF observations over land allows for the first time reliable global mapping of monthly anomalies. These anomalies have similar spatio-temporal structure as those in the far-red, particularly for drought-prone regions with a

  7. Tropospheric HCHO retrieved from OMI, GOME(-2), and SCIAMACHY within the Quality Assurance For Essential Climate Variables (QA4ECV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Richter, Andreas; Beirle, Steffen; Danckaert, Thomas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Vlietinck, Jonas; Yu, Huan; Boesch, Tim; Hillboll, Andreas; Peters, Eno; doerner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Wang, Yang; Lorente, Alba; Eskes, Henk; van Geffen, Jos; Zara, Marina; Boersma, Folkert

    2017-04-01

    One of the main goals of the QA4ECV project is to define community best-practices for the generation of multi-decadal ECV data records from satellite instruments. QA4ECV will develop retrieval algorithms for the Land ECVs surface albedo, leaf area index (LAI), and fraction of active photosynthetic radiation (fAPAR), as well as for the Atmosphere ECV ozone and aerosol precursors nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbon monoxide (CO). We present the results of the reprocessing of the OMI and GOME-2 databases using the QA4ECV HCHO retrieval algorithm that has been developed and consolidated during the first years of the project. Comparisons with the previous BIRA-IASB HCHO products distributed on the TEMIS website are presented, as well as validation results using ground-based observations of HCHO, also under development within the QA4ECV project. Each retrieval step and the corresponding code has been intercompared within the group, allowing for a consolidation of the algorithms. The main improvements of the QA4ECV HCHO retrieval baseline are (1) the use of a large fitting window for OMI and GOME-2, allowed by improved quality of the recorded spectra, (2) refinement of the wavelength calibration procedure, (3) the use of a mean background radiance as DOAS reference spectrum allowing for a stabilization of the retrievals ( the selection of reference spectra is line-of-sight dependent for all instruments), (4) a reduction of the East/West polarization biases in the GOME-2 retrieval, (5) an updated background correction based on the reference sector method has been implemented, with a significant impact over Tropical regions. As for NO2, HCHO profiles from the TM5 model are used as a priori in the AMF calculation. These are provided on a 1°x1° latitude-longitude grid, allowing for an improvement of the spatial resolution of the final product. Each step of the retrieval algorithm is documented via traceability chains, providing detailed information on

  8. Neurological and multiple organ involvement due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and HIV co-infection diagnosed at autopsy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Roza, Thiago H; Salvador, Gabriel L O; França, João C B; Vidal, Luine Rosele Renaud; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Oliva, Lubomira Veronica; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; de Noronha, Lucia Helena

    2017-09-11

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America; it is rare in immunocompromised patients. The estimated frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the HIV/PCM population was 2.5%. We report a case of HIV/P. brasiliensis co-infection, with neurological (NPCM) and multiple organ involvement, indicating a diagnosis of AIDS. PCM diagnosis was established during the autopsy. This is the first described case of HIV/P. brasiliensis co-infection with CNS involvement diagnosed at autopsy. In conclusion, the diagnosis of NPCM is challenging, and it must be considered in the differential diagnosis in HIV-positive patients who reside in or have visited areas in which the condition is endemic and who present with neurological symptoms.

  9. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  10. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata A; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E; da Silva, Cássia J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pinto, Márcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  11. Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared with GOME retrievals for the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Eskes, H. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Boersma, K. F.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Drevet, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Krol, M. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lawrence, M. G.; Martin, R. V.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; van Roozendael, M.

    2006-04-01

    We present a systematic comparison of tropospheric NO2 from 17 global atmospheric chemistry models with three state-of-the-art retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) for the year 2000. The models used constant anthropogenic emissions from IIASA/EDGAR3.2 and monthly emissions from biomass burning based on the 1997-2002 average carbon emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Model output is analyzed at 10:30 local time, close to the overpass time of the ERS-2 satellite, and collocated with the measurements to account for sampling biases due to incomplete spatiotemporal coverage of the instrument. We assessed the importance of different contributions to the sampling bias: correlations on seasonal time scale give rise to a positive bias of 30-50% in the retrieved annual means over regions dominated by emissions from biomass burning. Over the industrial regions of the eastern United States, Europe and eastern China the retrieved annual means have a negative bias with significant contributions (between -25% and +10% of the NO2 column) resulting from correlations on time scales from a day to a month. We present global maps of modeled and retrieved annual mean NO2 column densities, together with the corresponding ensemble means and standard deviations for models and retrievals. The spatial correlation between the individual models and retrievals are high, typically in the range 0.81-0.93 after smoothing the data to a common resolution. On average the models underestimate the retrievals in industrial regions, especially over eastern China and over the Highveld region of South Africa, and overestimate the retrievals in regions dominated by biomass burning during the dry season. The discrepancy over South America south of the Amazon disappears when we use the GFED emissions specific to the year 2000. The seasonal cycle is analyzed in detail for eight different continental regions. Over regions dominated by biomass burning, the timing of

  12. Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared with GOME retrievals for the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Eskes, H. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Boersma, K. F.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Drevet, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Krol, M. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lawrence, M. G.; Martin, R. V.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; van Roozendael, M.

    2006-07-01

    We present a systematic comparison of tropospheric NO2 from 17 global atmospheric chemistry models with three state-of-the-art retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) for the year 2000. The models used constant anthropogenic emissions from IIASA/EDGAR3.2 and monthly emissions from biomass burning based on the 1997-2002 average carbon emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Model output is analyzed at 10:30 local time, close to the overpass time of the ERS-2 satellite, and collocated with the measurements to account for sampling biases due to incomplete spatiotemporal coverage of the instrument. We assessed the importance of different contributions to the sampling bias: correlations on seasonal time scale give rise to a positive bias of 30-50% in the retrieved annual means over regions dominated by emissions from biomass burning. Over the industrial regions of the eastern United States, Europe and eastern China the retrieved annual means have a negative bias with significant contributions (between -25% and +10% of the NO2 column) resulting from correlations on time scales from a day to a month. We present global maps of modeled and retrieved annual mean NO2 column densities, together with the corresponding ensemble means and standard deviations for models and retrievals. The spatial correlation between the individual models and retrievals are high, typically in the range 0.81-0.93 after smoothing the data to a common resolution. On average the models underestimate the retrievals in industrial regions, especially over eastern China and over the Highveld region of South Africa, and overestimate the retrievals in regions dominated by biomass burning during the dry season. The discrepancy over South America south of the Amazon disappears when we use the GFED emissions specific to the year 2000. The seasonal cycle is analyzed in detail for eight different continental regions. Over regions dominated by biomass burning, the timing of

  13. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  14. Redox-active biflavonoids from Garcinia brasiliensis as inhibitors of neutrophil oxidative burst and human erythrocyte membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Saroni Arwa, Phanuel; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Siqueira Silva, Dulce Helena

    2015-11-04

    Garcinia brasiliensis, a plant native to the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation of the urinary tract, peptic ulcers, arthritis and other conditions. The purposes of this study were to analyze the chemical constituents of G. brasiliensis branches and leaves and to evaluate the potential of isolated compounds to act as inhibitors of both the oxidative burst of stimulated neutrophils and oxidative damage in human erythrocyte membranes to verify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation. Superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by stimulated neutrophils were measured by WST-1 reduction and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Radical-induced lipoperoxidation and hemolysis were performed using erythrocytes from the blood of healthy donors. Compounds were isolated from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves by HPLC microfractionation, and structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed based on NMR and HR-MS analyses. The biflavonoids procyanidin, fukugetin, amentoflavone and podocarpusflavone isolated from G. brasiliensis showed potent inhibitory effects on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils, inhibiting ROS production by 50% at 1 μmol L(-1). These biflavonoids also proved to be potent inhibitors of hemolysis (with 88 ± 7% inhibition at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes, with a malondialdehyde level (a biomarker of oxidative stress) of 8.5 ± 0.3 nmol/mg Hb at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin. These findings indicate that the biflavonoids extracted from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves modulate oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and ROS production by stimulated human neutrophils. Furthermore, the biflavonoids exhibited potent inhibition of oxidant hemolysis and lipid peroxidation

  15. Differences in Cell Morphometry, Cell Wall Topography and Gp70 Expression Correlate with the Virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rafaela A.; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H.; Teixeira, Pedro A. C.; Sanches, Glenda F.; Teixeira, Marcus M.; Quintella, Leonardo P.; Almeida, Sandro R.; Costa, Rosane O.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Felipe, Maria S. S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes. PMID:24116065

  16. Characterization of PbPga1, an Antigenic GPI-Protein in the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa X. R.; Basso, Luiz Roberto; dos Reis Almeida, Fausto B.; Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Arruda, Luisa Karla; Martinez, Roberto; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. P. brasiliensis cell wall components interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. Cell wall components, such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-proteins play a critical role in cell adhesion and host tissue invasion. Although the importance of GPI-proteins in the pathogenesis of other medically important fungi is recognized, little is known about their function in P. brasiliensis cells and PCM pathogenesis. We cloned the PbPga1 gene that codifies for a predicted GPI-anchored glycoprotein from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis. PbPga1 is conserved in Eurotiomycetes fungi and encodes for a protein with potential glycosylation sites in a serine/threonine-rich region, a signal peptide and a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment signal sequence. Specific chicken anti-rPbPga1 antibody localized PbPga1 on the yeast cell surface at the septum between the mother cell and the bud with stronger staining of the bud. The exposure of murine peritoneal macrophages to rPbPga1 induces TNF-α release and nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages. Furthermore, the presence of O-glycosylation sites was demonstrated by β-elimination under ammonium hydroxide treatment of rPbPga1. Finally, sera from PCM patients recognized rPbPga1 by Western blotting indicating the presence of specific antibodies against rPbPga1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PbPga1gene codifies for a cell surface glycoprotein, probably attached to a GPI-anchor, which may play a role in P. brasiliensis cell wall morphogenesis and infection. The induction of inflammatory mediators released by rPbPga1 and the reactivity of PCM patient sera toward rPbPga1 imply that the protein favors the innate mechanisms of defense and induces humoral immunity during P. brasiliensis infection. PMID:23024763

  17. The Homeostasis of Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis, Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus Gattii: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mirelle Garcia; Schrank, Augusto; Bailão, Elisa Flávia L.C.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Staats, Charley Christian; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé; Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of essential ions in infected tissues. We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus species, little is known regarding the regulation of these elements in P. brasiliensis. We also present amino acid sequences analyses of deduced proteins in order to examine possible conserved domains. The genomic data reveals, for the first time, genes associated to iron, copper, and zinc assimilation and homeostasis in P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. However, homologs to genes involved in siderophore production were only found in P. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in silico analysis of the genomes of P. brasiliensis Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18 revealed significant differences in the presence and/or number of genes involved in metal homeostasis, such as in genes related to iron reduction and oxidation. The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, C. neoformans var. grubii, and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. PMID:21833306

  18. [Variation of above-ground biomass of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Kintze (Arecaceae) at a palm shrub community on the Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Menezes, L F; de Araujo, D S

    2000-02-01

    Variation of above-ground biomass of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Kuntze (Arecaceae) along five topographic profiles perpendicular to the ocean was examined in a palm scrub community on Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Aerial biomass was positively correlated with distance from the sea (F = 39.57; R2 = 0.69; P < 0.01) as was detritus cover (F = 525.92; R2 = 0.92; P < 0.01). A. arenaria growth is closely related to the topography of the beach area. Dense populations of this palm enrich the soil by increasing organic matter under the plants through dead leaf material. This promotes the accumulation of nutrients and the creation of micro-climates that favor the establishment of other species.

  19. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae) in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, T A; Maia-Carneiro, T; Almeida-Gomes, M; Siqueira, C C; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2014-02-01

    Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%), with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna.

  20. Characterization of gp70 and Anti-gp70 Monoclonal Antibodies in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos Grosso, Daniela; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; Mariano, Mario; Lopes, Jose Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous mycosis whose agent is Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. In the culture supernatant, the fungus expresses glycoproteins of from 13 to 148 kDa. A cell surface glycoprotein of 43 kDa is the major antigenic component of P. brasiliensis. Another expressed glycoprotein, gp70, is recognized by 96% of sera from PCM patients and is able to induce lymphoproliferation. Since, little is known about this glycoprotein, we produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against gp70 to isolate the molecule from total fungus extracts and to investigate its possible role in the pathogenesis of PCM. Using these MAbs, it was observed by confocal microscopy that gp70 is located mainly in the intracellular compartment of the fungus, although it was also detected in the culture supernatant. Based on observations showing that gp43 has a down-regulatory effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages, we tested the effects of gp70 on their phagocytic ability. Purified gp70 was able to inhibit the activity of macrophages through the mannose receptors and also through the Fc receptors; the latter effect was not observed with gp43. gp70 inhibits NO and H2O2 liberation by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, as does gp43. Results obtained with gp43 led us to hypothesize that gp70 could act as an escape mechanism for fungal establishment in primary infections. To corroborate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of passive immunization of mice during infection with P. brasiliensis using anti-gp70 MAbs. This treatment almost completely abolished granuloma formation in the lungs, suggesting that the protein facilitates fungal establishment and progression of lesions in primary infection. PMID:14573675

  1. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in freshwater Neotropical fish Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; da Silva, Cleber Pinto; Doria, Halina Binde; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2015-06-01

    From the concentration in water and sediments, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and arsenic (As) were determined in the gills, liver, and muscles of Geophagus brasiliensis in the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Metals were quantified through AAS, and a study was carried out on the existing relations between metal and body weight, size, and genre of this species. The level of metal in the water of the reservoir was lower than the maximum set forth in the legislation, except for that of Cd and Fe. In sediments, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni presented concentrations above the threshold effect level (TEL). Pb and Cr were above the limits for the G. brasiliensis. The tendency of metals present in the muscles of G. brasiliensis was Al > Cu > Zn > Fe > Co > Mn > Cr > Ag > Ni > Pb > Cd > As. In the gills, it was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Co > Ag > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd, and the liver presented Al > Cu > Zn > Co > Fe > Mn > Pb > Ag > Ni > Cr > As > Cd. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in the tissues follow the global tendency liver > gills > muscle. The statistical analysis did not point to significant differences in the metal concentration and body weight, size, and gender of the species in the three tissues under analysis.

  2. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A cross-reactive monoclonal antibody to nematode haemoglobin enhances protective immune responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Meter, Jeanne M; Horsnell, William G; Hoving, J Claire; Fick, Lizette; Sharp, Michael F; Darby, Matthew G; Parihar, Suraj P; Brombacher, Frank; Lopata, Andreas L

    2013-01-01

    Nematode secreted haemoglobins have unusually high affinity for oxygen and possess nitric oxide deoxygenase, and catalase activity thought to be important in protection against host immune responses to infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (48Eg) against haemoglobin of the nematode Anisakis pegreffii, and aimed to characterize cross-reactivity of 4E8g against haemoglobins of different nematodes and its potential to mediate protective immunity against a murine hookworm infection. Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the 4E8g-binding antigen in Anisakis and Ascaris extracts, which were identified as haemoglobins by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. Immunological cross-reactivity was also demonstrated with haemoglobin of the rodent hookworm N. brasiliensis. Immunogenicity of nematode haemoglobin in mice and humans was tested by immunoblotting. Anisakis haemoglobin was recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies of Anisakis-infected mice, while Ascaris haemoglobin was recognized by IgG but not IgE antibodies in mouse and human sera. Sequencing of Anisakis haemoglobin revealed high similarity to haemoglobin of a related marine nematode, Psuedoterranova decipiens, which lacks the four -HKEE repeats of Ascaris haemoglobin important in octamer assembly. The localization of haemoglobin in the different parasites was examined by immunohistochemistry and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts in Anisakis, Ascaris and N. brasiliensis. Anisakis haemoglobin was strongly expressed in the L3 stage, unlike Ascaris haemoglobin, which is reportedly mainly expressed in adult worms. Passive immunization of mice with 4E8g prior to infection with N. brasiliensis enhanced protective Th2 immunity and led to a significant decrease in worm burdens. The monoclonal antibody 4E8g targets haemoglobin in broadly equivalent anatomical locations in parasitic nematodes and enhances host immunity to a hookworm infection.

  4. A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E.; Meter, Jeanne M.; Horsnell, William G.; Hoving, J. Claire; Fick, Lizette; Sharp, Michael F.; Darby, Matthew G.; Parihar, Suraj P.; Brombacher, Frank; Lopata, Andreas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nematode secreted haemoglobins have unusually high affinity for oxygen and possess nitric oxide deoxygenase, and catalase activity thought to be important in protection against host immune responses to infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (48Eg) against haemoglobin of the nematode Anisakis pegreffii, and aimed to characterize cross-reactivity of 4E8g against haemoglobins of different nematodes and its potential to mediate protective immunity against a murine hookworm infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the 4E8g-binding antigen in Anisakis and Ascaris extracts, which were identified as haemoglobins by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. Immunological cross-reactivity was also demonstrated with haemoglobin of the rodent hookworm N. brasiliensis. Immunogenicity of nematode haemoglobin in mice and humans was tested by immunoblotting. Anisakis haemoglobin was recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies of Anisakis-infected mice, while Ascaris haemoglobin was recognized by IgG but not IgE antibodies in mouse and human sera. Sequencing of Anisakis haemoglobin revealed high similarity to haemoglobin of a related marine nematode, Psuedoterranova decipiens, which lacks the four –HKEE repeats of Ascaris haemoglobin important in octamer assembly. The localization of haemoglobin in the different parasites was examined by immunohistochemistry and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts in Anisakis, Ascaris and N. brasiliensis. Anisakis haemoglobin was strongly expressed in the L3 stage, unlike Ascaris haemoglobin, which is reportedly mainly expressed in adult worms. Passive immunization of mice with 4E8g prior to infection with N. brasiliensis enhanced protective Th2 immunity and led to a significant decrease in worm burdens. Conclusion The monoclonal antibody 4E8g targets haemoglobin in broadly equivalent anatomical locations in parasitic nematodes and enhances host immunity to a hookworm

  5. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  6. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Páez, Uriel Alonso; García Romero, Ibonne Aydee; Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  7. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  8. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  9. Simulating population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes: guidelines and application with Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, Francois; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Harry, Myriam; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of the vectors of pathogens infecting humans is a central issue in tropical epidemiology. In view of the rapid changes in the features of landscape pathogen vectors live in, this issue requires new methods that consider both natural and human systems and their interactions. In this context, individual-based model (IBM) simulations represent powerful yet poorly developed approaches to explore the response of pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological systems, especially when field experiments cannot be performed. We first present guidelines for the use of a spatially explicit IBM, to simulate population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes. We then applied our model with Triatoma brasiliensis, originally restricted to sylvatic habitats and now found in peridomestic and domestic habitats, posing as the most important Trypanosoma cruzi vector in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on the effects of vector migration rate, maximum dispersal distance and attraction by domestic habitat on T. brasiliensis population dynamics and spatial genetic structure. Optimized for T. brasiliensis using field data pairwise fixation index (FST) from microsatellite loci, our simulations confirmed the importance of these three variables to understand vector genetic structure at the landscape level. We then ran prospective scenarios accounting for land-use change (deforestation and urbanization), which revealed that human-induced land-use change favored higher genetic diversity among sampling points. Our work shows that mechanistic models may be useful tools to link observed patterns with processes involved in the population genetics of tropical pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological landscapes. Our hope is that our study may provide a testable and applicable modeling framework to a broad community of epidemiologists for formulating scenarios of landscape

  10. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus noveminctus) captured in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bagagli, E; Sano, A; Coelho, K I; Alquati, S; Miyaji, M; de Camargo, Z P; Gomes, G M; Franco, M; Montenegro, M R

    1998-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), was first isolated from armadillos from the Amazonian region where the mycosis is uncommon. In the present study, we report on the high incidence of PCM infection in armadillos from a hyperendemic region of the disease. Four nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were captured in the endemic area of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, killed by manual cervical dislocation and autopsied under sterile conditions. Fragments of lung, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes were processed for histology, cultured on Mycosel agar at 37 degrees C, and homogenized for inoculation into the testis and peritoneum of hamsters. The animals were killed from week 6 to week 20 postinoculation and fragments of liver, lung, spleen, testis, and lymph nodes were cultured on brain heart infusion agar at 37 degrees C. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was isolated from three armadillos both by direct organ culture and from the liver, spleen, lung, and mesenteric lymph nodes of hamsters. In addition, one positive armadillo presented histologically proven PCM disease in a mesenteric lymph node. The three armadillos isolates (Pb-A1, Pb-A2, and Pb-A4) presented thermodependent dimorphism, urease activity, and casein assimilation, showed amplification of the gp43 gene, and were highly virulent in intratesticularly inoculated hamsters. The isolates expressed the gp43 glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of the fungus, and reacted with a pool of sera from PCM patients. Taken together, the present data confirm that armadillos are a natural reservoir of P. brasiliensis and demonstrate that the animal is a sylvan host to the fungus.

  11. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  12. Alternative oxidase plays an important role in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular homeostasis and morphological transition.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Orville; Araque, Pedronel; Tamayo, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Herrera, Sebastian; Mcewen, Juan G; Pelaez, Carlos; Almeida, Agostinho J

    2015-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of one of the most common systemic mycoses in Latin America. As a dimorphic fungus, it must adapt to different environments during its life cycle, either in nature or within the host, enduring external stresses such as temperature or host-induced oxidative stress. In this study we addressed the role of alternative oxidase (PbAOX) in cellular homeostasis during batch culture growth and the morphological transition of P. brasiliensis. Using a PbAOX-antisense-RNA (PbAOX-aRNA) strain with a 70% reduction in gene expression, we show that PbAOX is crucial for maintaining cell viability and vitality during batch culture growth of yeast cells, in what appears to be a pH-dependent manner. We also show that silencing of PbAOX drastically reduced expression levels of other detoxifying enzymes (PbY20 and PbMSOD). In addition, our data indicate that PbAOX plays a role during the morphological transition, namely, during the yeast-to-mycelia germination and mycelia/conidia-to-yeast transition, essential events during the establishment of infection by dimorphic fungal pathogens. Altogether, our findings support the hypothesis that PbAOX is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, possibly by assisting redox balancing during cell growth and the morphological switch of P. brasiliensis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate. PMID:22029431

  14. [Identification of genes associated with germination of conidia to form mycelia in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis].

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Hernández, Orville; Aristizábal, Beatriz H; Cano, Luz Elena; Restrepo, Angela; McEwen, Juan G

    2009-09-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process remain unknown. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18 degrees C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7+/-1.2%; at 48 hr, 30+/-0.6%; at 72 hr, 43+/-1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66+/-2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

  15. Simulating Population Genetics of Pathogen Vectors in Changing Landscapes: Guidelines and Application with Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, Francois; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Harry, Myriam; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms that influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of the vectors of pathogens infecting humans is a central issue in tropical epidemiology. In view of the rapid changes in the features of landscape pathogen vectors live in, this issue requires new methods that consider both natural and human systems and their interactions. In this context, individual-based model (IBM) simulations represent powerful yet poorly developed approaches to explore the response of pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological systems, especially when field experiments cannot be performed. Methodology/Principal Findings We first present guidelines for the use of a spatially explicit IBM, to simulate population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes. We then applied our model with Triatoma brasiliensis, originally restricted to sylvatic habitats and now found in peridomestic and domestic habitats, posing as the most important Trypanosoma cruzi vector in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on the effects of vector migration rate, maximum dispersal distance and attraction by domestic habitat on T. brasiliensis population dynamics and spatial genetic structure. Optimized for T. brasiliensis using field data pairwise fixation index (FST) from microsatellite loci, our simulations confirmed the importance of these three variables to understand vector genetic structure at the landscape level. We then ran prospective scenarios accounting for land-use change (deforestation and urbanization), which revealed that human-induced land-use change favored higher genetic diversity among sampling points. Conclusions/Significance Our work shows that mechanistic models may be useful tools to link observed patterns with processes involved in the population genetics of tropical pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological landscapes. Our hope is that our study may provide a testable and applicable modeling framework to a broad

  16. New Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate reveals unexpected genomic variability in this human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Lilia L; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Teixeira, Marcus M; Carvalho, Maria Jose A; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuino, Rosália S A; McEwen, Juan G; Mendoza, Leonel; Taylor, John W; Felipe, Maria Sueli; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2008-05-01

    By means of genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR), we have investigated coding and non-coding regions from various genes and the ITS sequences of 7 new and 14 known isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Such isolates grouped within the three phylogenetic groups recently reported in the genus Paracoccidioides, with one single exception, i.e., Pb01, a strain that has been the subject of intense molecular studies for many years. This isolate clearly separates from all other Paracoccidioides isolates in phylogenetic analyses and greatly increases the genomic variation known in this genus.

  17. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  18. Cerebriform colonies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, R; Sano, A; Franco, M; Bagagli, E; Montenegro, M R; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    2001-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis generated cerebriform colonies at room temperature on potato glucose agar slants (PDA). These isolates contained abundant chlamydospores and yeast-like cells and are a subset of the 65 isolates obtained from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus). They grew as a yeast form with typical multiple buddings at 37 degrees C on brain heart infusion agar supplemented with 1% glucose. After replating on PDA and culturing at room temperature for 2 months, the mutants appeared as cottonous colonies, which indicated that the morphological characteristics were unstable.

  19. Morphological Transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia to Yeast Cells: In Vivo Inhibition in Females

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.; Restrepo, Angela

    1998-01-01

    Clinical paracoccidioidomycosis is 13 times more common in men than in women. Estrogen inhibits the transition of mycelia or conidia (the saprophytic form of Paracoccidoides brasiliensis) to yeasts (the parasitic form) in vitro. Here, we show that, in male mice that were infected intranasally (mimicking natural infection) the transition of conidia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids to intermediate forms and yeasts occurred over 24 to 96 h; CFU and yeasts (shown by histopathology) increased subsequently. In females, transition did not occur and infection cleared. These events in vivo are consistent with epidemiological and in vitro observations, suggesting that female hormones block transition and are responsible for resistance. PMID:9784579

  20. Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and

  1. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  2. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-10-01

    In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or plastic

  3. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taborda, Carlos P.; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic dimorphic fungi including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Coccidioides posadasii. Melanization appears to contribute to virulence by reducing the susceptibility of melanized fungi to host defense mechanisms and antifungal drugs. PMID:18777637

  4. Are Members of the Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) Species Complex Able to Alter the Biology and Virulence of a Trypanosoma cruzi Strain?

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Araújo, C A C; Freitas, C A V; Borges-Pereira, J

    2015-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, transmitted to humans and mammals by blood-sucking hemipteran insects belonging to the Triatominae subfamily. The two main genotypes of T. cruzi (TcI and TcII) differ in many characteristics concerning their genetic profile. Despite the extensive literature on vectors and the etiologic agent, several interactive aspects between these two elements of Chagas disease are still waiting to be further clarified. Here, biological and histological features resulting from the interaction between Albino Swiss mice and T. cruzi isolate PB913 after passages through vectors of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex were evaluated. Comparing the four members of the T. brasiliensis species complex-Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, Triatoma melanica Neiva & Lent, and Triatoma juazeirensis Costa & Felix-no significant differences in parasitemia of the infected mice were observed. At 20 days post-infection, the highest number of parasites was observed in the group of mice that were infected with parasites obtained from T. b. macromelasoma. Tropism of the parasites to different organs such as heart, bladder, and skeletal muscles followed by inflammatory cell infiltrates was observed with quantitative and qualitative differences. Even though the four members of the T. brasiliensis species complex differ in their geographical distribution, morphology, biology, ecology, and genetics, no significant influence on the parasitemia of the T. cruzi PB913 isolate was detected. After evaluation of the tissue samples, a higher pathogenicity of parasites obtained from T. b. brasiliensis was noticeable.

  5. Validation of OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B tropospheric NO2, SO2 and HCHO products using MAX-DOAS observations from 2011 to 2014 in Wuxi, China: investigation of the effects of priori profiles and aerosols on the satellite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Beirle, Steffen; Lampel, Johannes; Koukouli, Mariliza; De Smedt, Isabelle; Theys, Nicolas; Li, Ang; Wu, Dexia; Xie, Pinhua; Liu, Cheng; Van Roozendael, Michel; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-François; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2, SO2 and HCHO derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on AURA and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 aboard METOP-A (GOME-2A) and METOP-B (GOME-2B) are widely used to characterize the global distributions, trends and dominating sources of these trace gases. They are also useful for the comparison with chemical transport models (CTMs). We use tropospheric VCDs and vertical profiles of NO2, SO2 and HCHO derived from MAX-DOAS measurements from 2011 to 2014 in Wuxi, China, to validate the corresponding products (daily and bi-monthly-averaged data) derived from OMI and GOME-2A/B by different scientific teams. Prior to the comparison, the spatial and temporal coincidence criteria for MAX-DOAS and satellite data are determined by a sensitivity study using different spatial and temporal averaging conditions. Cloud effects on both MAX-DOAS and satellite observations a