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Sample records for brassica juncea bjcdr15

  1. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics.

  2. Uptake, Distribution, and Speciation of Chromium in Brassica Juncea

    SciTech Connect

    Bluskov, S.; Arocena, J.M.; Omotoso, O.O.; Young, J.P.

    2008-06-09

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) has been widely used in phytoremediation because of its capacity to accumulate high levels of chromium (Cr) and other metals. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanism(s) involved in Cr binding and sequestration by B. juncea. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in field-moist or air-dried soils, amended with 100 mg kg{sup -1} of Cr (III or VI). The plant concentrated Cr mainly in the roots. B. juncea removed an average of 48 and 58 {micro}g Cr per plant from Cr (III) and Cr (VI)-treated soils, respectively. The uptake of Cr was not affected by the moisture status of the soils. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed only Cr (III) bound predominantly to formate and acetate ligands, in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, respectively. In the plant tissues, Cr (III) was detected, primarily as acetate in the roots and oxalate in the leaves. X-ray microprobe showed the sites of Cr localization, and probably sequestration, in epidermal and cortical cells in the roots and epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. juncea to detoxify more toxic Cr (VI), thereby making this plant a potential candidate for phytostabilization.

  3. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.].

    PubMed

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2006-01-01

    All economically important Brassica species have been successfully transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Although different tissues have been used as explants, hypocotyls remain the most desirable explants for Brassica tissue culture owing to their amenability to regeneration. Young explants excised from 3- to 4-d-old seedlings have exhibited optimal regeneration potential; the addition of adjuvants such as silver nitrate to the selection medium is necessary to achieve high efficiency of transformation. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Indian mustard based on inoculation of hypocotyls. The selectable marker gene used encodes for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII), and the selection agent is kanamycin.

  4. Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils.

  5. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  6. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  7. Absorption and degradation of metalaxyl in mustard plant (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Saharan, G S; Kathpal, T S

    1997-07-01

    Absorption and degradation of metalaxyl were studied in mustard (Brassica juncea) plants after application as a seed dresser, a foliar spray, and a combination of both under subtropical conditions in India. Results indicated that absorption of metalaxyl increased up to 30 days when it was applied as a seed dresser; thereafter, it started declining and was not detectable after 60 days of sowing. The maximum residues (average, 9.03 ppm) of metalaxyl were found after 1 day of spraying. The dissipation of metalaxyl after initial deposits on mustard plants was almost complete after 15 days of spraying. The safe waiting period of metalaxyl was calculated to be 62 and 8 days for seed dresser and foliar application, respectively. The seeds raised through treatments under study were completely free from any detectable amount of metalaxyl residues.

  8. Phytotoxicity of mercury in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Frank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Two common cultivars (Florida Broad Leaf and Long-standing) were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Mercury exhibited a significant phytotoxicity in these two cultivars of Indian mustard at elevated concentrations (>or=2 mg L(-1)). Mercury uptake induced a significant reduction in both biomass and leaf relative water content. Microscopy studies indicated that elevated mercury concentrations in plants significantly changed leaf cellular structure: thickly stained areas surrounding the vascular bundles; decreases in the number of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells; and reduced cell size and clotted depositions. The palisade chloroplasts exhibited decreases in their amounts and starch grains as well as a loss of spindle shape. However, due to high accumulation of mercury in plants, especially in the roots, Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration of contaminated water and phytostabilization of mercury-contaminated soils.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of low glucosinolate mustard meals (Brassica juncea) in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, R W; Classen, H L; Tyler, R T

    1997-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of meal derived from low glucosinolate cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea) in comparison to samples of canola meal (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa). Samples of Brassica seed (four B. juncea, one B. napus, and one B. rapa) were processed using laboratory procedures to produce oil-extracted meals, which were examined for composition (DM basis), and nutritional value for broiler chickens as judged by nutrient retention (AMEn, ileal protein digestibility) and performance. Meals derived from B. juncea contained more CP and less total dietary fiber (TDF) on a dry basis than either B. napus or B. rapa, 45.9 vs 44.6 and 43.1% CP and 27.22 vs 29.47 and 29.67% TDF, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels for B. juncea and B. rapa meals were similar to each other, but lower than those of B. napus, 12.79 and 13.20 vs 20.6% ADF, and 21.15 and 19.58 vs 29.47% NDF, respectively. Brassica juncea meals contained more glucosinolates than B. napus and B. rapa, 34.3 vs 21.8 and 25.5 mumol/g total glucosinolates, respectively. Brassica juncea meals were equal or superior to B. napus and B. rapa meals for AMEn and apparent ileal protein digestibility. Similarly, broilers fed B. juncea meals grew as quickly and converted feed to BW gain as efficiently to 21 d of age as those birds fed B. napus and B. rapa meals. Feeding meal from B. rapa reduced growth rate and gain to feed ratio. In conclusion, the nutritional value of meal from low glucosinolate mustard was equal or superior to that of canola meal samples derived from B. napus and B. rapa cultivars.

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Thirumalai, T; Therasa, S Viviyan; Elumalai, E K; David, E

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  11. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) expressing tomato glucanase leads to arrested growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Bhattacharya, R C; Koundal, K R; Chatterjee, S C

    2007-02-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oilseed crop of the Indian sub-continent. Yield loss due to fungal disease alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicae is a serious problem in cultivation of this crop. Nonavailability of resistance genes within crossable germplasms of Brassica necessitates use of genetic engineering strategies to develop genetic resistance against this pathogen. The pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are group of plant proteins that are toxic to invading fungal pathogens, but are present in plant in trace amount. Thus, overexpression of PR proteins leads to increased resistance to pathogenic fungi in several crops. The PR protein glucanase hydrolyzes a major cell-wall component, glucan, of pathogenic fungi and acts as a plant defense barrier. We report the expression of a class I basic glucanase gene, under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, in Indian mustard and its genetic resistance against alternaria leaf spot. Southern and Northern hybridization confirmed stable integration and expression of the glucanase gene in mustard transgenics. Several independent transgenics were screened in vitro and under poly house conditions for their resistance against Alternaria brassicae. In an in vitro antifungal assay, transgenics arrested hyphal growth of Alternaria brassicae by 15-54%. Under pathogen-challenged conditions in poly house, the transgenics showed restricted number, size and spread of lesions caused by Alternaria brassicae. Also, the onset of disease was delayed in transgenics compared to untransformed parent plants. The results demonstrate potentiality of a PR protein from a heterologous source in developing alternaria leaf spot resistance in Indian mustard.

  12. Anti-cancer activities of Brassica juncea leaves in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngeun; Lee, Jungjae; Ju, Jihyeung

    2016-01-01

    Mustard (Brassica juncea) leaves are commonly consumed in different Asian and African countries. Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide, and the colorectal and lung cancers are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among cancers. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of mustard leaf (MLE) on the growth, angiogenic, and metastatic potentials of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with MLE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (in the range of 175-700 µg/ml, by 39-86 %) and anchorage-independent colonization (at 700 µg/ml, by 56-86 %). Induction of apoptosis by MLE was evidenced by heterogeneous and condensed nucleus morphology, increased 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining intensity, and elevated sub-G1 cell population. In both HCT116 and H1299 cells, treatment with MLE markedly suppressed the secretion of key pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor (by >92 %) and basic fibroblast growth factor (by 73-94 %). MLE was also effective in inhibiting critical events during metastasis, such as invasion (by 18-33 % in HCT116 and H1299), migration (45-82 % in H1299), and adhesion (by 17-45 % in HCT116 and H1299). These results indicate that MLE possesses in vitro anti-cancer activities against colon and lung cancers. It needs to be verified whether similar effects are reproduced in vivo. PMID:28337101

  13. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  14. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  15. Expression of leaf blight resistance in Brassica leafy greens under field conditions and inheritance of resistance in a Brassica juncea source

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica leafy greens are one of the most economically important vegetable commodities grown in the southeastern United States, and more than 28,000 metric tons of these crops are harvested in the U.S. annually. Collards and kale (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.) and turni...

  16. Fuel properties of Brassica juncea oil methyl esters blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica juncea is a drought-tolerant member of the Brassicaceae plant family with high oil content and a short growing season that is tolerant of low quality soils. It was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel along with evaluation of subsequent fuel properties, both neat and in b...

  17. A preliminary investigation of Giant red mustard (Brassica juncea) as a deterrent of silverleaf whitefly oviposition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different pairs of plants planted in a single pot were tested in the greenhouse for oviposition preference by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]). Treatments consisted of the following in single pots: 2 giant red mustard plants (Brassica juncea ...

  18. Genome survey sequencing provides clues into glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathway evolution in allotetrapolyploid Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica juncea is an economically important vegetable crop in China, oil crop in India, condiment crop in Europe and selected for canola quality recently in Canada and Australia. B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) is an allotetraploid derived from interspecific hybridization between B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16, BB), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Results Comparative genome analysis by genome survey sequence (GSS) of allopolyploid B. juncea with B. rapa was carried out based on high-throughput sequencing approaches. Over 28.35 Gb of GSS data were used for comparative analysis of B. juncea and B. rapa, producing 45.93% reads mapping to the B. rapa genome with a high ratio of single-end reads. Mapping data suggested more structure variation (SV) in the B. juncea genome than in B. rapa. We detected 2,921,310 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high heterozygosity and 113,368 SVs, including 1-3 bp Indels, between B. juncea and B. rapa. Non-synonymous polymorphisms in glucosinolate biosynthesis genes may account for differences in glucosinolate biosynthesis and glucosinolate components between B. juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, we identified distinctive vernalization-dependent and photoperiod-dependent flowering pathways coexisting in allopolyploid B. juncea, suggesting contribution of these pathways to adaptation for survival during polyploidization. Conclusions Taken together, we proposed that polyploidization has allowed for accelerated evolution of the glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathways in B. juncea that likely permit the phenotypic variation observed in the crop. PMID:24502855

  19. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth.

  20. (E)-β-farnesene gene reduces Lipaphis erysimi colonization in transgenic Brassica juncea lines

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shiv Shankar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Jajoo, Anajna

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are the major concern that significantly reduces the yield of crops. (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphids. The results of current research support the direct defense response of (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) against aphid Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach in Brassica juncea. Eβf gene was isolated from Mentha arvensis and transformed into B. juncea, showed direct repellent against aphid colonization. The seasonal mean population (SMP) recorded under field condition showed significantly higher aphid colonization in wild type in comparison to most of the transgenic lines, and shows positive correlation with the repellency of transgenic plant expressing (E)-β-farnesene. The current research investigation provides direct evidence for aphid control in B. juncea using Eβf, a non-toxic mode of action. PMID:26251882

  1. (E)-β-farnesene gene reduces Lipaphis erysimi colonization in transgenic Brassica juncea lines.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv Shankar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Jajoo, Anajna

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are the major concern that significantly reduces the yield of crops. (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphids. The results of current research support the direct defense response of (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) against aphid Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach in Brassica juncea. Eβf gene was isolated from Mentha arvensis and transformed into B. juncea, showed direct repellent against aphid colonization. The seasonal mean population (SMP) recorded under field condition showed significantly higher aphid colonization in wild type in comparison to most of the transgenic lines, and shows positive correlation with the repellency of transgenic plant expressing (E)-β-farnesene. The current research investigation provides direct evidence for aphid control in B. juncea using Eβf, a non-toxic mode of action.

  2. Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jung Min; Adewole, Deborah; Nyachoti, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique.

  3. Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species. PMID:24386242

  4. Occurrence of metaxenia and false hybrids in Brassica juncea L. cv. Kikarashina × B. napus

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mai; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Kaneko, Yukio; Tabei, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Imported genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus) is approved by Japanese law. Some GM canola varieties have been found around importation sites, and there is public concern that these may have any harmful effects on related species such as reduction of wild relatives. Because B. juncea is distributed throughout Japan and is known to be high crossability with B. napus, it is assumed to be a recipient of B. napus. However, there are few reports for introgression of cross-combination in B. juncea × B. napus. To assess crossability, we artificially pollinated B. juncea with B. napus. After harvesting a large number of progeny seeds, we observed false hybrids and metaxenia of seed coats. Seed coat color was classified into four categories and false hybrids were confirmed by morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Furthermore, the occurrence of false hybrids was affected by varietal differences in B. napus, whereas that of metaxenia was related to hybridity. Therefore, we suggest that metaxenia can be used as a marker for hybrid identification in B. juncea L. cv. Kikarashina × B. napus. Our results suggest that hybrid productivity in B. juncea × B. napus should not be evaluated by only seed productivity, crossability ought to be assessed the detection of true hybrids. PMID:23136472

  5. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  6. Biogenic Pt uptake and nanoparticle formation in Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Roza; Siegele, Rainer; Harris, Andrew T.

    2010-10-01

    The ability of the facultative metallophyte plants, Medicago sativa ( M. sativa) and Brassica juncea ( B. juncea) to accumulate and translocate platinum (Pt) from aqueous substrates is reported. The influence of Pt concentration in the substrate (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm), exposure time (24, 48 and 72 h) and substrate pH (2, 3, 5, 7 and 9) was determined. In both plants the concentration of Pt increased with substrate concentration and exposure time. Greater accumulation was detected in the roots of M. sativa than B. juncea, up to a maximum of 94.19 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) compared with 38.5 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) following exposure to 80 ppm Pt after 72 h exposure, respectively. However, at lower substrate concentrations (5 and 20 ppm) greater quantities of Pt were detected in the shoots of B. juncea, ranging between 0.02 and 0.32 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) at 5 ppm across the different time intervals studied, compared with 0.02-0.14 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) for M. sativa, suggesting B. juncea to be a better translocator of Pt under idealised conditions at low concentrations. Higher Pt uptake was also observed in acidic media, with a maximum at pH 2 for M. sativa and pH 3 for B. juncea, indicating the role of net surface charge on the bioaccumulation of Pt. Once sequestered Pt(II) was reduced to Pt(0) due to the action of local metabolites. TEM images of M. sativa root samples showed the in vivo formation of Pt nanoparticles between 3 and 100 nm in size and of varying morphologies in the epidermal root cells. In vivo Pt distribution profiles were assessed using proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy, which showed even distribution across all tissue systems (epidermal, cortical and vascular) within the roots of both M. sativa and B. juncea.

  7. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P

    2009-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m(2)) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m(2)) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses.

  8. Identification of immunodominant regions of Brassica juncea glyoxalase I as potential antitumor immunomodulation targets.

    PubMed

    Deswal, Renu; Singh, Rohini; Lynn, Andrew M; Frank, Ronald

    2005-03-01

    Glyoxalase I activity has been shown to be directly related to cancer and its inhibitors have been used as anti-cancer drugs. Immunochemical studies have shown immunochemical relatedness among animal and plant glyoxalase I, but its potential application for biomedical research has not been investigated. In order to understand the conserved immunochemical regions of the protein and to determine probable immunomodulation targets, a cellulose-bound scanning peptide library for Brassica juncea glyoxalase I was made using the spot synthesis method. Immuno-probing of the library, using B. juncea anti-glyoxalase I monospecific polyclonal antibodies, revealed three immunodominant regions, epitope I, II, and III. In the homology model of B. juncea glyoxalase I generated by threading its sequence onto the human glyoxalase I, the high accessible surface area and the hydrophilic nature of the epitopes confirmed their surface localization and hence their accessibility for antigen-antibody interaction. Epitopes I and II were specific to B. juncea glyoxalase I. Localizing the epitopes on available glyoxalase I sequences showed that epitope III containing the active site region was conserved across phyla. Therefore, this could be used as a potential immunomodulation target for cancer therapy. Moreover, as the most immunogenic epitopes were mapped on the surface of the protein, this method could be used to discover potential therapeutic targets. It is a simple and fast approach for such investigations. This study, to our knowledge, is the first in epitope mapping of glyoxalase I and has great biomedical potential.

  9. Growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress: influence of siderophores and indole 3 acetic acid producing rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, M; Lee, Kui Jae; Lee, Wang Hyu; Banu, J Rajesh

    2005-10-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains A3 and S32 have been shown to promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress which has been related to the microbial production of siderophores and indole 3 acetic acid (IAA). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the importance of siderophores and IAA producing PGPR on the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The production of IAA and siderophores were observed in the strains A3 and S32, respectively. Both PGPR strains promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with siderophores producing strain 32. Both the bacterial inoculum did not influence the uptake of chromium by plants. The present observation showed that PGPR isolates A3 and S32 are capable of protecting the plants against the inhibitory effects of chromium by producing the siderophores and IAA.

  10. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  11. Arsenic induced modulation of antioxidative defense system and brassinosteroids in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Poonam; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2015-05-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) L. plants were exposed to different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mM) of arsenic (V) and harvested after 30 and 60 days of sowing for the analysis of growth parameters, metal uptake, brassinosteroids (BRs) synthesis and oxidative stress markers. As (V) significantly hampered the growth of B. juncea plants and triggered the modulations of various stress markers like proteins, antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR) and MDA content. Furthermore, As (V) induced the synthesis of 4 BRs, castasterone, teasterone, 24-epibrassinolide, and typhasterol, which were isolated and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study further highlig5895hted the significant uptake of arsenic ions by mustard plants.

  12. Copper tolerance and response of antioxidative enzymes in axenically grown Brassica juncea (L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Shraddha; Ramachandran, V; Eapen, Susan

    2010-11-01

    Copper is an essential element for proper functioning of all living organisms including plants, but it can cause toxicity at elevated concentrations. In the present study, two varieties of Brassica juncea L. i.e. Pusa JK and TM 4 grown axenically were compared for Cu tolerance and accumulation ability. For further detailed biochemical studies, var. TM 4 was used because of its fast growth and better Cu accumulation in shoots. Toxic effects of Cu were manifested by a reduction in photosynthetic pigments and an increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase showed an increase in a concentration and exposure time dependent manner in roots of B. juncea exposed to copper, indicating that they play an important role in combating copper stress in this species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  14. Resynthesis of Brassica napus through hybridization between B. juncea and B. carinata.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debamalya; Banga, Shashi; Gupta, Mehak; Bharti, Sakshi; Salisbury, Phillip Anthony; Banga, Surinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    First report for the resynthesis of Brassica napus by recombining A and C genome from B. juncea and B. carinata , respectively. Also documents B genome introgressions in resynthesized B. napus. Resynthesis of Brassica napus (AACC) was achieved by hybridizing Brassica juncea (AABB) with Brassica carinata (BBCC). This was facilitated by spontaneous chromosome doubling in the F1 hybrid (ABBC) to yield octaploid (AABBBBCC), elimination of extra B genome chromosomes in the resulting octaploid and in subsequent selfed generations, aided with directed selection for fertile plants having B. napus morphology. Twenty-five plants with varying degrees of resemblance to natural B. napus were identified from 17 A5 progenies and assayed for cytogenetic stability and genetic diversity. Majority of these plants, except six (2n = 38) were hyperploids (2n = 40-56). The six plants with 2n = 38 were designated as derived B. napus types. These showed an expected meiotic configuration of 19II at metaphase-I, with 19-19 distribution at anaphase-I. Genotyping based on A and C genome specific primers confirmed genetic identity of six derived (2n = 38) B. napus plants with natural types whereas genotyping with B genome specific primers indicated introgression of B genome segments. This was also confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Strong signals of B genome probe were detected, proving hitherto unreported genetic exchanges between B and A/C chromosomes. These introgressions possibly occurred en route five generations of selfing. Derived plants yielded fertile hybrids in crosses with natural B. napus var. GSC 6. The selfed derived plants as evaluated in A6 plant to progeny rows were morphologically similar to natural B. napus, and meiotically stable. Agronomic assessment of these progenies revealed variation for key morpho-physiological traits. Of special interest were the progenies with plants having oil content exceeding 47% as against about 39-41% in existing cultivars.

  15. Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Christine N.; Hantzis, Laura J.; Quinn, Colin F.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05–0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions. PMID:21841173

  16. Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Prins, Christine N; Hantzis, Laura J; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05-0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions.

  17. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  18. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  19. Cadmium induced physio-biochemical and molecular response in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaraj, Bala Murugan; Chandra, Harish Mani; Srinivasan, Balamurugan; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal; its presence in the agricultural soil constrains the crop productivity and restricts crop plants from reaching their full genetic potential. In the present study, two Brassica juncea cultivars (Pusa Bold and Pusa Jaikisan), were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (50 microM, 100 microM, 150 microM, and 200 microM). The effect of cadmium on seed germination ratio, changes in the root and shoot length, plant dry weight, moisture content, metal tolerance index, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation were studied. The consequence of cadmium stress at the molecular level was studied using a key gene Phytochelatin Synthase (PCS). The results of our study suggested that, exposure of cadmium affected the seed germination, growth rate, biomass content and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, shoot and leaves of both the cultivars. Transcript expression of PCS was increased with increasing CdCl2 concentration in both the cultivars. Based on the results, it was concluded that, Brassica juncea Cv Pusa Jaikisan is more tolerant to cadmium toxicity than the Pusa Bold. These findings could be used to develop heavy metal stress tolerant plants and more importantly, detoxification of heavy metals in the soil.

  20. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea lines for reduced seed sinapine content by perturbing phenylpropanoid pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Sachin; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati

    2017-01-01

    Sinapine is a major anti-nutritive compound that accumulates in the seeds of Brassica species. When ingested, sinapine imparts gritty flavuor in meat and milk of animals and fishy odor to eggs of brown egg layers, thereby compromising the potential use of the valuable protein rich seed meal. Sinapine content in Brassica juncea germplasm ranges from 6.7 to 15.1 mg/g of dry seed weight (DSW) which is significantly higher than the prescribed permissible level of 3.0 mg/g of DSW. Due to limited natural genetic variability, conventional plant breeding approach for reducing the sinapine content has largely been unsuccessful. Hence, transgenic approach for gene silencing was adopted by targeting two genes—SGT and SCT, encoding enzymes UDP- glucose: sinapate glucosyltransferase and sinapoylglucose: choline sinapoyltransferase, respectively, involved in the final two steps of sinapine biosynthetic pathway. These two genes were isolated from B. juncea and eight silencing constructs were developed using three different RNA silencing approaches viz. antisense RNA, RNAi and artificial microRNA. Transgenics in B. juncea were developed following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From a total of 1232 independent T0 transgenic events obtained using eight silencing constructs, 25 homozygous lines showing single gene inheritance were identified in the T2 generation. Reduction of seed sinapine content in these lines ranged from 15.8% to 67.2%; the line with maximum reduction had sinapine content of 3.79 mg/g of DSW. The study also revealed that RNAi method was more efficient than the other two methods used in this study. PMID:28787461

  1. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of energy than B. napus CM (68.6 vs. 60.3%) likely due to its lower fiber content. Ileal total VFA was lower (P < 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P < 0.001) for acetate and butyrate whereas the propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in feces than in pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P < 0.05) and content of SID Lys was lower (P < 0.05) for B. juncea than B. napus CM. In conclusion, availability of B. juncea CM, a coproduct of a canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation.

  2. Feeding behaviour of generalist pests on Brassica juncea: implication for manipulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway for enhanced resistance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Augustine, Rehna; Singh, Amarjeet Kumar; Bisht, Naveen C

    2017-10-01

    Differential accumulation of plant defence metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant-insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologues, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B. juncea. Constitutive overexpression of selected BjuMYB28 homologues enhanced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. juncea. Performance of two generalist pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae, on transgenic B. juncea plants were poor compared to wild-type plants in a no-choice experiment. Correlation coefficient analysis suggested that weight gain of H. armigera larvae was negatively correlated with gluconapin (GNA) and glucobrassicanapin (GBN), whereas that of S. litura larvae was negatively correlated with GNA, GBN and sinigrin (SIN). Our study explains the significance and possible molecular basis of differential distribution of glucosinolates in B. juncea leaves and shows the potential of overexpressing BjuMYB28 for enhanced resistance of Brassica crops against the tested generalist pests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Growth performance and preference studies to evaluate solvent-extracted Brassica napus or Brassica juncea canola meal fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Landero, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Inclusion of conventional dark-seeded (Brassica napus) and novel yellow-seeded (Brassica juncea) canola meal (CM) can potentially replace soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM) in pig diets. Our objective was to examine the preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing SBM or B. napus or B. juncea CM and to compare it against previously reported growth performance data (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1 and 2, growth performance was evaluated using 220 and 240 weaned pigs, respectively, by replacing dietary SBM with up to 20% B. napus (Exp. 1) or 24% B. juncea CM (Exp. 2). Feeding up to 20% B. napus CM to pigs did not affect growth performance, but increasing inclusion of B. juncea CM linearly reduced (P < 0.001) ADFI, ADG, and G:F most likely due to the higher content of glucosinolates, particularly gluconapin in B. juncea CM as confirmed by principle component analysis. In Exp. 3 and 4, SBM and B. napus and B. juncea CM fed at 20% dietary inclusion were evaluated in 2 preference studies using 216 and 144 pigs of 35 d of age, respectively. Pens equipped with 2 feeders housed 8 or 4 pigs per pen, in Exp. 3 and 4, respectively. Diets formulated to equal NE and standardized ileal digestible AA were offered in a paired choice as mash (Exp. 3) or pellets (Exp. 4) for 3 consecutive 7-d periods (3 d nontest and 4 d preference test). The 3 treatments offered were (i) SBM vs. B. napus CM, (ii) SBM vs. B. juncea CM, and (iii) B. napus vs. B. juncea CM. Pigs preferred SBM (P < 0.001) over B. napus and B. juncea CM diets, and pigs preferred B. napus (P < 0.001) over B. juncea CM diet. High content of the glucosinolate gluconapin likely reduced feed preference in B. juncea more than in B. napus CM. In conclusion, the contrast between preference and performance studies feeding CM to pigs indicates that preference studies should be interpreted cautiously until validated by growth performance data.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of fly ash induced changes in physiological/growth parameters, DNA damage and oxidative stress over the life cycle of Brassica juncea and Brassica alba.

    PubMed

    Jana, Aditi; Ghosh, Manosij; De, Arpita; Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Mukherjee, Anita

    2017-11-01

    Fly ash (FA) being a heterogeneous mixture of heavy metal affects plant system in various ways. Previous studies have shown bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the plants and disturbance in cellular activities. Here, we have studied the impacts of FA treatment through the life cycle of economically important, annual crop plant mustard (Brassica juncea and Brassica alba). Result revealed that FA did not alter germination rate and photosynthetic pigment levels. Tolerance index of B. juncea was higher compared to B. alba. Seed setting was significantly affected by FA in B. alba. Significant increase in DNA damage was observed in both B. alba and B. juncea. Proline accumulation was significantly higher in B. alba. In B. juncea catalase activity and reduced glutathione content declined in initial days which were restored at the end of experimental period. Significant decrease in non-enzymatic antioxidants was noted in B. alba. Higher accumulation of Pb and As was noted in shoot of B. juncea and in B. alba Cu, Pb, Cr and As accumulated in shoots. As observed from these results, both plants could translocate certain toxic heavy metals from roots to the shoot which affected the physiological and biochemical balance and induced genotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strength, Stability, and cis-Motifs of In silico Identified Phloem-Specific Promoters in Brassica juncea (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhatt, Deepa; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jain, Pradeep K.; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Aphids, a hemipteran group of insects pose a serious threat to many of the major crop species including Brassica oilseeds. Transgenic strategies for developing aphid-resistant plant types necessitate phloem-bound expression of the insecticidal genes. A few known phloem-specific promoters, in spite of tissue-specific activity fail to confer high level gene-expression. Here, we identified seven orthologues of phloem-specific promoters in B. juncea (Indian mustard), and experimentally validated their strength of expression in phloem exudates. Significant cis-motifs, globally occurring in phloem-specific promoters showed variable distribution frequencies in these putative phloem-specific promoters of B. juncea. In RT-qPCR based gene-expression study promoter of Glutamine synthetase 3A (GS3A) showed multifold higher activity compared to others, across the different growth stages of B. juncea plants. A statistical method employing four softwares was devised for rapidly analysing stability of the promoter-activities across the plant developmental stages. Different statistical softwares ranked these B. juncea promoters differently in terms of their stability in promoter-activity. Nevertheless, the consensus in output empirically suggested consistency in promoter-activity of the six B. juncea phloem- specific promoters including GS3A. The study identified suitable endogenous promoters for high level and consistent gene-expression in B. juncea phloem exudate. The study also demonstrated a rapid method of assessing species-specific strength and stability in expression of the endogenous promoters. PMID:27148290

  6. Sulfur-selenium-molybdenum interactions distinguish selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata from non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Jonathan; Schneberg, Kathryn A; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2014-02-01

    Long-term sulfate, selenate and molybdate accumulation and translocation were investigated in two ecotypes of Stanleya pinnata and non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea under different levels of applied sulfate and selenate. Morphological differences were observed between the ecotypes of S. pinnata, but few differences in selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) accumulation were measured. Se-to-S ratios were nearly identical between the ecotypes under all treatments. When compared with B. juncea, several unique trends were observed in the hyperaccumulators. While both S. pinnata ecotypes showed no significant effect on Se content of young leaves when the supplied sulfate in the growth medium was increased tenfold (from 0.5 to 5 mM), the Se levels in B. juncea decreased 4- to 12-fold with increased sulfate in the growth medium. Furthermore, S. pinnata’s S levels decreased slightly with high levels of supplied Se, suggesting competitive inhibition of uptake, while B. juncea showed higher S levels with increasing Se, possibly due to up-regulation of sulfate transporters. Both ecotypes of S. pinnata showed much larger Se concentrations in young leaves, while B. juncea showed slightly higher levels of Se in older leaves relative to young. Molybdenum (Mo) levels significantly decreased in S. pinnata with increasing sulfate and selenate in the medium; B. juncea did not show the same trends. These findings support the hypothesis that S. pinnata contains a modified sulfate transporter with a higher specificity for selenate.

  7. A novel technique to collect root exudates from mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Kunal; Narula, Neeru

    2012-10-01

    A very simple, novel, cost effective, easy to use technique has been developed for the collection of root exudates from small seeded plants, under laboratory conditions. 200-1000 μl micro tips (Tarsons), kept in 100 ml glass beakers, were used as holders for the small seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the exudates were trapped in liquid culture medium. The exudates, so obtained, were authenticated and analyzed for organic compounds such as sugars, amino acids and organic acids, as well as chemotactic response towards rhizobacteria. Method was found to be suitable and easy to handle for small seeds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Salt stress-induced modulations in the shoot proteome of Brassica juncea genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Altaf; Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] is cultivated mainly in the northwestern agroclimatic region of India and suffers huge losses in productivity due to salinization. In an effort to figure out adaptation strategies of Indian mustard to salt stress, we conducted a comparative proteome analysis of shoots of its two genotypes, with contrasting sensitivity to salt stress. Differential expression of 21 proteins was observed during the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The identified salt-stress-responsive proteins were associated with different functional processes including osmoregulation, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, ion homeostasis, protein synthesis and stabilization, energy metabolism, and antioxidant defense system. Salt-tolerant genotype (CS-52) showed a relatively higher expression of proteins involved in turgor regulation, stabilization of photosystems and proteins, and salt compartmentalization, as compared to salt-sensitive genotype (Pusa Varuna). Our results suggest that modulating the expression of salt-responsive proteins can pave the way for developing salt tolerance in the Indian mustard plants.

  9. Phytoremediating a copper mine soil with Brassica juncea L., compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2014-10-01

    The soils at a depleted copper mine in Touro (Galicia, Spain) are chemically degraded. In order to determine the effect of amendments and vegetation on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and on the plant uptake of metals, a greenhouse experiment was carried out for 3 months. A settling pond soil was amended with different percentages of a compost and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. The results showed that the untreated settling pond soil was polluted by Cu. Amendments and planting mustards decreased the pseudototal concentration of this metal, reduced the extreme soil acidity and increased the soil concentrations of C and TN. Both treatments also decreased the CaCl2-extractable Co, Cu and Ni concentrations. However, the amendments increased the pseudototal concentration of Zn in the soil, provided by the compost that was used. The results also showed that mustards extracted Ni efficiently from soils, suggesting that B. juncea L. is a good phytoextractor of Ni in mine soils.

  10. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  11. Recovering a copper mine soil using organic amendments and phytomanagement with Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    A 3-month greenhouse experiment was carried out for evaluating the effect of an amendment mixture and mustards on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and the metal uptake by plants. A settling pond soil was amended with increasing percentages of a technosol and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Adding amendments and planting mustards increased the soil pH from 2.83 to 6.18 and the TSC from u.l to 131 g kg(-1) and generally reduced the CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations in the soil. However, the amendments increased the pseudo-total soil concentration of Ni from 9.27 to 31.9 mg kg(-1), Pb from 27.9 to 91.6 mg kg(-1) and Zn from 46.5 to 577 mg kg(-1). The technosol and biochar mixture increased the shoot biomass from 0.74 to 2.95 g and generally reduced the metal concentrations in plants, meaning B. juncea as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of mine soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms behind bacteria induced plant growth promotion and Zn accumulation in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants exposed to toxic metals has been reported to be enhanced by inoculating plants with certain bacteria but the mechanisms behind this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on Brassica juncea plants exposed to 400mgZnkg(-1) that investigated the abilities of Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Rhizobium leguminosarum to promote growth, coupled with synchrotron based μXANES analysis to probe Zn speciation in the plant roots. P. brassicacearum exhibited the poorest plant growth promoting ability, while R. leguminosarum alone and in combination with P. brassicacearum enhanced plant growth and Zn phytoextraction. Reduced growth in un-inoculated plants was attributed to accumulation of Zn oxalate and Zn sulfate in roots. In plants inoculated with P. brassicacearum the high concentration of Zn polygalacturonic acid in the root may be responsible for the stunted growth and reduced Zn phytoextraction. The improved growth and increased metal accumulation observed in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum and in combination with P. brassicacearum was attributed to the storage of Zn in the form of Zn phytate and Zn cysteine in the root. When combined with the observation that both bacteria do not statistically improve B. juncea growth in the absence of Zn, this work suggests that bacteria-induced metal chelation is the key mechanism of plant growth promoting bacteria in toxicity attenuation and microbial-assisted phytoremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Germination and early growth of Brassica juncea in copper mine tailings amended with technosol and compost.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings.

  14. 24-epibrassinolide induced antioxidative defense system of Brassica juncea L. under Zn metal stress.

    PubMed

    Arora, Priya; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar Kanwar, Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    The present study deals with the effects of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme activities, non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein content in 30 days old leaves of Brassica juncea (var. PBR 91) under zinc metal stress in field conditions. Surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea were given pre-soaking treatments of 24-EBL (10(-10), 10(-8) and 10(-6) M) for 8 h. Different concentrations of zinc metal in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) were added in the soil kept in experimental pots. Seeds soaked in 24-EBL for 8 h were sown in the earthern pots containing different concentrations of Zn metal. After 30 days of sowing, the plants were analyzed for growth parameters in terms of shoot length and number of leaves. Thereafter, leaves were excised and content of proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) catalase (CAT) (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) (EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) (EC 1.11.1.7) glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) (EC 1.1.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) (EC 1.8.5.1)) were analyzed. It was observed that the growth of plants was inhibited under Zn metal stress. However, 24-EBL seed-presoaking treatment improved the plant growth in terms of increase in shoot length. 24-EBL also mitigated the toxicity of Zn metal by increasing the number of leaves. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APOX, MDHAR and DHAR) and contents of proteins and glutathione were also enhanced in leaves of plants treated with 24-EBL alone, 10(-8) M concentration being the most effective. The activities of antioxidative enzymes also increased in leaves of B. juncea plants by the application 24-EBL supplemented Zn metal solutions. Similarly, the content of proteins and glutathione increased considerably in leaves of B. juncea plants

  15. Brassica juncea (Rai) significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance in rats fed fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S P; Vats, V; Ammini, A C; Grover, J K

    2004-07-01

    Brassica juncea (BJ; Hindi name: Rai) seeds and Murraya koenigii (MK; English names: Curry leaves) leaves, used as food ingredients and also by diabetics in India, were assessed in a fructose-mediated non-genetic model of insulin resistance. Feeding of fructose rich diet for 30 days resulted in rise in blood glucose by 29.4%, insulin by 101.2% and cholesterol by 26.7% indicating development of insulin resistance. However, feeding of a fructose diet containing 10% Brassica juncea seeds powder for 30 days significantly decreased fasting serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels but did not normalize them. On the other hand, a diet containing 15% Murraya koenigii leaves powder failed to exert any effect on these parameters. Results of the present study suggests that BJ can play a role in management of pre-diabetic state of insulin resistance and should be promoted for use in patients prone to diabetes.

  16. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  17. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation.

  18. 24-epibrassinolide mitigates the adverse effects of manganese induced toxicity through improved antioxidant system and photosynthetic attributes in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmed, Mumtaz; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between manganese-induced toxicity and antioxidant system response in Brassica juncea plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids activate antioxidant system to confer tolerance to the plants affected with manganese induced oxidative stress. Brassica juncea plants were administered with 3, 6, or 9 mM manganese at 10-day stage for 3 days. At 31-day stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 24-epibrassinolide, and plants were harvested at 45-day stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits, and biochemical parameters. The manganese treatments diminished growth along with photosynthetic attributes and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration-dependent manner, whereas it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Brassica juncea which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of manganese. However, the follow-up application of 24-epibrassinolide to the manganese stressed plants improved growth, water relations, and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the manganese-stressed plants resulting in improved growth and photosynthetic attributes.

  19. Brassica juncea Lines with Substituted Chimeric GFP-CENH3 Give Haploid and Aneuploid Progenies on Crossing with Other Lines

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Anshul; Singh, Sunil K.; Bhadouria, Jyoti; Naresh, Vasupalli; Bishoyi, Ashok K.; Geetha, K. A.; Chamola, Rohit; Pattanayak, Debasis; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2017-01-01

    Haploids and doubled haploids are invaluable for basic genetic studies and in crop improvement. A novel method of haploid induction through genetic engineering of the Centromere Histone Protein gene, CENH3, has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. The present study was undertaken to develop haploid inducer (HI) lines of Brassica juncea based on the principles elaborated in Arabidopsis. B. juncea was found to carry three copies of CENH3 which generated five different transcripts, of which three transcripts resulted from alternative splicing. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana where native CENH3 gene was knocked out for constructing HI lines, we used RNAi approach to knockdown the native CENH3 genes. Further, to rescue CENH3 silenced cells, a GFP-CENH3-tailswap construct having N terminal GFP fused to H3.3 tail sequences and synthetic CENH3 histone fold domain sequences was devised. A total 38 transgenic B. juncea plants were regenerated following co-transformation with both silencing and rescue cassettes and transgenics carrying either or both the constructs were obtained. Transgenic status was confirmed through PCR, Southern and qRT-PCR analyses. Co-transformed lines were crossed to untransformed B. juncea or a line expressing only GFP-tailswap. FACS and cytological analyses of progenies revealed partial or complete elimination of B. juncea chromosomes thereby giving rise to aneuploids and haploid. This is the first report in a polyploid crop demonstrating that CENH3 engineering could be used to develop HI lines. PMID:28111587

  20. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels.

  1. Brassica juncea tested on urban soils moderately contaminated by lead: Origin of contamination and effect of chelates.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Dorine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry

    2017-05-04

    Urban garden soils are a potential repository of heavy metal pollution, resulting from either anthropogenic or geogenic origin. The efficiency of phytoextraction was compared on two garden soils with the same texture and topsoil Pb concentration (170 mg kg(-1)) but not the same origin: one geogenic, the other anthropogenic. Two varieties of Brassica juncea were tested with citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 2.5 mmol kg(-1)). Geogenic Pb was shown to be two times less available than anthropogenic Pb, as a result of which the phytoextraction efficiency was reduced by 59%. Pb mobility in the soil was solely enhanced with EDTA, which increased the Pb concentration in shoots of B. juncea by between 14 and 26 times in comparison with the control. The highest Pb concentration in shoots still remained low, however (i.e., 45 mg kg(-1) dry weight). Regardless of the chelates introduced, B. juncea 426308 accumulated roughly twice as much lead as B. juncea 211000, but only for the anthropogenic contaminated soil. Under these conditions, the amount of Pb accumulated by B. juncea (even when assisted by EDTA) was not high enough to envision achieving soil clean-up within a reasonable time frame.

  2. Overexpression of gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase gene in transgenic Brassica juncea plants alleviates abiotic stress: physiological and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Kumar, Deepak; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Strasser, Reto Jörg; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Govindjee; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2010-08-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) are lipid soluble antioxidants synthesized by plants and some cyanobacteria. We have earlier reported that overexpression of the gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase (gamma-TMT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana in transgenic Brassica juncea plants resulted in an over six-fold increase in the level of alpha-tocopherol, the most active form of all the tocopherols. Tocopherol levels have been shown to increase in response to a variety of abiotic stresses. In the present study on Brassica juncea, we found that salt, heavy metal and osmotic stress induced an increase in the total tocopherol levels. Measurements of seed germination, shoot growth and leaf disc senescence showed that transgenic Brassica juncea plants overexpressing the gamma-TMT gene had enhanced tolerance to the induced stresses. Analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics, from the initial "O" level to the "P" (the peak) level, showed that there were differential effects of the applied stresses on different sites of the photosynthetic machinery; further, these effects were alleviated in the transgenic (line 16.1) Brassica juncea plants. We show that alpha-tocopherol plays an important role in the alleviation of stress induced by salt, heavy metal and osmoticum in Brassica juncea. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic compatibility of Albugo candida in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica juncea causes broad-spectrum suppression of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Latunde-Dada, A O; Woods-Tör, A; Lynn, J; Lucas, J A; Crute, I R; Holub, E B

    2008-06-01

    A biotrophic parasite often depends on an intrinsic ability to suppress host defenses in a manner that will enable it to infect and successfully colonize a susceptible host. If the suppressed defenses otherwise would have been effective against alternative pathogens, it follows that primary infection by the "suppressive" biotroph potentially could enhance susceptibility of the host to secondary infection by avirulent pathogens. This phenomenon previously has been attributed to true fungi such as rust (basidiomycete) and powdery mildew (ascomycete) pathogens. In our study, we observed broad-spectrum suppression of host defense by the oomycete Albugo candida (white blister rust) in the wild crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana and a domesticated relative, Brassica juncea. A. candida subsp. arabidopsis suppressed the "runaway cell death" phenotype of the lesion mimic mutant lsd1 in Arabidopsis thaliana in a sustained manner even after subsequent inoculation with avirulent Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana downy mildew). In sequential inoculation experiments, we show that preinfection by virulent Albugo candida can suppress disease resistance in cotyledons to several downy mildew pathogens, including contrasting examples of genotype resistance to H. arabidopsis in Arabidopsis thaliana that differ in the R protein and modes of defense signaling used to confer the resistance; genotype specific resistance in B. juncea to H. parasitica (Brassica downy mildew; isolates derived from B. juncea); species level (nonhost) resistance in both crucifers to Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) and an isolate of the H. parasitica race derived from Brassica oleracea; and nonhost resistance in B. juncea to H. arabidopsis. Broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance conferred by RPW8 also was suppressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to two morphotypes of Erysiphe spp. following pre-infection with A. candida subsp. arabidopsis.

  4. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson) was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36), showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR) markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29%) was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s) for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes. PMID:23181725

  5. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP) markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Priya; Jagannath, Arun; Bisht, Naveen C; Padmaja, K Lakshmi; Sharma, Sarita; Gupta, Vibha; Pradhan, Akshay K; Pental, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP) markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome) and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described) genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study) with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier), revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG) each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements, translocations and fusions

  6. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Parul; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT), ammonium transporters (AMT), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), asparagines synthetase (ASN) were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl), osmotic (250 mM Mannitol), cold (4°C) and heat (42°C) stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h), which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. PMID:26605918

  7. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Goel, Parul; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT), ammonium transporters (AMT), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), asparagines synthetase (ASN) were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl), osmotic (250 mM Mannitol), cold (4°C) and heat (42°C) stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h), which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses.

  8. Cumulative effect of nitrogen and sulphur on Brassica juncea L. genotypes under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Khan, M Masrooor A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, N and S assimilation, antioxidant enzymes activity, and yield were studied in N and S-treated plants of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (cvs. Chuutki and Radha) under salt stress. The treatments were given as follows: (1) NaCl(90) mM+N(0)S(0) mg kg(-1) sand (control), (2) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(0) mg kg(-1) sand, (3) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(20) mg kg(-1) sand, (4) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(40) mg kg(-1) sand, and (5) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(60) mg kg(-1) sand. The combined application of N (60 mg kg(-1) sand) and S (40 mg kg(-1) sand) proved beneficial in alleviating the adverse effect of salt stress on growth attributes (shoot length plant(-1), fresh weight plant(-1), dry weight plant(-1), and area leaf(-1)), physio-biochemical parameters (carbonic anhydrase activity, total chlorophyll, adenosine triphosphate-sulphurylase activity, leaf N, K and Na content, K/Na ratio, activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and content of glutathione and ascorbate), and yield attributes (pods plant(-1), seeds pod(-1), and seed yield plant(-1)). Therefore, it is concluded that combined application of N and S induced the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of Brassica. The stimulation of antioxidant enzymes activity and its synergy with N and S assimilation may be one of the important mechanisms that help the plants to tolerate the salinity stress and resulted in an improved yield.

  9. Physiological and morphological responses of the root system of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Tugyi, Nóra; Molnár, Arpád; Ordög, Attila; Szepesi, Agnes; Gémes, Katalin; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2013-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement for growth and development, but in excess it can cause toxicity in plants. In this comparative study, the uptake and accumulation of Cu as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) roots to Cu treatment were investigated. The possible involvement of redox active molecules (reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide) and modification in cell wall structure associated with Cu-induced morphological responses were also studied. In short- and long-term treatments, B. juncea suffered more pronounced growth inhibition as compared with B. napus. In addition to the shortening of primary and lateral roots, the number and the density of the laterals were also decreased by Cu. Exposure to copper induced nitric oxide generation in the root tips and this event proved to be dependent on the duration of the exposure and on the plant species. In short- and long-term treatments, Indian mustard showed more significant activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inhibition of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and oxidation of ascorbate (AsA) than B. napus. Moreover, H2O2-dependent lignification was also observed in the Cu-exposed plants. In longer term, significant AsA accumulation and callose deposition were observed, reflecting serious oxidative stress in B. juncea. Based on the morphological and physiological results, we conclude that rapeseed tolerates Cu excess better than Indian mustard.

  10. Interaction of epibrassinolide and selenium ameliorates the excess copper in Brassica juncea through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2016-07-01

    24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Selenium (Se) individually confer tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but their interactive effect in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly investigated. This study provides an insight into the effects of EBL (foliar) and/or Se (through sand) on Brassica juncea plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu. The combined effect of EBL and Se on compartmentalization of Cu, oxidative stress markers, photosynthetic machinery and biochemical traits in B. juncea were analyzed. Application of EBL and Se through different mode modulated the compartmentalization of Cu in different parts of plants, enhanced the photosynthetic traits, and activities of various antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation in B. juncea under excess copper levels. These enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline (osmolyte) accumulation triggered by combination of EBL and Se could have conferred tolerance to the B. juncea plants under toxic level of copper and also maintained Cu homeostasis in various parts of plants. This study indicates that combination of EBL and Se through different mode is an operative approach for Cu detoxification in plants and could be exploited for removal of excess copper from polluted soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot.

  12. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Fank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi; Masad, Motasim A

    2009-10-01

    Mercury, a potent neurotoxin, is released to the environment in significant amounts by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. No natural hyperaccumulator plant has been reported for mercury phytoremediation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of Indian mustard, a higher biomass plant with faster growth rates, to mercury pollution. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and mercury-induced oxidative stress in order to examine the potential application of Indian mustard to mercury phytoremediation. Two common cultivars (Florida Broadleaf and Longstanding) of Indian mustard were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Plant uptake, antioxidative enzymes, peroxides, and lipid peroxidation under mercury stress were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) were the most sensitive indices of mercury-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H(2)O(2), resulting in lower H(2)O(2) in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. A majority of Hg was accumulated in the roots and low translocations of Hg from roots to shoots were found in two cultivars of Indian mustard. Thus Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration/phytostabilization of mercury contaminated waters and wastewater.

  13. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry.

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM) of cadmium (Cd) to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid), gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase), antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content), and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals. PMID:25133178

  15. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent.

  16. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in two cultivars of Brassica juncea Czern and Coss varieties (Varuna and RH-30). The surface sterilized seeds of these varieties were sown in the soil amended with different levels (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride under a simple randomized block design. The salt treatment significantly decreased growth, net photosynthetic rate and its related attributes, chlorophyll fluorescence, SPAD value of chlorophyll, leaf carbonic anhydrase activity and leaf water potential, whereas electrolyte leakage, proline content, and activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes increased in both the varieties at 30 d stage of growth. The variety Varuna was found more resistant than RH-30 to the salt stress and possessed higher values for growth, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Out of the graded concentrations (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride, 2.8 sm−1 was least toxic and 5.6 dsm−1 was most harmful. The variation in the responses of these two varieties to salt stress is attributed to their differential photosynthetic traits, SPAD chlorophyll value and antioxidant capacity, which can be used as potential markers for screening mustard plants for salt tolerance. PMID:23961235

  17. Lithium, Vanadium and Chromium Uptake Ability of Brassica juncea from Lithium Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Elektorowicz, M; Keropian, Z

    2015-01-01

    The potential for phytoremediation and phytostabilization of lithium in lieu with vanadium and chromium on a formulated acidic heterogeneous growth media engineered around lithium mine tailings, was investigated in four phases: (1) overall efficiency of the removal of the three metals, (2) bioaccumulation ratios of the three metals, (3) overall relative growth rate, and (4) translocation index of the three metals in the physiology of the hyperaccumulator plant. A pot study was conducted to assess the suitability of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) in a phytoremediation process whereby it was lingered for eighty-six days under homogeneous growth conditions and irrigated bidaily with organic fertilizer amended with LiCl. A post harvest data analysis was achieved through ashing and the implementation of cold digestion procedure in a concentrated hydrochloric acidic matrix. In physiological efficiency parameters, the hyperaccumulator plant was twice as able to phytostabilize chromium and four times was able to phytostabilize vanadium in comparison to lithium. Moreover, it was extremely efficient in translocating and accumulating lithium inside its upper physiological sites, more so than chromium and vanadium, thereby demonstrating Indian mustard, as a hyperaccumulator plant, for phytoextraction and phytostabilization in an acidic heterogeneous rhizosphere, with an extremely low relative growth rate.

  18. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  19. Physiological and biochemical changes in Brassica juncea plants under Cd-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Dhriti; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM) of cadmium (Cd) to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid), gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase), antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content), and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals.

  20. Effects of cadmium on photosynthetic oxygen evolution from single stomata in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renkang; Macfie, Sheila M; Ding, Zhifeng

    2008-12-16

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was utilized to investigate photosynthetic oxygen evolution from single stomata in leaves of live Brassica juncea (L.) Czern cultured in nutrient solution to which 0.2 or 0.01 mM CdC12 had been added. The bulk leaf surface serves as an insulator normally; therefore, a typical negative feedback was observed on the probe approach curves (PACs) when the probe approached epidermal cells. When the probe tip approached an open stoma, a higher tip current was detected due to the O2 release from this stoma. Thus, SECM can be used to map the O2 concentration profile near the leaf surface and study stomatal complex structure size and density. The oxygen release from single stomata was also analyzed by comparison of experimental PACs with those simulated by COMSOL multiphysics software (version 3.4). In addition to an increase in the stomatal complex size and a decrease in the complex density, the Cd accumulation caused up to a 26% decrease in photosynthetic rate determined at the level of a single stoma. The O2 evolution was also monitored by recording the tip current vs time when a tip sat above the center of a stoma. Periodic peaks in O2 release-time curves were observed, varying from 400 to 1600 s. The opening and closing activities of single stomata were also imaged by SECM.

  1. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  2. Recovery of transgenic plants by pollen-mediated transformation in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxue; Li, Yonghu; Liang, Chao

    2008-06-01

    The aroA-M1 encoding the mutant of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was introduced into the Brassica juncea genome by sonication-assisted, pollen-mediated transformation. The plasmid DNA and collected pollen grains were mixed in 0.3 mol/L sucrose solution and treated with mild ultrasonication. The treated pollen was then pollinated onto the oilseed stigmas after the stamens were removed artificially. Putative transgenic plants were obtained by screening germinating seeds on a medium containing glyphosate. Southern blot analysis of glyphosate-resistant plants indicated that the aroA-M1 gene had been integrated into the oilseed genome. Western blot analysis further confirmed that the EPSPS coded by aroA-M1 gene was expressed in transgenic plants. The transgenic plants exhibited increased resistance to glyphosate compared to untransformed plants. Some of those transgenic plants had considerably high resistance to glyphosate. The genetic analysis of T1 progeny further confirmed that the inheritance of the introduced genes followed the Mendelian rules. The results indicated that foreign genes can be transferred by pollen-mediated transformation combined with mild ultrasonication.

  3. Cadmium tolerance in Brassica juncea roots and shoots is affected by antioxidant status and phytochelatin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal Amin; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) tolerates high concentrations of heavy metals and is a promising species for the purpose of phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from metal-contaminated soils. This work investigates the extent to which antioxidant and metal sequestering mechanisms are responsible for this tolerance. To this end, seedlings of Indian mustard were grown for 7 days in 0, 50 or 200 μM Cd. Increasing Cd concentrations led to a progressive Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, accompanied by an organ-dependent alteration in mineral uptake, and a decrease in root/shoot length and fresh/dry weight. Cd negatively affected chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and activated the xanthophyll cycle, suggesting the need to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibition. Shoots seemed to be less efficient than roots in ROS scavenging, as indicated by the different response to Cd stress shown by peroxidase and catalase activities and, solely with regard to the highest Cd concentration, by ascorbate level. Such a different antioxidant capacity might at least partly explain differences in the trend of lipid peroxidation observed in the two organs. Moreover, in both roots and shoots, glutathione and phytochelatin content markedly increased under Cd stress, regardless of the metal concentration involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential cadmium stress tolerance in five indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nafees A

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Cadmium (Cd) in the agricultural soils affects horticultural cultivars and constrains the crop productivity. A pot experiment was performed using five cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to evaluate the difference in their response to Cd toxicity under greenhouse conditions. The pots containing reconstituted soil were supplied with different concentration of CdCl2 (0, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Increasing concentration of Cd in the soil resulted in decreased growth, photosynthesis and yield. Maximum significant reduction in growth, photosynthesis and yield were observed with 150 mg Cd kg−1 soil in all the cultivars. Our results indicate that the cultivar Alankar is found to be more tolerant to Cd stress, recording higher plant dry mass, net photosynthesis rate, associated with high antioxidant activity and low Cd content in the plant leaves and thus less oxidative damage. Cultivar RH30 experienced maximum damage in terms of reduction in growth, photosynthesis, yield characteristics and oxidative damage and emerged as sensitive cultivar. The data of tolerance index of Alankar were found to be higher among all tested mustard cultivars which indicate its higher tolerance to Cd. Better coordination of antioxidants protected Alankar from Cd toxicity, whereas lesser antioxidant activity in RH30 resulted in maximum damage. Cultivars of mustard were ranked with respect to their tolerance to Cd: Alankar > Varuna > Pusa Bold > Sakha > RH30, respectively. PMID:21744661

  5. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  6. Uptake of phosphorus and lead by Brassica juncea and Medicago sativa from chloropyromorphite.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, A; Arocena, J M; Kalbasi, M

    2012-07-01

    In situ remediation of lead (Pb)-contaminated soils via phosphate amendments has been extensively used to immobilize Pb as pyromorphite. However, in phosphorus (P) deficient soils, plants may develop extensive root systems to access P in any P-containing minerals, thereby affecting the stability of Pb5 (PO4)3Cl (Chloropyromorphite; CP). We grew Brassica juncea and Medicago sativa in sand culture to evaluate the stability of CP in the presence or absence of hydroxyapatite (HA) as P source. Treatments (per kilogram of sand) watered with P-nutrient solution were control [PC0, (without CP)], 1, and 5 g Pb as CP [PC1, and PC5] and 0.45 g P as HA (PA), and those of watered with P-free nutrient solution were 1 and 5 g Pb as CP [NC1 and NC5], 5 g Pb as CP plus 0.45 g P as HA [NAC5], and 0.45 g P as HA [NA]. Plants in NC1 and NC5 treatments showed stunted growth and reductions in shoot elongation and leaf size. Among CP treated pots, the highest shoot Pb uptake was observed in NAC5 treatment. The results suggested that Pb accumulation and translocation in the plants was markedly higher in P-sufficient conditions than in P-deficient conditions.

  7. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard.

  8. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants.

  9. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-12-10

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g(-1) DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops.

  10. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g−1 DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops. PMID:26657321

  11. Elicitation of jasmonate-mediated host defense in Brassica juncea (L.) attenuates population growth of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Kaur, Amandeep; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2014-07-01

    The productivity of Brassica oilseeds is severely affected by its major pest: aphids. Unavailability of resistance source within the crossable germplasms has stalled the breeding efforts to derive aphid resistant cultivars. In this study, jasmonate-mediated host defense in Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was evaluated and compared with regard to its elicitation in response to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and the defense elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJ). Identification of jasmonate-induced unigenes in B. juncea revealed that most are orthologous to aphid-responsive genes, identified in taxonomically diverse plant-aphid interactions. The unigenes largely represented genes related to signal transduction, response to biotic and abiotic stimuli and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in addition to genes related to cellular and metabolic processes involved in cell organization, biogenesis, and development. Gene expression studies revealed induction of the key jasmonate biosynthetic genes (LOX, AOC, 12-OPDR), redox genes (CAT3 and GST6), and other downstream defense genes (PAL, ELI3, MYR, and TPI) by several folds, both in response to MeJ and plant-wounding. However, interestingly aphid infestation even after 24 h did not elicit any activation of these genes. In contrast, when the jasmonate-mediated host defense was elicited by exogenous application of MeJ the treated B. juncea plants showed a strong antibiosis effect on the infesting aphids and reduced the growth of aphid populations. The level of redox enzymes CAT, APX, and SOD, involved in ROS homeostasis in defense signaling, and several defense enzymes viz. POD, PPO, and PAL, remained high in treated plants. We conclude that in B. juncea, the jasmonate activated endogenous-defense, which is not effectively activated in response to mustard aphids, has the potential to reduce population growth of mustard aphids.

  12. Thermal requirement of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) at different phonological stages under late sown condition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Pratap; Lallu; Singh, N B

    2014-01-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] is a long day plant, which requires fairly cool climatic condition during growth and development for obtaining better seed yield. Various workers have correlated crop growth and development with energy requirement parameters, such as growing degree days (GDD), photo-thermal unit (PTU), helios thermal unit (HTU), photo-thermal index (PTI) and heat use efficiency (HUE). Therefore, GDD requirement for different phenological stages of 22 newly developed Indian mustard varieties was studies during winter (rabi) seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at student instructional farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, (Utter Pradesh). Study revealed that RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 recorded higher GDD (1703.0, 1662.9 and 1648.0), PTU (19129.8, 18694.2 and 18379.8), HTU (11397.7, 11072.2 and 10876.0), PTI (13.25, 13.14 and 13.08) and HUE (4.11, 3.84 and 3.71) at physiological maturity, while higher HUE was recorded (9.62, 8.99 and 8.91 kg ha(-1) degrees-day) at days after sowing (DAS) to 50 % flowering. On the basis of study mustard genotypes RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 were identified as most heat-tolerant, as they maintained higher values for energy related parameters. Seed yield was highly positively correlated with GDD (r = 0.61, 0.65 and 0.75), PTU (r = 0.66, 0.64 and 0.74), HTU(r = 0.79, 0.68 and 0.73) at the above these three phenological stages, while negatively correlated with PTI at anthesis and at maturity. Hence, these parents could be used in crossing programme for achieving further improvement.

  13. Effect of chelating agents and solubility of cadmium complexes on uptake from soil by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, Debra L; Sharpe-Pedler, Rachel C; Moorhead, Kevin K

    2007-06-01

    Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, was grown in soil artificially contaminated with either a soluble salt, CdCl(2), at 186mg Cdkg(-1), or alternately an insoluble, basic salt, CdCO(3), at 90mg Cdkg(-1). These experiments study the range of Cd uptake by Indian mustard from conditions of very high Cd concentration in a soluble form to the other extreme with an insoluble Cd salt. After plants were established, four different chelating agents were applied. Chelating agents increased plant uptake of Cd from the CdCl(2) soil but did not significantly increase plant uptake of Cd from the CdCO(3) contaminated soil. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the plant concentration of Cd by almost 10-fold in soils contaminated with CdCl(2), with a concentration of 1283mg Cdkg(-1) in the dried EDTA-treated plants over a concentration of 131mg Cdkg(-1) in plants without added chelate. However, EDTA increased the aqueous solubility of Cd by 36 times over the soil matrix without added chelator, and thereby, increased the possibility of leaching. Other chelators used in both experiments were ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) increasing Cd in plants to 1240, 962, and 437mg Cdkg(-1), respectively. The other chelating agents increased the solubility of Cd in the leachate but not to the extent of EDTA. Comparing all chelating agents studied, DTPA increased plant uptake in terms of Cd in dried plant concentration most relative to the solubility of complexed Cd in runoff water.

  14. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in the species Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Martina; Schiavon, Michela; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Malagoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) is recognized as a toxic pollutant in soils of many countries. Since phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) can influence arsenic mobility and bioavailability, as well as the plant tolerance to As, phytoremediation techniques employed to clean-up As-contaminated areas should consider the interaction between As and these two nutrients. In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of arsenate in the species Brassica juncea were compared between soil system and hydroponics in relation to P and S concentration of the growth substrate. In one case, plants were grown in pots filled with soil containing 878 mg As kg(-1). The addition of P to soil resulted in increased As desorption and significantly higher As accumulation in plants, with no effect on growth. The absence of toxic effects on plants was likely due to high S in soil, which could efficiently mitigate metal toxicity. In the hydroponic experiment, plants were grown with different combinations of As (0 or 100 μM) and P (56 or 112 μM). S at 400 μM was also added to the nutrient solution of control (-As) and As-treated plants, either individually or in combination with P. The addition of P reduced As uptake by plants, while high S resulted in higher As accumulation and lower P content. These results suggest that S can influence the interaction between P and As for the uptake by plants. The combined increase of P and S in the nutrient solution did not lead to higher accumulation of As, but enhanced As translocation from the root to the shoot. This aspect is of relevance for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites.

  15. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Durge, S. M.; Tripathi, M. K.; Dutta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 µmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 µmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05) in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01). The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM) of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05) reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05). However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production. PMID:27847426

  16. Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2002-09-01

    We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size.

  17. Assessment of genetic variation within Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) germplasm using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ayub; Rabbani, Malik Ashiq; Munir, Muhammad; Ajmal, Saifullah Khan; Malik, Muhammad Azim

    2008-04-01

    Genetic diversity among 45 Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes comprising 37 germplasm collections, five advance breeding lines and three improved cultivars was investigated at the DNA level using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Fifteen primers used generated a total of 92 RAPD fragments, of which 81 (88%) were polymorphic. Of these, 13 were unique to accession 'Pak85559'. Each primer produced four to nine amplified products with an average of 6.13 bands per primer. Based on pairwise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li's similarity coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships among the accessions. Pairwise similarity indices were higher among the oilseed accessions and cultivars showing narrow ranges of 0.77-0.99. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities placed most of the collections and oilseed cultivars close to each other, showing a low level of polymorphism between the accessions used. However, the clusters formed by oilseed collections and cultivars were comparatively distinct from that of advanced breeding lines. Genetically, all of the accessions were classified into a few major groups and a number of individual accessions. Advanced breeding lines were relatively divergent from the rest of the accessions and formed independent clusters. Clustering of the accessions did not show any pattern of association between the RAPD markers and the collection sites. A low level of genetic variability of oilseed mustard was attributed to the selection for similar traits and horticultural uses. Perhaps close parentage of these accessions further contributed towards their little diversity. The study demonstrated that RAPD is a simple and fast technique to compare the genetic relationship and pattern of variation among the gene pool of this crop.

  18. Light quanta modulated characteristics of Ni uptake by Brassica juncea seedlings: the interdependence of plant metal concentration and biomass.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Whelan, T; Reyes, M A; Lloren, C; Brandt, T T; Persans, M W

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between the concentration of metal in the growth medium, Cs, the concentration of metal absorbed by the plant, Cp, and the total biomass achieved, M, all of which are factors relevant to the efficiency of metal uptake and tolerance by the plant, have been investigated via the physiological response of Brassica juncea seedlings to Ni stress. The factorial growth experiments treated the Ni concentration in agar medium and the diurnal light quanta as independently variable parameters. Observations included the evidence of light enhancement of Ni toxicity in the root, as well as at the whole-plant level. The shoot mass index possibly is an indicator of the amount of shoot metal sequestration in B. juncea, as are the logarithmic variation of Cp with Cs and the power-law dependence of M on Cp. The sum total of these observations indicates that, for the Ni accumulating plant B. juncea, the overall metabolic allocation to either growth or metal tolerance of the plant is important. Neither a rapid biomass increase nor a high metal absorbed concentration favored the removal of high metal mass from the medium. Rather, the plants with a moderate rate of biomass growth and a moderate absorbed metal concentration demonstrated the ability to remove the maximum mass of metal from the medium. The implication of these results as related to the extant model of phyoextraction efficiency is discussed.

  19. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2009-02-01

    In this study, a copper-resistant plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain Ax10 was isolated from a Cu mine soil to assess its plant growth promotion and copper uptake in Brassica juncea. The strain Ax10 tolerated concentrations up to 600 mg CuL(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium and utilized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole N source in DF salts minimal medium. The strain Ax10 was characterized as Achromobacter xylosoxidans based on its 16S rDNA sequence homology (99%). The bacterium A. xylosoxidans Ax10 has also exhibited the capability of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) (6.4 microg mL(-1)), and solubilizing inorganic phosphate (89.6 microg mL(-1)) in specific culture media. In pot experiments, inoculation of A. xylosoxidans Ax10 significantly increased the root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of B. juncea plants compared to the control. This effect can be attributed to the utilization of ACC, production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate. Furthermore, A. xylosoxidans Ax10 inoculation significantly improved Cu uptake by B. juncea. Owing to its wide action spectrum, the Cu-resistant A. xylosoxidans Ax10 could serve as an effective metal sequestering and growth promoting bioinoculant for plants in Cu-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soil.

  20. Phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea in Cu-pyrene co-contaminated soil: comparing freshly spiked soil with aged soil.

    PubMed

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2013-11-15

    A comparison was made between the dissipation of pyrene as well as the uptake of copper (Cu) in soil freshly spiked with Cu, pyrene or Cu + pyrene and in aged soil. The potential of B juncea for phytoremediation was also investigated. The biomass of Brassica juncea significantly decreased (>50% reduction) in freshly spiked soil when compared to aged soil in all treatments. However, the accumulation of Cu in shoot was significantly reduced (60-88%) in aged soil after 60 days of planting. The total removal of Cu from co-contaminated soil was always higher (>2-3 fold) in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil when lower Cu concentration (50 mg kg(-1)) was co-contaminated with 250 or 500 mg kg(-1) of pyrene while in other co-contaminated treatments, the total removal of Cu from aged soil were significantly lower. The level of pyrene in both planted and un-planted freshly spiked soil decreased significantly (>67%) over the 60 days of plant trial. In aged soils, there were no significant differences in residual pyrene concentration between planted and unplanted soil. This suggests that the presence of B. juncea in aged soil did not enhance the dissipation of pyrene and that the prediction of pyrene dissipation in laboratory prepared soil may not have reflected the true situation in the fields.

  1. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: impact on the glucosinolate composition.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Koprivova, Anna; De Kok, Luit J

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic, aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold higher in B. juncea than in B. rapa, which could solely be attributed to the presence of high levels of sinigrin, which was absent in the latter species. Sulfate deprivation resulted in a strong decrease in the content and an altered composition of the glucosinolates of both species. Despite the differences in patterns in foliarly uptake and metabolism, their exposure hardly affected the glucosinolate composition of the shoot, both at sulfate-sufficient and sulfate-deprived conditions. This indicated that the glucosinolate composition in the shoot was hardly affected by differences in sulfur source (viz., sulfate, sulfite and sulfide). Upon sulfate deprivation, where foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 were the sole sulfur source for growth, the glucosinolate composition of roots differed from sulfate-sufficient B. juncea and B. rapa, notably the fraction of the indolic glucosinolates was lower than that observed in sulfur-sufficient roots.

  2. Chloroplast-located BjFer1 together with anti-oxidative genes alleviate hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical injury in cytoplasmic male-sterile Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghua; Liu, Shan; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2012-04-01

    We studied how plant cell modulated redox homeostasis in cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) Brassica juncea. The CMS Brassica juncea was identified to be mutated in several mitochondrial genes that suggested the changes of cell redox homeostasis. We observed that it was not associated with increased oxidative stress as shown by decreased H(2)O(2) and (∙)OH contents in this type of CMS. The expressions of several anti-oxidative genes were up-regulated in 5-day-old seedlings of CMS than MF lines under light and dark conditions. The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway was not activated, as indicated by no increased expression of AOX1a gene in CMS. Interestingly, the expression of Ferritin1 gene was markedly activated in 5-day-old seedlings of CMS than MF line under light and dark conditions. Consequently, we detected increased content of total iron in 30-day-old leaves in CMS than MF line. We isolated Ferritin1 orthologous gene from Brassica juncea, which was targeted to the chloroplast and induced by Fe-citrate and H(2)O(2), not ABA. Taken together, we proposed that increased expressions of BjFer1 and several antioxidant genes protected cell from oxidative stress in CMS Brassica juncea.

  3. Introgressing Subgenome Components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for Broadening Its Genetic Base and Exploring Intersubgenomic Heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zili; Wang, Meng; Chang, Shihao; Wu, Chao; Liu, Peifa; Meng, Jinling; Zou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj), is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr) and B. nigra (BnBn). It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr) and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc) were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc), which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc), with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j). After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding. PMID:27909440

  4. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  5. Influence of light on the free amino acid content and γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis in Brassica juncea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2013-09-11

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) is an important enzyme in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis. Here we report the influence of light on amino acid accumulation and investigate the molecular mechanism by which light influences GABA biosynthesis at the seedling stage of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars (green-leaf and purple-leaf). Gene expression profiles of four GAD-encoding genes (GAD1, GAD2, GAD4a, and GAD4b) and their impact on GABA biosynthesis were analyzed. Light exerted an obvious influence on amino acid accumulation in mustard seedlings. GAD gene expression was also significantly regulated by light/dark or dark treatment, which differentially regulated GABA biosynthesis in B. juncea seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the seeds of purple cultivars contain a higher amount of free amino acids and GABA than do the seeds of green cultivars. After seed germination, however, the accumulation of free amino acids peaked in dark-treated seedlings on day 9 in both cultivars, whereas GABA synthesis peaked at 9 days under light conditions. This study may provide a foundation for understanding the effect of light on amino acids, particularly GABA biosynthesis in Brassica plants.

  6. Salt-stress-responsive chloroplast proteins in Brassica juncea genotypes with contrasting salt tolerance and their quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Altaf; Aref, Ibrahim M; Ozturk, Munir; Hemant; Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Brassica juncea is mainly cultivated in the arid and semi-arid regions of India where its production is significantly affected by soil salinity. Adequate knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the salt tolerance at sub-cellular levels must aid in developing the salt-tolerant plants. A proper functioning of chloroplasts under salinity conditions is highly desirable to maintain crop productivity. The adaptive molecular mechanisms offered by plants at the chloroplast level to cope with salinity stress must be a prime target in developing the salt-tolerant plants. In the present study, we have analyzed differential expression of chloroplast proteins in two Brassica juncea genotypes, Pusa Agrani (salt-sensitive) and CS-54 (salt-tolerant), under the effect of sodium chloride. The chloroplast proteins were isolated and resolved using 2DE, which facilitated identification and quantification of 12 proteins that differed in expression in the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes. The identified proteins were related to a variety of chloroplast-associated molecular processes, including oxygen-evolving process, PS I and PS II functioning, Calvin cycle and redox homeostasis. Expression analysis of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins through real time PCR supported our findings with proteomic analysis. The study indicates that modulating the expression of chloroplast proteins associated with stabilization of photosystems and oxidative defence plays imperative roles in adaptation to salt stress.

  7. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection.

  8. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the rhizosphere soils of rape (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Yan; Yang, Jin-Yan; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-06-01

    The response of rape (Brassica juncea L.) to different vanadium (V) speciation in rhizosphere soils was investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil containing 147 mg V kg(-1) supplemented with 0-500 mg V kg(-1) of pentavalent V [V(V)] and a mining soil containing 774 mg V kg(-1). Tetravalent V [V(IV)] accounted for 76.1 and 85.9 % of total V in the untreated agricultural soil and mining soil, respectively. The proportion of both V(V) and water-extractable V increased with increasing concentrations of V(V) in the agricultural soil. The growth of rape substantially reduced the concentrations of V(V) but not V(IV) in the rhizosphere soil, suggesting that V(V) was actively involved in the soil-rape interaction of V. Both soil V(V) and water-extractable V were negatively related to the total rape biomass, but were positively correlated with the concentration of root V. No such relationships were found for total V and soil V(IV). Together, these results indicate that soil V(V) and water-extractable V might better reflect the toxicity of V in soils than total V and soil V(IV). Rape accumulated V in the sequence: roots > > stem > leaf > seed. As indicated by the remarkably low root bioconcentration factor of V(V) (0.41-7.24 %), rape had a lower ability to accumulate V than other plants reported in the literature (14.6-298 %). Only a small fraction of V in rape roots was translocated to the aboveground organs (the translocation factor was 3.57-46.9 %). No V was detectable in seeds in the soils at 147 and 197 mg V kg(-1), and no seed was produced in the soils at higher V concentrations. Thus, the risk of V intake by humans via the consumption of rapeseed-based foods under normal conditions is considered to be lower than that of other plants.

  9. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  10. Proteome analysis of the Albugo candida–Brassica juncea pathosystem reveals that the timing of the expression of defence-related genes is a crucial determinant of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Parwinder; Jost, Ricarda; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin John

    2011-01-01

    White rust, caused by Albugo candida, is a serious pathogen of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and poses a potential hazard to the presently developing canola-quality B. juncea industry worldwide. A comparative proteomic study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie the defence responses of Brassica juncea to white rust disease caused by the biotrophic oomycete Albugo candida. Nineteen proteins showed reproducible differences in abundance between a susceptible (RH 819) and a resistant variety (CBJ 001) of B. juncea following inoculation with A. candida. The identities of all 19 proteins were successfully established through Q-TOF MS/MS. Five of these proteins were only detected in the resistant variety and showed significant differences in their abundance at various times following pathogen inoculation in comparison to mock-inoculated plants. Among these was a thaumatin-like protein (PR-5), a protein not previously associated with the resistance of B. juncea towards A. candida. One protein, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) isoform CYP20-3, was only detected in the susceptible variety and increased in abundance in response to the pathogen. PPIases have recently been discovered to play an important role in pathogenesis by suppressing the host cell's immune response. For a subset of seven proteins examined in more detail, an increase in transcript abundance always preceded their induction at the proteome level. These findings are discussed within the context of the A. candida–Brassica juncea pathosystem, especially in relation to host resistance to this pathogen. PMID:21193577

  11. Isolation and characterization of juncin, an antifungal protein from seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiujuan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-05-27

    An 18.9 kDa antifungal protein designated juncin was isolated from seeds of the Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia). The purification protocol employed comprised anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Juncin was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose but unadsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The protein exhibited antifungal activity toward the phytopathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with IC(50) values of 13.5, 27, and 10 μM, respectively. It was devoid of mitogenic activity toward splenocytes and nitric oxide inducing activity toward macrophages. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 6.4 μM, respecitvely, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.5 μM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins that have been reported to date. Compared with Brassica campestris and Brassica alboglabra antifungal peptides, juncin exhibits a different molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence but similar biological activities.

  12. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  13. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Salt, David E

    2007-01-01

    Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point for the development of plants for phytoremediation. Our goal in this study is to determine the transcriptional regulation of MTP1 in order to start to better understanding the physiological role of MTP1 in B. juncea. Results Steady-state mRNA levels of BjMTP1 were found to be enhanced 8.8, 5.9, and 1.6-fold in five-day-old B. juncea seedlings after exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+, respectively. This was also reflected in enhanced GUS activity in B. juncea seedlings transformed with BjMTP1 promoter::GUSPlus after exposure to these metals over a similar range of toxicities from mild to severe. However, no increase in GUS activity was observed after exposure of seedlings to cold or heat stress, NaCl or hydrogen peroxide. GUS expression in Ni2+ treated seedlings was localized in roots, particularly in the root-shoot transition zone. In four- week- old transgenic plants BjMTP1 promoter activity also primarily increased in roots in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ in plants transformed with either GUS or mRFP1 as reporter genes, and expression was localized to the secondary xylem parenchyma. In leaves, BjMTP1 promoter activity in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ spiked after 24 h then decreased. In shoots GUS expression was prominently present in the vasculature of leaves, and floral parts. Conclusion Our studies establish that a 983 bp DNA fragment upstream of the BjMTP1 translational start site is sufficient for the specific activation by Ni2+ and Cd2+ of BjMTP1 expression primarily in roots. Activation of

  14. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  15. Biofumigation with Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa for the management of field populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Ngala, Bruno M; Haydock, Patrick P J; Woods, Simon; Back, Matthew A

    2015-05-01

    The viability of potato cyst nematode (PCN) populations (Globodera pallida) was evaluated in three field experiments using Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa amendments. These species were summer cultivated and autumn incorporated in experiment 1; in experiment 2, overwintered brassicaceous cover crops were spring incorporated. Experiment 3 involved determination of effects of metconazole application on biomass/glucosinolate production by B. juncea and R. sativus and on PCN pre- and post-incorporation. Glucosinolate contents were determined before incorporation. Following cover crop incorporation, field plots were planted with susceptible potatoes to evaluate the biofumigation effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 1, PCN population post-potato harvest was reduced (P = 0.03) in B. juncea-treated plots, while R. sativus prevented further multiplication, but in experiment 2 there were no significant effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 3, B. juncea or R. sativus either untreated or treated with metconazole reduced PCN populations. Glucosinolate concentrations varied significantly between different plant regions and cultivation seasons. Metconazole application increased the sinigrin concentration in B. juncea tissues. Glucosinolate concentrations correlated positively with PCN mortality for summer-cultivated brassicaceous plants. The results demonstrated that B. juncea and R. sativus green manures can play an important role in PCN management, particularly if included in an integrated pest management scheme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  17. Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2015-07-01

    Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 μmol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea cv Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 μmol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v = F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ≈50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions.

  18. Heterosis as Investigated in Terms of Polyploidy and Genetic Diversity Using Designed Brassica juncea Amphiploid and Its Progenitor Diploid Species

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis. PMID:22363404

  19. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S S

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.

  20. Interactions of copper and pyrene on phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea in copper-pyrene co-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    Phytoremediation which is a plant based remediation process is an emerging technology for treating inorganic (heavy metals) as well as organic pollutants. It may also be suitable for remediation of sites co-contaminated with heavy metals and organics which have become more prevalent. A glasshouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) of copper or 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) of pyrene and the combined effect of copper and pyrene on the growth of Brassica juncea together with the uptake and accumulation of copper as well as dissipation of pyrene. Results showed a negative effect of copper-pyrene co-contamination on shoot and root dry matter and an inhibition of copper phytoextraction. Pyrene was significantly decreased in planted and non-planted soils accounting for 90-94% of initial extractable concentration in soil planted with B. juncea and 79-84% in non-planted soil which shows that the dissipation of pyrene was enhanced with planting. The occurrence of copper tended to increase the residual pyrene in planted soil, however in the presence of high concentration of Cu (100 mg kg(-1)), the residual pyrene concentration in soil were similar to those in unplanted soil. This may suggest that changes in the root physiology or rhizospheric microbial activity resulting from Cu stress could be an impediment to pyrene dissipation. The inhibition of Cu phytoextraction and degradation of pyrene by B. juncea under co-contamination may reduce the viability of phytoremediation in sites containing multiple pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought.

  2. Regulation of growth and photosynthetic parameters by salicylic acid and calcium in Brassica juncea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Abrar; Wani, Arif Shafi; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a non-essential and toxic metal, negatively affects plant growth and productivity, and alters the plant's physiological processes necessary for its survival. The present study was designed to explore the individual and combined effects of calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on the morphology and physiology of Brassica juncea L. cv. Varuna under cadmium stress. The application of calcium (2 mM) through the soil and/or SA (10-5 M) as foliar spray enhanced the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and proline content determined after 45 days of treatment. The application of cadmium (6 mg kg-1) through the soil was toxic and decreased both growth and the photosynthetic parameters. The application of calcium and SA in combination was most effective in alleviating the harmful effects of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis. Calcium and SA clearly induced plant protection mechanisms by enhancing proline and chlorophyll accumulation in the leaves.

  3. A proteomic analysis of seeds from Bt-transgenic Brassica napus and hybrids with wild B. juncea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongbo; Zhang, Ying-Xue; Song, Song-Quan; Li, Junsheng; Neal Stewart Jr., C.; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Transgene insertions might have unintended side effects on the transgenic host, both crop and hybrids with wild relatives that harbor transgenes. We employed proteomic approaches to assess protein abundance changes in seeds from Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its hybrids with wild mustard (B. juncea). A total of 24, 15 and 34 protein spots matching to 23, 13 and 31 unique genes were identified that changed at least 1.5 fold (p < 0.05, Student’s t-test) in abundance between transgenic (tBN) and non-transgenic (BN) oilseed rape, between hybrids of B. juncea (BJ) × tBN (BJtBN) and BJ × BN (BJBN) and between BJBN and BJ, respectively. Eight proteins had higher abundance in tBN than in BN. None of these proteins was toxic or nutritionally harmful to human health, which is not surprising since the seeds are not known to produce toxic proteins. Protein spots varying in abundance between BJtBN and BJBN seeds were the same or homologous to those in the respective parents. None of the differentially-accumulated proteins between BJtBN and BJBN were identical to those between tBN and BN. Results indicated that unintended effects resulted from transgene flow fell within the range of natural variability of hybridization and those found in the native host proteomes. PMID:26486652

  4. Chromatographic speciation of anionic and neutral selenium compounds in Se-accumulating Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and in selenized yeast.

    PubMed

    Kahakachchi, Chethaka; Boakye, Harriet Totoe; Uden, Peter C; Tyson, Julian F

    2004-10-29

    Selenium-accumulating plants such as Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) concentrate the element in plant shoots and roots. Such behavior may provide a cost-effective technology to clean up contaminated soils and waters that pose major environmental and human health problems (phytoremediation). Such ability to transform selenium into bioactive compounds has important implications for human nutrition and health. Element selective characterization of B. juncea grown in the presence of inorganic selenium under hydroponic conditions provides valuable information to better understand selenium metabolism in plants. The present work determines both previously observed organoselenium species such as selenomethionine and Se-methylselenocysteine and for the first time detects the newly characterized S-(methylseleno)cysteine in plant shoots and roots when grown in the presence of selenate or selenite as the only selenium source. A key feature of this study is the complementary role of selenium and sulfur specific chromatographic detection by HPLC with interfaced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection and by derivatization GC with interfaced atomic spectral emission. HPLC-ICP-MS limits of detection for such species were in the range 5-50 ng Se mL(-1) in the injected extracts. Speciation profiles are compared with those of selenium-enriched yeast by both HPLC-ICP-MS and GC-AED.

  5. Accumulation of metals and its effects in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Sinha, Sarita

    2005-09-01

    The metal accumulation potential and its tolerance in the plants of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery sludge (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, 75%, 100%) were studied after 30, 60, and 90 days after sowing. These plants were found to be effective accumulators of metals (Cr, Fe, Zn, and Mn); however, the seeds accumulated the least quantities of all the metals tested. The oil content of the seeds was found to increase up to 35% tannery sludge followed by a decrease. An increase in the photosynthetic pigments, protein, and sugar contents was recorded at the lower amendments of tannery sludge at initial exposure periods followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. However, the malondialdehyde, proline, and ascorbic acid contents of the roots and leaves of the plant increased at all the sludge amendments and exposure periods, compared to their respective controls. The levels of cysteine and nonprotein thiol contents in the roots and leaves of the treated plant were found higher at all the sludge amendments and exposure periods except at 90 days, where a decrease was observed in the leaves at 100% tannery sludge as compared to their respective controls. The tolerance exhibited by the sludge-grown plants of B. juncea in the present study may be attributed to the enhanced level of the antioxidants induced under stress conditions.

  6. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  7. Polyphyletic origin of Brassica juncea with B. rapa and B. nigra (Brassicaceae) participating as cytoplasm donor parents in independent hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Puneet; Banga, Shashi; Kumar, Nitin; Gupta, Shilpa; Akhatar, Javed; Banga, Surinder S

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: Brassica juncea is a major source of edible oil in the Indian subcontinent and northern China. It is also used as a root and leaf vegetable in China and as a condiment in Europe and America. There is a long-standing view that B. juncea originated from multiple hybridization events between B. rapa and B. nigra and that hybridizations were always unidirectional with B. rapa as the cytoplasmic donor. These conclusions were, however, centered primarily on nuclear markers.• Methods: Two hundred forty-six accessions of B. juncea, B. rapa, and B. nigra were genotyped using chloroplast and nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.• Key results: A structure analysis assigned B. juncea germplasm (122) into three major groups based on plasmotype variation. The bulk of Indian B. juncea genotypes were grouped along with Chinese and Australian accessions. This plasmotype was absent in sampled accessions of B. rapa (97), B. nigra (27), and other wild crucifers (10). The second group of B. juncea included East European genotypes and four accessions from India. It showed unambiguous homology with the predominant B. nigra plasmotype. The neighbor joining tree produced seven subgroups, arranged into two broad lineages. The first lineage included Indian, Australian, and Chinese B. juncea genotypes; it was associated with wild species belonging to the "rapa" lineage. Nuclear SSR marker-based analyses were largely supportive of results from chloroplast SSR analyses.• Conclusions: Based on these results, we provide the first report that B. juncea originated several times with both B. rapa and B. nigra as cytoplasmic donors in separate hybridization events.

  8. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic dissection of seed weight by QTL analysis and detection of allelic variation in Indian and east European gene pool lines of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Namrata; Rout, Kadambini; Yadava, Satish K; Sodhi, Yaspal Singh; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2017-02-01

    Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B. juncea using four bi-parental doubled-haploid populations. These four populations were derived from six lines (three Indian and three east European lines) with parental phenotypic values for thousand seed weight ranging from 2.0 to 7.6 g in different environments. Multi-environment QTL analysis of the four populations identified a total of 65 QTL ranging from 10 to 25 in each population. Meta-analysis of these component QTL of the four populations identified six 'consensus' QTL (C-QTL) in A3, A7, A10 and B3 by merging 33 of the 65 component Tsw QTL from different bi-parental populations. Allelic diversity analysis of these six C-QTL showed that Indian lines, Pusajaikisan and Varuna, hold the most positive allele in all the six C-QTL. In silico mapping of candidate genes with the consensus QTL localized 11 genes known to influence seed weight in Arabidopsis thaliana and also showed conserved crucifer blocks harboring seed weight QTL between the A subgenomes of B. juncea and B. rapa. These findings pave the way for a better understanding of the genetics of seed weight in the oilseed crop B. juncea and reveal the scope available for improvement of seed weight through marker-assisted breeding.

  10. Selenite resistant rhizobacteria stimulate SeO(3) (2-) phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in bioaugmented water-filtering artificial beds.

    PubMed

    Lampis, Silvia; Ferrari, Anita; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina F; Alvarenga, Paula; Di Gregorio, Simona; Vallini, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is a trace metalloid of global environmental concern. The boundary among its essentiality, deficiency, and toxicity is narrow and mainly depends on the chemical forms and concentrations in which this element occurs. Different plant species-including Brassica juncea-have been shown to play a significant role in Se removal from soil as well as water bodies. Furthermore, the interactions between such plants, showing natural capabilities of metal uptake and their rhizospheric microbial communities, might be exploited to increase both Se scavenging and vegetable biomass production in order to improve the whole phytoextraction efficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of selenite removal of B. juncea grown in hydroponic conditions on artificially spiked effluents. To optimize phytoextraction efficiency, interactions between B. juncea and rhizobacteria were designedly elicited. Firstly, B. juncea was grown on water-filtering agriperlite beds in the presence of three different selenite concentrations, namely, 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 mM. Plant growth was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of incubation in order to establish the selenite concentration at which the best plant biomass production could be obtained. Afterwards, water-filtering agriperlite beds were inoculated either with a selenium-acclimated microbial community deriving from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown, erstwhile, in a selenite-amended soil or with axenic cultures of two bacterial strains, vicelike Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, previously isolated and described for their high resistance to selenite. These latter were seeded separately or as a dual consortium. Selenite was amended at a final concentration of 1.0 mM. Total Se content in plant tissues (both shoots and roots), plant biomass production, and persistence of bioaugmented microbial inocula during the experimental time were monitored. Moreover, parameters such as bioconcentration

  11. Physico-chemical and in-silico analysis of a phytocystatin purified from Brassica juncea cultivar RoAgro 5444.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shumaila; Ahmad, Sabahuddin; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the isolation and purification of a phytocystatin from seeds of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard; cultivar RoAgro 5444), which is an important oilseed crop both agriculturally and economically. The protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography with 24.3% yield and 204-fold purification, and visualised by 2D gel electrophoresis. The 18.1 kDa mustard cystatin was highly specific for cysteine proteinases. The plant cystatin inhibited cathepsin B, confirming its role in conferring pest resistance. The inhibitor was highly stable over a pH range of 3-10 and retained significant inhibitory potential up to 70 °C. The stoichiometry of its interaction with papain, determined by isothermal calorimetry, suggests a 1:1 complex. Secondary structural elements calculated by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy show an 18.8% α-helical and 21% β-sheet structure. The protein was a non-competitive inhibitor of thiol proteinases. The Stokes radius and frictional co-efficient were used to describe the shape and size of the protein. Homology modelling and docking studies proposed a prototype illustrating the Brassica phytocystatin mediated papain inhibition. Molecular dynamics (MD) study revealed the excellent stability of the papain-phytocystatin complex during a simulation for 100 ns. Detailed results identify the mustard cystatin as an important member of the phytocystatin family.

  12. High-Level Production of γ-Linolenic Acid in Brassica juncea Using a Δ6 Desaturase from Pythium irregulare

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Haiping; Datla, Nagamani; Reed, Darwin W.; Covello, Patrick S.; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Qiu, Xiao

    2002-01-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA), a nutritionally important fatty acid in mammals, is synthesized by a Δ6 desaturase. Here, we report identification of PiD6, a new cDNA from the oleaginous fungus, Pythium irregulare, encoding a 459-amino acid protein that shares sequence similarity to carboxyl-directed desaturases from various species. Expression of PiD6 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that it converts exogenously supplied linoleic acid into GLA, indicating that it encodes a Δ6 fatty acid desaturase. Expression of the desaturase in Brassica juncea under the control of the Brassica napus napin promoter resulted in production of three Δ6 unsaturated fatty acids (18:2–6, 9; 18:3–6, 9, 12; and 18:4–6, 9, 12, 15) in seeds. Among them, GLA (18:3–6, 9, 12) is the most abundant and accounts for up to 40% of the total seed fatty acids. Lipid class and positional analysis indicated that GLA is almost exclusively incorporated into triacylglycerol (98.5%) with only trace amounts found in the other lipids. Within triacylglycerols, GLA is more abundant at the sn-2 position. PMID:12011365

  13. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and validation of functional CAPS markers for the FAE genes in Brassica juncea and their use in marker-assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Navinder; Singh, Naveen; Kumar, Anil; Vihan, Nitika; Yadav, Sangita; Vasudev, Sujata; Yadava, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Low erucic acid is a major breeding target to improve the edible oil quality in Brassica juncea. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1.1 and FAE1.2) gene was exploited to expedite the breeding program. The paralogs of FAE1 gene were sequenced from low erucic acid genotype Pusa Mustard 30 and SNPs were identified through homologous alignment with sequence downloaded from NCBI GenBank. Two SNPs in FAE1.1 at position 591 and 1265 and one in FAE1.2 at 237 were found polymorphic among low and high erucic acid genotypes. These SNPs either create or change the recognition site of restriction enzymes. Transition of a single nucleotide at position 591 and 1265 in FAE1.1, and at position 237 in FAE1.2, leads to a change in the recognition site of Hpy99I, BglII and MnlI restriction enzymes, respectively. Two CAPS markers for FAE1.1 and one for FAE1.2 were developed to differentiate low and high erucic acid genotypes. The efficiency of these CAPS markers was found 100 per cent when validated in Brassica juncea, and B. nigra genotypes and used in back-cross breeding. These CAPS markers will facilitate in marker-assisted selection for improvement of oil quality in Brassica juncea. PMID:28163599

  15. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  16. Genomic origin, expression differentiation and regulation of multiple genes encoding CYP83A1, a key enzyme for core glucosinolate biosynthesis, from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Meenu; Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Pradhan, Akshay K; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-03-01

    The multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes formed as a result of polyploidy have retained cell-, tissue-, and condition-specific transcriptional sub-functionalization to control the complex aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthesis in the allotetraploid Brassica juncea. Glucosinolates along with their breakdown products are associated with diverse roles in plant metabolism, plant defense and animal nutrition. CYP83A1 is a key enzyme that oxidizes aliphatic aldoximes to aci-nitro compounds in the complex aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation of four CYP83A1 genes named BjuCYP83A1-1, -2, -3, and -4 from allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB genome), an economically important oilseed crop of Brassica genus. The deduced BjuCYP83A1 proteins shared 85.7-88.4 % of sequence identity with A. thaliana AtCYP83A1 and 84.2-95.8 % among themselves. Phylogenetic and divergence analysis revealed that the four BjuCYP83A1 proteins are evolutionary conserved and have evolved via duplication and hybridization of two relatively simpler diploid Brassica genomes namely B. rapa (AA genome) and B. nigra (BB genome), and have retained high level of sequence conservation following allopolyploidization. Ectopic over-expression of BjuCYP83A1-1 in A. thaliana showed that it is involved mainly in the synthesis of C4 aliphatic glucosinolates. Detailed expression analysis using real-time qRT-PCR in B. juncea and PromoterBjuCYP83A1-GUS lines in A. thaliana confirmed that the four BjuCYP83A1 genes have retained ubiquitous, overlapping but distinct expression profiles in different tissue and cell types of B. juncea, and in response to various elicitor treatments and environmental conditions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that transcriptional sub-functionalization and coordinated roles of multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes control the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in the allotetraploid B. juncea, and provide a framework for metabolic engineering of

  17. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  18. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  19. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  1. Effects of acetaminophen in Brassica juncea L. Czern.: investigation of uptake, translocation, detoxification, and the induced defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Bartha, Bernadett; Huber, Christian; Harpaintner, Rudolf; Schröder, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Besides classical organic pollutants and pesticides, pharmaceuticals and their residues have nowadays become recognized as relevant environmental contaminants. The risks of these chemicals for aquatic ecosystems are well known, but information about the pharmaca-plant interactions and metabolic pathways is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the process of uptake of acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol) by Brassica juncea, drug-induced defense responses and detoxification mechanisms in different plant parts. Hydroponically grown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) plants were treated with acetaminophen and root and leaf samples were collected after 24, 72, and 168 h of treatment. The uptake of acetaminophen and the formation of its metabolites were analyzed using LC-MS/MS technique and enzyme activities including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) as well as several plant defense enzymes like catalase, ascorbat peroxidase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were assayed spectrophotometrically. We determined the uptake and the translocation of acetaminophen, and we tried to identify the steps of the detoxification process by assaying typical enzymes, supposing the involvement of the same- or similar enzymes and reactions as in the mammalian detoxification process. After 24-h exposure, effective uptake and translocation were observed to the upper part of plants followed by two independent conjugative detoxification pathways. Changes in antioxidant defense enzyme activities connected to the defense pathway towards reactive oxygen species indicate an additional oxidative stress response in the plants. The major metabolic pathways in mammals are conjugation with activated sulfate and glucuronic acid, while a small amount of acetaminophen forms a chemically reactive and highly toxic, hydroxylated metabolite. We identified a glutathionyl and a glycoside conjugate, which refer to the similarities to mammalian detoxification. Increased GST activities in leaf

  2. Attack modes and defence reactions in pathosystems involving Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus.

    PubMed

    Uloth, Margaret B; Clode, Peta L; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is a damaging disease of oilseed brassicas world-wide. Host resistance is urgently needed to achieve control, yet the factors that contribute to stem resistance are not well understood. This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance to SSR. Stems of 5-week-old Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus of known resistance were infected via filter paper discs impregnated with S. sclerotiorum mycelium under controlled conditions. Transverse sections of the stem and portions of the stem surface were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The association of anatomical features with the severity of disease (measured by mean lesion length) was determined. Several distinct resistance mechanisms were recorded for the first time in these Brassica-pathogen interactions, including hypersensitive reactions and lignification within the stem cortex, endodermis and in tissues surrounding the lesions. Genotypes showing a strong lignification response 72 h post-infection (hpi) tended to have smaller lesions. Extensive vascular invasion by S. sclerotiorum was observed only in susceptible genotypes, especially in the vascular fibres and xylem. Mean lesion length was negatively correlated with the number of cell layers in the cortex, suggesting progress of S. sclerotiorum is impeded by more cell layers. Hyphae in the centre of lesions became highly vacuolate 72 hpi, reflecting an ageing process in S. sclerotiorum hyphal networks that was independent of host resistance. The infection process of S. sclerotiorum was analogous in B. carinata and B. napus. Infection cushions of the highly virulent isolate of S. sclerotiorum MBRS-1 were grouped together in dense parallel bundles, while hyphae in the infection cushions of a less aggressive isolate WW-3 were more diffuse, and this was unaffected by host genotype. A variety of mechanisms contribute to host resistance against S. sclerotiorum across the three

  3. Alleviation of selenium toxicity in Brassica juncea L.: salicylic acid-mediated modulation in toxicity indicators, stress modulators, and sulfur-related gene transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Meetu

    2016-11-01

    The present work reveals the response of different doses of selenium (Se) and alleviating effect of salicylic acid (SA) on Se-stressed Brassica juncea seedlings. Selenium, a micronutrient, is essential for both humans and animals but is toxic at higher doses. Its beneficial role for the survival of plants, however, is still debatable. On the other hand, SA, a phenolic compound, is known to have specific responses under environmental stresses. Experiments were conducted using leaves of hydroponically grown seedlings of Pusa bold (PB) variety of B. juncea, treated with different concentrations of Se (50, 150, 300 μM) for 24- and 96-h exposure times. Increasing Se concentrations inhibited growth and, caused lipid peroxidation, concomitantly increased stress modulators (proline, cysteine, SOD, CAT) along with sulfur-related gene transcripts (LAST, APS, APR, GR, OASL, MT-2, PCS) in Brassica seedlings. On the basis of the above studied parameters, maximum inhibition in growth was observed at 300 μM Se after 96-h exposure time. Further, co-application of SA along with 300 μM Se helped to mitigate Se stress, as shown by improved levels of growth parameters, toxicity indicators (chlorophyll, protein, MDA), stress modulators (proline, cysteine, SOD, and CAT), and expression of sulfur-related genes as compared to Se-treated seedlings alone. Altogether, this study revealed that Se + SA combinations improved seedling morphology and were effective in alleviation of Se stress in PB variety of B. juncea.

  4. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  5. Combined application of Triton X-100 and Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 inoculum for the improvement of lead phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in EDTA amended soil.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Barbafieri, Meri; Lampis, Silvia; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Tassi, Eliana; Vallini, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    The process of EDTA-assisted lead phytoextraction from the Bovisa (Milan, Italy) brownfield soil was optimized in microcosms vegetated with Brassica juncea. An autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002, was isolated from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown on the Pb-contaminated soil in presence of 2 mM EDTA. The strain was augmented (10(8) CFU g(-1) soil) in vegetated microcosms to stimulate B. juncea biomass production and, hence, its phytoextraction potential. Triton X-100 was also added to microcosms at 5 and 10 times the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to increase the permeability of root barriers to the EDTA-Pb complexes. Triton X-100 amendment determined an increase in Pb concentration within plant tissues. However it contextually exerted a phytotoxic effect. Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 augmentation was crucial to plant survival in presence of both bioavailable lead and Triton X-100. The combination of the two treatments produced up to 56% increase in the efficiency of lead phytoextraction by B. juncea. The effects of these treatments on the structure of the soil bacterial community were evaluated by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

  6. Identification and comprehensive evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of host gene-expression in Brassica juncea-aphid interaction using microarray data.

    PubMed

    Ram, Chet; Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2017-07-01

    Brassica juncea is a chief oil yielding crop in many parts of the world including India. With advancement of molecular techniques, RT-qPCR based study of gene-expression has become an integral part of experimentations in crop breeding. In RT-qPCR, use of appropriate reference gene(s) is pivotal. The virtue of the reference genes, being constant in expression throughout the experimental treatments, needs to be validated case by case. Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalization of gene-expression data in B. juncea during the biotic stress of aphid infestation is not known. In the present investigation, 11 reference genes identified from microarray database of Arabidopsis-aphid interaction at a cut off FDR ≤0.1, along with two known reference genes of B. juncea, were analyzed for their expression stability upon aphid infestation. These included 6 frequently used and 5 newly identified reference genes. Ranking orders of the reference genes in terms of expression stability were calculated using advanced statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder, delta Ct and BestKeeper. The analysis suggested CAC, TUA and DUF179 as the most suitable reference genes. Further, normalization of the gene-expression data of STP4 and PR1 by the most and the least stable reference gene, respectively has demonstrated importance and applicability of the recommended reference genes in aphid infested samples of B. juncea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  8. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  9. Characterization of a new oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen, Bra j IE: detection of an allergenic epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, R I; Gonzalez de la Peña, M A; Menendez-Arias, L; Lopez-Otin, C; Villalba, M; Rodriguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Bra j IE, a major allergen from oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds, has been isolated and characterized. Its primary structure has been elucidated. This protein is composed of two chains (37 and 92 amino acids) linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence obtained is closely related to that previously determined for Sin a I, an allergen isolated from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). A common epitope has been detected in the large chain of both Bra j IE and Sin a I by means of electroblotting and immunodetection with 2B3, which is a monoclonal antibody raised against the yellow-mustard allergen. A histidine residue of the large chain of both mustard allergens has been found to be essential for the recognition by 2B3 antibody. A synthetic multiantigenic peptide containing this His was recognized by 2B3 as well as by sera of mustard-hypersensitive individuals. Therefore this antigenic determinant must be involved in the allergenicity of these proteins. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7688955

  10. Thiourea priming enhances salt tolerance through co-ordinated regulation of microRNAs and hormones in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Sablok, Gaurav; Hackenberg, Michael; Deshpande, Uday; Suprasanna, Penna

    2017-01-01

    Activation of stress tolerance mechanisms demands transcriptional reprogramming. Salt stress, a major threat to plant growth, enhances ROS production and affects transcription through modulation of miRNAs and hormones. The present study delineates salt stress ameliorating action of thiourea (TU, a ROS scavenger) in Brassica juncea and provides mechanistic link between redox, microRNA and hormones. The ameliorative potential of TU towards NaCl stress was related with its ability to decrease ROS accumulation in roots and increase Na+ accumulation in shoots. Small RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of down-regulated miRNAs in NaCl + TU treated roots, indicating transcriptional activation. Ranking analysis identified three key genes including BRX4, CBL10 and PHO1, showing inverse relationship with corresponding miRNA expression, which were responsible for TU mediated stress mitigation. Additionally, ABA level was consistently higher till 24 h in NaCl, while NaCl + TU treated roots showed only transient increase at 4 h suggesting an effective stress management. Jasmonate and auxin levels were also increased, which prioritized defence and facilitated root growth, respectively. Thus, the study highlights redox as one of the “core” components regulating miRNA and hormone levels, and also strengthens the use of TU as a redox priming agent for imparting crop resilience to salt stress. PMID:28382938

  11. Comparative effect of 28 homobrassinolide and salicylic acid in the amelioration of NaCl stress in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Maheshwari, Pragya; Wani, Arif Shafi; Irfan, Mohd; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-04-01

    Among various environmental stresses, salt stress is extensively damaging to major crops all over the world. An experiment was conducted to explore the role of exogenously applied 28 homobrassinolide (HBL) and salicylic acid (SA) on growth, photosynthetic parameters, transpiration and proline content of Brassica juncea L. cultivar Varuna in presence or absence of saline conditions (4.2 dsm(-1)). The leaves of 29d old plants were sprayed with distilled water, HBL and/or SA and plant responses were studied at 30 days after sowing (24 h after spray) and 45 days after sowing. The salinity significantly reduced the plant growth, gas exchange parameters but increased proline content and electrolyte leakage in the leaves. The effects were more pronounced at 30 DAS than 45 DAS. Out of the two hormones (HBL/SA) HBL excelled in its effects at both sampling stages. Toxic effects generated by salinity stress were completely overcome by the combination of the two hormones (HBL and SA) at 45 DAS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  13. Differential cadmium stress tolerance in five indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars: an evaluation of the role of antioxidant machinery.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Khan, Nafees A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-02-01

    The presence of Cadmium (Cd) in the agricultural soils affects horticultural cultivars and constrains the crop productivity. A pot experiment was performed using five cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to evaluate the difference in their response to Cd toxicity under greenhouse conditions. The pots containing reconstituted soil were supplied with different concentration of CdCl2 (0, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Increasing concentration of Cd in the soil resulted in decreased growth, photosynthesis and yield. Maximum significant reduction in growth, photosynthesis and yield were observed with 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil in all the cultivars. Our results indicate that the cultivar Alankar is found to be more tolerant to Cd stress, recording higher plant dry mass, net photosynthesis rate, associated with high antioxidant activity and low Cd content in the plant leaves and thus less oxidative damage. Cultivar RH 30 experienced maximum damage in terms of reduction in growth, photosynthesis, yield characteristics and oxidative damage and emerged as sensitive cultivar. The data of tolerance index of Alankar were found to be higher among all tested mustard cultivars which indicate its higher tolerance to Cd. Better coordination of antioxidants protected Alankar from Cd toxicity, whereas lesser antioxidant activity in RH 30 resulted in maximum damage. Cultivars of mustard were ranked with respect to their tolerance to Cd: Alankar > Varuna > Pusa Bold > Sakha > RH 30, respectively.

  14. Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Salido, Arthur L; Hasty, Kelly L; Lim, Jae-Min; Butcher, David J

    2003-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8 years would be required to reduce the acid-extractable portion of soil arsenic to safe levels (40 mg/kg). The effect of soil pH on arsenic extraction was also investigated. Results indicate that increasing soil pH may improve arsenic removal. Indian mustard plants (Brassica juncea) were used under greenhouse conditions to phytoextract soil lead. EDTA was applied to soil and was found to improve lead extraction. When the EDTA concentration was 10 mmol EDTA/kg soil in soil containing 338 mg Pb/kg soil, mustard plants extracted approximately 32 mg of lead. In conclusion, phytoremediation would be a suitable alternative to conventional remediation techniques, especially for soils that do not require immediate remediation.

  15. Low level of selenium increases the efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide through altered physiological and biochemical traits of Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Naz, Fatima Salva; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to provide an insight into the effect of Se (through soil) induced changes in Brassica juncea plants in the presence and absence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; foliar). The Se treatments showed dual response, 10 μM of Se significantly increased growth, water relations, photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas its higher concentrations proved inhibitory in concentration dependent manner. The follow-up application of EBL to the Se stressed plants improved growth, water relations, photosynthesis and simultaneously enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase with the excess accumulation of proline. In addition to this, 10 μM Se increases the efficacy of 10(-8) M of EBL and both in combination showed maximum increase for the growth and photosynthetic traits of plants. On the other hand, the elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the Se-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis.

  16. Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 inhibits growth of fungal phytopathogens and agglutinates Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yuanfang; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh; Taylor, Paul W. J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2008-01-01

    Brassica juncea BjCHI1 is a plant chitinase with two chitin-binding domains. Its expression, induced in response to wounding, methyl jasmonate treatment, Aspergillus niger infection, and caterpillar Pieris rapae feeding, suggests that it plays a role in defence. In this study, to investigate the potential of using BjCHI1 in agriculture, Pichia-expressed BjCHI1 and its deletion derivatives that lack one or both chitin-binding domains were tested against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Transplastomic tobacco expressing BjCHI1 was also generated and its extracts assessed. In radial growth-inhibition assays, BjCHI1 and its derivative with one chitin-binding domain showed anti-fungal activities against phytopathogens, Colletotrichum truncatum, C. acutatum, Botrytis cinerea, and Ascochyta rabiei. BjCHI1 also inhibited spore germination of C. truncatum. Furthermore, BjCHI1, but not its derivatives lacking one or both domains, inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) more effectively than Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus megaterium), indicating that the duplicated chitin-binding domain, uncommon in chitinases, is essential for bacterial agglutination. Galactose, glucose, and lactose relieved agglutination, suggesting that BjCHI1 interacts with the carbohydrate components of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. Retention of chitinase and bacterial agglutination activities in transplastomic tobacco extracts implicates that BjCHI1 is potentially useful against both fungal and bacterial phytopathogens in agriculture. PMID:18669819

  17. Attack modes and defence reactions in pathosystems involving Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus

    PubMed Central

    Uloth, Margaret B.; Clode, Peta L.; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is a damaging disease of oilseed brassicas world-wide. Host resistance is urgently needed to achieve control, yet the factors that contribute to stem resistance are not well understood. This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance to SSR. Methods Stems of 5-week-old Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus of known resistance were infected via filter paper discs impregnated with S. sclerotiorum mycelium under controlled conditions. Transverse sections of the stem and portions of the stem surface were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The association of anatomical features with the severity of disease (measured by mean lesion length) was determined. Key Results Several distinct resistance mechanisms were recorded for the first time in these Brassica–pathogen interactions, including hypersensitive reactions and lignification within the stem cortex, endodermis and in tissues surrounding the lesions. Genotypes showing a strong lignification response 72 h post-infection (hpi) tended to have smaller lesions. Extensive vascular invasion by S. sclerotiorum was observed only in susceptible genotypes, especially in the vascular fibres and xylem. Mean lesion length was negatively correlated with the number of cell layers in the cortex, suggesting progress of S. sclerotiorum is impeded by more cell layers. Hyphae in the centre of lesions became highly vacuolate 72 hpi, reflecting an ageing process in S. sclerotiorum hyphal networks that was independent of host resistance. The infection process of S. sclerotiorum was analogous in B. carinata and B. napus. Infection cushions of the highly virulent isolate of S. sclerotiorum MBRS-1 were grouped together in dense parallel bundles, while hyphae in the infection cushions of a less aggressive isolate WW-3 were more diffuse, and this was unaffected by host genotype. Conclusions A variety of mechanisms contribute to host

  18. Plant steroid hormones produced under Ni stress are involved in the regulation of metal uptake and oxidative stress in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Priya; Chowdhary, Sikandar Pal; Sharma, Priyanka; Kumar, Subodh

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are involved in the amelioration of various biotic and abiotic stresses. With an aim to explore the role of BRs under heavy metal stress, plants of Brassica juncea L. were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to various concentrations of Nickel metal (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mM) and harvested on 60th day in order to observe the expression of these hormones. The isolated BRs from the leaves of Brassica plants characterized by GC-MS include 24-Epibrassinolide (24-EBL), Castasterone, Dolicholide and Typhasterole. The effect of isolated 24-EBL was studied on Ni metal uptake and antioxidative defense system in 60 d old plants of Brassica. It was observed that 24-EBL significantly increased the activities of stress ameliorating enzymes and lowered the metal uptake in plants. This is the first report in B. juncea L. plants showing the expression of BRs under metal treatments and effect of the isolated 24-EBL on metal uptake and in oxidative stress management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Naveen C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Capparales-specific secondary metabolites that have immense potential in human health and agriculture. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about glucosinolate regulators in the Brassica crops is sparse. In the current study, four MYB28 homologues were identified (BjuMYB28-1,-2,-3,-4) from the polyploid Brassica juncea, and the effects of allopolyploidization on the divergence of gene sequence, structure, function, and expression were assessed. The deduced protein sequences of the four BjuMYB28 genes showed 76.1–83.1% identity with the Arabidopsis MYB28. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four BjuMYB28 proteins have evolved via the hybridization and duplication processes forming the B. juncea genome (AABB) from B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), while retaining high levels of sequence conservation. Mutant complementation and over-expression studies in A. thaliana showed that all four BjuMYB28 genes encode functional MYB28 proteins and resulted in similar aliphatic glucosinolate composition and content. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays and promoter-GUS lines revealed that the BjuMYB28 genes have both tissue- and cell-specific expression partitioning in B. juncea. The two B-genome origin BjuMYB28 genes had more abundant transcripts during the early stages of plant development than the A-genome origin genes. However, with the onset of the reproductive phase, expression levels of all four BjuMYB28 increased significantly, which may be necessary for producing and maintaining high amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates during the later stages of plant development. Taken together, our results suggest that the four MYB28 genes are differentially expressed and regulated in B. juncea to play discrete though overlapping roles in controlling aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:24043856

  20. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the

  1. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities along with the aforesaid physiological and biochemical parameters in order of ELE > ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P < 0.05) increase in percent contents of C and N in leaves as per said order. These findings suggested that improved performance of C-N metabolism could be a possible approach for CO2 assimilation and adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios.

  2. Global insights into high temperature and drought stress regulated genes by RNA-Seq in economically important oilseed crop Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur R; Joshi, Gopal; Kukreja, Bharti; Malik, Vidhi; Arora, Priyanka; Pandey, Ritu; Shukla, Rohit N; Bankar, Kiran G; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Jagannath, Arun; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-21

    Brassica juncea var. Varuna is an economically important oilseed crop of family Brassicaceae which is vulnerable to abiotic stresses at specific stages in its life cycle. Till date no attempts have been made to elucidate genome-wide changes in its transcriptome against high temperature or drought stress. To gain global insights into genes, transcription factors and kinases regulated by these stresses and to explore information on coding transcripts that are associated with traits of agronomic importance, we utilized a combinatorial approach of next generation sequencing and de-novo assembly to discover B. juncea transcriptome associated with high temperature and drought stresses. We constructed and sequenced three transcriptome libraries namely Brassica control (BC), Brassica high temperature stress (BHS) and Brassica drought stress (BDS). More than 180 million purity filtered reads were generated which were processed through quality parameters and high quality reads were assembled de-novo using SOAPdenovo assembler. A total of 77750 unique transcripts were identified out of which 69,245 (89%) were annotated with high confidence. We established a subset of 19110 transcripts, which were differentially regulated by either high temperature and/or drought stress. Furthermore, 886 and 2834 transcripts that code for transcription factors and kinases, respectively, were also identified. Many of these were responsive to high temperature, drought or both stresses. Maximum number of up-regulated transcription factors in high temperature and drought stress belonged to heat shock factors (HSFs) and dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) families, respectively. We also identified 239 metabolic pathways, which were perturbed during high temperature and drought treatments. Analysis of gene ontologies associated with differentially regulated genes forecasted their involvement in diverse biological processes. Our study provides first comprehensive discovery of B. juncea

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    PubMed

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced expression of CTR1 gene modulated by mitochondria causes enhanced ethylene response in cytoplasmic male-sterile Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xunyan; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2012-06-01

    We studied how mitochondria affect ethylene response via modulation of CTR1 expression in cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) Brassica juncea. The expression of CTR1 gene was reduced in CMS compared with male-fertile (MF) lines. We observed that hypocotyl and root lengths were shorter than in the MF line during germination in the dark. An enhanced ethylene response was observed in CMS plants as shown by the CMS and maintainer line phenotypes treated with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. The phenotype in CMS plants could be recovered to the maintainer line when treated with Ag(+) . One ethylene response gene, plant defensin gene, was detected to be induced in CMS. The behavior of this phenotype could be mimicked by treating the maintainer line with antimycin A that disturbs mitochondrial function, which showed reduced length of hypocotyl and roots, and resulted in similar expression patterns of ethylene-related genes as in CMS. The reduced length of hypocotyl and roots could be recovered to the maintainer line by treatment with gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In addition, the GA(3) content was reduced in CMS plants and in the MF line treated with antimycin A. Ethylene treatment markedly affects GA(3) content; however, GA(3) did not significantly affect ethylene-related gene expression in regards to regulation of hypocotyl and root length, which suggests that ethylene acts upstream via gibberellin to regulate hypocotyls and root development. Taken together, our results suggest a link between mitochondrial modulation of the ethylene and gibberellin pathway that regulates the development of hypocotyl and roots.

  5. Differential response of salt stress on Brassica juncea: photosynthetic performance, pigment, proline, D1 and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Shweta; Kumari, Nilima; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the ability of sensitive and tolerant variety of Brassica juncea to adapt to a saline environment in a field, we examined the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosystem II, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigment concentration, protein (D1) and proline in plants exposed to salt stress. We observed a greater decline in the photosynthetic rate (∆F/Fm') and electron transport rate (ETRsat) and saturating photosynthetically active photo flux density (PPFDsat) under salt stress in var. Urvashi (sensitive variety) than in var. Bio902 (tolerant variety). Var. Urvashi was found to be more sensitive to high salinity. In var. Bio902, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations were higher than in the sensitive variety. Proline and protein contents were also higher in var. Bio902 as compared to their lower accumulation in var. Urvashi. The improved performance of the var. Bio902 under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), though no salt-dependent increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) was observed. However, no such increase in APX and CAT was observed in var. Urvashi, though there was significant increase in SOD activity. These results suggest that var. Bio902 is potentially more tolerant to salt damage and is associated with better adaptive responses found in var. Bio902 than var. Urvashi. Increased photoinhibition in var. Urvashi as observed by its reduced thylakoid membrane protein, D1 probably results from the greater photosynthetic damage caused by salt stress than var. Bio902. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Light- and temperature-regulated BjAPY2 may have a role in stem expansion of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Liu, Bin; Li, Junxing; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-11-01

    Tuber mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee) is an important vegetable crop with a characteristic of expanded stem that is edible. The underlying molecular mechanism of the stem expansion is not well understood. Here, we reported that a total of 51 differentially expressed fragments (DEFs) with three expression patterns during stem expansion of tuber mustard were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis. Among the DEFs, DEF11 with high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase 2 (AtAPY2) that encodes an enzyme with ATPase and ADPase activity was development- and tissue-specific. DEF11 was thus renamed as BjAPY2. The expression levels of BjAPY2 increased with the stem expression and were the highest at stage IV, a developmental stage at which the stem expanded most rapidly. In contrast, the BjAPY2 expression levels in leaves were much lower and remained unchanged during leaf development and expansion, suggesting that BjAPY2 was closely associated with the expansion of stems but not of leaves in the tuber mustard. Interestingly, the expression of BjAPY2 was higher in the mustard under short-day (SD) photoperiod (8 h/16 h) than that under long-day (LD) photoperiod (16 h/8 h); similarly, the transcript levels of BjAPY2 were higher in the mustard grown at low temperature (14 °C/12 °C) than that at high temperature (26 °C /24 °C). The SD photoperiod and low temperature were two environmental conditions that favored the mustard stem expansion. Further cloning and analysis of the promoter region of BjAPY2 revealed that there were indeed several types of motifs in the promoter region, including the light and temperature responsive elements. These results suggested that BjAPY2 might play an important role during the stem expansion of the tuber mustard.

  7. RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage of cold responsive S-nitrosylated targets in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Abat, Jasmeet K.; Deswal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Although in the last few years good number of S-nitrosylated proteins are identified but information on endogenous targets is still limiting. Therefore, an attempt is made to decipher NO signaling in cold treated Brassica juncea seedlings. Treatment of seedlings with substrate, cofactor and inhibitor of Nitric-oxide synthase and nitrate reductase (NR), indicated NR mediated NO biosynthesis in cold. Analysis of the in vivo thiols showed depletion of low molecular weight thiols and enhancement of available protein thiols, suggesting redox changes. To have a detailed view, S-nitrosylation analysis was done using biotin switch technique (BST) and avidin-affinity chromatography. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is S-nitrosylated and therefore, is identified as target repeatedly due to its abundance. It also competes out low abundant proteins which are important NO signaling components. Therefore, RuBisCO was removed (over 80%) using immunoaffinity purification. Purified S-nitrosylated RuBisCO depleted proteins were resolved on 2-D gel as 110 spots, including 13 new, which were absent in the crude S-nitrosoproteome. These were identified by nLC-MS/MS as thioredoxin, fructose biphosphate aldolase class I, myrosinase, salt responsive proteins, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and malate dehydrogenase. Cold showed differential S-nitrosylation of 15 spots, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (via S-nitrosylation) and promoted the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Increased S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sedoheptulose-biphosphatase, and fructose biphosphate aldolase, indicated regulation of Calvin cycle by S-nitrosylation. The results showed that RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage and provided clues for NO signaling in cold. PMID:24032038

  8. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic-stimulated solvent extraction of sinigrin from Indian mustard seed (Brassica Juncea L.) using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianxin; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng

    2011-01-01

    Sinigrin, a major glucosinolate present in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seeds as the precursor of the anticancer compound allyl isothiocyanate, shows a wide range of biological activities. It's necessary to optimize the extraction methods and conditions, in order to improve the extraction productivity and save raw material. To systemically investigate and optimize the most important factors affected the productivity of sinigrin in the process of extraction using response surface methodology. The ranges of three main factors including the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature were selected by the one-factor-at-a-time method. The conditions of ultrasonic-stimulated extraction of sinigrin from defatted Indian mustard seed powder were optimized by Box-Behnken design to obtain the maximum productivity. The predicted productivity (3.81%) was obtained using 57% ethanol concentration at 81 °C for 60 min, with the coefficient of the model R² > 0.96 (n = 17). The actual productivity (3.84 ± 0.02%) of sinigrin under the optimized condition was increased by 70.67% compared with the result of conventional extraction. Meanwhile, HPLC, UV and IR were applied to examine if there is a difference between the ultrasonic-stimulated solvent extraction and conventional extraction, and the improvement of productivity of sinigrin depended on the destruction of cell wall caused by the elimination of outer pectinous material was explained by SEM and composition content analysis. The ultrasonic-stimulated solvent extraction was suggested to be a promising method to improve the productivity of sinigrin. And the results demonstrated that sinigrin productivity may be related to pectinous materials existed in the seeds. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  11. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

  12. Dynamics of pesticide residues in nectar and pollen of mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) grown in Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amit; Sharma, D C

    2008-09-01

    Residues dynamics of Endosulfan (525.00 g a.i. ha(-1)), Imidacloprid seed treatment (21 g a.i. kg(-1)), Lambdacyhalothrin (75.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) and Spiromesifen (225.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) in nectar and pollen of mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. grown in Himachal Pradesh (India) were determined through bioassay (using Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as test organism) and GC (Gas chromatographic) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatographic) methods. In general chromatographic methods were more sensitive for the determination of above given pesticides compared to bioassay method. Average recoveries in nectar samples varied between 82.85 and 88.90% by bioassay and 91.20 and 93.55% by chromatographic techniques. In pollen samples, recoveries varied between 81.44 and 86.44% by bioassay and 88.50 and 91.30% by chromatographic methods. Imidacloprid residues were neither found in nectar nor in pollen samples at the time of sampling i.e. 50% of flowering. The order of average half life of residues was: Lambdacyhalothrin (12.45 h) < Spiromesifen (19.99 h) < Endosulfan (27.49 h) for nectar and Spiromesifen (9.69 h) < Lambdacyhalothrin (12.44 h) < Endosulfan (17.84 h) for pollen samples. It was found that Imidcloprid seed treatment was practically harmless to honey bees, whereas a waiting period of 5 days must be observed on crops sprayed with these chemicals during blooms to avoid any accidental hazards to honey bees.

  13. Modulation of antioxidant machinery in α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic Brassica juncea plants tolerant to abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Singh, Preeti; Sardar, Meryam; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant machinery in plants consists of several components with unique or overlapping functions that combat the deleterious production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by stress conditions. Tocopherols are a group of powerful antioxidants having additional roles in signaling and gene expression, with α-tocopherol being the most potent form. In the present study, we used wild-type (WT) and α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic (TR) Brassica juncea plants grown under salt, heavy metal, and osmotic stress to compare their relative tolerance to these stresses and to assess the effects of increased α-tocopherol content on the other antioxidative enzymes and molecules. The oxidative damage caused by induced stress was lower in TR plants compared to WT plants as assessed by their higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content as well as H(2)O(2) accumulation. Lesser superoxide and H(2)O(2) accumulation was also observed by histochemical staining in TR seedlings exposed to stress. Though no significant differences were evident under normal growth conditions, TR plants showed higher activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase than WT plants under similar stress conditions. A decrease in ascorbate and glutathione content with marginally higher reductive ratios of these compounds was also observed in TR plants under the stress conditions. Our findings implicate the role of higher α-tocopherol levels in conferring better tolerance against salt, heavy metal, and osmotic stresses and also establish the existence of interplay between this lipid-soluble antioxidant and other water-soluble components of plant antioxidant defense.

  14. Thiourea modulates the expression and activity profile of mtATPase under salinity stress in seeds of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A. K.; Ramaswamy, N. K.; Mukopadhyaya, R.; Jincy, M. G. Chiramal; D'Souza, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Large areas of the globe are becoming saline due to evapotranspiration and poor irrigation practices, and sustainability of agriculture is being seriously affected. Thiourea (TU) has been identified as an effective bioregulator imparting stress tolerance to crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in the TU-mediated response are considered in this study. Methods Differential display was performed in order to identify TU-modulated transcripts in Brassica juncea seeds exposed to various treatments (distilled water; 1 m NaCl; 1 m NaCl + 500 p.p.m. TU). The differential regulation of these transcripts was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Key Results Thiourea treatment maintained the viability of seeds exposed to NaCl for 6 h. Expression analysis showed that the transcript level of alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits of mitochondrial ATPase (mtATPase) varied in seeds subjected to the different treatments for 1 h: expression level was significantly altered by 1 m NaCl relative to controls; however, in the NaCl + TU treatment it reverted back in an integrated manner. Similar results were obtained from time-kinetics studies of beta and delta subunits in roots of 8-d-old seedlings. These observations were also confirmed by the mtATPase activity from isolated mitochondria. The reversal in the expression and activity profile of mtATPase through the application of a bioregulator such as TU is a novel finding for any plant system. Conclusions The results suggest that TU treatment maintains the integrity and functioning of mitochondria in seeds as well as seedlings exposed to salinity. Thus, TU has the potential to be used as an effective bioregulator to impart salinity tolerance under field conditions, and might prove to be of high economic importance by opening new avenues for both basic and applied research. PMID:19033283

  15. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials.

  16. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  17. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  18. Effects of acacia (Acacia auriculaeformis A. Cunn)-associated fungi on mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. var. foliosa Bailey) growth in Cd- and Ni-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Cao, L; Zhang, R

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of Acacia auriculaeformis-associated fungi on the growth of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. var. foliosa Bailey] in Cd- and Ni-contaminated soils and design novel plant-fungi associations for bioremediation purpose. Endophytic Trichoderma H8 and rhizosphere Aspergillus G16 were applied for rhizoremediation of Cd-, Ni-, and Cd-Ni combination-contaminated soils through association with B. juncea (L.) Coss. var. foliosa. Compared with the noninoculated control plants, inoculation with Trichoderma H8 produced 109%, 41% and 167% more fresh weight (FW) plant yields in the Cd-, Ni-, and Cd-Ni-contaminated soils, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, plants inoculated with Aspergillus G16 produced 109%, 47% and 44% more FW plant yields in these contaminated soils, respectively. Plants co-inoculated with these two strains produced 118%, 100% and 178% more FW plant yields, respectively. The inoculations also increased the translocation factors and metal bioconcentration factors. The efficiency of phytoextraction for B. juncea (L.) Coss. var. foliosa was enhanced after inoculating with Acacia-associated fungi. The use of plant-fungi association may be a promising strategy to remediate metal-contaminated soils.

  19. Biochemical characterization of laccase from hairy root culture of Brassica juncea L. and role of redox mediators to enhance its potential for the decolorization of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Desai, Neetin S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-12-01

    In vitro transgenic hairy root cultures provide a rapid system for physiological, biochemical studies and screening of plants for their phytoremediation potential. The hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L. showed 92% decolorization of Methyl orange within 4 days. Out of the different redox mediators that were used to achieve enhanced decolorization, 2, 2'-Azinobis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) was found to be the most efficient. Laccase activity of 4.5 U mg(-1) of protein was observed in hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L., after the decolorization of Methyl orange. Intracellular laccase produced by B. juncea root cultures grown in MS basal medium was purified up to 2.0 fold with 6.62 U mg(-1) specific activity using anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 148 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme efficiently oxidized ABTS which was also required for oxidation of the other tested substrates. The pH and temperature optimum for laccase activity were 4.0 and 40°C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable up to 50°C and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Laccase activity was strongly inhibited by sodium azide, EDTA, dithiothreitol and L: -cysteine. The purified enzyme decolorized various textile dyes in the presence of ABTS as an efficient redox mediator. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the enzymatic process involved in phytoremediation of textile dyes by using hairy roots.

  20. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  1. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the importance of sulfate transporters and ATP sulphurylases for selenium hyperaccumulation-a comparison of Stanleya pinnata and Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon, Marinus; Malagoli, Mario; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation, the capacity of some species to concentrate Se to levels upwards of 0.1% of dry weight, is an intriguing phenomenon that is only partially understood. Questions that remain to be answered are: do hyperaccumulators have one or more Se-specific transporters? How are these regulated by Se and sulfur (S)? In this study, hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata was compared with related non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea with respect to S-dependent selenate uptake and translocation, as well as for the expression levels of three sulfate/selenate transporters (Sultr) and three ATP sulphurylases (APS). Selenium accumulation went down ~10-fold with increasing sulfate supply in B. juncea, while S. pinnata only had a 2-3-fold difference in Se uptake between the highest (5 mM) and lowest sulfate (0 mM) treatments. The Se/S ratio was generally higher in the hyperaccumulator than the non-hyperaccumulator, and while tissue Se/S ratio in B. juncea largely reflected the ratio in the growth medium, S. pinnata enriched itself up to 5-fold with Se relative to S. The transcript levels of Sultr1;2 and 2;1 and APS1, 2, and 4 were generally much higher in S. pinnata than B. juncea, and the species showed differential transcript responses to S and Se supply. These results indicate that S. pinnata has at least one transporter with significant selenate specificity over sulfate. Also, the hyperaccumulator has elevated expression levels of several sulfate/selenate transporters and APS enzymes, which likely contribute to the Se hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance phenotype.

  3. Exploring the importance of sulfate transporters and ATP sulphurylases for selenium hyperaccumulation—a comparison of Stanleya pinnata and Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon, Marinus; Malagoli, Mario; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation, the capacity of some species to concentrate Se to levels upwards of 0.1% of dry weight, is an intriguing phenomenon that is only partially understood. Questions that remain to be answered are: do hyperaccumulators have one or more Se-specific transporters? How are these regulated by Se and sulfur (S)? In this study, hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata was compared with related non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea with respect to S-dependent selenate uptake and translocation, as well as for the expression levels of three sulfate/selenate transporters (Sultr) and three ATP sulphurylases (APS). Selenium accumulation went down ~10-fold with increasing sulfate supply in B. juncea, while S. pinnata only had a 2–3-fold difference in Se uptake between the highest (5 mM) and lowest sulfate (0 mM) treatments. The Se/S ratio was generally higher in the hyperaccumulator than the non-hyperaccumulator, and while tissue Se/S ratio in B. juncea largely reflected the ratio in the growth medium, S. pinnata enriched itself up to 5-fold with Se relative to S. The transcript levels of Sultr1;2 and 2;1 and APS1, 2, and 4 were generally much higher in S. pinnata than B. juncea, and the species showed differential transcript responses to S and Se supply. These results indicate that S. pinnata has at least one transporter with significant selenate specificity over sulfate. Also, the hyperaccumulator has elevated expression levels of several sulfate/selenate transporters and APS enzymes, which likely contribute to the Se hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance phenotype. PMID:25688247

  4. Maleic acid assisted improvement of metal chelation and antioxidant metabolism confers chromium tolerance in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Anisur; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that negatively affects plant growth and development. Thus, remediating Cr from soil or increasing plant tolerance against Cr stress is urgent. Organic acids are recognized as agents of phytoremediation and as exogenous protectants, but using maleic acid (MA) to attain these results has not yet been studied. Therefore, our study investigated the effects of MA on Cr uptake and mitigation of Cr toxicity. We treated 8-d-old Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings with Cr (0.15mM and 0.3mM K2CrO4, 5 days) alone and in combination with MA (0.25mM) in a semi-hydroponic medium. Under Cr stress, plants accumulated Cr in both the roots and shoots in a dose-dependent manner, where the roots showed higher accumulation. Chromium stress reduced the growth and biomass of the Indian mustard plants by reducing water status and photosynthetic pigments, and increased oxidative damage due to generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG). Chromium stress also interfered with the function of the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. However, using MA in the Cr-stressed plants further increased Cr uptake in the roots, but it slightly reduced the translocation of Cr from the roots to the shoots at a lower dose of Cr and significantly at a higher dose. Moreover, MA also increased the other non-protein thiols (NPTs) containing phytochelatin (PC) content of the seedlings, which reduced Cr toxicity. Supplementing the stressed plants with MA upregulated the non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, AsA; glutathione, GSH); the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT); and the enzymes of the glyoxalase system including glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II); and finally reduced

  5. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. ‘a’. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  6. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  7. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  8. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  9. Ileal amino acid digestibility in canola meals from yellow- and black-seeded Brassica napus and Brassica juncea fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Trindade Neto, M A; Opepaju, F O; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-10-01

    Twelve ileal cannulated pigs (30.9 ± 2.7 kg) were used to determine the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of protein and AA in canola meals (CM) derived from black- (BNB) and yellow-seeded (BNY) Brassica napus canola and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea (BJY). The meals were produced using either the conventional pre-press solvent extraction process (regular meal) or a new, vacuum-assisted cold process of meal de-solventization (white flakes) to provide 6 different meals. Six cornstarch-based diets containing 35% canola meal as the sole source of protein in a 3 (variety) × 2 (processing) factorial arrangement were randomly allotted to pigs in a 6 × 7 incomplete Latin square design to have 6 replicates per diet. A 5% casein diet was fed to estimate endogenous AA losses. Canola variety and processing method interacted for the AID of DM (P = 0.048), N (P = 0.010), and all AA (P < 0.05), except for Arg, Lys, Phe, Asp, Glu, and Pro. Canola variety affected or tended to affect the AID of most AA but had no effect on the AID of Lys, Met, Val, Cys, and Pro, whereas processing method had an effect on only Lys and Asp and tended to affect the AID of Thr, Gly and Ser. The effects of canola variety, processing method, and their interaction on the SID values for N and AA followed a similar pattern as for AID values. For the white flakes, SID of N in BJY (74.2%) was lower than in BNY and BNB, whose values averaged 78.5%; however, among the regular meals, BJY had a greater SID value for N than BNY and BNB (variety × processing, P = 0.015). For the white flakes, the SID of Ile (86.4%), Leu (87.6%), Lys (88.9%), Thr (87.6%) and Val (84.2%) in BNB were greater than BNY and BJY. Opposite results were observed for the regular processing, with SID of Lys (84.1%), Met (89.5%), Thr (84.1%), and Val (83.6%) being greater in BJY, followed by BNB and BNY(variety × processing, P < 0.057). The SID of Met was greatest for the white flakes (90.2%) but least for the

  10. Functional expression of an acyl carrier protein (ACP) from Azospirillum brasilense alters fatty acid profiles in Escherichia coli and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jha, Jyoti K; Sinha, Saheli; Maiti, Mrinal K; Basu, Asitava; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal K; Sen, Soumitra K

    2007-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a central cofactor for de novo fatty acid synthesis, acyl chain modification and chain-length termination during lipid biosynthesis in living organisms. Although the structural and functional organization of the ACPs in bacteria and plant are highly conserved, the individual ACP is engaged in the generation of sets of signature fatty acids required for specific purpose in bacterial cells and plant tissues. Realizing the fact that the bacterial ACP being originated early in molecular evolution is characteristically different from the plant's counterpart, we explored the property of an ACP from Azospirillum brasilense (Ab), a plant-associative aerobic bacterium, to find its role in changing the fatty acid profile in heterologous systems. Functional expression of Ab-ACP in Escherichia coli, an enteric bacterium, and Brassica juncea, an oil-seed crop plant, altered the fatty acid composition having predominantly 18-carbon acyl pool, reflecting the intrinsic nature of the ACP from A. brasilense which usually has C18:1 rich membrane lipid. In transgenic Brassica the prime increment was found for C18:3 in leaves; and C18:1 and C8:2 in seeds. Interestingly, the seed oil quality of the transgenic Brassica potentially improved for edible purposes, particularly with respect to the enhancement in the ratio of monounsaturated (C18:1)/saturated fatty acids, increment in the ratio of linoleic (C18:2)/linolenic (C18:3) and reduction of erucic acid (C22:1).

  11. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  12. Attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress by Brassica juncea annexin-3 counteracts thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA1) deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Ahan; Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Gudla, Triveni; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti; Padmasree, Kollipara; Viehhauser, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-02-14

    Brassica juncea annexin-3 (BjAnn3) was functionally characterized for its ability to modulate H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BjAnn3 showed a significant protective role in cellular-defense against oxidative stress and partially alleviated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in presence of exogenously applied H2O2. Heterologous expression of BjAnn3 protected membranes from oxidative stress-mediated damage and positively regulated antioxidant gene expression for ROS detoxification. We conclude that, BjAnn3 partially counteracts the effects of thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (TSA1) deficiency and aids in cellular-protection across kingdoms. Despite partial compensation of TSA1 by BjAnn3 in cell-viability tests, the over-complementation in ROS-related features suggests the existence of both redundant (e.g. ROS detoxification) and distinct features (e.g. membrane protection versus proximity-based redox regulator) of both proteins.

  13. The application of ethephon (an ethylene releaser) increases growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under high nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Mir, M R; Nazar, R; Singh, S

    2008-09-01

    Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, influences growth and photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss.). We show the effect of nitrogen availability on ethylene evolution and how this affects growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation. Ethylene evolution in the control with low N (100 mg N kg(-1) soil) was two-times higher than with high N (200 mg N kg(-1) soil). The application of 100-400 microl x l(-1) ethephon post-flowering, i.e. 60 days after sowing, on plants receiving low or high N further increased ethylene evolution. Leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), photosynthesis, leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity and leaf N reached a maximum with application of 200 microl x l(-1) ethephon and high N. The results suggest that the application of ethephon influences growth, photosynthesis and N accumulation, depending on the amount of nitrogen in the soil.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-05

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments.

  15. Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with 24-Epibrassinolide Ameliorates Pesticide Stress in Brassica juncea L. through the Modulation of Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anket; Thakur, Sharad; Kumar, Vinod; Kanwar, Mukesh K.; Kesavan, Anup K.; Thukral, Ashwani K.; Bhardwaj, Renu; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to assess the effects of seed soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the physiology of Brassica juncea L. seedlings grown under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. Application of EBR increased the length of seedlings, dry weight, and pigment contents, polyphenols, total phenols, and organic acids under IMI toxicity. The expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigment, phenols, polyphenols, and organic acid biosynthetic pathways was also studied including CHLASE (chlorophyllase), PSY (phytoene synthase), CHS (chalcone synthase) and PAL (phenylalanine ammonialyase), CS (citrate synthase), SUCLG1 (succinyl Co-A ligase,), SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), FH (fumarate hydratase), MS (malate synthase). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis revealed that IMI application regressed negatively on seedling length, dry weight and total chlorophyll content. However, EBR seed treatment regressed positively on all the parameters studied. Moreover, interaction between IMI and EBR showed positive regression for growth parameters, content of pigments, total polyphenol, total phenol and malate, and expression of PSY and PAL. Negative interactions were noticed for the contents of fumarate, succinate and citrate, and expression of CHS and all genes studied related to organic acid metabolism. In conclusion, EBR enhanced the growth and contents of all studied metabolites by regulating the gene expression of B. juncea seedlings under IMI stress. PMID:27853460

  16. Influence of inoculation of arsenic-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae on growth and arsenic uptake in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Var. R-46.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shubhi; Verma, Praveen C; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Singh, Namrata; Abhilash, P C; Kumar, Kalpana V; Sharma, Neeta; Singh, Nandita

    2013-11-15

    An arsenic hypertolerant bacterium was isolated from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal, India. The bacteria was identified as Staphylococcus arlettae strain NBRIEAG-6, based on 16S rDNA analysis. S. arlettae was able to remove arsenic from liquid media and possesses arsC gene, gene responsible for arsenate reductase activity. The biochemical profiling of the isolated strain showed that it had the capacity of producing indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase. Furthermore, an experiment was conducted to test the effect of S. arlettae inoculation on concurrent plant growth promotion and arsenic uptake in Indian mustard plant [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Var. R-46] when grown in arsenic spiked (5, 10 and 15 mg kg(-1)) soil. The microbial inoculation significantly (p<0.05) increased biomass, protein, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in test plant. Moreover, as compared to the non-inoculated control, the As concentration in shoot and root of inoculated plants were increased from 3.73 to 34.16% and 87.35 to 99.93%, respectively. The experimental results show that the plant growth promoting bacteria NBRIEAG-6 has the ability to help B. juncea to accumulate As maximally in plant root, and therefore it can be accounted as a new bacteria for As phytostabilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant value addition in human diets: genetic transformation of Brassica juncea with gamma-TMT gene for increased alpha-tocopherol content.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2007-02-01

    Alpha-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is implicated in decreasing the risk of several types of cancers, coronary heart disease and a number of degenerative human conditions, when taken in excess of the recommended daily allowance. Natural alpha-tocopherol has twice the bioavailability of the synthetic isomer. This study describes a successful attempt at fortifying human diets with natural alpha-tocopherol by taking recourse to genetic engineering of an important oilseed crop, Brassica juncea. Gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, coding for the enzyme catalysing the conversion of the large gamma-tocopherol pool to alpha-tocopherol, was overexpressed in B. juncea plants. The successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, while the enhanced transcript level was evident in the northern blot analysis. HPLC analysis of the seeds of the T1 transgenic lines showed a shift in tocopherol profile with the highest over-expressors having alpha-tocopherol levels as high as sixfold over the non-transgenic controls. This study discusses the production of a transgenic oilseed crop with high alpha-tocopherol levels, which can provide a feasible, innocuous, and inexpensive way of taking the beneficial effects of high alpha-tocopherol intake to the masses.

  18. Effect of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide on growth and photosynthetic parameters of Brassica juncea L. in imidacloprid soil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides are widely used to protect crop plants from various insect pests. However, application of pesticides causes phytotoxicity to plants which results in their impaired growth and development. Brassinosteroids are well known to protect plants under abiotic stress conditions. The purpose of the present study was to access the ameliorative role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) in Brassica juncea L. under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. B. juncea plants were raised from seeds soaked in 0.1, 1 and 100nM of EBR, and grown in soils amended with 250, 300 and 350mgkg(-1) IMI pesticide, and observed for growth, pigments and photosynthetic parameters after 30, 60 and 90 days of seed sowing. The plants grown in soil treated with IMI exhibited a significant reduction in shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic parameters like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, inter-cellular CO2 and transpiration rate, when compared with their respective controls. However, pigments which act as antioxidants such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and xanthophylls were increased with IMI stress. Pre-sowing seed treatment with EBR decreased the toxic effects of IMI and increased the growth, pigment biosynthesis and photosynthetic parameters of the plants grown in IMI amended soil. Maximum increase in all the growth and photosynthetic parameters was noticed in plants raised from seeds treated with 100nM EBR and grown in IMI amended soil.

  19. Mitochondrial nad2 gene is co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Fang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional patterns of mitochondrial respiratory related genes were investigated in cytoplasmic male-sterile and fertile maintainer lines of stem mustard, Brassica juncea. There were numerous differences in nad2 (subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase) between stem mustard CMS and its maintainer line. One novel open reading frame, hereafter named orfB gene, was located at the downstream of mitochondrial nad2 gene in the CMS. The novel orfB gene had high similarity with YMF19 family protein, orfB in Raphanus sativus, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum and Beta vulgaris, orfB-CMS in Daucus carota, atp8 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, 5' flanking of orf224 in B. napus (nap CMS) and 5' flanking of orf220 gene in CMS Brassica juncea. Three copies probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS) were found in the CMS line following Southern blotting digested with HindIII, but only a single copy in its maintainer line. Meanwhile, two transcripts were shown in the CMS line following Northern blotting while only one transcript was detected in the maintainer line, which were probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS). Meanwhile, the expression of nad2 gene was reduced in CMS bud compared to that in its maintainer line. We thus suggested that nad2 gene may be co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in the CMS. In addition, the specific fragment that was amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R just spanned partial sequences of nad2 gene and orfB gene. Such alterations in the nad2 gene would impact the activity of NADH dehydrogenase, and subsequently signaling, inducing the expression of nuclear genes involved in male sterility in this type of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  20. Co-inoculation of Urea and DAP Tolerant Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Integrated Approach for Growth Enhancement of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Dinesh K; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Bhavesh; Pandey, Piyush

    2010-10-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria--Sinorhizobium meliloti RMP1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRC(2) were studied for integrated nutrient management to obtain improved yield of Brassica juncea. Low concentrations of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) stimulated the growth of both S. meliloti RMP1 and P. aeruginosa GRC(2). 1 M of urea and 0.35 M of DAP was found lethal for RMP1, while 1.3 M and 0.37 M concentrations of urea and DAP proved to be toxic for GRC(2). Lc(50) was observed as 0.49 M of urea and 0.15 M of DAP for RMP1, and 0.66 M urea and 0.18 M of DAP for GRC(2). Urea and DAP adaptive variants of RMP1 and GRC(2) was isolated. Adaptive bacterial variants had better growth rates at sub-lethal (Lc(50)) concentrations of urea and DAP as compared to non-adaptive variants. They also retained plant growth promoting attributes similar to non adaptive variants. GRC(2) and RMP1 did not affect the growth of each other and were chemotactically active for DAP, urea as well as root exudates of B. juncea. Both the isolates colonized well in the rhizosphere of B. juncea, as their populations were recorded ≈5 log(10) cfu g(-1) after 120 days. Interestingly, the colonization ability was found even better when both strains were co-inoculated, as their population was recorded in the range of ≈6 log(10) cfu g(-1) after 120 days. In field trials, application of RMP1 and GRC(2) resulted in significant increase in biomass and yield of B. juncea as compared to control. However, yield was better with application of half dose and full dose of recommended fertilizers. Interestingly, the biomass as well as yield improved further when both isolates were applied together along with half dose of recommended fertilizers.

  1. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn Analysis of Anthocyanins, Flavonol Glycosides, and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Red Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea Coss Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Harnly, James

    2013-01-01

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens (Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of the parent flavonoid glycosides with reference compounds. The putative identifications were obtained from tandem mass data analysis and confirmed by the retention time, elution order, and UV–vis and high-resolution mass spectra. Further identifications were made by comparing the UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn data with those of reference compounds in the polyphenol database and in the literature. Twenty-seven acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 24 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5- glucosides, 3 acylated cyanidin triglucoside-5-glucosides, 37 flavonol glycosides, and 10 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected for the first time in brassica vegetables. At least 50 of them are reported for the first time in any plant materials. PMID:21970730

  2. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy for screening the individual and total glucosinolate contents in Indian mustard seed (Brassica juncea L. Czern. & Coss.).

    PubMed

    Font, Rafael; Del Río, Mercedes; Fernández-Martínez, José M; De Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2004-06-02

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for screening the sinigrin, gluconapin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolate contents of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. & Coss.) seed was assessed. Intact seed samples of this species were analyzed by NIRS and their reference values regressed against different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression. The coefficients of determination (r (2)) for sinigrin, gluconapin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolate contents were, respectively, 0.86, 0.95, 0.33, and 0.82. The standard deviation to standard error of prediction (SEP) ratio, and SEP to standard error of laboratory ratio were for these constituents as follows: sinigrin, 2.59 and 2.70; gluconapin, 4.16 and 2.08; 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 1.18 and 1.40; and total glucosinolates, 2.18 and 1.60. By comparison of commercial sinigrin spectrum with the first MPLS loadings of the sinigrin equation, it can be concluded that the molecule of sinigrin has a specific signal in the seed spectrum of Brassica.

  3. Brassica juncea seed meal amendment induces long-term suppressiveness to Pythium abappressorium under enclosed and open soil incubation conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pythium spp. contribute to development of aple replant disease. B. juncea seed meal (SM) soil amendment can effectively suppress Pythium via generation of biologically active allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). AITC is evaluated from soils with 48 h after SM application, yet preliminary evidence indicates...

  4. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  5. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues.

  6. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Alyemeni, Mohammed N.; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  7. Nitric oxide improves S-assimilation and GSH production to prevent inhibitory effects of cadmium stress on photosynthesis in mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Per, Tasir S; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gaseous signalling molecule that participates in many developmental and physiological processes, including defense responses against toxic metals in plants. The role of NO in cadmium (Cd)-induced toxic effects on photosynthesis was examined in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Exposure of plants to 50 μM Cd significantly enhanced oxidative stress (H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation) and impaired plant growth and photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance. However, the exogenous application of 100 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO) reversed the effects of Cd through its stimulation of ROS-scavenging compounds (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione). Exogenous SNP significantly increased plant growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content and diminished the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2) and TBARS content. It also reduced the effects of Cd on thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. Application of SNP together with 1.0 mM SO4(2-) showed better responses than SNP alone. The protective effect of NO was achieved through enhanced production of reduced glutathione (GSH). GSH biosynthesis in plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH biosynthetic inhibitor, was not completely inhibited in presence of NO and S, suggesting that NO stimulated S-assimilation and GSH production of Cd exposed plants. This study concludes that NO counteracts Cd toxicity in B. juncea strongly by regulating S-assimilation and GSH production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-10-01

    The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45-53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Chandana; Khan, Ehasanullah; Panthri, Medha; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Gupta, Meetu

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 μM As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration. Application of Si modulated the effect of As by improving morphological traits of root along with the development of both primary and lateral roots. Changes observed in root traits showed positive correlation with As induced cell death, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular superoxide radicals (O2(-)). Addition of 1.5 mM Si during As stress increased accumulation of As in roots. Mineral nutrient analysis was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique and positively correlated with increased cysteine, proline, MDA, H2O2 and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX). The results obtained from the above biochemical approaches support the protective and active role of Si in the regulation of As stress through the changes in root developmental process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of fungus-responsive cis-acting element in the promoter of Brassica juncea chitinase gene, BjCHI1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Zan, Xin-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Lei; Chen, Yu-Ling; Jia, Shuang-Wei; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chitinases are a group of pathogenesis-related proteins. The Brassica juncea chitinase gene BjCHI1 is highly inducible by pathogenic fungal infection, suggesting that the promoter of BjCHI1 might contain specific cis-acting element responsive to fungal attack. To identify the fungus-responsive element in BjCHI1 promoter (BjC-P), a series of binary plant transformation vectors were constructed by fusing the BjC-P or its deletion-derivatives to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression of the GUS reporter gene was systematically assayed by a transient gene expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves treated with fungal elicitor Hexa-N-Acetyl-Chitohexaose, as well as in transgenic Arabidopsis plants inoculated with fungus Botrytis cinerea. The histochemical and quantitative GUS assays showed that the W-box-like element (GTAGTGACTCAT) in the region (-668 to -657) was necessary for the fungus-response, although there were another five W-box-like elements in BjC-P. In addition, gain-of-function analysis demonstrated that the fragment (-409 to -337) coupled to the W-box-like element was needed for full magnitude of the fungal induction. These results revealed the existence of a novel regulation mechanism of W-box-like element involved in plant pathogenic resistance, and will benefit the potential application of BjC-P in engineering crops.

  11. Bacteria-zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg(-1) Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Photosynthetic activity, pigment composition and antioxidative response of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mohammad; Khan, Nafees A

    2007-05-01

    Photosynthetic performance, contents of chlorophyll and associated pigments, cellular damage and activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to cadmium (Cd) stress. Exposure to Cd severely restricted the net photosynthetic rate (P(N)) of RH-30 compared to Varuna. This corresponded to the reductions in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) in both the cultivars. Decline in chlorophyll (Chl) (a+b) and Chl a content was observed but decrease in Chl b was more conspicuous in Varuna under Cd treatments, which was responsible for higher Chl a:b ratio. Additionally, the relative amount of anthocyanin remained higher in Varuna compared to RH-30 even in the presence of high Cd concentration, while percent pheophytin content increased in RH-30 at low Cd concentration. A higher concentration of Cd (100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) resulted in elevated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content in both the cultivars. However, Varuna exhibited lower content of H(2)O(2) in comparison to RH-30. This was reflected in the increased cellular damage in RH-30, expressed by greater thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and electrolyte leakage. The enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also lower activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Varuna alleviated Cd stress and protected the photosynthetic activity.

  13. Preliminary studies on selenium-containing proteins in Brassica juncea by size exclusion chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, Sandra; Meija, Juris; Caruso, Joseph

    2004-02-01

    An approach for screening and resolving selenium-containing plant proteins was developed based on the combination of sample preparation and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. Different protein extraction protocols were investigated. A 24 h dodecylsulfate-mediated protein extraction in a sonication bath followed by acetone precipitation was found to be optimal. The use of different protein precipitate solubilizing agents (sodium dodecyl sulfate media and Tris-HCl buffer) demonstrates possible fractionation of the selenium-containing proteins. Selenium-containing protein screening and fractionation were carried out by means of SEC-ICP-MS. High molecular weight selenium containing proteins were solubilized with a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer, whereas the low molecular weight compounds were released into a Tris-HCl buffer. Size exclusion chromatography-fast protein liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS allowed separation and detection of several selenium-containing proteins in Se-supplemented wild type Brassica juncea plant, a fast growing selenium accumulator.

  14. Bacteria–zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg−1 Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  15. Cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial glyoxalase II from Brassica juncea that is upregulated by NaCl, Zn, and ABA

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Mukesh; Bisht, Rekha; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Sopory, S.K.; Bhalla-Sarin, Neera . E-mail: neerasarin@rediffmail.com

    2005-10-28

    A cDNA (1061 bp) Bj glyII was cloned from a mannitol induced library of Brassica juncea. It encoded a protein of 335 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.52 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the clone showed 92% and 56% identity with Pennisetum and rice glyoxalase II, respectively, and 30% identity was observed with the human glyoxalase II. Search for the identical residues revealed the presence of highly conserved THHHXDH domain which is involved in zinc binding. p-NN and pSORT analysis of this sequence revealed a N-terminal mitochondrial target peptide. The cDNA was cloned in pMAL and a fusion protein with MBP (78 kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified approximately sixfold by affinity purification on amylose column and showed its pH optima at 7.0. The K {sub m} was determined to be 120 {mu}M using S-D-lactoylglutathione as substrate. The expression of Bj glyII under various abiotic stress conditions showed that it is upregulated by salinity, heavy metal stress, and ABA.

  16. Induced lead binding phytochelatins in Brassica juncea and Sesuvium portulacastrum investigated by orthogonal chromatography inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zaier, H; Mudarra, A; Kutscher, D; Fernández de la Campa, M R; Abdelly, C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2010-06-25

    The accumulation and transport of lead in Brassica juncea and Sesuvium portulacastrum plants and the possible formation of complexes of this element with bioligands such as phytochelatins was studied in roots and shoots of plants exposed to different amounts of Pb(NO(3))(2). Speciation studies on the plant extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography and ion pair liquid chromatography coupled to UV and ICP-MS to monitor lead and sulphur. The identification of the species separated by chromatography was performed by MALDI-TOF-MS. In both types of exposed plants it was possible to identify the presence of the phytochelatin isoform PC(3). The results obtained suggest that both types of plants can be useful in studies of phytoremediation but the ability of S. portulacastrum to accumulate and redistribute Pb from root to shoot is more effective than B. juncea. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation.

  18. Effect of earthworms on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and metal uptake in Brassica juncea L. plants grown in cadmium-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parminder; Bali, Shagun; Sharma, Anket; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to examine the role of earthworms in phytoremediation of Cd and its effect on growth, pigment content, expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigments, photosynthetic efficiency and osmoprotectants in Brassica juncea L. plants grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. The effect of different Cd concentrations (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mM) was studied in 30 and 60-day-old plants grown in soils containing earthworms. It was observed that earthworm inoculation showed stimulatory effect on phytoremediation capacity and Cd uptake has increased by 49% (in 30-day-old plants) and 35% (in 60-day-old plants) in shoots and 13.3% (in 30-day-old plants) and 10% (in 60-day-old plants) in roots in 30 and 60-day-old plants in Cd (1.25 mM) treatments. Plant growth parameters such as root and shoot length, relative water content and tolerance index were found to increase in the presence of earthworms. Recovery in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and gas exchange parameters, i.e. net photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (G s ), intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) and transpiration rate (E t ), was observed after earthworm's supplementation. Modulation in expression of key enzymes for pigment synthesis, i.e. chlorophyllase, phytoene synthase, chalcone synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, was also observed. The results of our study revealed that earthworms help to mitigate the toxic effects produced by Cd on plant growth and photosynthetic efficiency along with enhanced phytoremediation capacity when co-inoculated with Cd in soil.

  19. Separation and determination of heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) by size exclusion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenggui G; Wong, Jonathan Woonchung C; Zhao, Haiyan Y; Zhang, Huijuan J; Li, Huixin X; Hu, Feng

    2007-08-01

    To elucidate the role of low molecular weight chelators in long-distance root-to-shoot transport of heavy metals in Indian mustard, an "off-line" size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to investigate heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). The size exclusion chromatogram presented only the peaks with molecular weight for all xylem saps and directly indicated the long-distance transport of phytochelatins (PCs) of Indian mustard under Cd stress. In the absence of Cd stress, only organic acids and inorganic anions participated in the long-distance transport of Cd, but organic acids, inorganic anions, glutathione (GSH), and cysteine might relate to the long-distance transport of Cu or Zn. In the presence of Cd stress, PCs were induced, and Cd ions in xylem saps were associated with the induced PCs. As the Cd levels in nutrient solution increased, more Cd in xylem saps adopted the form of PC-Cd. Although PCs might participate in the long-distance transport of Cd under Cd stress, the majority of Cd was still transported by organic acids and inorganic anions in xylem vessels. Moreover, results indicated the existence of complexation competition for GSH and cysteine between Cd and Cu (or Zn) and complexation competition for Cd between PCs and GSH (or cysteine) in xylem vessels. Our work might be very useful for understanding the mechanism of long-distance transport of heavy metals in hyperaccumulator.

  20. Effect of Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr Natural Isotopes on Foliar Structure and Plant Spectral Reflectance of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

    SciTech Connect

    Maruthi Sridhar, Y.S.B.B.; Han, F.X.; Monts, D.L.; Diehl, S.V.

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this study are: 1.) evaluate the capacity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for uptake and accumulation of Cs and Sr natural isotopes; 2.) identify foliar structural and other physiological changes (biomass, relative water content, etc.) resulting from the accumulation of these two elements; and 3.) monitor Cs and Sr uptake and bioaccumulation process by spectral reflectance. Potted Indian mustard plants were exposed to different concentrations of Cs (50 and 600 ppm) and Sr (50 and 300 ppm) natural isotopes in solution form for 23 days. Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr was found in the order of leaves > stems > roots for both Cs- and Sr-treated plants. The highest leaf Sr accumulation is observed to be 2708 mg kg{sup -1}, and the highest leaf Cs accumulation is 12251 mg kg{sup -1}. High translocation efficiency for both elements is documented by shoot/root concentration ratios greater than one. Relative water content (RWC) of the plants showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Cs-treated plants. Cs accumulation also affected the pigment concentration and internal structure of the leaf and the spectral characteristics of plants. Within the applied concentration range, Sr accumulation resulted in no significant changes in RWC, structural and spectral characteristics of mustard plants. Cs shoot concentration showed significant negative correlation with relative water content RWC (r = -0.88) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (r = -0.68) of plant shoots. The canopy spectral reflectance and NDVI analysis clearly revealed (p < 0.05) the stress caused by Cs accumulation. (authors)

  1. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) confers chromium stress tolerance in Brassica juncea L. by modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Anisur; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) toxicity is hazardous to the seed germination, growth, and development of plants. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid and is involved in stress tolerance in plants. To investigate the effects of GABA in alleviating Cr toxicity, we treated eight-d-old mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings with Cr (0.15 and 0.3 mM K2CrO4, 5 days) alone and in combination with GABA (125 µM) in a semi-hydroponic medium. The roots and shoots of the seedlings accumulated Cr in a dose-dependent manner, which led to an increase in oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content; superoxide (O2(•-)) generation; lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) content, and disrupted antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Chromium stress also reduced growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll (chl) content but increased phytochelatin (PC) and proline (Pro) content. Furthermore, supplementing the Cr-treated seedlings with GABA reduced Cr uptake and upregulated the non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, AsA; glutathione, GSH) and the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and finally reduced oxidative damage. Adding GABA also increased leaf RWC and chl content, decreased Pro and PC content, and restored plant growth. These findings shed light on the effect of GABA in improving the physiological mechanisms of mustard seedlings in response to Cr stress.

  2. Chemical extractability of As and Pb from soils across long-term abandoned metallic mine sites in Korea and their phytoavailability assessed by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Han, Junho; Kim, Juhee; Kim, Minhee; Moon, Deok Hyun; Sung, Jung-Suk; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-01-01

    The chemical extractability of As and Pb (by 5 mM CaCl2, 0.1 M HCl, 0.05 M NH4 (H2PO4), and aqua regia) from soils and their phytoavailability (by Brassica juncea) were assessed using 16 soil samples collected as a function of distance from mine pits across three long-term abandoned metallic mine sites. The total concentrations of As and Pb (17-41,000 and 27-10,047 mg kg(-1), respectively) decreased with increasing separation distance from the mine pits along a declining slope. However, the percentage of chemically leachable As and Pb mass (e.g., by 5 mM CaCl2, 0.1 M HCl, or 0.05 M NH4(H2PO4)) relative to total mass (e.g., by aqua regia) tended to increase exponentially with distance, indicating more chemically labile fractions present in less contaminated downgradient soils. Among soil components, extractable As concentrations were best described by coupling DCB-Al with other Al and Fe oxides. For Pb concentration, pH coupled to DCB-Al or Ox-Al provided a good predictive relationship. The inhibitory growth and uptake by plants were best correlated with the extractable concentrations by 5 mM CaCl2 and 0.1 M HCl. In conclusion, the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of As and Pb are highly influenced by the relative labile fraction in abandoned mine soils, and its distribution in soils is essentially correlated with sampling distance from mine pits.

  3. Split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid interaction reveals a novel interaction between a natural resistance associated macrophage protein and a membrane bound thioredoxin in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Marik, Ananya; Naiya, Haraprasad; Das, Madhumanti; Mukherjee, Gairik; Basu, Soumalee; Saha, Chinmay; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Bhattacharyya, Kankan; Seal, Anindita

    2016-11-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) are evolutionarily conserved metal transporters involved in the transport of essential and nonessential metals in plants. Fifty protein interactors of a Brassica juncea NRAMP protein was identified by a Split-Ubiquitin Yeast-Two-Hybrid screen. The interactors were predicted to function as components of stress response, signaling, development, RNA binding and processing. BjNRAMP4.1 interactors were particularly enriched in proteins taking part in photosynthetic or light regulated processes, or proteins predicted to be localized in plastid/chloroplast. Further, many interactors also had a suggested role in cellular redox regulation. Among these, the interaction of a photosynthesis-related thioredoxin, homologous to Arabidopsis HCF164 (High-chlorophyll fluorescence164) was studied in detail. Homology modeling of BjNRAMP4.1 suggested that it could be redox regulated by BjHCF164. In yeast, the interaction between the two proteins was found to increase in response to metal deficiency; Mn excess and exogenous thiol. Excess Mn also increased the interaction in planta and led to greater accumulation of the complex at the root apoplast. Network analysis of Arabidopsis homologs of BjNRAMP4.1 interactors showed enrichment of many protein components, central to chloroplastic/cellular ROS signaling. BjNRAMP4.1 interacted with BjHCF164 at the root membrane and also in the chloroplast in accordance with its proposed function related to photosynthesis, indicating that this interaction occurred at different sub-cellular locations depending on the tissue. This may serve as a link between metal homeostasis and chloroplastic/cellular ROS through protein-protein interaction.

  4. Thiourea, a ROS Scavenger, Regulates Source-to-Sink Relationship to Enhance Crop Yield and Oil Content in Brassica juncea (L.)

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Penna, Suprasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content. PMID:24058504

  5. Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. Results The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea – a naturally occurring allotetraploid species – grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. Conclusions A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least

  6. Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Lancilli, Clarissa; Giacomini, Barbara; Lucchini, Giorgio; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Nocito, Fabio Francesco

    2014-05-16

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea - a naturally occurring allotetraploid species - grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least two distinct signal transduction

  7. Calcium supplementation modulates arsenic-induced alterations and augments arsenic accumulation in callus cultures of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana Neeraj; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Paladi, Radhakrishna; Suprasanna, Penna

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of arsenate (AsV) exposure either alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) was investigated in callus cultures of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. cv. Pusa Bold grown for a period up to 24 h. The AsV (250 μM) + Ca (10 mM) treatment resulted in a significantly higher level of As (464 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) than AsV without Ca (167 μg g(-1) DW) treatment at 24 h. Furthermore, AsV + Ca-treated calli had a higher percent of AsIII (24-47%) than calli subjected to AsV treatment (12-14%). Despite this, AsV + Ca-treated calli did not show any signs of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation or cell death upon in vivo staining, while AsV-exposed calli had increased H(2)O(2), shrinkage of cytoplasmic contents, and cell death. Thus, AsV treatment induced oxidative stress, which in turn elicited a response of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites as compared with control and AsV + Ca treatment. The positive effects of Ca supplementation were also correlated to an increase in thiolic constituents', viz., cysteine, reduced glutathione, and glutathione reductase in AsV + Ca than in AsV treatment. An analysis of selected signaling related genes, e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK3 and MAPK6) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ3) suggested that AsV and AsV + Ca followed variable pathways to sense and signal the As stress. In AsV-alone treatment, jasmonate signaling was seemingly activated, while MAPK3 was not involved. In contrast, AsV + Ca treatment appeared to specifically inhibit jasmonate signaling and activate MAPK3. In conclusion, Ca supplementation may hold promise for achieving increased As accumulation in plants without compromising their tolerance.

  8. Brassica juncea 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase 1: expression and characterization of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2004-11-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase (HMGS; EC 2.3.3.10) is the second enzyme in the cytoplasmic mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and catalyses the condensation of acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA (AcAc-CoA) to yield S-HMG-CoA. In this study, we have first characterized in detail a plant HMGS, Brassica juncea HMGS1 (BjHMGS1), as a His6-tagged protein from Escherichia coli. Native gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the enzyme behaves as a homodimer with a calculated mass of 105.8 kDa. It is activated by 5 mM dithioerythreitol and is inhibited by F-244 which is specific for HMGS enzymes. It has a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C, with an energy of activation of 62.5 J x mol(-1). Unlike cytosolic HMGS from chicken and cockroach, cations like Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ did not stimulate His6-BjHMGS1 activity in vitro; instead all except Mg2+ were inhibitory. His6-BjHMGS1 has an apparent K(m-acetyl-CoA) of 43 microM and a V(max) of 0.47 micromol x mg(-1) x min(-1), and was inhibited by one of the substrates (AcAc-CoA) and by both products (HMG-CoA and HS-CoA). Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved amino acid residues in BjHMGS1 revealed that substitutions R157A, H188N and C212S resulted in a decreased V(max), indicating some involvement of these residues in catalytic capacity. Unlike His6-BjHMGS1 and its soluble purified mutant derivatives, the H188N mutant did not display substrate inhibition by AcAc-CoA. Substitution S359A resulted in a 10-fold increased specific activity. Based on these kinetic analyses, we generated a novel double mutation H188N/S359A, which resulted in a 10-fold increased specific activity, but still lacking inhibition by AcAc-CoA, strongly suggesting that His-188 is involved in conferring substrate inhibition on His6-BjHMGS1. Substitution of an aminoacyl residue resulting in loss of substrate inhibition has never been previously reported for any HMGS.

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for oil and protein contents and their relationships with other seed quality traits in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T; Rahman, M H; Stringam, G R; Yeh, F; Good, A G

    2006-11-01

    A detailed RFLP-genomic map was used to study the genetics of oil, seed and meal protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents in a recombinant doubled-haploid population developed by crossing black- and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea lines. Two yellow seed color genes (SC-B4, SC-A6) and one QTL for erucic acid content (E(1b)) showed pleiotropic effect for oil, protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents. Six (O-A1, O-A6, O-A9, O-B3, O-B4, O-B5) and five (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, SP-B6, SP-C) QTLs were significant for oil and seed protein contents, respectively. Tight linkage of three of these QTLs (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, O-A1, O-A9, O-B4), with opposite effects, poses challenge to the plant breeders for simultaneous improvement of negatively correlated (r = -0.7**) oil and seed protein contents. However, one QTL for oil content (O-B3) and two for seed protein content (SP-B6, SP-C) were found to be unlinked, which offer the possibility for simultaneous improvement of these two traits. QTLs significant for meal protein (MP-A1, MP-A6, MP-A9, MP-B5, MP-B6) were significant at least for oil, seed protein or sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents (T-A6, T-A7, T-B4, T-B5). Sum of oil and seed protein contents and sum of oil and meal protein contents had a perfect correlation, as well as same epistatic interactions and QTLs with similar additive effect. This indicates that protein in seed or meal has practically the same meaning for breeding purposes. Epistatic interactions were significant for the quality traits, and their linkage reflected association among the traits.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of thiourea-modulated salinity stress-responsive transcripts in seeds of Brassica juncea: identification of signalling and effector components of stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A. K.; Ramaswamy, N. K.; Suprasanna, P.; D'Souza, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Abiotic stresses including salinity are the major constraints to crop production. In this regard, the use of thiourea (TU) in imparting salinity-stress tolerance to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) has been demonstrated earlier. To gain an insight into the mechanism of TU action, various molecular and biochemical studies were conducted. Methods Microarray analysis was performed in seeds subjected to distilled water (control), 1 m NaCl, 1 m NaCl + 6·5 mm TU and 6·5 mm TU alone for 1 h. Real-time PCR validation of selected genes and biochemical studies were conducted under similar treatments at 1 h and 6 h. Key Results The microarray analysis revealed a differential expression profile of 33 genes in NaCl- and NaCl + TU-treated seeds, most of which are established markers of stress tolerance. The temporal regulation of eight selected genes by real-time PCR indicated their early and co-ordinated induction at 1 h in NaCl + TU only. Besides, NaCl + TU-treated seeds also maintained a higher level of abscisic acid, reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH : GSSG) ratio and activities of catalase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and glutathione-S-transferases, as compared with that of NaCl treatment. The addition of LaCl3 (a specific calcium-channel blocker) restricted the responses of TU both at molecular and biochemical level suggesting the possible involvement of a cytosolic calcium burst in the TU-mediated response. The TU-alone treatment was comparable to that of the control; however, it reduced the expression of some transcription factors and heat-shock proteins presumably due to the stabilization of the corresponding proteins. Conclusions The TU treatment co-ordinately regulates different signalling and effector mechanisms at an early stage to alleviate stress even under a high degree of salinity. This also indicates the potential of TU to be used as an effective bioregulator to impart salinity tolerance under field conditions. PMID:20736293

  11. Oil Seed Brassica's

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseed Brassicas, also known by the trade name of rapeseed-mustard, comprise Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata and three ecotypes of B. rapa. Their current global production exceeds 54 million tons, making them the second-most valuable source of vegetable oil in the world. Besides its pre-emin...

  12. Identification of miRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis in cytoplasmic male-sterile and its maintainer fertile lines of brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulatory network of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence is still largely unknown in plants, although numerous researches have been attempted to isolate genes involved in CMS. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis to identify microRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing in CMS and its maintainer fertile (MF) lines of Brassica juncea. Results We identified 197 known and 78 new candidate microRNAs during reproductive development of B. juncea. A total of 47 differentially expressed microRNAs between CMS and its MF lines were discovered, according to their sequencing reads number. Different expression levels of selected microRNAs were confirmed by using real-time quantitative PCR between CMS and MF lines. Furthermore, we observed that the transcriptional patterns of these microRNAs could be mimicked by artificially inhibiting mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase activity and its function in MF line by using treatment with oligomycin. Targeted genes of the microRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing and degradome approaches, including auxin response factor, NAC (No Apical Meristem) domain transcription factor, GRAS family transcription factor, MYB transcription factor, squamosa promoter binding protein, AP2-type transcription factor, homeobox/homeobox-leucine zipper family and TCP family transcription factors, which were observed to be differentially expressed between CMS and MF. Conclusion Taken together, from these findings we suggested microRNA might participate in the regulatory network of CMS by tuning fork in gene expressions in CMS B. juncea. The differential expression of miRNAs observed between CMS and MF lines suggested that biogenesis of miRNAs could be influenced in the CMS. PMID:23324572

  13. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review.

  14. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites.

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The detection

  15. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD)”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The

  16. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  17. Identification and In Silico Analysis of Major Redox Modulated Proteins from Brassica juncea Seedlings Using 2D Redox SDS PAGE (2-Dimensional Diagonal Redox Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Deswal, Renu

    2017-02-01

    The thiol-disulphide exchange regulates the activity of proteins by redox modulation. Many studies to analyze reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced changes in the gene expression have been reported, but efforts to detect H2O2 modified proteins are comparatively few. Two-dimensional diagonal redox sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to detect polypeptides which undergo thiol-disulphide exchange in Brassica juncea seedlings following H2O2 (10 mM) treatment for 30 min. Eleven redox responsive polypeptides were identified which included cruciferin, NLI [Nuclear LIM (Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 domains)] interacting protein phosphatase, RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) large subunit, and myrosinase. Redox modulation of RuBisCO large subunit was further confirmed by western blotting. However, the small subunit of RuBisCO was not affected by these redox changes. All redox modulated targets except NLI interacting protein (although it contains two cysteines) showed oxidation sensitive cysteines by in silico analysis. Interestingly, interactome of cruciferin and myrosinase indicated that they may have additional function(s) beside their well-known roles in the seedling development and abiotic stress respectively. Cruciferin showed interactions with stress associated proteins like defensing-like protein 192 and 2-cys peroxiredoxin. Similarly, myrosinase showed interactions with nitrilase and cytochrome p450 which are involved in nitrogen metabolism and/or hormone biosynthesis. This simple procedure can be used to detect major stress mediated redox changes in other plants.

  18. Interactive effects of sulfur and nitrogen supply on the concentration of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Gerendás, Jóska; Podestát, Jana; Stahl, Thorsten; Kübler, Kerstin; Brückner, Hans; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Mühling, Karl H

    2009-05-13

    Food derived from Brassica species is rich in glucosinolates. Hydrolysis of these compounds by myrosinase yields isothiocyanates and other breakdown products, which due to their pungency represent the primary purpose of Indian mustard cultivation. Strong interactive effects of S (0.0, 0.2, and 0.6 g pot(-1)) and N (1, 2, and 4 g pot(-1)) supply on growth, seed yield, and the concentrations of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in seeds were observed in growth experiments, reflecting the involvement of S-containing amino acids in both protein and glucosinolate synthesis. At intermediate S supply, a strong N-induced S limitation was apparent, resulting in high concentrations of sinigrin (12 micromol g(-1) of DM) and allyl isothiocyanate (213 micromol kg(-1) of DM) at low N supply only. Myrosinase activity in seeds increased under low N and low S supply, but the results do not suggest that sinigrin functions as a transient reservoir for S.

  19. Two Plastid DNA Lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—within the Tribe Brassiceae Can Be Best Explained by Reciprocal Crosses at Hexaploidy: Evidence from Divergence Times of the Plastid Genomes and R-Block Genes of the A and B Genomes of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K.; Pental, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle—B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)—originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages. PMID:24691069

  20. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  2. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa, while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa. The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea/B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea. C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  3. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  4. Phytoextraction of zinc, copper, nickel and lead from a contaminated soil by different species of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Purakayastha, T J; Viswanath, Thulasi; Bhadraray, S; Chhonkar, P K; Adhikari, P P; Suribabu, K

    2008-01-01

    In a pot culture experiment, five different species of Brassica (Brassica juncea, Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus, and Brassica nigra) were grown for screening possible accumulators of heavy metals, viz. Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb. The plants were grown to maturity in a soil irrigated with sewage effluents for more than two decades in West Delhi, India. The soil analysis showed enhanced accumulation of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb in this sewage-irrigated soil. Among all species, B. carinata showed the highest concentration (mg kg(-1)) as well as uptake (microg pot(-1)) of Ni and Pb at maturity. Although B. campestris showed a higher concentration of Zn in its shoots (stem plus leaf), B. carinata extracted the largest amount of this metal due to greater biomass production. However, B. juncea phytoextracted the largest amount of Cu from the soil. In general, the highest concentration and uptake of metal was observed in shoots compared to roots or seeds of the different species. Among the Brassica spp., B. carinata cv. DLSC1 emerged as the most promising, showing greater uptake of Zn, Ni, and Pb, while B. juncea cv. Pusa Bold showed the highest uptake of Cu. The B. napus also showed promise, as it ranked second with respect to total uptake of Pb, Zn, and Ni, and third for Cu. Total uptake of metals by Brassica spp. correlated negatively with available as well as the total soil metal concentrations. Among the root parameters, root length emerged as the powerful parameter to dictate the uptake of metals by Brassica spp. Probably for the first time, B. carinata was reported as a promising phytoextractor for Zn, Ni, and Pb, which performed better than B. juncea.

  5. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters.

    PubMed

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Andersen, Jonathan Sonne; Seynnaeve, David; Verhoye, Thalia; Fulawka, Rudy; Denolf, Peter; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-04-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica.

  6. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  7. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  8. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  9. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata) that arose through interspecific hybridizations. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, several aspects of the origin of the Brassica species and the relationships within and among these six species still remain open questions. Here, we successfully de novo assembled 60 complete chloroplast genomes of Brassica genotypes of all six species. A complete map of the single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genomes of different Brassica species was produced. The chloroplast genome consists of a Large and a Small Single Copy (LSC and SSC) region between two inverted repeats, and while these regions of chloroplast genomes have very different molecular evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses of different regions yielded no contradicting topologies and separated the Brassica genus into four clades. B. carinata and B. juncea share their chloroplast genome with one of their hybridization donors B. nigra and B. rapa, respectively, which fits the U model. B. rapa, surprisingly, shows evidence of two types of chloroplast genomes, with one type specific to some Italian broccoletto accessions. B. napus clearly has evidence for two independent hybridization events, as it contains either B. rapa chloroplast genomes. The divergence estimation suggests that B. nigra and B. carinata diverged from the main Brassica clade 13.7 million years ago (Mya), while B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged at 2.18 Mya. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA sequence not only provides insights into comparative genome analysis but also paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Localization, and Expression Analysis of Proanthocyanidin-Associated Genes in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianjun; Lu, Ying; Yan, Mingli; Sun, Donghong; Hu, Xuefang; Liu, Shuyan; Chen, Sheyuan; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Zhongsong

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) is a type of prominent flavonoid compound deposited in seed coats which controls the pigmentation in all Brassica species. Annotation of Brassica juncea genome survey sequences showed 72 PA genes; however, a functional description of these genes, especially how their interactions regulate seed pigmentation, remains elusive. In the present study, we designed 19 primer pairs to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of B. juncea. A total of 284 BAC clones were identified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences confirmed that 55 genes were cloned, with every Arabidopsis PA gene having 2–7 homologs in B. juncea. BLAST analysis using the recently released B. rapa or B. napus genome database identified 31 and 58 homologous genes, respectively. Mapping and phylogenetic analysis indicated that 30 B. juncea PA genes are located in the A-genome chromosomes except A04, whereas the remaining 25 genes are mapped to the B-genome chromosomes except B05 and B07. RNA-seq data and Fragments Per Kilobase of a transcript per Million mapped reads (FPKM) analysis showed that most of the PA genes were expressed in the seed coat of B. juncea and B. napus, and that BjuTT3, BjuTT18, BjuANR, BjuTT4-2, BjuTT4-3, BjuTT19-1, and BjuTT19-3 are transcriptionally regulated, and not expressed or downregulated in yellow-seeded testa. Importantly, our study facilitates in better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying Brassica PA profiles and accumulation, as well as in further characterization of PA genes. PMID:28018375

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Localization, and Expression Analysis of Proanthocyanidin-Associated Genes in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianjun; Lu, Ying; Yan, Mingli; Sun, Donghong; Hu, Xuefang; Liu, Shuyan; Chen, Sheyuan; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Zhongsong

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) is a type of prominent flavonoid compound deposited in seed coats which controls the pigmentation in all Brassica species. Annotation of Brassica juncea genome survey sequences showed 72 PA genes; however, a functional description of these genes, especially how their interactions regulate seed pigmentation, remains elusive. In the present study, we designed 19 primer pairs to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of B. juncea. A total of 284 BAC clones were identified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences confirmed that 55 genes were cloned, with every Arabidopsis PA gene having 2-7 homologs in B. juncea. BLAST analysis using the recently released B. rapa or B. napus genome database identified 31 and 58 homologous genes, respectively. Mapping and phylogenetic analysis indicated that 30 B. juncea PA genes are located in the A-genome chromosomes except A04, whereas the remaining 25 genes are mapped to the B-genome chromosomes except B05 and B07. RNA-seq data and Fragments Per Kilobase of a transcript per Million mapped reads (FPKM) analysis showed that most of the PA genes were expressed in the seed coat of B. juncea and B. napus, and that BjuTT3, BjuTT18, BjuANR, BjuTT4-2, BjuTT4-3, BjuTT19-1, and BjuTT19-3 are transcriptionally regulated, and not expressed or downregulated in yellow-seeded testa. Importantly, our study facilitates in better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying Brassica PA profiles and accumulation, as well as in further characterization of PA genes.

  12. Functional characterization of a novel Brassica LEAFY homolog from Indian mustard: Expression pattern and gain-of-function studies.

    PubMed

    Dhakate, Priyanka; Tyagi, Shikha; Singh, Anupama; Singh, Anandita

    2017-05-01

    LEAFY plays a central role in regulation of flowering time and floral meristem identity in plants. Unfortunately, LFY function remains uncharacterized in agronomicaly important Brassicas. Herein, we illustrate fine-mapping of expression domains of LFY in 15 cultivars of 6 Brassica species and describe gain-of-function phenotypes in Arabidopsis and Brassica. We depict early flowering and altered fatty-acid composition in transgenic seed. The cDNA encoding BjuLFY (417aa) shared only 85% identity with reported homolog of B.juncea implying distinctness. Quantitative RT-PCR based coarse expression mapping of BjuLFY in tissue samples representing 3 time points at specific days after sowing (DAS), pre-flowering (30 DAS), flowering (75 DAS) and post-flowering (110 DAS), depicted an intense pulse of BjuLFY expression restricted to primary floral buds (75 DAS) which subsided in secondary floral buds (110 DAS); expression in root samples was also recorded implying neo-functionalization. Fine-mapping of expression during flowering confirmed tightly regulated LFY expression during early stages of bud development in 15 cultivars of 6 Brassica species implying functional conservation. Ectopic expression of BjuLFY in A. thaliana and B. juncea caused floral meristem defects and precocious flowering. B. juncea transgenics (T1) over-expressing BjuLFY flowered 20days earlier produced normal flowers. GC-MS analysis of mature seed from Brassica transgenics showed an altered fatty-acid profile suggestive of seed maturation occurring at lower temperatures vis-à-vis control. Our findings implicate BjuLFY as a regulator of flowering in B. juncea and suggest its application in developing climate resilient crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H2O2 (88.89%) and O2(-) (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex.

  15. 'Alperujo' compost amendment of contaminated calcareous and acidic soils: effects on growth and trace element uptake by five Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Belda, Rosa M; Abad, Manuel

    2009-09-01

    The effects of 'alperujo' compost on trace element availability and on microbial activity of two contaminated soils, a calcareous soil (S1) with high contents of Pb and Zn, and an acidic soil (S2) with a substantial amount of Al, As, Pb and Zn, were assessed. Additionally, the growth and capacity for contaminant phytoextraction of five Brassica species were studied. Compost amendment did not affect S1, but in S2 it increased soil pH, thus reducing Al and Zn bioavailability and toxicity. Compost application also increased microbial population and bioactivity in both soils. Brassica plants did not survive in S2, yet they thrived in S1. When compost was applied to S2, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea grew adequately. Considering both the capacity to accumulate trace elements in the shoot and the ability to grow in the contaminated soils tested, the most efficient phytoextractors were Brassica juncea in S1 (particularly for Zn) and Brassica oleracea in S2 (for Al, As, Pb and Zn).

  16. Segregation for fertility and meiotic stability in novel Brassica allohexaploids.

    PubMed

    Mwathi, Margaret W; Gupta, Mehak; Atri, Chaya; Banga, Surinder S; Batley, Jacqueline; Mason, Annaliese S

    2017-04-01

    Allohexaploid Brassica populations reveal ongoing segregation for fertility, while genotype influences fertility and meiotic stability. Creation of a new Brassica allohexaploid species is of interest for the development of a crop type with increased heterosis and adaptability. At present, no naturally occurring, meiotically stable Brassica allohexaploid exists, with little data available on chromosome behaviour and meiotic control in allohexaploid germplasm. In this study, 100 plants from the cross B. carinata × B. rapa (A2 allohexaploid population) and 69 plants from the cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea (H2 allohexaploid population) were assessed for fertility and meiotic behaviour. Estimated pollen viability, self-pollinated seed set, number of seeds on the main shoot, number of pods on the main shoot, seeds per ten pods and plant height were measured for both the A2 and H2 populations and for a set of reference control cultivars. The H2 population had high segregation for pollen viability and meiotic stability, while the A2 population was characterised by low pollen fertility and a high level of chromosome loss. Both populations were taller, but had lower average fertility trait values than the control cultivar samples. The study also characterises fertility and meiotic chromosome behaviour in genotypes and progeny sets in heterozygous allotetraploid Brassica derived lines, and indicates that genotypes of the parents and H1 hybrids are affecting chromosome pairing and fertility phenotypes in the H2 population. The identification and characterisation of factors influencing stability in novel allohexaploid Brassica populations will assist in the development of this as a new crop species for food and agricultural benefit.

  17. Physio-biochemical basis of iron-sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and seed yield enhancement in B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Madhu; Nayan, Rajeev; Negi, Bhawana; Zaidi, M G H; Arora, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    Metal nanoparticles have been reported to influence plant growth and productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been completely understood yet. Current work describes the physio-biochemical basis of iron sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and yield enhancement in Brassica juncea. Iron sulfide nanoparticles (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm) were used for foliar treatment of B. juncea at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing, under field conditions. Foliar treatment of 4 ppm iron sulfide nanoparticle solution at 30 days after sowing brought maximal enhancement in agronomic attributes of the treated plants. Results of assays i.e. total chlorophyll, electrolyte leakage, Malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activities indicated the benign effect of iron sulfide nanoparticles on plants. Consequently, improved redox status of the treated plants, enabled them to assimilate higher photosynthate. The augmentation in growth and seed yield in iron sulfide nanoparticle treated plants was amply supported by activation of RUBISCO small subunit (rubisco S), RUBISCO large subunit (rubisco L), glutamine synthetase (gs) and glutamate synthase (gogat) genes. Thus, iron sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and yield enhancement is proposed to be mediated through activation of carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways at specific growth stage. The iron content in the leaves and root tissues of the treated plants was also significantly improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification.

  19. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  20. Different genome-specific chromosome stabilities in synthetic Brassica allohexaploids revealed by wide crosses with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xian-Hong; Wang, Jing; Li, Zai-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer, Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), parental genome separation during mitosis and meiosis is under genetic control but this phenomenon varies depending upon the Brassica species. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in parental genome separation, complex hybrids between synthetic Brassica allohexaploids (2n = 54, AABBCC) from three sources and O. violaceus were obtained and characterized. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to explore chromosomal/genomic components and rRNA gene expression of the complex hybrids and their progenies. Key Results Complex hybrids with variable fertility exhibited phenotypes that were different from the female allohexaploids and expressed some traits from O. violaceus. These hybrids were mixoploids (2n = 34–46) and retained partial complements of allohexaploids, including whole chromosomes of the A and B genomes and some of the C genome but no intact O. violaceus chromosomes; AFLP bands specific for O. violaceus, novel for two parents and absent in hexaploids were detected. The complex hybrids produced progenies with chromosomes/genomic complements biased to B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) and novel B. juncea lines with two genomes of different origins. The expression of rRNA genes from B. nigra was revealed in all allohexaploids and complex hybrids, showing that the hierarchy of nucleolar dominance (B. nigra, BB > B. rapa, AA > B. oleracea, CC) in Brassica allotetraploids was still valid in these plants. Conclusions The chromosomes of three genomes in these synthetic Brassica allohexaploids showed different genome-specific stabilities (B > A > C) under induction of alien chromosome elimination in crosses with O. violaceus, which was possibly affected by nucleolar dominance. PMID:19403626

  1. Hypersensitivity to pollen of four different species of Brassica: a clinico-immunologic evaluation in patients of respiratory allergy in India

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shipra; Katiyar, Raj Kishore; Gaur, Shailendra; Jain, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in India. Several species of Brassica are grown in different parts of country for its oilseeds. Objective The objective was to investigate allergenicity to antigenic extracts of pollen of 4 species of Brassica. Methods Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, and Brassica napus were selected for the detailed investigation. Pollen samples from each of the four species were collected from the polliniferous materials. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of these extracts were evaluated by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Skin prick test, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Western blot on atopic individuals. Results Out of the 159 atopic subjects tested, 21.38% were positive to at least one or other species of Brassica pollen, with highest skin positivity (13.20%) to B. campestris extract. Raised IgE with significant linear correlation with intensity of skin reactions was obtained. Protein fractions of 20, 25, 32, 37, 56, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. campestris and B. juncea whereas 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. nigra and B. napus as major IgE binding protein fractions. The patients also showed positivity to other inhalant pollen allergens tested. Conclusion IgE mediated hypersensitivity varied from 4.40% to 13.20% in Indian atopic subjects to pollen of one or the other species of Brassica. Protein fractions of 47, 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were identified as IgE binding by all the four species, however individual heterogeneity exists. Thus a local species may be more pertinent for immunotherapy. The major allergen needs to be further characterized. PMID:25379479

  2. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan.

  3. Development of a high density integrated reference genetic linkage map for the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Van Nguyen, Dan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Yang, Hyeon Kook; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    We constructed a high-density Brassica rapa integrated linkage map by combining a reference genetic map of 78 doubled haploid lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × Kenshin (CKDH) and a new map of 190 F2 lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × rapid cycling B. rapa (CRF2). The integrated map contains 1017 markers and covers 1262.0 cM of the B. rapa genome, with an average interlocus distance of 1.24 cM. High similarity of marker order and position was observed among the linkage groups of the maps with few short-distance inversions. In total, 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, anchored to 102 new bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and 146 intron polymorphic (IP) markers were mapped in the integrated map, which would be helpful to align the sequenced BACs in the ongoing multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP). Further, comparison of the B. rapa consensus map with the 10 B. juncea A-genome linkage groups by using 98 common IP markers showed high-degree colinearity between the A-genome linkage groups, except for few markers showing inversion or translocation. Suggesting that chromosomes are highly conserved between these Brassica species, although they evolved independently after divergence. The sequence information coming out of BrGSP would be useful for B. juncea breeding. and the identified Arabidopsis chromosomal blocks and known quantitative trait loci (QTL) information of B. juncea could be applied to improve other Brassica crops including B. rapa.

  4. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  7. Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: Implications for phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V.

    1997-05-01

    The toxicity of Zn and Cu in three species from the genus Brassica was examined to determine if these plants showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate a site contaminated with these two heavy metals. Hydroponically grown 12-d-old plants of Brassica juncea, B. rapa, and B. napus were grown for an additional 14 d in the presence of either elevated Zn (6.5 mg L{sup {minus}1}), Cu (0.32 mg L{sup {minus}1}), or Zn+Cu to quantify the toxic effects of these metals on several different growth parameters. With few exceptions, both root and shoot dry weight for all three species decreased significantly in the presence of heavy metals. Cu inhibited lateral root elongation in B. rapa, B. napus, and, to a lesser extent, B. juncea, while Zn tended to decrease only lateral root diameter. Both metals reduced shoot Fe and Mn concentrations in all three Brassica spp. to levels associated with Fe and Mn deficiencies. These deficiencies, however, did not correlate with observed patterns of leaf chlorosis. Nonetheless, heavy metal-induced inhibition of Fe and Mn accumulation may have been a significant factor in reducing plant growth. In terms of heavy metal removal, the Brassica spp, were more effective at removing Zn from the nutrient solution than Cu. The extent of Zn and Cu removal was reduced in the presence of both metals, as compared to the single heavy metal treatments. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Postfire invasion potential of rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)

    Treesearch

    Cecilia Lynn Kinter; Brian A. Mealor; Nancy L. Shaw; Ann L. Hild

    2007-01-01

    North American sagebrush steppe communities have been transformed by the introduction of invasive annual grasses and subsequent increase in fire size and frequency. We examined the effects of wildfires and environmental conditions on the ability of rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.), a perennial Eurasian composite, to invade degraded sagebrush...

  9. Digital gene expression analysis of gene expression differences within Brassica diploids and allopolyploids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-27

    Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.

  10. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-application of 6-ketone type brassinosteroid and metal chelator alleviates cadmium toxicity in B. juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravdeep; Yadav, Poonam; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Walia, Amandeep; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability. Pre-sowing treatment of castasterone supplemented with citric acid enhanced cadmium accumulation in the roots (from 752 μg/g DW to 1192 μg/g DW) and shoots (from 88 μg/g DW to 311 μg/g DW) and also improved root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of seedlings by 81, 17, 39, and 35 %, respectively. The co-application reduced malondialdehyde accumulation by 39 % and reduced oxidative stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, polyphenol oxidase), maximum enhancement (82 %) being in polyphenol oxidase. Similarly, the contents of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants were found to increase by 31 and 4 %, respectively. Confocal microscopy revealed enhanced content of NO. Results suggested that binary combination of castasterone and citric acid is helpful in improving cadmium accumulation and ameliorating metal toxicity in B. juncea seedlings.

  12. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Ni mobilizing PGPB from serpentine soils and their potential in promoting plant growth and Ni accumulation by Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2009-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the effects of Ni mobilizing bacteria on the plant growth and the uptake of Ni by Brassica juncea and Brassica oxyrrhina. Among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from the non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Astragalus incanus at a serpentine site in Bragança, north-east of Portugal, nine strains were selected based on their ability to solubilize Ni in soil. Further assessment on plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the Ni mobilizing strains to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as the sole N source and solubilize insoluble phosphate. All of the strains tested positive for IAA production and phosphate solubilization. In addition, all the strains, except SRS5 exhibited significant levels of siderophore production. Besides, five isolates showed positive for ACC deaminase activity. In pot experiments, inoculation of plants with Ni mobilizing strains increased the biomass of both B. juncea and B. oxyrrhina. Among the strains, Pseudomonas sp. SRI2, Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Bacillus sp. SN9 showed maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants. In addition, the strain SN9 significantly increased the Ni concentration in the root and shoot tissues of B. juncea and B. oxyrrhina. Further, a significantly positive correlation was observed between the bacterial Ni mobilization in soil and the total Ni uptake in both plant species. The findings, therefore, revealed that inoculation of Ni mobilizing plant growth-promoting bacterial strain SN9 increases the efficiency of phytoextraction directly by enhancing Ni accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass of B. juncea and B. oxyrrhina.

  14. Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-02-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  16. Real-time analysis of sulfur-containing volatiles in Brassica plants infested with root-feeding Delia radicum larvae using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Nicole M.; Samudrala, Devasena; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Plants damaged by herbivores emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a sensitive detection method for online analysis of herbivore-induced VOCs. Previously, it was found that Brassica nigra plants emit several sulfur-containing VOCs when attacked by cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) larvae with m/z 60 as a marker for the formation of allylisothiocyanate from the glucosinolate sinigrin. We tested the hypothesis that m/z 60 emission occurs only in plants with sinigrin in their roots. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide are only emitted after larval infestation. Methodology Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to track sulfur-containing VOCs from six different species of Brassica over time. The roots were either artificially damaged or infested with cabbage root fly larvae. Glucosinolate profiles of the roots were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography and compared with VOC emissions. Principal results Brassica nigra, B. juncea and B. napus primarily emitted m/z 60 directly after artificial damage or root fly infestation. Sulfide and methanethiol emissions from B. nigra and B. juncea also increased after larval damage but much later (6–12 h after damage). Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. carinata principally emitted methanethiol after artificial and after larval damage. Brassica oleracea and B. carinata showed some increase in m/z 60 emission after larval damage. Comparison with root glucosinolate profiles revealed that sinigrin cannot be the only precursor for m/z 60. Conclusions The principal compound emitted after root damage is determined by the plant species, and not by damage type or root glucosinolate composition. Once determined, the principal compounds may be used as markers for identifying damaged or infested plants. Further analyses of plant enzymes involved in the

  17. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  18. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes.

  19. The Fate of Chromosomes and Alleles in an Allohexaploid Brassica Population

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Annaliese S.; Nelson, Matthew N.; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A.; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E.; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r2 = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes. PMID:24558262

  20. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds.

  1. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pauline; Baker, David; Girin, Thomas; Perez, Amandine; Amoah, Stephen; King, Graham J; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-04-09

    The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea). Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This analysis also demonstrated that screening a 1 kb

  2. A comprehensive transcriptome analysis of silique development and dehiscence in Arabidopsis and Brassica integrating genotypic, interspecies and developmental comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Masrur R; Ruegger, Max; Bowling, Andrew; Butler, Holly; Cutler, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous flowering of Brassica napus (canola) leads to seeds and siliques at varying stages of maturity as harvest approaches. This range of maturation can result in premature silique dehiscence (pod shattering), resulting in yield losses, which may be worsened by environmental stresses. Therefore, a goal for canola crop improvement is to reduce shattering in order to maximize yield. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis on the dehiscence zone (DZ) and valve of Arabidopsis and Brassica siliques in shatter resistant and sensitive genotypes at several developmental stages. Among known Arabidopsis dehiscence genes, we confirmed that homologs of SHP1/2, FUL, ADPG1, NST1/3 and IND were associated with shattering in B. juncea and B. napus. We noted a correlation between reduced pectin degradation genes and shatter-resistance. Tension between lignified and non-lignified cells in the silique DZ plays a major role in dehiscence. Light microscopy revealed a smaller non-lignified separation layer in relatively shatter-resistant B. juncea relative to B. napus and this corresponded to increased expression of peroxidases involved in monolignol polymerization. Sustained repression of auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling in B. juncea relative to B. napus may cause differences in dehiscence zone structure and cell wall constituents. Tension on the dehiscence zone is a consequence of shrinkage and loss of flexibility in the valves, which is caused by senescence and desiccation. Reduced shattering was generally associated with upregulation of ABA signaling and down-regulation of ethylene and jasmonate signaling, corresponding to more pronounced stress responses and reduced senescence and photosynthesis. Overall, we identified 124 cell wall related genes and 103 transcription factors potentially involved in silique dehiscence. PMID:25523176

  3. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  4. BRASSICAS AND MUSTARDS”

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica and mustard cover crops are known for their rapid fall growth, great biomass production and nutrient scavenging ability. However, they are attracting renewed interest primarily because of their pest management characteristics. Most Brassica species release chemical compounds that may be tox...

  5. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-ting; Lu, Ping

    2002-04-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in Plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively. The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  6. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  7. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

  8. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  9. Brassica ASTRA: an integrated database for Brassica genomic research.

    PubMed

    Love, Christopher G; Robinson, Andrew J; Lim, Geraldine A C; Hopkins, Clare J; Batley, Jacqueline; Barker, Gary; Spangenberg, German C; Edwards, David

    2005-01-01

    Brassica ASTRA is a public database for genomic information on Brassica species. The database incorporates expressed sequences with Swiss-Prot and GenBank comparative sequence annotation as well as secondary Gene Ontology (GO) annotation derived from the comparison with Arabidopsis TAIR GO annotations. Simple sequence repeat molecular markers are identified within resident sequences and mapped onto the closely related Arabidopsis genome sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences derived from the Multinational Brassica Genome Project are also mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome sequence enabling users to identify candidate Brassica BACs corresponding to syntenic regions of Arabidopsis. This information is maintained in a MySQL database with a web interface providing the primary means of interrogation. The database is accessible at http://hornbill.cspp.latrobe.edu.au.

  10. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea. At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na+ extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchangers; (ii) better root K+ retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H+-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  11. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  12. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  13. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communities were examined 2 months after squash was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Amendment increased (P < 0.05) omnivorous nematodes in both experiments but increased only bacterivorous nematodes in ST experiment (P < 0.05), where the soil had relatively low organic matter (<2%). This effect of C. juncea amendment did not occur in LT experiment, in which bacterivores were already abundant. Fungivorous nematodes were not increased by C. juncea amendment in either experiment, but predatory nematodes were increased when present. Although most nematode faunal indices, including enrichment index, structure index, and channel index, were not affected by C. juncea amendment, structure index values were affected by previous soil organic matter content. Results illustrate the importance of considering soil history (organic matter, nutrient level, free-living nematode number) in anticipating changes following amendment with C. juncea hay. PMID:19262764

  14. Prey to predator size ratio influences foraging efficiency of larval Aeshna juncea dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Heikki; Ranta, Esa

    1996-05-01

    We investigated foraging behaviour of larval dragonflies Aeshna juncea in order to examine the significance of prey density and body size in predator-prey dynamics. A. juncea were offered separately three size-classes of Daphnia magna at low and high densities. The data were collected with direct observations of the foraging individuals. We found that large A. juncea larvae could better enhance their intake of prey biomass as prey size and prey density increased than their smaller conspecifics. However, increasing feeding efficiency of both larval instars was constrained by declining attack success and search rate with increasing prey size and density. With small D. magna, in contrast to large A. juncea, small A. juncea increased their searching efficiency as prey density increased keeping D. magna mortality rate at a constant level. In a predator-prey relationship this indicates stabilizing potential and feeding thresholds set by both prey density and prey-predator size ratio. Attack success dropped with prey size and density, but did not change in the course of the foraging bout. For both A. juncea sizes prey handling times increased as more medium and large prey were eaten. The slope of the increase became steeper with increasing prey-predator size ratio. These observations indicate that components of the predator-prey relationship vary with prey density, contrary to the basic assumptions of functional response equations. Moreover, the results suggest that the effects of prey density change during the ontogeny of predators and prey.

  15. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment. PMID:19262819

  16. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment.

  17. Reducing progoitrin and enriching glucoraphanin in Brassica napus seeds through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Hirani, Arvind H; McVetty, Peter B E; Daayf, Fouad; Quiros, Carlos F; Li, Genyi

    2012-05-01

    The hydrolytic products of glucosinolates in brassica crops are bioactive compounds. Some glucosinolate derivatives such as oxazolidine-2-thione from progoitrin in brassica oilseed meal are toxic and detrimental to animals, but some isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane are potent anti-carcinogens that have preventive effects on several human cancers. In most B. rapa, B. napus and B. juncea vegetables and oilseeds, there is no or only trace amount of glucoraphanin that is the precursor to sulforaphane. In this paper, RNA interference (RNAi) of the GSL-ALK gene family was used to down-regulate the expression of GSL-ALK genes in B. napus. The detrimental glucosinolate progoitrin was reduced by 65 %, and the beneficial glucosinolate glucoraphanin was increased to a relatively high concentration (42.6 μmol g(-1) seed) in seeds of B. napus transgenic plants through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family. Therefore, there is potential application of the new germplasm with reduced detrimental glucosinolates and increased beneficial glucosinolates for producing improved brassica vegetables.

  18. Nutrient Supply and Simulated Herbivory Differentially Alter the Metabolite Pools and the Efficacy of the Glucosinolate-Based Defense System in Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Almuziny, Makhdora; Decker, Charlotte; Wang, Dong; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra. Both species contained GSLs, predominantly sinigrin, but also derivatives of glucobrassicin. Compared to the control, N deficiency increased the sinigrin concentration in both species. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application increased sinigrin production in B. junceae, whereas in B. nigra MeJA increased sinigrin only under K-deficiency. Compared to the aliphatic-glucosinolates, MeJA application produced a greater compositional change in the profiles of indolic-glucosinolates. In both species the increase in sinigrin content of the tissue was associated with a decrease in its overall nutritive value as assessed by the content of sugars and amino acids. In B. juncea, application of MeJA decreased the conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) under both N and K deficiency. The potential activity of MYR decreased in both species under N deficiency. The reduced conversion of sinigrin to AITC and the lower activity of MYR suggest that the GSL-ITC defense system might have a limited efficiency in deterring generalist herbivores under environmental stress.

  19. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  20. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  1. Sources and Origin of Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica Genomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J D; Conway, J; Roberts, S J; Astley, D; Vicente, J G

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two hundred and seventy-six accessions of mainly Brassica spp. were screened for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris races. In Brassica oleracea (C genome), the majority of accessions were susceptible to all races, but 43% showed resistance to one or more of the rare races (2, 3, 5, and 6) and a single accession showed partial resistance to races 1, 3, 5, and 6. Further searches for resistance to races 1 and 4, currently the most important races worldwide, and race 6, the race with the widest host range, were made in accessions representing the A and B genomes. Strong resistance to race 4 was frequent in B. rapa (A genome) and B. napus (AC genome), indicating an A genome origin. Resistance to races 1 and 4 was present in a high proportion of B. nigra (B genome) and B. carinata (BC genome) accessions, indicating a B genome origin. B. juncea (AB genome) was the most resistant species, showing either strong resistance to races 1 and 4 or quantitative resistance to all races. Potentially race-nonspecific resistance was also found, but at a lower frequency, in B. rapa, B. nigra, and B. carinata. The combination of race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance could provide durable control of black rot of crucifers.

  2. Forage Brassicas: establishment, management, and challenges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage Brassicas are annuals that can be utilized as pasture during the spring, summer, and fall grazing seasons. Forage brassicas include varieties of rapeseed (rape), radish, turnip, swede, kale, and hybrids. Brassicas are able to produce up to 4 tons of DM/acre, and varieties of turnip, radish, a...

  3. Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Kaneko, Yukio; Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant varieties of Brassica napus, or oilseed rape, from which canola oil is obtained, are imported into Japan, where this plant is not commercially cultivated to a large extent. This study aimed to examine the distribution of herbicide-resistant B. napus and transgene flow to escaped populations of its closely related species, B. rapa and B. juncea. Samples were collected from 12 areas near major ports through which oilseed rape imports into Japan passed--Kashima, Chiba, Yokohama, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Sakai-Senboku, Kobe, Uno, Mizushima, Kita-Kyushu, and Hakata--and the presence of glyphosate- and/or glufosinate-resistant B. napus was confirmed in all areas except Yokohama, Sakai-Senboku, Uno, and Kita-Kyushu. The Yokkaichi area was the focus because several herbicide-resistant B. napus plants were detected not only on the roadside where oilseed rape spilled during transportation but also on the riverbanks, where escaped populations of B. rapa and B. juncea grew. Samples of B. napus that were tolerant to both herbicides were detected in four continuous years (2005-2008) in this area, suggesting the possibility of intraspecific transgene flow within the escaped B. napus populations. Moreover, in 2008, seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-tolerant B. napus (2n = 38) and B. rapa (2n = 20) were detected; some seedlings derived from the seeds collected at a Yokkaichi site showed glyphosate resistance and had 2n = 29 chromosomes. This observation strongly suggests the occurrence of hybridization between herbicide-resistant B. napus and escaped B. rapa and the probability of introgression of a herbicide-resistance gene into related escaped species.

  4. Differential expression of salt overly sensitive pathway genes determines salinity stress tolerance in Brassica genotypes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, K; Sairam, Raj K; Bhattacharya, R C

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the role of SOS pathway in salinity stress tolerance in Brassica spp. An experiment was conducted in pot culture with 4 Brassica genotypes, i.e., CS 52 and CS 54, Varuna and T 9 subjected to two levels of salinity treatments along with a control, viz., 1.65 (S(0)), 4.50 (S(1)) and 6.76 (S(2)) dS m(-1). Salinity treatment significantly decreased relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves and potassium (K) content in leaf, stem and root of all the genotypes. The decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and K content was significantly less in CS 52 and CS 54 as compared to Varuna and T 9. In contrast, the sodium (Na) content increased under salinity stress in all the plant parts in all the genotypes, however, the increase was less in CS 52 and CS 54, which also showed higher K/Na ratio, and thus more favourable cellular environment. Gene expression studies revealed the existence of a more efficient salt overly sensitive pathway composed of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter in CS 52 and CS 54 compared to Varuna and T 9. Sequence analyses of partial cDNAs showed the conserved nature of these genes, and their intra and intergenic relatedness. It is thus concluded that existence of an efficient SOS pathway, resulting in higher K/Na ratio, could be one of the major factor determining salinity stress tolerance of Brassica juncea genotypes CS 52 and CS 54.

  5. Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Cartea, María Elena; Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo

    2010-12-30

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  6. Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects and susceptibility of donkeys to Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa poisoning were determined at high and low doses. Seeds of C. juncea conaining 0.074% of dehyrdropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) were administered to three donkeys at 0.3, 0.6 and 1 g/kg body weight daily for 365 day...

  7. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  8. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006–2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  9. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.

  10. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  11. Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea (Poaceae)

    PubMed

    Nagaki; Kishii; Tsujimoto; Sasakuma

    1999-12-01

    Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences of 340 bp are known to occur in wheat and related species of tribe Triticeae. We isolated six and three Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea, respectively, both of which are perennial species. The sequences account for 0.5% and 0.2% of L. racemosus and P. juncea genomes, respectively, and using in situ hybridization were located in subtelomeric and interstitial regions of L. racemosus chromosomes. These sequences are clustered with those of Elymus trachycaulus in the phylogenetic tree. Our findings indicate that the Afa-family sequences have been amplified at least twice in the lineage of L. racemosus, P. juncea, and E. trachycaulus.

  12. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  13. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29–6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  14. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  15. Comparative Genome Mapping in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Lagercrantz, U.; Lydiate, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    A Brassica nigra genetic linkage map was developed from a highly polymorphic cross analyzed with a set of low copy number Brassica RFLP probes. The Brassica genome is extensively duplicated with eight distinct sets of chromosomal segments, each present in three copies, covering virtually the whole genome. Thus, B. nigra could be descended from a hexaploid ancestor. A comparative analysis of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa genomes, based on maps developed using a common set of RFLP probes, was also performed. The three genomes have distinct chromosomal structures differentiated by a large number of rearrangements, but collinear regions involving virtually the whole of each the three genomes were identified. The genic contents of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa were basically equivalent and differences in chromosome number (8, 9 and 10, respectively) are probably the result of chromsome fusions and/or fissions. The strong conservation of overall genic content across the three Brassica genomes mirrors the conservation of genic content observed over a much longer evolutionary span in cereals. However, the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in crucifers is much higher than that observed in cereal genomes. PMID:8978073

  16. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  17. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids. PMID:26583027

  18. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids.

  19. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on germination of vegetables and weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop in the Southeastern U.S., but it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp on weeds, vegetable crops, and cover crops were evaluated in growth chamber an...

  20. Phenotypic characterization of sixteen accessions of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous cover crop that provides benefits to a cropping system including nitrogen accumulation, weed suppression and soil stability. Adoption of sunn hemp as a cover crop is limited primarily due to the availability of seed sources, leading to high seed cost...

  1. Apical Dominance and Planting Density Effects on Weed Suppression by Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, Florida to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production of sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used; a representative seed producti...

  2. Assessment of glucose and stem dry weight among 16 Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume grown primarily for fiber, cover cropping, and as a green manure crop with potential to contribute to sustainability. Sunn hemp stems are potentially high sources of cellulose for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions ...

  3. Leaf area estimation from linear measurements in different ages of Crotalaria juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Juliana O DE; Toebe, Marcos; Tartaglia, Francieli L; Bandeira, Cirineu T; Tambara, André L

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the leaf area of Crotalaria juncea according to the linear dimensions of leaves from different ages. Two experiments were conducted with C. juncea cultivar IAC-KR1, in the 2014/2015 sowing seasons. At 59, 82, 102, 129 days after sowing (DAS) of the first and 61, 80, 92, 104 DAS of the second experiment, 500 leaves were collected, totaling 4,000 leaves. In each leaf, the linear dimensions were measured (length, width, length/width ratio and length × width product) and the specific leaf area was determined through Digimizer and Sigma Scan Pro software, after scanning images. Then, 3,200 leaves were randomly separated to generate mathematical models of leaf area (Y) in function of linear dimension (x), and 800 leaves for the models validation. In C. juncea, the leaf areas determined by Digimizer and Sigma Scan Pro software are identical. The estimation models of leaf area as a function of length × width product showed superior adjustments to those obtained based on the evaluation of only one linear dimension. The linear model Ŷ=0.7390x (R2=0.9849) of the real leaf area (Y) as a function of length × width product (x) is adequate to estimate the C. juncea leaf area.

  4. Penetration of Crotalaria juncea, Dolichos lablab, and Sesamum indicum Roots by Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1994-01-01

    Penetration of Crotalaria juncea (PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun) Dolichos lablab cv. Highworth, and Sesamum indicum by juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica was assessed to investigate the mechanism by which these plants may reduce nematode numbers in the field. Growth chamber experiments were conducted at 25 C, with vials containing 90 g sand infested with 450 J2; tomato (UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. Fifteen days after inoculation, roots were stained and the nematodes within stained roots were counted. Both C. juncea lines were highly resistant to penetration, as they contained significantly fewer nematodes per cm of root and per root system than the other plants. Although containing more nematodes per cm of root than C. juncea, S. indicum and D. lablab had significantly fewer nematodes per root system and per cm of root than tomato. Roots were significantly longer in the plants with the lowest nematode penetration. Although C. juncea, D. lablab, and S. indicum may have potential utility as cover or rotation crops in soil infested with M. javanica, further quantitative information on the reproduction of M. javanica and other nematodes in these plants is needed. PMID:19279887

  5. Nepetanal and nepetanoate: a new diterpene aldehyde and a benzene derivative ester from Nepeta juncea.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Farman Ullah; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Shah, M Raza; Anwar, Saeed

    2009-07-01

    One new tricyclic clerodane type diterpene aldehyde nepetanal (1) and one new benzene derivative nepetanoate (2) have been isolated from a plant Nepeta juncea together with two known compounds oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of modern spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data.

  6. Chondrilla juncea L.: Post-fire invasiveness in Artimesia tridentata communities of western north America

    Treesearch

    N. L. Shaw; A. L. Hild; C. L. Kinter

    2008-01-01

    Chondrilla juncea L. (Asteraceae), an invasive Eurasian apomictic perennial weed that increases vegetatively and from seed, as spread from the Pacific Northwest, USA into Artemisia tridentata communities of the northern Great Basin. Over the last 150 years this region has been heavily impacted by excessive livestock grazing, the invasion of exotic annual grasses,...

  7. Earliness, morphological, and reproductive variation among 16 sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accessions in Griffin, GA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous species used for cover cropping in subtropical and tropical countries. It has great potential as a new crop in the southeastern U.S. because of its ability to supply follow-up crops with adequate nitrogen levels for rotated crop sustenance. However, l...

  8. Origins and diversity of rush Skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) from three continents

    Treesearch

    J. Gaskin; C. L. Kinter; M. Schwarzlander; G. P. Markin; S. Novak; J. F. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.) is an invasive apomictic perennial plant in Australia, South- and North America, accidentally introduced from Eurasia, which shows differential resistance/tolerance to some herbicides and classical biological control agents. Rush skeletonweed biotypes have been locally described using morphology, phenology, isozyme patterns, and...

  9. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  10. Cytoplasmic and genomic effects on meiotic pairing in Brassica hybrids and allotetraploids from pair crosses of three cultivated diploids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-07-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids.

  11. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): An apomictic invader on three continents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessing the propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive populations using molecular markers provides insights into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) is an apomictic perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, Argentina, Canada and the USA. Invasive biotypes...

  12. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  13. Characteristics of cadmium accumulation and tolerance in novel Cd-accumulating crops, Avena strigosa and Crotalaria juncea.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Watanabe, Izumi; Yoshitomi, Akiko; Kiyono, Masako; Kuno, Katsuji

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in green manure crops were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating crops and to clarify the mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance. Seedlings of eight crop species were treated with Cd (1 mg l(-1) or 5 mg l(-1)) in the growing medium for 4 d. Cd concentration in leaves of Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. New-oat, Crotalaria juncea L. and Tagetes erecta L. cv. African-tall was greater than values used to define Cd-hyperaccumulation (>100 mg Cd kg(-1) DW). However, in leaves of T. erecta, lipid peroxidation level increased significantly, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase were depressed by both Cd treatments. By contrast, A. strigosa and C. juncea exhibited high Cd tolerance. Avena strigosa leaves showed higher activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase than those of other species tested. Crotalaria juncea showed higher amounts of total soluble phenolics which, in leaves, were doubled by 5 mg l(-1) Cd treatment. When two Cd-tolerant accumulators (A. strigosa and C. juncea) and the non-accumulator (C. spectabilis) were treated with lower Cd concentrations for 4 weeks, A. strigosa and C. juncea exhibited superior Cd accumulation in the shoots with greater biomass production compared with C. spectabilis. These results indicate that A. strigosa and C. juncea possess the greater potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance than common crops.

  14. A Field Method for Evaluating the Potential Durability of New Resistance Sources: Application to the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Brun, H; Levivier, S; Somda, I; Ruer, D; Renard, M; Chèvre, A M

    2000-09-01

    ABSTRACT To increase the longevity of new resistance genes by avoiding a rapid change in pathogen populations, we established a new field method to determine, before the release of a resistant cultivar, whether and how rapidly the pathogen population is capable of responding to the selective pressure we impose. This method was applied to the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus pathosystem. The potential durability of two new major resistance genes introgressed into B. napus from the Brassica B genome was tested separately for each gene under field conditions for 4 years. Successive inoculations with residues of the resistant lines mixed with susceptible contaminated plant material recovered at harvest the previous year were performed in autumn. The Jlm1 resistance gene originating from B. juncea conferred complete resistance on the B. napus-B. juncea recombinant lines MX and MXS to inoculation of the cotyledons with a large diversity of L. maculans isolates. It also gave a high level of stem canker resistance in the field against natural populations of the pathogen. A similar level of resistance was obtained in the B. napus-B. nigra addition line LA4+, containing B. nigra chromosome 4 in a B. napus background. In the second year of the field experiment (i.e., the first in which residues from the resistant lines were included in the inoculation material), both MX and LA4+ maintained a high level of resistance. In the third and fourth years of the field experiment, the resistance of MX and MXS exposed to inoculum produced from their own residues broke down, but against fungal populations from susceptible B. napus or resistant B. nigra material remained effective. In contrast, LA4+ remained highly resistant to all sources of inoculum for the 4-year experiment.

  15. Zinc induces distinct changes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the roots of two Brassica species with different sensitivity to zinc stress

    PubMed Central

    Feigl, Gábor; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient naturally present in soils, but anthropogenic activities can lead to accumulation in the environment and resulting damage to plants. Heavy metals such as Zn can induce oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which can reduce growth and yield in crop plants. This study assesses the interplay of these two families of molecules in order to evaluate the responses in roots of two Brassica species under high concentrations of Zn. Methods Nine-day-old hydroponically grown Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and B. napus (oilseed rape) seedlings were treated with ZnSO4 (0, 50, 150 and 300 µm) for 7 d. Stress intensity was assessed through analyses of cell wall damage and cell viability. Biochemical and cellular techniques were used to measure key components of the metabolism of ROS and RNS including lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants, protein nitration and content of superoxide radical (O2·−), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Key Results Analysis of morphological root damage and alterations of microelement homeostasis indicate that B. juncea is more tolerant to Zn stress than B. napus. ROS and RNS parameters suggest that the oxidative components are predominant compared with the nitrosative components in the root system of both species. Conclusions The results indicate a clear relationship between ROS and RNS metabolism as a mechanism of response against stress caused by an excess of Zn. The oxidative stress components seem to be more dominant than the elements of the nitrosative stress in the root system of these two Brassica species. PMID:25538112

  16. High-resolution molecular karyotyping uncovers pairing between ancestrally related Brassica chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Batley, Jacqueline; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Hayward, Alice; Cowling, Wallace A; Nelson, Matthew N

    2014-05-01

    How do chromosomal regions with differing degrees of homology and homeology interact at meiosis? We provide a novel analytical method based on simple genetics principles which can help to answer this important question. This method interrogates high-throughput molecular marker data in order to infer chromosome behavior at meiosis in interspecific hybrids. We validated this method using high-resolution molecular marker karyotyping in two experimental Brassica populations derived from interspecific crosses among B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata, using a single nucleotide polymorphism chip. This method of analysis successfully identified meiotic interactions between chromosomes sharing different degrees of similarity: full-length homologs; full-length homeologs; large sections of primary homeologs; and small sections of secondary homeologs. This analytical method can be applied to any allopolyploid species or fertile interspecific hybrid in order to detect meiotic associations. This genetic information can then be used to identify which genomic regions share functional homeology (i.e., retain enough similarity to allow pairing and segregation at meiosis). When applied to interspecific hybrids for which reference genome sequences are available, the question of how differing degrees of homology and homeology affect meiotic interactions may finally be resolved. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Arsenic affects the production of glucosinolate, thiol and phytochemical compounds: A comparison of two Brassica cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Chandana; Augustine, Rehna; Panthri, Medha; Zia, Ismat; Bisht, Naveen C; Gupta, Meetu

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic (As), a non-essential metalloid, severely affects the normal functioning of plants, animals and humans. Plants play a crucial role in metabolic, physiological and numerous detoxification mechanisms to cope up with As induced stress. This study aimed to examine the differential response in two Brassica juncea cultivars, Varuna and Pusa Jagannath (PJn) exposed to different doses of As (50, 150, 300 μM) for 48 h duration. Change in morphological traits, concentration of individual as well as total GSL, sulfur related thiol proteins, sulfur content, and phytochemicals were analyzed in both cultivars. Accumulation pattern of As showed dose dependent accumulation in both the cultivars, being more in PJn. Our finding revealed that both cultivars were tolerant at low concentrations of As, while at higher concentration Varuna excelled over PJn. The increased tolerance of Varuna cultivar exposed to 150 and 300 μM concentration of As, correlated with its increased thiol related proteins, sulfur content and phytochemicals, which serves as defence strategy in the plant against oxidative stress. Differential pattern of total as well as individual GSLs content was observed in both Varuna and PJn cultivars. Varuna cultivar showed higher level of total and aliphatic GSLs, which serves as defence compound with other detoxification machineries to combat As stress. Our findings provide foundation for developing metalloid tolerant crops by analyzing the role of different genes involved in GSL mechanism and signaling pathways in different organs of plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships of Leaf Area Index and NDVI for 12 Brassica Cultivars in Northeastern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; Long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim; Hunter, Kimberly; Shonnard, David

    2017-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is limited information on the relationship of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring Brassica oilseed crops. The 2014 results of NDVI and LAI of 12 spring varieties of oilseed crops were measured in a field study conducted in Sidney, Montana, USA under dryland conditions. These 12 varieties were grouped under six species (B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina sativa). The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of 12 varieties were evaluated throughout the growing season. Significant relationships and models between NDVI and LAI were obtained when 12 varieties were grouped under six species.

  19. Microspore culture reveals complex meiotic behaviour in a trigenomic Brassica hybrid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Takahira, Junko; Atri, Chhaya; Samans, Birgit; Hayward, Alice; Cowling, Wallace A; Batley, Jacqueline; Nelson, Matthew N

    2015-07-08

    Development of synthetic allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) would be beneficial for agriculture, as allelic contributions from three genomes could increase hybrid vigour and broaden adaptation. Microspore culture of a near-allohexaploid hybrid derived from the cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea was undertaken in order to assess the frequency and distribution of homologous and homoeologous crossovers in this trigenomic hybrid. SNP and SSR molecular markers were used to detect inheritance of A, B and C genome alleles in microspore-derived (MD) progeny. SNP allele copy number was also assessed. The MD progeny were also compared to progeny derived by self-pollination and open-pollination for fertility (estimated by self-pollinated seed set and pollen viability) and DNA ploidy (measured by flow cytometry). In the trigenomic hybrid, homologous chromosome pairs A(j)-A(n), B(j)-B(c) and C(n)-C(c) had similar meiotic crossover frequencies and segregation to that previously observed in established Brassica species, as demonstrated by marker haplotype analysis of the MD population. Homoeologous pairing between chromosomes A1-C1, A2-C2 and A7-C6 was detected at frequencies of 12-18 %, with other homoeologous chromosome regions associating from 8 % (A3-C3) to 0-1 % (A8-C8, A8-C9) of the time. Copy number analysis revealed eight instances of additional chromosomes and 20 instances of chromosomes present in one copy in somatically doubled MD progeny. Presence of chromosome A6 was positively correlated with self-pollinated seed set and pollen viability in the MD population. Many MD progeny were unable to produce self-pollinated seed (76 %) or viable pollen (53 %), although one MD plant produced 198 self-pollinated seeds. Average fertility was significantly lower in progeny obtained by microspore culture than progeny obtained by self-pollination or open-pollination, after excluding MD progeny which had not undergone chromosome doubling. Based on SNP data

  20. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-12-19

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of genes differentially modulated by sulfur and chromium identifies potential targets for phytoremediation and reveals a complex S-Cr interplay on sulfate transport regulation in B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Galla, Giulio; Wirtz, Markus; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Telatin, Valentina; Quaggiotti, Silvia; Hell, Ruediger; Barcaccia, Gianni; Malagoli, Mario

    2012-11-15

    A differential display cDNA-AFLP derived technique was used to identify gene transcripts regulated by chromium (Cr) in relation to sulfur (S) nutrition in Brassica juncea. Twelve-day old plants were grown with 200 μM sulfate (+S), without sulfate (-S), with 200 μM sulfate plus 200 μM chromate (+S+Cr), or without sulfate plus 200 μM chromate (-S+Cr). Forty-four combinations of degenerate primers were assayed, which allowed the detection of 346 Transcript-Derived Fragments (TDFs) differentially regulated by Cr and S at times 0, 10 min, 1 h, 24 h. Eight sulfate transporters were identified, whose transcript abundance was dependent on the levels of plant S-compounds. For some of these transporters, a tight coordinated regulation of gene expression was observed in response to Cr. The MapMan analysis revealed a differential pattern of gene expression between +S+Cr and -S+Cr plants for several other transcripts and highlighted an overlap among responses to metals, defence against pathogens and senescence, hence suggesting the existence of common mechanisms of gene regulation. Among the identified gene transcripts, those involved in S metabolism and proteolitic processes may represent potential targets of genetic engineering in efforts to increase Cr accumulation and tolerance in plant species employed in phytoremediation techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Velasco, P

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-one cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) varieties, including 16 local varieties and five commercial hybrids, were screened for resistance to the moth Mamestra brassicae L. under natural and artificial conditions in northwestern Spain. Resistance was assessed as the proportion of damaged plants and damaged leaves, leaf feeding injury, and number of larvae present. Correlation coefficients among damage traits showed that a visual scale (general appearance rating) should be a useful indicator of resistance. Most local varieties were highly susceptible to M. brassicae, whereas the commercial hybrids tested were resistant in terms of head foliage consumption and number of larvae per plant. Performance of varieties was similar under natural and artificial infestation although some of them performed differently at each year. Three local varieties (MBG-BRS0057, MBG-BRS0074, and MBG-BRS0452) were highly susceptible at both natural and artificial infestation conditions being MBG-BRS0074 the most damaged variety. Two local varieties (MBG-BRS0402 and MBG-BRS0535) and commercial hybrids were identified as resistant or moderately resistant to M. brassicae. Among them, 'Corazón de Buey' and 'Cabeza negra' were the most resistant and produced compact heads. These varieties could be useful sources of resistance to obtain resistant varieties to M. brassicae or as donors of resistance to other Brassica crops. The possible role of leaf traits, head compactness, and leaf glucosinolate content in relation to M. brassicae resistance is discussed.

  3. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools.

  4. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals.

  5. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  6. Principal component analysis for morphological, seed reproductive, and phenology traits in 16 sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume grown for fiber, cover cropping, and as a green manure crop with potential to contribute to sustainability. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions were grown in the southeast U.S. from 2008 to 2009 and characterized for horticultural traits including biomas...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  8. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  9. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and others demonstrated that WGT plays an important role in the speciation and morphotype diversification of Brassica plants. Comparative genomic analysis based on the genome sequences of B. rapa and A. thaliana clearly identified the WGT event and further demonstrated that the translocated Proto-Calepine Karyotype (tPCK, n=7) was the diploid ancestor of the three subgenomes in B. rapa. Following WGT, subsequent extensive genome fractionation, block reshuffling and chromosome reduction accompanied by paleocentromere descent from the three tPCK subgenomes during the rediploidization process produced stable diploid species. Genomic rearrangement of the diploid species and their hybridization then contributed to Brassica speciation. The subgenome dominance effect and biased gene retention, such as the over-retention of auxin-related genes after WGT, promoted functional gene evolution and thus propelled the expansion of rich morphotypes in the Brassica species. In conclusion, the WGT event initiated subsequent genomic and gene-level evolution, which further drove Brassica speciation and created rich morphotypes in each species. PMID:26504539

  10. (n-7) and (n-9) cis-Monounsaturated fatty acid contents of 12 Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2008-01-01

    cis-Vaccenic acid or cis-11-octadecenoic acid, a C18:1 (n-7) isomer of oleic acid (C18:1 (n-9)) has been found in several oilseeds. It is synthesized from palmitic acid (C16:0) via production of C16:1 (n-7) by a Delta9 desaturase and elongation by an elongase giving C18:1 (n-7). In this study, the fatty acid composition of 12 Brassica species was analyzed by GC-FID and confirmed by GC-MS. All species contained C18:1 (n-7), C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7) fatty acid isomers, suggesting that C18:1 (n-7) was elongated. The levels of these fatty acids varied according to the species. C18:1(n-7)) represented from 0.4% to 3.3% of the total relative fatty acid contents of the seeds. The contents of C20:1(n-7) and C22:1(n-7) levels were lower than C18:1(n-7) contents; the relative fatty acid composition varied from 0.02% to 1.3% and from below the limit of detection to 1.3% for C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7), respectively. The ratios of (n-7)/(n-9) ranged from 2.8% to 16.7%, 0.6% to 29.5% and 0% to 2.6% for C18:1, C20:1 and C22:2, respectively. Using statistical similarities or differences of the C18:1 (n-7)/(n-9) ratios for chemotaxonomy, the surveyed species could be arranged into three groups. The first group would include Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. tournefortii with Eruca sativa branching only related to B. napus. The second group would include B. tournefortii, Raphanus sativus and Sinapis alba. The last group would include B. juncea, B. carinata and B. nigra with no similarity/relationship between them and between the other species. Results suggested that the level of C20:1 (n-7) influenced the levels of all monounsaturated fatty acids with chain length higher than 20 carbons. On the other hand, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) levels, C16:1 being the parent of all (n-7) fatty acids, had no statistically significant correlation with the content of any of the fatty acids of the (n-7) or (n-9) family.

  11. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with A. thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from A. thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in B. rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved non-coding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each “cookbook style” analysis includes a step-by-step walk-through with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process. PMID:22866056

  12. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  13. Structural and functional comparative mapping between the Brassica A genomes in allotetraploid Brassica napus and diploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Congcong; Ramchiary, Nirala; Ma, Yongbiao; Jin, Mina; Feng, Ji; Li, Ruiyuan; Wang, Hao; Long, Yan; Choi, Su Ryun; Zhang, Chunyu; Cowling, Wallace A; Park, Beom Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Meng, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    Brassica napus (AACC genome) is an important oilseed crop that was formed by the fusion of the diploids B. rapa (AA) and B. oleracea (CC). The complete genomic sequence of the Brassica A genome will be available soon from the B. rapa genome sequencing project, but it is not clear how informative the A genome sequence in B. rapa (A(r)) will be for predicting the structure and function of the A subgenome in the allotetraploid Brassica species B. napus (A(n)). In this paper, we report the results of structural and functional comparative mapping between the A subgenomes of B. napus and B. rapa based on genetic maps that were anchored with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-sequence of B. rapa. We identified segmental conservation that represented by syntenic blocks in over one third of the A genome; meanwhile, comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed quality traits identified a dozen homologous regions with conserved function in the A genome of the two species. However, several genomic rearrangement events, such as inversions, intra- and inter-chromosomal translocations, were also observed, covering totally at least 5% of the A genome, between allotetraploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa. Based on these results, the A genomes of B. rapa and B. napus are mostly functionally conserved, but caution will be necessary in applying the full sequence data from B. rapa to the B. napus as a result of genomic rearrangements in the A genome between the two species.

  14. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    PubMed

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  16. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  17. Does salt stress constrain spatial distribution of dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrichia juncea on the beach?

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, Marinka E B; Teichmann, Corry; Meijdam, Noortje; Oliveras, Imma; Berendse, Frank; Limpens, Juul

    2017-09-01

    Rising sea levels threaten coastal safety by increasing the risk of flooding. Coastal dunes provide a natural form of coastal protection. Understanding drivers that constrain early development of dunes is necessary to assess whether dune development may keep pace with sea-level rise. In this study, we explored to what extent salt stress experienced by dune building plant species constrains their spatial distribution at the Dutch sandy coast. We conducted a field transplantation experiment and a glasshouse experiment with two dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrigia juncea. In the field, we measured salinity and monitored growth of transplanted grasses in four vegetation zones: (I) nonvegetated beach, (II) E. juncea occurring, (III) both species co-occurring, and (IV) A. arenaria dominant. In the glasshouse, we subjected the two species to six soil salinity treatments, with and without salt spray. We monitored biomass, photosynthesis, leaf sodium, and nutrient concentrations over a growing season. The vegetation zones were weakly associated with summer soil salinity; zone I and II were significantly more saline than zones III and IV. Ammophila arenaria performed equally (zone II) or better (zones III, IV) than E. juncea, suggesting soil salinity did not limit species performance. Both species showed severe winter mortality. In the glasshouse, A. arenaria biomass decreased linearly with soil salinity, presumably as a result of osmotic stress. Elytrigia juncea showed a nonlinear response to soil salinity with an optimum at 0.75% soil salinity. Our findings suggest that soil salinity stress either takes place in winter, or that development of vegetated dunes is less sensitive to soil salinity than hitherto expected.

  18. Antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated from mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Eun Ju; Choi, Jae Sue; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-09-11

    To investigate the effects of isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isorhamnetin diglucoside), a major flavonoid compound of mustard leaf, on oxidative stress due to diabetes mellitus, in vivo and in vitro studies were carried out. Oral administration of isorhamnetin diglucoside (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day for 10 days) to rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly reduced serum levels of glucose and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF), which is glycosylated with hemoglobin and is an indicator of oxidative stress. After intraperitoneal administration, isorhamnetin diglucoside did not show these activities. In addition, after oral administration, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels of serum, and liver and kidney mitochondria declined significantly compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner, whereas after intraperitoneal administration these levels fell only slightly. On the basis of the oral and intraperitoneal results, it was hypothesized that isorhamnetin diglucoside was converted to its metabolite in vivo, and its conversion to its aglycone, isorhamnetin, by beta-glucosidase was confirmed; isorhamnetin acted as an antioxidant. Moreover, it was observed that isorhamnetin diglucoside had no effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, whereas isorhamnetin showed a potent antioxidant effect in vitro. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of isorhamnetin reduced serum glucose and 5-HMF levels. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation in blood, liver, and kidney associated with diabetes mellitus declined after the administration of isorhamnetin. These results suggest that isorhamnetin diglucoside is metabolized in vivo by intestinal bacteria to isorhamnetin and that isorhamnetin plays an important role as an antioxidant.

  19. Evaluation of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) for potential risks of food allergy using bioinformatics and literature searches.

    PubMed

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Gupta, Vibha; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database. Initial comparisons in 2012 were performed with version 12 by methods recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India. Searches were repeated with version 15 in 2015. A literature search was performed using PubMed to identify reports of allergy associated with the sources of the three transgenes. Potential open reading frames at the DNA insertion site were evaluated for matches to allergens. No significant sequence identity matches were identified with Bar, Barnase or Barstar proteins or potential fusion peptides at the genomic-insert junctions compared to known allergens. No references were identified that associated the sources of the genes with allergy. Based on these results we conclude that the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins are unlikely to present any significant risk of food allergy to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Repellency of mustard (Brassica juncea) and arugula (Eruca sativa) plants, and plant oils against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an economic complex of at least 36 cryptic species, comprising a highly polyphagous and serious pest of vegetable, fiber and ornamental crops. Sustainable alternative measures such as cultural controls can be effective ...

  1. The use of chloro-complexation to enhance cadmium uptake by Zea mays and Brassica juncea: testing a "free ion activity model" and implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    López-Chuken, Ulrico J; Young, Scott D; Sánchez-González, Mónica N

    2010-09-01

    Maize and Indian mustard plants were studied to: 1) investigate the effect of Cl- complexation on Cd uptake from soil historically amended with sewage sludge (Cd 58 mg kg(-1)) and, 2) model the uptake of Cd by these plants with a Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM). Plants were treated with NaCl (50 to 300 mM in the soil pore water) along with controls using Na2SO4. Cadmium enhanced solubility in soil by Cl- generally reflected increases in Cd uptake by both plants. The free ion Cd2+ activity in soil solution, as modeled by WHAM-VI, remained almost unchanged despite the wide range of NaCl concentrations. Therefore, Na+ exchange for Cd2+ could not fully explain the differences in Cd content between the Cl- treatments because of the high buffering Cd2+ capacity in soiL Activities of Cd-chloro complexes showed the best correlations with the Cd concentrations in the plants compared to the activity of Cd2+. The FIAM showed a reasonable good fit for the plants when assuming competition by Cd2+ and CdCl+ for root sorption sites. Indirect evidence suggests that CaSO4 precipitation may have limited the formation of CdSO4 complexes and reduced Cd soil solubility. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed.

  2. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn analysis of anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in red mustard green (Brassica juncea (L) Coss variety)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the polyphenols in red mustard greens and identified 209 phenolic compounds: 67 anthocyanin, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned ...

  3. Biochemical evaluation of sulfur and nitrogen assimilation potential of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. & Coss.) under application of slow-release sulfur fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Abraham, G; Abdin, M Z

    2001-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of a slow sulfur-releasing fertilizer, sulfur glass fritz (SGF 1), on growth, photosynthesis, and sulfur, and nitrogen assimilation potentials of brown mustard (Brassicajuncea L. Czern. & Coss. cv. Pusa Jaikisan). Growth as indicated by biomass accumulation slowed down in response to the application of sulfur glass fritz. A similar trend was observed in the case of photosynthesis rate. The activity of two marker enzymes, ATP-sulfurylase and nitrate reductase, showed very low levels of activity, indicating poor assimilation of sulfur and nitrogen by the plant under sulfur glass fritz. It is therefore concluded that the release of sulfur by sulfur glass fritz is too slow and that the initial nonavailability of sulfur to the plants could lead to suboptimization of both sulfur- and nitrogen-assimilating enzymes. These factors may contribute to low rates of photosynthesis and poor growth.

  4. In vitro anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea for its biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P; Selvi, S Senthamil; Govindaraju, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea (J. juncea) against biofilm forming pathogenic strains. Methods Gorgonians were extracted with methanol and analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by Congo red agar supplemented with sucrose. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to monitor in vitro biofilm reduction by microtitre plate assay. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic gorgonian extract (MGE) was carried out by disc diffusion method followed by calculating the percentage of increase with crude methanol (CM). Results The presence of active functional group was exemplified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry, black, crystalline colonies confirm the production of extracellular polymeric substances responsible for biofilm formation in Congo red agar. MGE exhibited potential anti-biofilm activity against all tested bacterial strains. The anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract was comparably higher in Salmonella typhii followed by Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. The overall percentage of increase was higher by 50.2% to CM. Conclusions To conclude, anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial efficacy of J. juncea is impressive over biofilm producing pathogens and are good source for novel anti-bacterial compounds. PMID:23593571

  5. The Brassica napus receptor-like protein RLM2 is encoded by a second allele of the LepR3/Rlm2 blackleg resistance locus.

    PubMed

    Larkan, Nicholas J; Ma, Lisong; Borhan, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) are highly adaptable parts of the signalling apparatus for extracellular detection of plant pathogens. Resistance to blackleg disease of Brassica spp. caused by Leptosphaeria maculans is largely governed by host race-specific R-genes, including the LRR-RLP gene LepR3. The blackleg resistance gene Rlm2 was previously mapped to the same genetic interval as LepR3. In this study, the LepR3 locus of the Rlm2 Brassica napus line 'Glacier DH24287' was cloned, and B. napus transformants were analysed for recovery of the Rlm2 phenotype. Multiple B. napus, B. rapa and B. juncea lines were assessed for sequence variation at the locus. Rlm2 was found to be an allelic variant of the LepR3 LRR-RLP locus, conveying race-specific resistance to L. maculans isolates harbouring AvrLm2. Several defence-related LRR-RLPs have previously been shown to associate with the RLK SOBIR1 to facilitate defence signalling. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation of RLM2-SOBIR1 studies revealed that RLM2 interacts with SOBIR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana when co-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The interaction of RLM2 with AtSOBIR1 is suggestive of a conserved defence signalling pathway between B. napus and its close relative A. thaliana. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization and classification of one new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line based on morphological, cytological and molecular markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    PubMed

    Heng, Shuangping; Shi, Dianyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Huang, Tao; Li, Jinping; Liu, Liyan; Xia, Chunxiu; Yuan, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yuejin; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2015-09-01

    A new non-heading Chinese cabbage CMS line M119A was characterized and specific molecular markers were developed to classify different CMS types. One new non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line M119A was obtained by interspecific crosses between the recently discovered hau CMS line of Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, the line was characterized and compared with other five isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines. The M119A line produced six stamens without pollen and only two stamen fused together in fewer flowers. Tissue section indicated that anther abortion in M119A may have occurred during differentiation of the archesporial cells without pollen sac. All the six CMS lines were grouped into three types based on the presence of three PCR fragments of 825, 465 and 772 bp amplified with different mitochondrial genes specific primers. The 825-bp fragment was amplified both in 09-10A and H201A using the specific primer pair P-orf224-atp6, and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of pol CMS. The 465-bp fragment was amplified in 30A and 105A using the primer pair P-orf138 and shared 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of ogu CMS. The 772-bp fragment was amplified in M119A and H203A using the primer pair P-orf288 and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of hau CMS. Therefore, these markers could efficiently distinguish different types of isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage, which were useful for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding and heterosis utilization in cruciferous vegetables.

  7. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  8. Pairing and recombination at meiosis of Brassica rapa (AA) x Brassica napus (AACC) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Leflon, M; Eber, F; Letanneur, J C; Chelysheva, L; Coriton, O; Huteau, V; Ryder, C D; Barker, G; Jenczewski, E; Chèvre, A M

    2006-11-01

    Interspecific crosses contribute significantly to plant evolution enabling gene exchanges between species. The efficiency of interspecific crosses depends on the similarity between the implicated genomes as high levels of genome similarity are required to ensure appropriate chromosome pairing and genetic recombination. Brassica napus (AACC) is an allopolyploid, resulting from natural hybridization between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC), both being diploid species derived from a common ancestor. To study the relationships between genomes of these Brassica species, we have determined simultaneously the pairing and recombination pattern of A and C chromosomes during meiosis of AAC triploid hybrids, which result from the interspecific cross between natural B. napus and B. rapa. Different AAC triploid hybrids and their progenies have been analysed using cytogenetic, BAC-FISH, and molecular techniques. In 71% of the pollen mother cells, homologous A chromosomes paired regularly, and usually one chromosome of each pair was transmitted to the progeny. C chromosomes remained mainly univalent, but were involved in homoeologous pairing in 21.5% of the cells, and 13% of the transmitted C chromosomes were either recombined or broken. The rate of transmission of C chromosomes depended on the identity of the particular chromosome and on the way the hybrid was crossed, as the male or as the female parent, to B. napus or to B. rapa. Gene transfers in triploid hybrids are favoured between A genomes of B. rapa and B. napus, but also occur between A and C genomes though at lower rates.

  9. Small RNA changes in synthetic Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Xiao, Meili; Yu, Huasheng; Mason, Annaliese S; Yin, Jiaming; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Dongqing; Fu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Small RNAs and microRNAs were found to vary extensively in synthetic Brassica napus and subsequent generations, accompanied by the activation of transposable elements in response to hybridization and polyploidization. Resynthesizing B. napus by hybridization and chromosome doubling provides an approach to create novel polyploids and increases the usable genetic variability in oilseed rape. Although many studies have shown that small RNAs (sRNAs) act as important factor during hybridization and polyploidization in plants, much less is known on how sRNAs change in synthetic B. napus, particularly in subsequent generations after formation. We performed high-throughput sequencing of sRNAs in S1-S4 generations of synthetic B. napus and in the homozygous B. oleracea and B. rapa parent lines. We found that the number of small RNAs (sRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) doubled in synthetic B. napus relative to the parents. The proportions of common sRNAs detected varied from the S1 to S4 generations, suggesting sRNAs are unstable in synthetic B. napus. The majority of miRNAs (67.2 %) were non-additively expressed in the synthesized Brassica allotetraploid, and 33.3 % of miRNAs were novel in the resynthesized B. napus. The percentage of miRNAs derived from transposable elements (TEs) also increased, indicating transposon activation and increased transposon-associated miRNA production in response to hybridization and polyploidization. The number of target genes for each miRNA in the synthesized Brassica allotetraploid was doubled relative to the parents, enhancing the complexity of gene expression regulation. The potential roles of miRNAs and their targets are discussed. Our data demonstrate generational changes in sRNAs and miRNAs in synthesized B. napus.

  10. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42). It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE), B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org. PMID:21995777

  11. Variability for the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Crotolaria juncea L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiuhong; Khan, I; Mosjidis, J A; Wang, Hui; Livant, P

    2005-08-01

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is the most widely grown legume used as green manure in the tropics where it is also grown as a fiber and animal fodder crop. It has been reported that sunn hemp seeds contain several pyrrolizidine alkaloids that when ingested in sufficient amount can be toxic to animals and birds. No information is available regarding variability for the presences of the different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. The objective of this research was to analyze sunn hemp seeds of nine populations that originated in different parts of the world for several pyrrolizidine alkaloids to determine their level of variability for the presence of these compounds and to quantify the total amount of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. Of the nine pyrrolizidine alkaloids tested, the sunn hemp populations only had junceine and trichodesmine. PI 207657 had very low levels of both alkaloids and PI 314239, PI 322377, PI 346297, and the US cultivar Tropic Sun had very low levels of trichodesmine. Although juncein was present in higher amounts than trichodesmine in the seeds of most accessions, its value was deemed to be small. The amount of pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in the sunn hemp populations studied was low.

  12. Genotyping the clonal structure of a gorgonian coral, Junceella juncea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), using microsatellite loci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Dai, Chang-Feng

    2005-11-01

    The identification of different clones is fundamental to the study of population structure among organisms with mixed reproductive modes such as cnidarians. However, due to the low genetic variation of coral mtDNA and contamination by zooxanthellate DNA, very few molecular markers are available for studying the clonal structure of cnidarians. Herein we used four polymorphic loci of microsatellite DNA isolated from a zooxanthellae-free octocoral, Junceella juncea, to study its clonal structure in seven populations collected from three localities in Taiwan. In total, 40 multilocus genotypes were found among 152 colonies, and the number of genotypes (clones) identified in the seven populations ranged from 2 to 16. Each of the 40 multilocus genotypes was restricted to a single population, even where adjacent populations were only 100 m distant. The ratio of observed to expected genotypic diversity (Go:Ge) ranged from 0.217 to 0.650, and Go showed a significant departure from Ge ( p<0.05) at each site indicating that asexual fragmentation may play a major role in the maintenance of established populations. Mean relatedness ( R) values showed that genotypes within reefs were more closely related than those between regions. The results indicate that microsatellites are useful for discerning the clonal structures among and within populations at different spatial scales.

  13. Microbial production of succinic acid using crude and purified glycerol from a Crotalaria juncea based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Suvra; Villa, Raffaella; Sarkar, Ujjaini

    2016-06-01

    Microbial conversion of crude and purified glycerol obtained in the process of biorefining Crotalaria juncea is carried out to produce succinic acid using Escherichia coli. Batch tests are performed for nine different substrate concentrations of commercial, purified and crude glycerol, in order to observe cell growth and substrate utilization rate. Inhibitory (Halden-Andrew, Aiba-Edward, Tessier type and Andrews) as well as non-inhibitory (Monod, Moser and Tessier) models are fitted to the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration obtained from the growth curves. Considering the inhibition effect, Aiba-Edward model ranked 1 out of 7 in case of two samples and Haldane-Andrew model ranked 1 in case of one sample. Aiba-Edward model gave the best fitment for a large range of concentrations of all the three types of glycerol, crude, purified and laboratory grade. Maximum production of succinic acid is obtained from commercial glycerol at pH 7 and 37.5 °C.

  14. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  15. Genetic enhancement of Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Hannoufa, Abdelali; Pillai, Bhinu V S; Chellamma, Sreekala

    2014-02-01

    The ultimate value of the Brassica napus (canola) seed is derived from the oil fraction, which has long been recognized for its premium dietary attributes, including its low level of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and favorable omega-3 fatty acid profile. However, the protein (meal) portion of the seed has also received favorable attention for its essential amino acids, including abundance of sulfur-containing amino acids, such that B. napus protein is being contemplated for large scale use in livestock and fish feed formulations. Efforts to optimize the composition of B. napus oil and protein fractions are well documented; therefore, this article will review research concerned with optimizing secondary metabolites that affect the quality of seed oil and meal, from undesirable anti-nutritional factors to highl value beneficial products. The biological, agronomic, and economic values attributed to secondary metabolites have brought much needed attention to those in Brassica oilseeds and other crops. This review focuses on increasing levels of beneficial endogenous secondary metabolites (such as carotenoids, choline and tochopherols) and decreasing undesirable antinutritional factors (glucosinolates, sinapine and phytate). Molecular genetic approaches are given emphasis relative to classical breeding.

  16. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  17. Construction of Near Isogenic Lines in Brassica oleracea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The single species Brassica oleracea encompasses a remarkable diversity of morphotypes, including cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, marrowstem kale, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts as well as rapid-flowering morphologically simple genotypes reminiscent of Arabidopsis. To dissect the molecular basis of ...

  18. Identification of Novel QTLs for Isolate-Specific Partial Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10) were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR), unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS) markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR) genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R) on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa. PMID:24376876

  19. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases.

  20. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca(2+) signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes. PMID:28066482

  3. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein

    2016-03-31

    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  4. A computational study of the aerodynamic forces and power requirements of dragonfly (Aeschna juncea) hovering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mao; Lan, Shi Long

    2004-05-01

    Aerodynamic force generation and mechanical power requirements of a dragonfly (Aeschna juncea) in hovering flight are studied. The method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids is used. When the midstroke angles of attack in the downstroke and the upstroke are set to 52 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively (these values are close to those observed), the mean vertical force equals the insect weight, and the mean thrust is approximately zero. There are two large vertical force peaks in one flapping cycle. One is in the first half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the hindwings in their downstroke; the other is in the second half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the forewings in their downstroke. Hovering with a large stroke plane angle (52 degrees ), the dragonfly uses drag as a major source for its weight-supporting force (approximately 65% of the total vertical force is contributed by the drag and 35% by the lift of the wings). The vertical force coefficient of a wing is twice as large as the quasi-steady value. The interaction between the fore- and hindwings is not very strong and is detrimental to the vertical force generation. Compared with the case of a single wing in the same motion, the interaction effect reduces the vertical forces on the fore- and hindwings by 14% and 16%, respectively, of that of the corresponding single wing. The large vertical force is due to the unsteady flow effects. The mechanism of the unsteady force is that in each downstroke of the hindwing or the forewing, a new vortex ring containing downward momentum is generated, giving an upward force. The body-mass-specific power is 37 W kg(-1), which is mainly contributed by the aerodynamic power.

  5. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  6. Potential of forage brassicas for use in pasture-based livestock systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicas (Brassica spp.) are gaining popularity as high-quality forage for pasture-based livestock producers due to their use to extend the fall grazing season and during the summer forage slump. However, inclusion of brassicas in the diet can be limited by the presence of glucosinolates (a class o...

  7. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  8. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  9. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with

  10. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers.

  11. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New insights into antioxidant activity of Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Sotelo, T; Velasco, P

    2012-09-15

    Antioxidant activity of six Brassica crops-broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, nabicol and tronchuda cabbage-was measured at four plant stages with DPPH and FRAP assays. Samples taken three months after sowing showed the highest antioxidant activity. Kale crop possessed the highest antioxidant activity at this plant stage and also at the adult plant stage, while cauliflower showed the highest antioxidant activity in sprouts and in leaves taken two months after sowing. Brassica by-products could be used as sources of products with high content of antioxidants. Phenolic content and composition varied, depending on the crop under study and on the plant stage; sprout samples were much higher in hydroxycinnamic acids than the rest of samples. Differences in antioxidant activity of Brassica crops were related to differences in total phenolic content but also to differences in phenolic composition for most samples.

  13. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Bancroft, Ian; Cheng, Feng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Xixiang; Hua, Wei; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Xiyin; Freeling, Michael; Pires, J Chris; Paterson, Andrew H; Chalhoub, Boulos; Wang, Bo; Hayward, Alice; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Weisshaar, Bernd; Liu, Binghang; Li, Bo; Liu, Bo; Tong, Chaobo; Song, Chi; Duran, Christopher; Peng, Chunfang; Geng, Chunyu; Koh, Chushin; Lin, Chuyu; Edwards, David; Mu, Desheng; Shen, Di; Soumpourou, Eleni; Li, Fei; Fraser, Fiona; Conant, Gavin; Lassalle, Gilles; King, Graham J; Bonnema, Guusje; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Haiping; Belcram, Harry; Zhou, Heling; Hirakawa, Hideki; Abe, Hiroshi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Hui; Jin, Huizhe; Parkin, Isobel A P; Batley, Jacqueline; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Just, Jérémy; Li, Jianwen; Xu, Jiaohui; Deng, Jie; Kim, Jin A; Li, Jingping; Yu, Jingyin; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jinpeng; Min, Jiumeng; Poulain, Julie; Wang, Jun; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Wu, Kui; Wang, Li; Fang, Lu; Trick, Martin; Links, Matthew G; Zhao, Meixia; Jin, Mina; Ramchiary, Nirala; Drou, Nizar; Berkman, Paul J; Cai, Qingle; Huang, Quanfei; Li, Ruiqiang; Tabata, Satoshi; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shujiang; Huang, Shunmou; Sato, Shusei; Sun, Silong; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Choi, Su-Ryun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Xiang; Tan, Xu; Xu, Xun; Wang, Yan; Qiu, Yang; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yongchen; Liao, Yongcui; Lim, Yongpyo; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhiwen; Xiong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-08-28

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.

  14. Genome resequencing and comparative variome analysis in a Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea collection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cai, Chengcheng; Fu, Lixia; Liang, Jianli; Borm, Theo; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhang, Fenglan; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits. We selected and resequenced 199 B. rapa and 119 B. oleracea accessions representing 12 and nine morphotypes, respectively. Based on these resequencing data, we obtained 2,249,473 and 3,852,169 high quality SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as 303,617 and 417,004 InDels for the B. rapa and B. oleracea populations, respectively. The variome datasets of B. rapa and B. oleracea represent valuable resources to researchers working on evolution, domestication or breeding of Brassica vegetable crops. PMID:27996963

  15. Selection against hybrids in mixed populations of Brassica rapa and Brassica napus: model and synthesis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Tom J; Hesse, Elze

    2012-06-01

    Pollen of the crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) can cross-fertilize ovules of Brassica rapa (AA), which leads to an influx of unpaired C-chromosomes into wild B. rapa populations. The presence of such extra chromosomes is thought to be an indicator of introgression. Backcrosses and F(1) hybrids were found in Danish populations but, surprisingly, only F(1) hybrids were found in the UK and the Netherlands. Here, a model tests how the level of selection and biased vs unbiased transmission affect the population frequency of C-chromosomes. In the biased-transmission scenario the experimental results of the first backcross are extrapolated to estimate survival of gametes with different numbers of C-chromosomes from all crosses in the population. With biased transmission, the frequency of C-chromosomes always rapidly declines to zero. With unbiased transmission, the continued presence of plants with extra C-chromosomes depends on selection in the adult stage and we argue that this is the most realistic option for modeling populations. We suggest that selection in the field against plants with unpaired C-chromosomes is strong in Dutch and UK populations. The model highlights what we do not know and makes suggestions for further research on introgression.

  16. Integration of Brassica A genome genetic linkage map between Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Keita; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian

    2008-03-01

    An integrated linkage map between B. napus and B. rapa was constructed based on a total of 44 common markers comprising 41 SSR (33 BRMS, 6 Saskatoon, and 2 BBSRC) and 3 SNP/indel markers. Between 3 and 7 common markers were mapped onto each of the linkage groups A1 to A10. The position and order of most common markers revealed a high level of colinearity between species, although two small regions on A4, A5, and A10 revealed apparent local inversions between them. These results indicate that the A genome of Brassica has retained a high degree of colinearity between species, despite each species having evolved independently after the integration of the A and C genomes in the amphidiploid state. Our results provide a genetic integration of the Brassica A genome between B. napus and B. rapa. As the analysis employed sequence-based molecular markers, the information will accelerate the exploitation of the B. rapa genome sequence for the improvement of oilseed rape.

  17. Genome resequencing and comparative variome analysis in a Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea collection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cai, Chengcheng; Fu, Lixia; Liang, Jianli; Borm, Theo; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhang, Fenglan; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-12-20

    The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits. We selected and resequenced 199 B. rapa and 119 B. oleracea accessions representing 12 and nine morphotypes, respectively. Based on these resequencing data, we obtained 2,249,473 and 3,852,169 high quality SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as 303,617 and 417,004 InDels for the B. rapa and B. oleracea populations, respectively. The variome datasets of B. rapa and B. oleracea represent valuable resources to researchers working on evolution, domestication or breeding of Brassica vegetable crops.

  18. Intrahaplotype polymorphism at the Brassica S locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miege, C; Ruffio-Châble, V; Schierup, M H; Cabrillac, D; Dumas, C; Gaude, T; Cock, J M

    2001-01-01

    The S locus receptor kinase and the S locus glycoproteins are encoded by genes located at the S locus, which controls the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In class II self-incompatibility haplotypes, S locus glycoproteins can be encoded by two different genes, SLGA and SLGB. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of these genes in several independently isolated plants, all of which carry the same S haplotype (S(2)). Two groups of S(2) haplotypes could be distinguished depending on whether SRK was associated with SLGA or SLGB. Surprisingly, SRK alleles from the two groups could be distinguished at the sequence level, suggesting that recombination rarely occurs between haplotypes of the two groups. An analysis of the distribution of polymorphisms along the S domain of SRK showed that hypervariable domains I and II tend to be conserved within haplotypes but to be highly variable between haplotypes. This is consistent with these domains playing a role in the determination of haplotype specificity. PMID:11606555

  19. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    PubMed

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  20. Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Shuning; Liang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-06-04

    Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. In total, we identified 73 genes in B. rapa as orthologs of 41 anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in A. thaliana. In B. rapa, the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (ABGs) have expanded and most genes exist in more than one copy. The anthocyanin biosynthetic structural genes have expanded through whole genome and tandem duplication in B. rapa. More structural genes located upstream of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway have been retained than downstream. More negative regulatory genes are retained in the anthocyanin biosynthesis regulatory system of B. rapa. These results will promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis, as well as help the improvement of the nutritional quality of B. rapa through the breeding of high anthocyanin content varieties.

  1. Lead effects on Brassica napus photosynthetic organs.

    PubMed

    Ferreyroa, Gisele V; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Trinelli, María A; Lavado, Raúl S; Molina, Fernando V

    2017-06-01

    In this study, effects of lead on ultracellular structure and pigment contents of Brassica napus were examined. Pb(II) was added in soluble form to soil prior to sowing. Pb contents were measured in plant organs at the ontogenetic stages of flowering (FL) and physiological maturity (PM). Pigment contents were evaluated through reflectance measurements. Pb content in organs was found to decrease in the order; roots>stems>leaves. Lead content in senescent leaves at FL stage was significantly higher than harvested leaves, strongly suggesting a detoxification mechanism. Leaves and stems harvested at the PM stage showed damage at subcellular level, namely chloroplast disorganization, cell wall damage and presence of osmiophilic bodies. Chlorophyll content increased in the presence of Pb at the FL stage, compared with control; at the PM stage, chlorophyll contents decreased with low Pb concentration but showed no significant differences with control at high Pb soil concentration. The results suggest an increase in antioxidants at low Pb concentration and cell damage at higher lead concentration.

  2. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. Results In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. Conclusions The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes. PMID:24195484

  3. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  4. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species. PMID:24130371

  5. A multiplex PCR for rapid identification of Brassica species in the triangle of U.

    PubMed

    Koh, Joshua C O; Barbulescu, Denise M; Norton, Sally; Redden, Bob; Salisbury, Phil A; Kaur, Sukhjiwan; Cogan, Noel; Slater, Anthony T

    2017-01-01

    Within the Brassicaceae, six species from the genus Brassica are widely cultivated throughout the world as oilseed, condiment, fodder or vegetable crops. The genetic relationships among the six Brassica species are described by U's triangle model. Extensive shared traits and diverse morphotypes among Brassica species make identification and classification based on phenotypic data alone challenging and unreliable, especially when dealing with large germplasm collections. Consequently, a major issue for genebank collections is ensuring the correct identification of species. Molecular genotyping based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium Brassica napus 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array has been used to identify species and assess genetic diversity of Brassica collections. However, these methods are technically challenging, expensive and time-consuming, making them unsuitable for routine or rapid screening of Brassica accessions for germplasm management. A cheaper, faster and simpler method for Brassica species identification is described here. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) consisting of new and existing primers specific to the Brassica A, B and C genomes was able to reliably distinguish all six Brassica species in the triangle of U with 16 control samples of known species identity. Further validation against 120 Brassica accessions previously genotyped showed that the MPCR is highly accurate and comparable to more advanced techniques such as SSR marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium B. napus 60K SNP array. In addition, the MPCR was sensitive enough to detect seed contaminations in pooled seed samples of Brassica accessions. A cheap and fast multiplex PCR assay for identification of Brassica species in the triangle of U was developed and validated in this study. The MPCR assay can be readily implemented in any basic molecular laboratory and should prove useful for the management of Brassica

  6. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  7. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  8. Prospects for Classical Biological Control of Saharan Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saharan mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a winter annual plant that is native to the Mediterranean Basin and is becoming highly invasive in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts and adjacent areas and has spread great distances along highways from its original infestation. It is becoming a serious probl...

  9. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  10. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  11. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  12. CUE - B-STIC, Kadenyuk pollinates Brassica rapa plants

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    STS087-332-034 (19 November – 5 December 1997) --- On the Space Shuttle Columbia's middeck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica Rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Leonid Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  13. Integrated omics study of lipid droplets from Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong; Chen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous. In this report, lipid droplets were observed in the resting spores of P. brassicae. 295 lipid droplet-associated proteins were identified and categorized into nine groups. Transcriptome analysis of these proteins during three different zoosporic stages revealed differences in gene expression pattern. GO enrichment analysis revealed that these proteins associated with lipid droplets were mainly linked to biosynthesis and metabolism. GC-MS analysis revealed that lipid droplets contain seven types of free fatty acids: saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11, C18:2, C20:4 and C20:5. P. brassicae accumulated a large amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs). We systematically analyzed the putative proteins involved in TAG biosynthesis and its metabolic pathway. KEGG pathway analysis defined 3390 genes, including 167 genes involved in lipid metabolism. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 162 candidate enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were differential expressed. Our omics studies are the first to investigate the lipid droplet organelles in P. brassicae, providing a reference resource to study protist lipid droplets. PMID:27874080

  14. Chalazal seed coat development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jenna L; Khan, Deirdre; Becker, Michael G; Chan, Ainsley; Dufresne, André; Sumner, Michael; Belmonte, Mark F

    2015-12-01

    The chalazal seed coat (CZSC) is a maternal subregion adjacent to the funiculus which serves as the first point of entry into the developing seed. This subregion is of particular interest in Brassica napus (canola) because of its location within the seed and its putative contribution to seed filling processes. In this study, the CZSC of canola was characterized at an anatomical and molecular level to (i) describe the cellular and subcellular features of the CZSC throughout seed development, (ii) reveal cellular features of the CZSC that relate to transport processes, (iii) study gene activity of transporters and transcriptional regulators in the CZSC subregion over developmental time, and (iv) briefly investigate the contribution of the A and C constituent genomes to B. napus CZSC gene activity. We found that the CZSC contains terminating ends of xylem and phloem as well as a mosaic of endomembrane and plasmodesmatal connections, suggesting that this subregion is likely involved in the transport of material and information from the maternal tissues of the plant to other regions of the seed. Laser microdissection coupled with quantitative RT-PCR identified the relative abundance of sugar, water, auxin and amino acid transporter homologs inherited from the constituent genomes of this complex polyploid. We also studied the expression of three transcription factors that were shown to co-express with these biological processes providing a preliminary framework for the regulatory networks responsible for seed filling in canola and discuss the relationship of the CZSC to other regions and subregions of the seed and its role in seed development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of imidacloprid in Brassica environment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Dikshit, A K

    2001-09-01

    Imidacloprid was applied as seed treatment (Gaucho 70 WS, 5 and 10 g ai kg(-1) seed) and foliar spray (Confidor 200 SL, 20 and 40 g ai ha(-1)) at 50% pod formation stage on mustard (Brassica campestris Linn.) to control mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. It was detectable upto 82 and 96 days in plants after sowing from lower and higher doses of seed treatment. However, it dissipated faster and became nondetectable after 7 and 15 days of foliar treatments from lower and higher rates of application, respectively. The dissipation models yielded the rate constants of 0.0209 and 0.0230 and 0.0736 and 0.0779 day(-1) from seed and foliar treatment. The corresponding half-lives of 14.40 and 13.07 and 4.09 and 3.86 days were recorded. This suggested that the dissipation was independent of initial doses and followed a first order rate kinetics. The projected TMRC of imidacloprid from seed (0.136 and 0.225 mg person(-1) day(-1)) and foliar (0.069 and 0.1497 mg person(-1) day(-1)) treatments were found lower than the MPI (3.135 mg person(-1) day(-1)). At harvest mustard grains did not contain imidacloprid residues. The absence of imidacloprid in 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers indicated no leaching of insecticide. Therefore, imidacloprid treatments could be taken as safe for crop protection, consumption of leaves and environmental contamination point of view.

  16. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  17. Fitness of hybrids between rapeseed (Brassica napus) and wild Brassica rapa in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Allainguillaume, J; Alexander, M; Bullock, J M; Saunders, M; Allender, C J; King, G; Ford, C S; Wilkinson, M J

    2006-04-01

    Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased self-pollination. Assuming 100% GM rapeseed cultivation, we conservatively predict < 7000 second-generation transgenic hybrids annually in the United Kingdom (i.e. approximately 20% of F1 hybrids). Conversely, whilst reduced hybrid fitness improves feasibility of bio-containment, stage projection matrices suggests broad scope for some transgenes to offset this effect by enhancing fitness.

  18. Urinary isothiocyanate levels, brassica, and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Chung, Fung-Lung; Jin, Fan; Qi, Dai; Cai, Qiuyin; Conaway, Cliff; Cheng, Jia-Rong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-07-15

    Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., Chinese cabbage) provides isothiocyanates (ITC) and other glucosinolate derivatives capable of inducing Phase II enzymes [e.g., glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase] and apoptosis, altering steroid hormone metabolism, regulating estrogen receptor response, and stabilizing cellular proliferation. Asian populations consuming large amounts of Brassica have a lower breast cancer incidence compared with Western populations; however, the association between Brassica consumption and breast cancer risk is uncertain. It is difficult to estimate glucosinolate exposure and degradation in humans, possibly limiting epidemiological investigations of Brassica and cancer associations. We conducted a case control investigation of breast cancer in Shanghai, China, using urinary ITC levels as a biological measure of glucosinolate intake and degradation in populations with habitual Brassica intake. A representative subgroup of 337 cases providing presurgery, fasting, and first-morning urine specimens was one-to-one matched (age, menopausal status, date of urine collection, and day of laboratory assay) to population controls. Urinary ITC levels were inversely associated with breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) (Quartile 1) = 1 (ref); OR(Q2) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (0.6, 1.4); OR(Q3) = 0.7, (0.5, 1.1); OR(Q4) = 0.5, (0.3, 0.8), adjusted for age, menopausal status, soy protein, fibroadenoma history, family breast cancer, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, age at menarche, and parity in conditional logistic model]. This protective association persisted within post and premenopausal women. In contrast, total Brassica intake estimated from a food frequency questionnaire was not associated with breast cancer. Trends in the association between urinary ITC and breast cancer were more consistent with homozygous deletion of GSTM1 or GSTT1, the AAgenotype of GSTP1 (A313G), or with the C

  19. Gene transferability from transgenic Brassica napus L. to various subspecies and varieties of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Lu, Changming; Zhang, Bing; Bo, Huijie; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang; Cao, Yinglong; Yu, Deyue

    2009-10-01

    Gene transferability from transgenic rapeseed to various subspecies and varieties of Brassica rapa was assessed in this study. Artificial crossability was studied in 118 cultivars of 7 B. rapa subspecies and varieties with the transgenic rapeseed GT73 (Brassica napus) as the pollen donor. On average 5.7 seeds were obtained per pollination, with a range from 0.05 to 19.4. The heading type of B. rapa L. showed significantly higher crossability than non-heading types of B. rapa. The spontaneous outcrossing rate between B. rapa (female) and the transgenic rapeseed Ms8 x Rf3 (B. napus) (male) ranged from 0.039 to 0.406%, with an average of 0.19%. The fertilization process and the development of the hybrid seeds as shown by fluorescent staining techniques indicated that the number of adhered pollens on the stigma was reduced by 80%, the number of pollen tubes in the style was reduced by 2/3 and the fertilization time was delayed by over 20 h when pollinated with the transgenic rapeseed Ms8 x Rf3 in comparison with the bud self-pollination of B. rapa as control. About 10-70% of the interspecific hybrid embryos were aborted in the course of development. Some seeds looked cracked in mature pods, which showed germination abilities lower than 10%. The spontaneous outcrossing rates were much lower than the artificial crossability, and their survival fitness of the interspecific hybrid was very low, indicating that it should be possible to keep the adventitious presence of the off-plants under the allowed threshold, if proper measures are taken.

  20. Transposon variation by order during allopolyploidisation between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    An, Z; Tang, Z; Ma, B; Mason, A S; Guo, Y; Yin, J; Gao, C; Wei, L; Li, J; Fu, D

    2014-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that transposable element (TE) activation is induced by hybridisation and polyploidisation in plants, much less is known on how different types of TE respond to hybridisation, and the impact of TE-associated sequences on gene function. We investigated the frequency and regularity of putative transposon activation for different types of TE, and determined the impact of TE-associated sequence variation on the genome during allopolyploidisation. We designed different types of TE primers and adopted the Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) method to detect variation in TE-associated sequences during the process of allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC), and in successive generations of self-pollinated progeny. In addition, fragments with TE insertions were used to perform Blast2GO analysis to characterise the putative functions of the fragments with TE insertions. Ninety-two primers amplifying 548 loci were used to detect variation in sequences associated with four different orders of TE sequences. TEs could be classed in ascending frequency into LTR-REs, TIRs, LINEs, SINEs and unknown TEs. The frequency of novel variation (putative activation) detected for the four orders of TEs was highest from the F1 to F2 generations, and lowest from the F2 to F3 generations. Functional annotation of sequences with TE insertions showed that genes with TE insertions were mainly involved in metabolic processes and binding, and preferentially functioned in organelles. TE variation in our study severely disturbed the genetic compositions of the different generations, resulting in inconsistencies in genetic clustering. Different types of TE showed different patterns of variation during the process of allopolyploidisation.

  1. Arabidopsis Mutant bik1 Exhibits Strong Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40–50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms. PMID:27679580

  2. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. © 2013.

  3. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR.

  4. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics.

  5. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  6. Application of a functional marker for the effect of cryoprotectant agents on gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea and J. fragilis) sperm sacs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S; Kuit, V; Lin, Z G; Lin, C

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of coral sperm repositories which retain good post-rewarming viability and fertility play a vital role in species conservation. This study aimed at obtaining baseline information regarding the effects of cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) on gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea and J. fragilis) sperm sacs. The adenosine triphosphate assay was used to determine the energy level of the gorgonian sperm sacs as an indicator of sperm viability after exposure to cryoprotectants. The 'no observed effect concentrations' (NOECs) of methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), polypropylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol for J. juncea sperm sacs were 3 M, 3 M, 1 M, 2 M and 1 M respectively after 20 min exposure; whilst the NOECs for J. fragilis oocytes were 2 M, 3 M, 1 M, 2 M and 2 M, respectively. Methanol and DMSO had the least impact. PG was the most toxic CPA after 10 min exposure. ATP content of J. juncea and J. fragilis sperm sacs did not differ significantly from the control with incubation times of 10-20 min with 2 M EG. However, ATP content dropped significantly after exposing sperm sacs to 2 M EG for 40 min with average values of 2.34 +/- 0.12 and 1.97 +/- 0.48 microg/ml respectively. ATP content for J. juncea and J. fragilis sperm sacs was significantly decreased to 1.79 +/- 0.31 and 2.40 +/- 0.36 microg/ml after 20 min incubation in 2 M PG when compared to the control with 2.98 +/- 0.16 and 4.14 +/- 0.42 microg/ml respectively. Normalized ATP content for sperm sacs of two different gorgonian coral after incubation in methanol, DMSO, PG, EG and glycerol showed that J. juncea sperm sacs were slightly less tolerant to CPAs compared to J. fragilis sperm sacs. DMSO or methanol can be considered as efficient CPAs for gorgonian sperm sacs cryopreservation. The ATP luminescence assay provided sensitive and rapid quantification of mitochondrial activity in gorgonian coral sperm sacs. The study on the impact of CPA will contribute to the development of a

  7. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  8. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  9. Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

    Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in

  10. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  11. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  12. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  13. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  14. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; Schols, Henk A; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-11-06

    To enable structural characteristics of individual cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal (RSM) to be studied, polysaccharide fractions were sequentially extracted. Fractions were analysed for their carbohydrate (linkage) composition and polysaccharide structures were also studied by enzymatic fingerprinting. The RSM fractions analysed contained pectic polysaccharides: homogalacturonan in which 60% of the galacturonic acid residues are methyl-esterified, arabinan branched at the O-2 position and arabinogalactan mainly type II. This differs from characteristics previously reported for Brassica campestris meal, another rapeseed cultivar. Also, in the alkali extracts hemicelluloses were analysed as xyloglucan both of the XXGG- and XXXG-type decorated with galactosyl, fucosyl and arabinosyl residues, and as xylan with O-methyl-uronic acid attached. The final residue after extraction still contained xyloglucan and remaining (pectic) polysaccharides next to cellulose, showing that the cell wall matrix of RSM is very strongly interconnected.

  15. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  16. Purification and biochemical characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Fusarium decemcellulare MTCC 2079 suitable for Crotalaria juncea fiber retting.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Dubey, Amit Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Reetesh; Yadav, Dinesh

    2014-07-01

    An extracellular pectin lyase secreted by Fusarium decemcellulare MTCC 2079 under solid state fermentation condition has been purified to electrophoretic homogeniety by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration (Sephadex G-100) column chromatographies. The purified enzyme showed single protein band corresponding to molecular mass 45 ± 01 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had maximum activity at pH 9.0 and showed maximum stability in the pH range of 9.0-12.0. The optimum temperature of the purified enzyme was 50 °C and it showed maximum stability upto 40 °C. The energy of activation for the thermal denaturation (Ea ) was 59.06 kJ mol(-1)  K(-1). The Km and kcat values using citrus pectin as the substrate were 0.125 mg ml(-1) and 72.9 s(-1) in 100 mM sodium carbonate buffer pH 9.0 at 50 °C. The biophysical studies on pectin lyase showed that its secondary structure belongs to α + β class of protein with comparatively less of β-sheets. Purified pectin lyase showed efficient retting of Crotolaria juncea fibers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  18. Purification and characterization of polygalacturonase from Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC 2584 and elucidating its application in retting of Crotalaria juncea fiber.

    PubMed

    Anand, Gautam; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Polygalacturonases represents an important member of pectinases group of enzymes with diverse industrial applications and is widely distributed among fungi, bacteria, yeasts, plants and some plant parasitic nematodes. An endo-polygalacturonase from a new fungal source Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC 2584 was produced under solid-state fermentation conditions and was purified simply by acetone precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography technique. The approximate molecular weight of the purified PG was found to be 43.0 kDa as revealed by SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of the purified enzyme was found to be 10.0 and was stable in the pH range of 7-10. The optimum temperature of purified PG was found to be 30 °C. The Km and Kcat of the purified enzyme were 2.4 mg/ml and 44 s(-1), respectively, and the metal ions Cu(2+) and K(+) were found to enhance the enzyme activity while Ag(+), Ca(2+) and Hg(2+) were inhibitory in nature. Based on its alkaline nature, the potential of purified PG in retting of natural fiber Crotalaria juncea was elucidated in the absence of EDTA. This is probably the first report of alkaline PG from Aspergillus fumigatus.

  19. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, A; Popova, A; Xiao, Y; Musgrave, M E

    2000-03-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  20. Bolbase: a comprehensive genomics database for Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Zhao, Meixia; Wang, Xiaowu; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Shunmou; Tehrim, Sadia; Liu, Yumei; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2013-09-30

    Brassica oleracea is a morphologically diverse species in the family Brassicaceae and contains a group of nutrition-rich vegetable crops, including common heading cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, Brussels sprouts. This diversity along with its phylogenetic membership in a group of three diploid and three tetraploid species, and the recent availability of genome sequences within Brassica provide an unprecedented opportunity to study intra- and inter-species divergence and evolution in this species and its close relatives. We have developed a comprehensive database, Bolbase, which provides access to the B. oleracea genome data and comparative genomics information. The whole genome of B. oleracea is available, including nine fully assembled chromosomes and 1,848 scaffolds, with 45,758 predicted genes, 13,382 transposable elements, and 3,581 non-coding RNAs. Comparative genomics information is available, including syntenic regions among B. oleracea, Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana, synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitution rates between orthologous gene pairs, gene families or clusters, and differences in quantity, category, and distribution of transposable elements on chromosomes. Bolbase provides useful search and data mining tools, including a keyword search, a local BLAST server, and a customized GBrowse tool, which can be used to extract annotations of genome components, identify similar sequences and visualize syntenic regions among species. Users can download all genomic data and explore comparative genomics in a highly visual setting. Bolbase is the first resource platform for the B. oleracea genome and for genomic comparisons with its relatives, and thus it will help the research community to better study the function and evolution of Brassica genomes as well as enhance molecular breeding research. This database will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation, and new genomic sequences as they

  1. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  2. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures.

  3. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  4. Bolbase: a comprehensive genomics database for Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brassica oleracea is a morphologically diverse species in the family Brassicaceae and contains a group of nutrition-rich vegetable crops, including common heading cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, Brussels sprouts. This diversity along with its phylogenetic membership in a group of three diploid and three tetraploid species, and the recent availability of genome sequences within Brassica provide an unprecedented opportunity to study intra- and inter-species divergence and evolution in this species and its close relatives. Description We have developed a comprehensive database, Bolbase, which provides access to the B. oleracea genome data and comparative genomics information. The whole genome of B. oleracea is available, including nine fully assembled chromosomes and 1,848 scaffolds, with 45,758 predicted genes, 13,382 transposable elements, and 3,581 non-coding RNAs. Comparative genomics information is available, including syntenic regions among B. oleracea, Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana, synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitution rates between orthologous gene pairs, gene families or clusters, and differences in quantity, category, and distribution of transposable elements on chromosomes. Bolbase provides useful search and data mining tools, including a keyword search, a local BLAST server, and a customized GBrowse tool, which can be used to extract annotations of genome components, identify similar sequences and visualize syntenic regions among species. Users can download all genomic data and explore comparative genomics in a highly visual setting. Conclusions Bolbase is the first resource platform for the B. oleracea genome and for genomic comparisons with its relatives, and thus it will help the research community to better study the function and evolution of Brassica genomes as well as enhance molecular breeding research. This database will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation

  5. Characterization of Brassica napus Flavonol Synthase Involved in Flavonol Biosynthesis in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tien Thanh; Jeong, Chan Young; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Sang A; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2015-09-09

    Recently, Brassica napus has become a very important crop for plant oil production. Flavonols, an uncolored flavonoid subclass, have a high antioxidative effect and are known to have antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and neuropharmacological properties. In B. napus, some flavonoid structural genes have been identified, such as, BnF3H-1, BnCHS, and BnC4H-1. However, no studies on FLS genes in B. napus have been conducted. Thus, in this study, we cloned and characterized the function of BnFLS gene B. napus. By overexpression of the BnFLS gene, flavonol (kaempferol and quercetin) levels were recovered in the Arabidopsis atfls1-ko mutant. In addition, we found that the higher endogenous flavonol levels of BnFLS-ox in vitro shoots correlated with slightly higher ROS scavenging activities. Thus, our results indicate that the BnFLS gene encodes for a BnFLS enzyme that can be manipulated to specifically increase flavonol accumulation in oilseed plants and other species such as Arabidopsis.

  6. Patulibacter brassicae sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Li, Honghong; Luo, Luyun; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Deng, Ye; Bai, Zhihui

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated SDT, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage in Shandong province, China. The cells were aerobic, Gram-staining-positive, oxidase- and catalase-positive, short rods and formed white colonies on trypticase soy agar. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and alanine, glutamic acid and leucine. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the predominant polar lipid. The predominant cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1ω9c; minor components were anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The only isoprenoid quinone was demethylmenaquinone 7 (DMK-7), and the DNA G+C content was 72.7 mol%. Based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the clo