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Sample records for brassica juncea bjcdr15

  1. Amphidiploid Brassica juncea contains conserved progenitor genomes.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, T; Bowman, C M; Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J; Lagercrantz, U

    2000-08-01

    To perform a detailed study of genome evolution in the natural Brassica amphidiploid B. juncea, we have constructed two linkage maps based on RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers; one generated from a cross between a resynthesized B. juncea (a chromosome doubled interspecific B. rapa x B. nigra hybrid) and a natural B. juncea cultivar, the other from a cross between two B. juncea cultivars. By using a common cultivar in both crosses, the two maps could be unambiguously integrated. All loci exhibited disomic inheritance of parental alleles in the natural x resynthesized cross, showing that B. rapa chromosomes paired exclusively with their A-genome homologues in B. juncea and that B. nigra chromosomes likewise paired with their B-genome homologues. The maps derived from the two crosses were also perfectly collinear. Furthermore, these maps were collinear with maps of the diploid progenitor species (B. nigra and B. rapa) produced using the same set of RFLP probes. These data indicate that the genome of B. juncea has remained essentially unchanged since polyploid formation. Our observations appear to refute the suggestion that the formation of polyploid genomes is accompanied by rapid change in genome structure.

  2. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  3. Uptake, Distribution, and Speciation of Chromium in Brassica Juncea

    SciTech Connect

    Bluskov, S.; Arocena, J.M.; Omotoso, O.O.; Young, J.P.

    2008-06-09

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) has been widely used in phytoremediation because of its capacity to accumulate high levels of chromium (Cr) and other metals. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanism(s) involved in Cr binding and sequestration by B. juncea. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in field-moist or air-dried soils, amended with 100 mg kg{sup -1} of Cr (III or VI). The plant concentrated Cr mainly in the roots. B. juncea removed an average of 48 and 58 {micro}g Cr per plant from Cr (III) and Cr (VI)-treated soils, respectively. The uptake of Cr was not affected by the moisture status of the soils. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed only Cr (III) bound predominantly to formate and acetate ligands, in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, respectively. In the plant tissues, Cr (III) was detected, primarily as acetate in the roots and oxalate in the leaves. X-ray microprobe showed the sites of Cr localization, and probably sequestration, in epidermal and cortical cells in the roots and epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. juncea to detoxify more toxic Cr (VI), thereby making this plant a potential candidate for phytostabilization.

  4. Low glucosinolate Brassica juncea breeding line revealed to be nullisomic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B F; Séguin-Swartz, G; Somers, D J; Rakow, G

    2001-08-01

    The low glucosinolate Brassica juncea breeding line 1058 was derived from a BC1F3 plant of an interspecific cross between high glucosinolate Indian B. juncea (genome AABB, 2n = 36) line 60143 and B. rapa (genome AA, 2n = 20) canola strain CZY. Line 60143 had 2n = 36 chromosomes (18 bivalents at metaphase I) and strain CZY had 2n = 20 chromosomes (10 bivalents). Line 1058 was nullisomic, with 2n - 2 = 34 chromosomes, with 17 bivalents formed at metaphase I and an even chromosomal segregation of 17:17 at anaphase I. In F1 hybrid plants of the cross 1058 x CZY, 98.3% of the pollen mother cells had 10 bivalents and seven univalents. This is evidence that plants of line 1058 are nullisomic, missing one pair of B-genome chromosomes.

  5. The genome sequence of allopolyploid Brassica juncea and analysis of differential homoeolog gene expression influencing selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghua; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaowu; Ji, Changmian; Cheng, Feng; Liu, Baoning; Hu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Sheng; Pental, Deepak; Ju, Youhui; Yao, Pu; Li, Xuming; Xie, Kun; Zhang, Jianhui; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Fan; Ma, Weiwei; Shopan, Jannat; Zheng, Hongkun; Mackenzie, Sally A; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-10-01

    The Brassica genus encompasses three diploid and three allopolyploid genomes, but a clear understanding of the evolution of agriculturally important traits via polyploidy is lacking. We assembled an allopolyploid Brassica juncea genome by shotgun and single-molecule reads integrated to genomic and genetic maps. We discovered that the A subgenomes of B. juncea and Brassica napus each had independent origins. Results suggested that A subgenomes of B. juncea were of monophyletic origin and evolved into vegetable-use and oil-use subvarieties. Homoeolog expression dominance occurs between subgenomes of allopolyploid B. juncea, in which differentially expressed genes display more selection potential than neutral genes. Homoeolog expression dominance in B. juncea has facilitated selection of glucosinolate and lipid metabolism genes in subvarieties used as vegetables and for oil production. These homoeolog expression dominance relationships among Brassicaceae genomes have contributed to selection response, predicting the directional effects of selection in a polyploid crop genome. PMID:27595476

  6. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  7. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    PubMed

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops.

  8. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    PubMed

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops. PMID:23990700

  9. Nutritional evaluation of low glucosinolate mustard meals (Brassica juncea) in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, R W; Classen, H L; Tyler, R T

    1997-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of meal derived from low glucosinolate cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea) in comparison to samples of canola meal (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa). Samples of Brassica seed (four B. juncea, one B. napus, and one B. rapa) were processed using laboratory procedures to produce oil-extracted meals, which were examined for composition (DM basis), and nutritional value for broiler chickens as judged by nutrient retention (AMEn, ileal protein digestibility) and performance. Meals derived from B. juncea contained more CP and less total dietary fiber (TDF) on a dry basis than either B. napus or B. rapa, 45.9 vs 44.6 and 43.1% CP and 27.22 vs 29.47 and 29.67% TDF, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels for B. juncea and B. rapa meals were similar to each other, but lower than those of B. napus, 12.79 and 13.20 vs 20.6% ADF, and 21.15 and 19.58 vs 29.47% NDF, respectively. Brassica juncea meals contained more glucosinolates than B. napus and B. rapa, 34.3 vs 21.8 and 25.5 mumol/g total glucosinolates, respectively. Brassica juncea meals were equal or superior to B. napus and B. rapa meals for AMEn and apparent ileal protein digestibility. Similarly, broilers fed B. juncea meals grew as quickly and converted feed to BW gain as efficiently to 21 d of age as those birds fed B. napus and B. rapa meals. Feeding meal from B. rapa reduced growth rate and gain to feed ratio. In conclusion, the nutritional value of meal from low glucosinolate mustard was equal or superior to that of canola meal samples derived from B. napus and B. rapa cultivars.

  10. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci for wild Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Sun, X Q; Yan, Q Q; Guo, J L; Qiang, S; Song, X L; Li, M M

    2013-01-01

    Wild Brassica juncea is a widespread weed in China with increasingly great impact on the yield of many crops. This study aimed to develop microsatellite markers for assessing the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. juncea, and to provide basic information for biological and chemical control of the weed. The compound microsatellite marker technique was used to develop markers for investigating population genetics of wild B. juncea. Twelve loci were obtained, each of which showed high polymorphisms when tested in two populations in Sichuan and Jiangsu Provinces. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 27, with an average of 15.2 alleles per locus. The newly developed microsatellite loci will be informative for further investigations of the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of wild B. juncea. PMID:24301911

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci for wild Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Sun, X Q; Yan, Q Q; Guo, J L; Qiang, S; Song, X L; Li, M M

    2013-11-08

    Wild Brassica juncea is a widespread weed in China with increasingly great impact on the yield of many crops. This study aimed to develop microsatellite markers for assessing the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. juncea, and to provide basic information for biological and chemical control of the weed. The compound microsatellite marker technique was used to develop markers for investigating population genetics of wild B. juncea. Twelve loci were obtained, each of which showed high polymorphisms when tested in two populations in Sichuan and Jiangsu Provinces. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 27, with an average of 15.2 alleles per locus. The newly developed microsatellite loci will be informative for further investigations of the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of wild B. juncea.

  13. Expression of leaf blight resistance in Brassica leafy greens under field conditions and inheritance of resistance in a Brassica juncea source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens are one of the most economically important vegetable commodities grown in the southeastern United States, and more than 28,000 metric tons of these crops are harvested in the U.S. annually. Collards and kale (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.) and turni...

  14. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  15. Genome survey sequencing provides clues into glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathway evolution in allotetrapolyploid Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica juncea is an economically important vegetable crop in China, oil crop in India, condiment crop in Europe and selected for canola quality recently in Canada and Australia. B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) is an allotetraploid derived from interspecific hybridization between B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16, BB), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Results Comparative genome analysis by genome survey sequence (GSS) of allopolyploid B. juncea with B. rapa was carried out based on high-throughput sequencing approaches. Over 28.35 Gb of GSS data were used for comparative analysis of B. juncea and B. rapa, producing 45.93% reads mapping to the B. rapa genome with a high ratio of single-end reads. Mapping data suggested more structure variation (SV) in the B. juncea genome than in B. rapa. We detected 2,921,310 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high heterozygosity and 113,368 SVs, including 1-3 bp Indels, between B. juncea and B. rapa. Non-synonymous polymorphisms in glucosinolate biosynthesis genes may account for differences in glucosinolate biosynthesis and glucosinolate components between B. juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, we identified distinctive vernalization-dependent and photoperiod-dependent flowering pathways coexisting in allopolyploid B. juncea, suggesting contribution of these pathways to adaptation for survival during polyploidization. Conclusions Taken together, we proposed that polyploidization has allowed for accelerated evolution of the glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathways in B. juncea that likely permit the phenotypic variation observed in the crop. PMID:24502855

  16. (E)-β-farnesene gene reduces Lipaphis erysimi colonization in transgenic Brassica juncea lines

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shiv Shankar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Jajoo, Anajna

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are the major concern that significantly reduces the yield of crops. (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphids. The results of current research support the direct defense response of (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) against aphid Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach in Brassica juncea. Eβf gene was isolated from Mentha arvensis and transformed into B. juncea, showed direct repellent against aphid colonization. The seasonal mean population (SMP) recorded under field condition showed significantly higher aphid colonization in wild type in comparison to most of the transgenic lines, and shows positive correlation with the repellency of transgenic plant expressing (E)-β-farnesene. The current research investigation provides direct evidence for aphid control in B. juncea using Eβf, a non-toxic mode of action. PMID:26251882

  17. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea.

  18. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. PMID:27010411

  19. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  20. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m2) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m2) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses. PMID:21217862

  1. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P

    2009-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m(2)) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m(2)) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses. PMID:21217862

  2. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report.

  3. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  4. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  5. Arsenic induced modulation of antioxidative defense system and brassinosteroids in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Poonam; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2015-05-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) L. plants were exposed to different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mM) of arsenic (V) and harvested after 30 and 60 days of sowing for the analysis of growth parameters, metal uptake, brassinosteroids (BRs) synthesis and oxidative stress markers. As (V) significantly hampered the growth of B. juncea plants and triggered the modulations of various stress markers like proteins, antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR) and MDA content. Furthermore, As (V) induced the synthesis of 4 BRs, castasterone, teasterone, 24-epibrassinolide, and typhasterol, which were isolated and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study further highlig5895hted the significant uptake of arsenic ions by mustard plants.

  6. Effect of cadaverine on Brassica juncea (L.) under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Pushpa C; Lakra, Nita; Mishra, Shyam Narayan

    2013-09-01

    The cadaverine (Cad), an organic diamine was examined for its response on growth in salinity and metal stressed B. juncea cv RH-30 vis-à-vis compared the response of ammonium nitrate. The Cad (1 mM) application ameliorated the effect caused by salinity and metal stress on seed germination and plant growth. The plant growth recovery (dry biomass accumulation) was dependent on stress and diamine type. The higher growth recovery potential of Cad under both stresses was due to elevation in photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and organic nitrogen as well as soluble protein, It is inferred that growth in stressed seedlings was mediated by Cad through lowering endogenous Cd/Pb and Na+ / K+ level in leaf and shoot tissues. PMID:24377136

  7. Effect of cadaverine on Brassica juncea (L.) under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Pushpa C; Lakra, Nita; Mishra, Shyam Narayan

    2013-09-01

    The cadaverine (Cad), an organic diamine was examined for its response on growth in salinity and metal stressed B. juncea cv RH-30 vis-à-vis compared the response of ammonium nitrate. The Cad (1 mM) application ameliorated the effect caused by salinity and metal stress on seed germination and plant growth. The plant growth recovery (dry biomass accumulation) was dependent on stress and diamine type. The higher growth recovery potential of Cad under both stresses was due to elevation in photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and organic nitrogen as well as soluble protein, It is inferred that growth in stressed seedlings was mediated by Cad through lowering endogenous Cd/Pb and Na+ / K+ level in leaf and shoot tissues.

  8. Histone H3 methylation patterns in Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata species.

    PubMed

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Dziurlikowska, Alina; Maluszynska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Core histones are subjected to various post-translational modifications, and one of them, most intensively studied in plants, is the methylation of histone H3. In the majority of analyzed plant species, dimethylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is detected in heterochromatin domains, whereas methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) is detected in euchromatin domains. The distribution of H3K9me2 in the interphase nucleus seems to be correlated with genome size, chromatin organization, but also with tissue specificity. In this paper, we present the analysis of the pattern and level of histone H3 methylation for two allotetraploid and one diploid Brassica species. We have found that the pattern of H3K9me2 in interphase nuclei from root meristematic tissue is comparable within the analyzed species and includes both heterochromatin and euchromatin, but the level of modification differs not only among species but even among nuclei in the same phase of the cell cycle within one species. Moreover, the differences in the level of H3K9me2 are not directly coupled with DNA content in the nuclei and are probably tissue specific. PMID:22195975

  9. Response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to proline.

    PubMed

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Irfan, Mohammad; Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of exogenous application of proline as a shotgun approach on growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidative system in 25-day-old plants of two different cultivars of Brassica juncea L. (Varuna and RH-30) under natural conditions. Exogenous application of proline significantly increased plant growth, photosynthetic rate, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, compared with untreated seedlings. Pre-sowing seed soaking in 20 mM proline, for 8 h, proved best among all the other concentrations used. PMID:21318454

  10. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur

    1999-10-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  11. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process. PMID:25765856

  12. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  13. Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Prins, Christine N; Hantzis, Laura J; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05-0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions. PMID:21841173

  14. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  15. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis transgene introgression from Brassica napus to wild mustard B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Stewart, C Neal; Zheng, Min; Guan, Zhengjun; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Transgenic canola (Brassica napus) with a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac gene and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was used in hybridization experiments with wild Brassica juncea. Hybrid F1 and successive five backcross generations were obtained. The pod-set frequency on backcrossed B. juncea plants was over 66%, which suggested relatively high crossing compatibility between the hybrids and wild species. The seed setting in BC1 was the least of all generations tested, and then increased at the BC2 generation for which the thousand-seed weight was the highest of all generations. Seed size in backcrossed generations eventually approached that of the wild parent. The plants in all backcrossed generations were consistent with the expected 1:1 segregation ratio of the transgenes. The Bt Cry1Ac protein concentrations at bolting and flowering stages was higher compared to the 4-5-leaf and pod-formation stages. Nonetheless, the Bt toxin in the fifth backcrossing generation (BC5) was sufficient to kill both polyphagous (Helicoverpa armigera) and oligophagous (Plutella xylostella) Lepidoptera. As a consequence, the subsequent generations harboring the transgene from F1 to BC5 could have selection advantage against insect pests. The result is useful in understanding gene flow from transgenic crops and the followed transgene introgression into wild. PMID:25219305

  16. Cadmium induced physio-biochemical and molecular response in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaraj, Bala Murugan; Chandra, Harish Mani; Srinivasan, Balamurugan; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal; its presence in the agricultural soil constrains the crop productivity and restricts crop plants from reaching their full genetic potential. In the present study, two Brassica juncea cultivars (Pusa Bold and Pusa Jaikisan), were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (50 microM, 100 microM, 150 microM, and 200 microM). The effect of cadmium on seed germination ratio, changes in the root and shoot length, plant dry weight, moisture content, metal tolerance index, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation were studied. The consequence of cadmium stress at the molecular level was studied using a key gene Phytochelatin Synthase (PCS). The results of our study suggested that, exposure of cadmium affected the seed germination, growth rate, biomass content and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, shoot and leaves of both the cultivars. Transcript expression of PCS was increased with increasing CdCl2 concentration in both the cultivars. Based on the results, it was concluded that, Brassica juncea Cv Pusa Jaikisan is more tolerant to cadmium toxicity than the Pusa Bold. These findings could be used to develop heavy metal stress tolerant plants and more importantly, detoxification of heavy metals in the soil. PMID:23488007

  17. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis transgene introgression from Brassica napus to wild mustard B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Stewart, C Neal; Zheng, Min; Guan, Zhengjun; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Transgenic canola (Brassica napus) with a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac gene and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was used in hybridization experiments with wild Brassica juncea. Hybrid F1 and successive five backcross generations were obtained. The pod-set frequency on backcrossed B. juncea plants was over 66%, which suggested relatively high crossing compatibility between the hybrids and wild species. The seed setting in BC1 was the least of all generations tested, and then increased at the BC2 generation for which the thousand-seed weight was the highest of all generations. Seed size in backcrossed generations eventually approached that of the wild parent. The plants in all backcrossed generations were consistent with the expected 1:1 segregation ratio of the transgenes. The Bt Cry1Ac protein concentrations at bolting and flowering stages was higher compared to the 4-5-leaf and pod-formation stages. Nonetheless, the Bt toxin in the fifth backcrossing generation (BC5) was sufficient to kill both polyphagous (Helicoverpa armigera) and oligophagous (Plutella xylostella) Lepidoptera. As a consequence, the subsequent generations harboring the transgene from F1 to BC5 could have selection advantage against insect pests. The result is useful in understanding gene flow from transgenic crops and the followed transgene introgression into wild.

  18. Strength, Stability, and cis-Motifs of In silico Identified Phloem-Specific Promoters in Brassica juncea (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhatt, Deepa; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jain, Pradeep K.; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Aphids, a hemipteran group of insects pose a serious threat to many of the major crop species including Brassica oilseeds. Transgenic strategies for developing aphid-resistant plant types necessitate phloem-bound expression of the insecticidal genes. A few known phloem-specific promoters, in spite of tissue-specific activity fail to confer high level gene-expression. Here, we identified seven orthologues of phloem-specific promoters in B. juncea (Indian mustard), and experimentally validated their strength of expression in phloem exudates. Significant cis-motifs, globally occurring in phloem-specific promoters showed variable distribution frequencies in these putative phloem-specific promoters of B. juncea. In RT-qPCR based gene-expression study promoter of Glutamine synthetase 3A (GS3A) showed multifold higher activity compared to others, across the different growth stages of B. juncea plants. A statistical method employing four softwares was devised for rapidly analysing stability of the promoter-activities across the plant developmental stages. Different statistical softwares ranked these B. juncea promoters differently in terms of their stability in promoter-activity. Nevertheless, the consensus in output empirically suggested consistency in promoter-activity of the six B. juncea phloem- specific promoters including GS3A. The study identified suitable endogenous promoters for high level and consistent gene-expression in B. juncea phloem exudate. The study also demonstrated a rapid method of assessing species-specific strength and stability in expression of the endogenous promoters. PMID:27148290

  19. Strength, Stability, and cis-Motifs of In silico Identified Phloem-Specific Promoters in Brassica juncea (L.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhatt, Deepa; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jain, Pradeep K; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Aphids, a hemipteran group of insects pose a serious threat to many of the major crop species including Brassica oilseeds. Transgenic strategies for developing aphid-resistant plant types necessitate phloem-bound expression of the insecticidal genes. A few known phloem-specific promoters, in spite of tissue-specific activity fail to confer high level gene-expression. Here, we identified seven orthologues of phloem-specific promoters in B. juncea (Indian mustard), and experimentally validated their strength of expression in phloem exudates. Significant cis-motifs, globally occurring in phloem-specific promoters showed variable distribution frequencies in these putative phloem-specific promoters of B. juncea. In RT-qPCR based gene-expression study promoter of Glutamine synthetase 3A (GS3A) showed multifold higher activity compared to others, across the different growth stages of B. juncea plants. A statistical method employing four softwares was devised for rapidly analysing stability of the promoter-activities across the plant developmental stages. Different statistical softwares ranked these B. juncea promoters differently in terms of their stability in promoter-activity. Nevertheless, the consensus in output empirically suggested consistency in promoter-activity of the six B. juncea phloem- specific promoters including GS3A. The study identified suitable endogenous promoters for high level and consistent gene-expression in B. juncea phloem exudate. The study also demonstrated a rapid method of assessing species-specific strength and stability in expression of the endogenous promoters. PMID:27148290

  20. Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Seth, C S; Misra, V; Chauhan, L K S

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were exposed to different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 microM) of (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) for 28 and 56 d for accumulation and detoxification studies. Metal accumulation in roots and shoots were analyzed and it was observed that roots accumulated a significant amount of Cd (1980 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cr (1540 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cu (1995 microg g(-1) dry weight), and Pb (2040 microg g(-1) dry weight) after 56 d of exposure, though in shoot this was 1110, 618, 795, and 409 microg g(-1) dry weight of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In order to assess detoxification mechanisms, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were analyzed in plants. An increase in the quantity of NP-SH (9.55), GSH (8.30), and PCs (1.25) micromol g(-1) FW were found at 15 microM of Cd, however, a gradual decline in quantity was observed from 15 microM of Cd onwards, after 56 d of exposure. For genotoxicity in plants, cytogenetic end-points such as mitotic index (MI), micronucleus formation (MN), mitotic aberrations (MA) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were examined in root meristem cells of B. juncea. Exposure of Cd revealed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of MI, induction of MA, CA, and MN in the root tips for 24 h. However, cells examined at 24 h post-exposure showed concentration-wise recovery in all the endpoints. The data revealed that Indian mustard could be used as a potential accumulator of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb due to a good tolerance mechanisms provided by combined/concerted action of NP-SH, GSH, and PCs. Also, exposure of Cd can cause genotoxic effects in B. juncea L. through chromosomal mutations, MA, and MN formation.

  1. Methyl jasmonate induces expression of a novel Brassica juncea chitinase with two chitin-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K J; Chye, M L

    1999-08-01

    We have cloned a 1.3 kb Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel acidic chitinase with two chitin-binding domains that shows 62% identity to Nicotiana tabacum Chia1 chitinase. BjCHI1 is structurally unlike Chia1 that has one chitin-binding domain, but resembles Chia5 chitinase UDA1, the precursor of Urtica dioica agglutinin: however there is only 36.9% identity between them. We propose that BjCHI1 should be classified under a new class, Chia7. The spacer and the hinge region of BjCHI1 are proline-rich, like that of Beta vulgaris Ch1, a Chia6 chitinase with half a chitin-binding domain. Northern blot analysis showed that the 1.3 kb BjCHI1 mRNA is induced by wounding and methyljasmonate (MeJA) treatment but is unaffected by ethylene, salicylic acid (SA) or abscisic acid (ABA). This is the first report on MeJA induction of chitinase gene expression and further suggests that wound-related JA-mediated signal transduction is independent of that involving SA. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against BjCHI1 showed a cross-reacting band with an apparent molecular mass of 37 kDa in wounded tissues of B. juncea, revealing that, unlike UDA1, BjCHI1 is not cleaved post-translationally at the hinge. Expression of recombinant BjCHI1 in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) inhibited its growth while crude extracts from E. coli JM109 expressing recombinant BjCHI1 showed chitinase activity. Results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggest that genes encoding chitinases with single or double chitin-binding domains exist in B. juncea. PMID:10527425

  2. Recovering a copper mine soil using organic amendments and phytomanagement with Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    A 3-month greenhouse experiment was carried out for evaluating the effect of an amendment mixture and mustards on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and the metal uptake by plants. A settling pond soil was amended with increasing percentages of a technosol and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Adding amendments and planting mustards increased the soil pH from 2.83 to 6.18 and the TSC from u.l to 131 g kg(-1) and generally reduced the CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations in the soil. However, the amendments increased the pseudo-total soil concentration of Ni from 9.27 to 31.9 mg kg(-1), Pb from 27.9 to 91.6 mg kg(-1) and Zn from 46.5 to 577 mg kg(-1). The technosol and biochar mixture increased the shoot biomass from 0.74 to 2.95 g and generally reduced the metal concentrations in plants, meaning B. juncea as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of mine soils. PMID:25262389

  3. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  4. Phytoremediating a copper mine soil with Brassica juncea L., compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2014-10-01

    The soils at a depleted copper mine in Touro (Galicia, Spain) are chemically degraded. In order to determine the effect of amendments and vegetation on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and on the plant uptake of metals, a greenhouse experiment was carried out for 3 months. A settling pond soil was amended with different percentages of a compost and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. The results showed that the untreated settling pond soil was polluted by Cu. Amendments and planting mustards decreased the pseudototal concentration of this metal, reduced the extreme soil acidity and increased the soil concentrations of C and TN. Both treatments also decreased the CaCl2-extractable Co, Cu and Ni concentrations. However, the amendments increased the pseudototal concentration of Zn in the soil, provided by the compost that was used. The results also showed that mustards extracted Ni efficiently from soils, suggesting that B. juncea L. is a good phytoextractor of Ni in mine soils.

  5. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present. PMID:25487040

  6. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  7. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels.

  8. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels. PMID:26745003

  9. 24-epibrassinolide mitigates the adverse effects of manganese induced toxicity through improved antioxidant system and photosynthetic attributes in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmed, Mumtaz; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between manganese-induced toxicity and antioxidant system response in Brassica juncea plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids activate antioxidant system to confer tolerance to the plants affected with manganese induced oxidative stress. Brassica juncea plants were administered with 3, 6, or 9 mM manganese at 10-day stage for 3 days. At 31-day stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 24-epibrassinolide, and plants were harvested at 45-day stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits, and biochemical parameters. The manganese treatments diminished growth along with photosynthetic attributes and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration-dependent manner, whereas it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Brassica juncea which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of manganese. However, the follow-up application of 24-epibrassinolide to the manganese stressed plants improved growth, water relations, and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the manganese-stressed plants resulting in improved growth and photosynthetic attributes.

  10. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation.

  11. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation. PMID:26081276

  12. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  13. De novo transcriptome of Brassica juncea seed coat and identification of genes for the biosynthesis of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianjun; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Shuyan; Guan, Chunyun; Chen, Sheyuan; Liu, Zhongsong

    2013-01-01

    Brassica juncea, a worldwide cultivated crop plant, produces seeds of different colors. Seed pigmentation is due to the deposition in endothelial cells of proanthocyanidins (PAs), end products from a branch of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. To elucidate the gene regulatory network of seed pigmentation in B. juncea, transcriptomes in seed coat of a yellow-seeded inbred line and its brown-seeded near- isogenic line were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing platform Illumina/Solexa and de novo assembled. Over 116 million high-quality reads were assembled into 69,605 unigenes, of which about 71.5% (49,758 unigenes) were aligned to Nr protein database with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). RPKM analysis showed that the brown-seeded testa up-regulated 802 unigenes and down-regulated 502 unigenes as compared to the yellow-seeded one. Biological pathway analysis revealed the involvement of forty six unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The unigenes encoding dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), leucoantho-cyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for late flavonoid biosynthesis were not expressed at all or at a very low level in the yellow-seeded testa, which implied that these genes for PAs biosynthesis be associated with seed color of B. juncea, as confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of these genes. To our knowledge, it is the first time to sequence the transcriptome of seed coat in Brassica juncea. The unigene sequences obtained in this study will not only lay the foundations for insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying seed pigmentation in B.juncea, but also provide the basis for further genomics research on this species or its allies. PMID:23990927

  14. The role of phytochelatins and antioxidants in tolerance to Cd accumulation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar Chaturvedi, Pranav; Misra, Virendra

    2008-09-01

    A hydroponics experiment using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations (10-160 microM) of cadmium (Cd) and a fixed concentration (500 microM) of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on Cd accumulation and its toxicity for 14 and 28 days (d). The results showed that Cd alone and Cd+EDTA increased total dry biomass production, photosynthetic pigments and total protein content of B. juncea up to 160 microM with respect to control for 14d (hormesis effect). Further, on treatment with Cd at 160 microM for 28d, dry biomass of root and shoot, total protein content and total chlorophyll decreased up to 73%, 58%, 67% and 53% respectively, while in the case of Cd+EDTA, the decrease in the above parameters was 38%, 50%, 57% and 46% with respect to their control. It was observed that the maximum Cd accumulation after 28d in the root and shoot was 1925 and 977 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, while in the case of Cd+EDTA it was 1013 and 2316 mg kg(-1)dw, respectively. Levels of phytochelatins (PCs), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and glutathione (GSH) were monitored as plants primary and secondary metal detoxifying responses. Glutathione reductase showed three-fold increased activity for Cd and 2.2-fold for Cd+EDTA at 160 microM after 14d followed by decreased activity after 28d with respect to control. Maximum synthesis of PCs was found at 10 microM of Cd exposure followed by a gradual decline after 28d. This may be correlated with reduced level of GSH, probably due to reduced GR activity, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress as also proved by phenotypic changes in plants such as browning of roots and yellowing of leaves. Thus, the capacity of B. juncea to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd, through enhanced level of PCs, GSH, NP-SH and GR suggests its applicability for phytoremediation.

  15. Overexpression of gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase gene in transgenic Brassica juncea plants alleviates abiotic stress: physiological and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Kumar, Deepak; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Strasser, Reto Jörg; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Govindjee; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2010-08-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) are lipid soluble antioxidants synthesized by plants and some cyanobacteria. We have earlier reported that overexpression of the gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase (gamma-TMT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana in transgenic Brassica juncea plants resulted in an over six-fold increase in the level of alpha-tocopherol, the most active form of all the tocopherols. Tocopherol levels have been shown to increase in response to a variety of abiotic stresses. In the present study on Brassica juncea, we found that salt, heavy metal and osmotic stress induced an increase in the total tocopherol levels. Measurements of seed germination, shoot growth and leaf disc senescence showed that transgenic Brassica juncea plants overexpressing the gamma-TMT gene had enhanced tolerance to the induced stresses. Analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics, from the initial "O" level to the "P" (the peak) level, showed that there were differential effects of the applied stresses on different sites of the photosynthetic machinery; further, these effects were alleviated in the transgenic (line 16.1) Brassica juncea plants. We show that alpha-tocopherol plays an important role in the alleviation of stress induced by salt, heavy metal and osmoticum in Brassica juncea. PMID:20144585

  16. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Goel, Parul; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT), ammonium transporters (AMT), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), asparagines synthetase (ASN) were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl), osmotic (250 mM Mannitol), cold (4°C) and heat (42°C) stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h), which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. PMID:26605918

  17. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Goel, Parul; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT), ammonium transporters (AMT), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), asparagines synthetase (ASN) were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl), osmotic (250 mM Mannitol), cold (4°C) and heat (42°C) stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h), which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses.

  18. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Stress Transcriptome in a Salinity-Tolerant Variety CS52 of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rita; Mishra, Manjari; Gupta, Brijesh; Parsania, Chirag; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed mustard, Brassica juncea, exhibits high levels of genetic variability for salinity tolerance. To obtain the global view of transcriptome and investigate the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in a salt-tolerant variety CS52 of B. juncea, we performed transcriptome sequencing of control and salt-stressed seedlings. De novo assembly of 184 million high-quality paired-end reads yielded 42,327 unique transcripts longer than 300 bp with RPKM ≥1. When compared with non-redundant proteins, we could annotate 67% unigenes obtained in our study. Based on the mapping to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 52.6% unigenes are novel compared to EST data available for B. juncea and constituent genomes. Differential expression analysis revealed altered expression of 1469 unigenes in response to salinity stress. Of these, 587, mainly associated with ROS detoxification, sulfur assimilation and calcium signaling pathways, are up regulated. Notable of these is RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1) INTERACTING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RITF1) homolog up regulated by >100 folds in response to stress. RITF1, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is a positive regulator of SOS1 and several key genes involved in scavenging of salt stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, we performed comparative expression profiling of key genes implicated in ion homeostasis and sequestration (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1, NHX1), calcium sensing pathway (RITF1) and ROS detoxification in contrasting cultivars for salinity tolerance, B. juncea and B. nigra. The results revealed higher transcript accumulation of most of these genes in B. juncea var. CS52 compared to salt-sensitive cultivar even under normal growth conditions. Together, these findings reveal key pathways and signaling components that contribute to salinity tolerance in B. juncea var. CS52. PMID:25970274

  19. Interaction of epibrassinolide and selenium ameliorates the excess copper in Brassica juncea through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2016-07-01

    24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Selenium (Se) individually confer tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but their interactive effect in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly investigated. This study provides an insight into the effects of EBL (foliar) and/or Se (through sand) on Brassica juncea plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu. The combined effect of EBL and Se on compartmentalization of Cu, oxidative stress markers, photosynthetic machinery and biochemical traits in B. juncea were analyzed. Application of EBL and Se through different mode modulated the compartmentalization of Cu in different parts of plants, enhanced the photosynthetic traits, and activities of various antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation in B. juncea under excess copper levels. These enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline (osmolyte) accumulation triggered by combination of EBL and Se could have conferred tolerance to the B. juncea plants under toxic level of copper and also maintained Cu homeostasis in various parts of plants. This study indicates that combination of EBL and Se through different mode is an operative approach for Cu detoxification in plants and could be exploited for removal of excess copper from polluted soil. PMID:26974871

  20. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot. PMID:26854554

  1. Cumulative effect of nitrogen and sulphur on Brassica juncea L. genotypes under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Khan, M Masrooor A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, N and S assimilation, antioxidant enzymes activity, and yield were studied in N and S-treated plants of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (cvs. Chuutki and Radha) under salt stress. The treatments were given as follows: (1) NaCl(90) mM+N(0)S(0) mg kg(-1) sand (control), (2) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(0) mg kg(-1) sand, (3) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(20) mg kg(-1) sand, (4) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(40) mg kg(-1) sand, and (5) NaCl(90) mM+N(60)S(60) mg kg(-1) sand. The combined application of N (60 mg kg(-1) sand) and S (40 mg kg(-1) sand) proved beneficial in alleviating the adverse effect of salt stress on growth attributes (shoot length plant(-1), fresh weight plant(-1), dry weight plant(-1), and area leaf(-1)), physio-biochemical parameters (carbonic anhydrase activity, total chlorophyll, adenosine triphosphate-sulphurylase activity, leaf N, K and Na content, K/Na ratio, activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and content of glutathione and ascorbate), and yield attributes (pods plant(-1), seeds pod(-1), and seed yield plant(-1)). Therefore, it is concluded that combined application of N and S induced the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of Brassica. The stimulation of antioxidant enzymes activity and its synergy with N and S assimilation may be one of the important mechanisms that help the plants to tolerate the salinity stress and resulted in an improved yield. PMID:21479761

  2. Physiological and morphological responses of the root system of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Tugyi, Nóra; Molnár, Arpád; Ordög, Attila; Szepesi, Agnes; Gémes, Katalin; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2013-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement for growth and development, but in excess it can cause toxicity in plants. In this comparative study, the uptake and accumulation of Cu as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) roots to Cu treatment were investigated. The possible involvement of redox active molecules (reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide) and modification in cell wall structure associated with Cu-induced morphological responses were also studied. In short- and long-term treatments, B. juncea suffered more pronounced growth inhibition as compared with B. napus. In addition to the shortening of primary and lateral roots, the number and the density of the laterals were also decreased by Cu. Exposure to copper induced nitric oxide generation in the root tips and this event proved to be dependent on the duration of the exposure and on the plant species. In short- and long-term treatments, Indian mustard showed more significant activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inhibition of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and oxidation of ascorbate (AsA) than B. napus. Moreover, H2O2-dependent lignification was also observed in the Cu-exposed plants. In longer term, significant AsA accumulation and callose deposition were observed, reflecting serious oxidative stress in B. juncea. Based on the morphological and physiological results, we conclude that rapeseed tolerates Cu excess better than Indian mustard. PMID:23755862

  3. Antioxidative effects of Brassica juncea and Moringa oliefera prepared by different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Bharat Bhusan; Bhoi, Aditya

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, microwave cooking, frying and steaming ) on the antioxidant activity of Brassica juncea (BJ) and Moringa oliefera (MO) were assessed by measuring the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability . TPC (mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry weight) and TFC (quercetin equivalents per gram of extract) of the fresh, boiled, microwaved, fried and steamed BJ were found to be 23.16, 27.7, 18.7, 35.94, 22.06 and 27.09, 27.8, 24.5, 36.34, 18.01 respectively. For MO it was found to be 34.6, 31.5, 31.6, 39.4, 33.72 and 70.84, 58.13, 55.4, 69.5, 52.78. A proportionate variation in DPPH radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability was observed. The results of the present investigation showed that all the cooking methods affected the antioxidant properties of the vegetables; however, frying exhibited less deleterious effects when compared with those of other treatments. Thus an appropriate method might be sought for the processing of such vegetables to retain their antioxidant components at maximum level.

  4. Metal accumulation, growth, antioxidants and oil yield of Brassica juncea L. exposed to different metals.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarita; Sinam, Geetgovind; Mishra, Rohit Kumar; Mallick, Shekhar

    2010-09-01

    In agricultural fields, heavy metal contamination is responsible for limiting the crop productivity and quality. This study reports that the plants of Brassica juncea L. cv. Pusa bold grown on contaminated substrates [Cu, Cr(VI), As(III), As(V)] under simulated field conditions have shown translocation of metals to the upper part and its sequestration in the leaves without significantly affecting on oil yield, except for Cr and higher concentration of As(V), compared to control. Decrease in the oil content in As(V) treated plants was observed in a dose dependent manner; however, maximum decrease was recorded in Cr treated plants. Among all the metal treatments, Cr was the most toxic as evident from the decrease in oil content, growth parameters and antioxidants. The accumulation of metals was below the detection limit in the seeds grown on 10 and 30 mg kg(-1) As(III) and Cr(VI); 10 mg kg(-1) As(V)) and thus can be recommended only for oil cultivation. PMID:20663558

  5. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2013-04-01

    The present study was carried out to examine salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in two cultivars of Brassica juncea Czern and Coss varieties (Varuna and RH-30). The surface sterilized seeds of these varieties were sown in the soil amended with different levels (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of sodium chloride under a simple randomized block design. The salt treatment significantly decreased growth, net photosynthetic rate and its related attributes, chlorophyll fluorescence, SPAD value of chlorophyll, leaf carbonic anhydrase activity and leaf water potential, whereas electrolyte leakage, proline content, and activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes increased in both the varieties at 30 d stage of growth. The variety Varuna was found more resistant than RH-30 to the salt stress and possessed higher values for growth, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Out of the graded concentrations (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of sodium chloride, 2.8 sm(-1) was least toxic and 5.6 dsm(-1) was most harmful. The variation in the responses of these two varieties to salt stress is attributed to their differential photosynthetic traits, SPAD chlorophyll value and antioxidant capacity, which can be used as potential markers for screening mustard plants for salt tolerance. PMID:23961235

  6. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  7. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent.

  8. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  9. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  10. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM) of cadmium (Cd) to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid), gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase), antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content), and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals. PMID:25133178

  11. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  12. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants.

  13. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry.

  14. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  15. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard.

  16. GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Vinod; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a commonly used pesticide against aphids and accumulates in plant parts, maximum in leaves. Present study was conducted to check the efficiency of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) for reduction of this pesticide in the leaves of Brassica juncea L. plants raised from 24-EBL pre-soaked seeds and grown in soils supplemented with IMI. Leaves were analyzed for IMI residues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content were determined by spectrophotometry. Soil containing 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil resulted in 88.66 μg/g fresh weight (FW) of IMI residue in the leaves, which was maximum decrease to 35.31 μg/g FW (60.17 %), when seeds were pre-soaked in 100 nM 24-EBL. In this treatment (350 mg IMI/kilogram soil + 100 nM 24-EBL), GSH content, GR, POD, and GST activities were increased by 42.30, 34.5, 20.5, and 13.4 %, respectively, as compared to plants grown in soils amended with 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil. PMID:27068909

  17. Lithium, Vanadium and Chromium Uptake Ability of Brassica juncea from Lithium Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Elektorowicz, M; Keropian, Z

    2015-01-01

    The potential for phytoremediation and phytostabilization of lithium in lieu with vanadium and chromium on a formulated acidic heterogeneous growth media engineered around lithium mine tailings, was investigated in four phases: (1) overall efficiency of the removal of the three metals, (2) bioaccumulation ratios of the three metals, (3) overall relative growth rate, and (4) translocation index of the three metals in the physiology of the hyperaccumulator plant. A pot study was conducted to assess the suitability of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) in a phytoremediation process whereby it was lingered for eighty-six days under homogeneous growth conditions and irrigated bidaily with organic fertilizer amended with LiCl. A post harvest data analysis was achieved through ashing and the implementation of cold digestion procedure in a concentrated hydrochloric acidic matrix. In physiological efficiency parameters, the hyperaccumulator plant was twice as able to phytostabilize chromium and four times was able to phytostabilize vanadium in comparison to lithium. Moreover, it was extremely efficient in translocating and accumulating lithium inside its upper physiological sites, more so than chromium and vanadium, thereby demonstrating Indian mustard, as a hyperaccumulator plant, for phytoextraction and phytostabilization in an acidic heterogeneous rhizosphere, with an extremely low relative growth rate.

  18. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  19. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil. PMID:26208541

  20. Elicitation of jasmonate-mediated host defense in Brassica juncea (L.) attenuates population growth of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Kaur, Amandeep; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2014-07-01

    The productivity of Brassica oilseeds is severely affected by its major pest: aphids. Unavailability of resistance source within the crossable germplasms has stalled the breeding efforts to derive aphid resistant cultivars. In this study, jasmonate-mediated host defense in Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was evaluated and compared with regard to its elicitation in response to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and the defense elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJ). Identification of jasmonate-induced unigenes in B. juncea revealed that most are orthologous to aphid-responsive genes, identified in taxonomically diverse plant-aphid interactions. The unigenes largely represented genes related to signal transduction, response to biotic and abiotic stimuli and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in addition to genes related to cellular and metabolic processes involved in cell organization, biogenesis, and development. Gene expression studies revealed induction of the key jasmonate biosynthetic genes (LOX, AOC, 12-OPDR), redox genes (CAT3 and GST6), and other downstream defense genes (PAL, ELI3, MYR, and TPI) by several folds, both in response to MeJ and plant-wounding. However, interestingly aphid infestation even after 24 h did not elicit any activation of these genes. In contrast, when the jasmonate-mediated host defense was elicited by exogenous application of MeJ the treated B. juncea plants showed a strong antibiosis effect on the infesting aphids and reduced the growth of aphid populations. The level of redox enzymes CAT, APX, and SOD, involved in ROS homeostasis in defense signaling, and several defense enzymes viz. POD, PPO, and PAL, remained high in treated plants. We conclude that in B. juncea, the jasmonate activated endogenous-defense, which is not effectively activated in response to mustard aphids, has the potential to reduce population growth of mustard aphids. PMID:24771023

  1. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g−1 DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops. PMID:26657321

  2. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g(-1) DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops. PMID:26657321

  3. Thermal requirement of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) at different phonological stages under late sown condition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Pratap; Lallu; Singh, N B

    2014-01-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] is a long day plant, which requires fairly cool climatic condition during growth and development for obtaining better seed yield. Various workers have correlated crop growth and development with energy requirement parameters, such as growing degree days (GDD), photo-thermal unit (PTU), helios thermal unit (HTU), photo-thermal index (PTI) and heat use efficiency (HUE). Therefore, GDD requirement for different phenological stages of 22 newly developed Indian mustard varieties was studies during winter (rabi) seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at student instructional farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, (Utter Pradesh). Study revealed that RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 recorded higher GDD (1703.0, 1662.9 and 1648.0), PTU (19129.8, 18694.2 and 18379.8), HTU (11397.7, 11072.2 and 10876.0), PTI (13.25, 13.14 and 13.08) and HUE (4.11, 3.84 and 3.71) at physiological maturity, while higher HUE was recorded (9.62, 8.99 and 8.91 kg ha(-1) degrees-day) at days after sowing (DAS) to 50 % flowering. On the basis of study mustard genotypes RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 were identified as most heat-tolerant, as they maintained higher values for energy related parameters. Seed yield was highly positively correlated with GDD (r = 0.61, 0.65 and 0.75), PTU (r = 0.66, 0.64 and 0.74), HTU(r = 0.79, 0.68 and 0.73) at the above these three phenological stages, while negatively correlated with PTI at anthesis and at maturity. Hence, these parents could be used in crossing programme for achieving further improvement. PMID:25242823

  4. Effect of chelating agents and solubility of cadmium complexes on uptake from soil by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, Debra L; Sharpe-Pedler, Rachel C; Moorhead, Kevin K

    2007-06-01

    Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, was grown in soil artificially contaminated with either a soluble salt, CdCl(2), at 186mg Cdkg(-1), or alternately an insoluble, basic salt, CdCO(3), at 90mg Cdkg(-1). These experiments study the range of Cd uptake by Indian mustard from conditions of very high Cd concentration in a soluble form to the other extreme with an insoluble Cd salt. After plants were established, four different chelating agents were applied. Chelating agents increased plant uptake of Cd from the CdCl(2) soil but did not significantly increase plant uptake of Cd from the CdCO(3) contaminated soil. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the plant concentration of Cd by almost 10-fold in soils contaminated with CdCl(2), with a concentration of 1283mg Cdkg(-1) in the dried EDTA-treated plants over a concentration of 131mg Cdkg(-1) in plants without added chelate. However, EDTA increased the aqueous solubility of Cd by 36 times over the soil matrix without added chelator, and thereby, increased the possibility of leaching. Other chelators used in both experiments were ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) increasing Cd in plants to 1240, 962, and 437mg Cdkg(-1), respectively. The other chelating agents increased the solubility of Cd in the leachate but not to the extent of EDTA. Comparing all chelating agents studied, DTPA increased plant uptake in terms of Cd in dried plant concentration most relative to the solubility of complexed Cd in runoff water.

  5. Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2002-09-01

    We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size. PMID:12175020

  6. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in the species Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Martina; Schiavon, Michela; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Malagoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) is recognized as a toxic pollutant in soils of many countries. Since phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) can influence arsenic mobility and bioavailability, as well as the plant tolerance to As, phytoremediation techniques employed to clean-up As-contaminated areas should consider the interaction between As and these two nutrients. In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of arsenate in the species Brassica juncea were compared between soil system and hydroponics in relation to P and S concentration of the growth substrate. In one case, plants were grown in pots filled with soil containing 878 mg As kg(-1). The addition of P to soil resulted in increased As desorption and significantly higher As accumulation in plants, with no effect on growth. The absence of toxic effects on plants was likely due to high S in soil, which could efficiently mitigate metal toxicity. In the hydroponic experiment, plants were grown with different combinations of As (0 or 100 μM) and P (56 or 112 μM). S at 400 μM was also added to the nutrient solution of control (-As) and As-treated plants, either individually or in combination with P. The addition of P reduced As uptake by plants, while high S resulted in higher As accumulation and lower P content. These results suggest that S can influence the interaction between P and As for the uptake by plants. The combined increase of P and S in the nutrient solution did not lead to higher accumulation of As, but enhanced As translocation from the root to the shoot. This aspect is of relevance for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. PMID:24677062

  7. Light quanta modulated characteristics of Ni uptake by Brassica juncea seedlings: the interdependence of plant metal concentration and biomass.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Whelan, T; Reyes, M A; Lloren, C; Brandt, T T; Persans, M W

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between the concentration of metal in the growth medium, Cs, the concentration of metal absorbed by the plant, Cp, and the total biomass achieved, M, all of which are factors relevant to the efficiency of metal uptake and tolerance by the plant, have been investigated via the physiological response of Brassica juncea seedlings to Ni stress. The factorial growth experiments treated the Ni concentration in agar medium and the diurnal light quanta as independently variable parameters. Observations included the evidence of light enhancement of Ni toxicity in the root, as well as at the whole-plant level. The shoot mass index possibly is an indicator of the amount of shoot metal sequestration in B. juncea, as are the logarithmic variation of Cp with Cs and the power-law dependence of M on Cp. The sum total of these observations indicates that, for the Ni accumulating plant B. juncea, the overall metabolic allocation to either growth or metal tolerance of the plant is important. Neither a rapid biomass increase nor a high metal absorbed concentration favored the removal of high metal mass from the medium. Rather, the plants with a moderate rate of biomass growth and a moderate absorbed metal concentration demonstrated the ability to remove the maximum mass of metal from the medium. The implication of these results as related to the extant model of phyoextraction efficiency is discussed.

  8. Comparative Ni tolerance and accumulation potentials between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (halophyte) and Brassica juncea: Metal accumulation, nutrient status and photosynthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Ghnaya, Tahar; Debez, Ahmed; Taamali, Manel; Ben Youssef, Nabil; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly

    2014-11-01

    Saline soils often constitute sites of accumulation of industrial and urban wastes contaminated by heavy metals. Halophytes, i.e. native salt-tolerant species, could be more suitable for heavy metal phytoextraction from saline areas than glycophytes, most frequently used so far. In the framework of this approach, we assess here the Ni phytoextraction potential in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum compared with the model species Brassica juncea. Plants were hydroponically maintained for 21 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100μM NiCl2. Nickel addition significantly restricted the growth activity of both species, and to a higher extent in M. crystallinum, which did not, however, show Ni-related toxicity symptoms on leaves. Interestingly, photosynthesis activity, chlorophyll content and photosystem II integrity assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence were less impacted in Ni-treated M. crystallinum as compared to B. juncea. The plant mineral nutrition was differently affected by NiCl2 exposure depending on the element, the species investigated and even the organ. In both species, roots were the preferential sites of Ni(2+) accumulation, but the fraction translocated to shoots was higher in B. juncea than in M. crystallinum. The relatively good tolerance of M. crystallinum to Ni suggests that this halophyte species could be used in the phytoextraction of moderately polluted saline soils. PMID:25171515

  9. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs.

  10. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  11. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection.

  12. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection. PMID:25022686

  13. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: impact on the glucosinolate composition.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Koprivova, Anna; De Kok, Luit J

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic, aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold higher in B. juncea than in B. rapa, which could solely be attributed to the presence of high levels of sinigrin, which was absent in the latter species. Sulfate deprivation resulted in a strong decrease in the content and an altered composition of the glucosinolates of both species. Despite the differences in patterns in foliarly uptake and metabolism, their exposure hardly affected the glucosinolate composition of the shoot, both at sulfate-sufficient and sulfate-deprived conditions. This indicated that the glucosinolate composition in the shoot was hardly affected by differences in sulfur source (viz., sulfate, sulfite and sulfide). Upon sulfate deprivation, where foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 were the sole sulfur source for growth, the glucosinolate composition of roots differed from sulfate-sufficient B. juncea and B. rapa, notably the fraction of the indolic glucosinolates was lower than that observed in sulfur-sufficient roots.

  14. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: impact on the glucosinolate composition

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Koprivova, Anna; De Kok, Luit J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic, aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold higher in B. juncea than in B. rapa, which could solely be attributed to the presence of high levels of sinigrin, which was absent in the latter species. Sulfate deprivation resulted in a strong decrease in the content and an altered composition of the glucosinolates of both species. Despite the differences in patterns in foliarly uptake and metabolism, their exposure hardly affected the glucosinolate composition of the shoot, both at sulfate-sufficient and sulfate-deprived conditions. This indicated that the glucosinolate composition in the shoot was hardly affected by differences in sulfur source (viz., sulfate, sulfite and sulfide). Upon sulfate deprivation, where foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 were the sole sulfur source for growth, the glucosinolate composition of roots differed from sulfate-sufficient B. juncea and B. rapa, notably the fraction of the indolic glucosinolates was lower than that observed in sulfur-sufficient roots. PMID:26579170

  15. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  16. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants. PMID:24452332

  17. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 transcription factor gene directs development of low glucosinolate lines in oilseed Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-09-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), a globally important oilseed crop, contains relatively high amount of seed glucosinolates ranging from 80 to 120 μmol/g dry weight (DW). One of the major breeding objectives in oilseed Brassicas is to improve the seed-meal quality through the development of low-seed-glucosinolate lines (<30 μmol/g DW), as high amounts of certain seed glucosinolates are known to be anti-nutritional and reduce the meal palatability. Here, we report the development of transgenic B. juncea lines having seed glucosinolates as low as 11.26 μmol/g DW, through RNAi-based targeted suppression of BjMYB28, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor family gene involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 homologs provided significant reduction in the anti-nutritional aliphatic glucosinolates fractions, without altering the desirable nonaliphatic glucosinolate pool, both in leaves and seeds of transgenic plants. Molecular characterization of single-copy, low glucosinolate homozygous lines confirmed significant down-regulation of BjMYB28 homologs vis-à-vis enhanced accumulation of BjMYB28-specific siRNA pool. Consequently, these low glucosinolate lines also showed significant suppression of genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. The low glucosinolate trait was stable in subsequent generations of the transgenic lines with no visible off-target effects on plant growth and development. Various seed quality parameters including fatty acid composition, oil content, protein content and seed weight of the low glucosinolate lines also remained unaltered, when tested under containment conditions in the field. Our results indicate that targeted silencing of a key glucosinolate transcriptional regulator MYB28 has huge potential for reducing the glucosinolates content and improving the seed-meal quality of oilseed Brassica crops. PMID:23721233

  18. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the rhizosphere soils of rape (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Yan; Yang, Jin-Yan; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-06-01

    The response of rape (Brassica juncea L.) to different vanadium (V) speciation in rhizosphere soils was investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil containing 147 mg V kg(-1) supplemented with 0-500 mg V kg(-1) of pentavalent V [V(V)] and a mining soil containing 774 mg V kg(-1). Tetravalent V [V(IV)] accounted for 76.1 and 85.9 % of total V in the untreated agricultural soil and mining soil, respectively. The proportion of both V(V) and water-extractable V increased with increasing concentrations of V(V) in the agricultural soil. The growth of rape substantially reduced the concentrations of V(V) but not V(IV) in the rhizosphere soil, suggesting that V(V) was actively involved in the soil-rape interaction of V. Both soil V(V) and water-extractable V were negatively related to the total rape biomass, but were positively correlated with the concentration of root V. No such relationships were found for total V and soil V(IV). Together, these results indicate that soil V(V) and water-extractable V might better reflect the toxicity of V in soils than total V and soil V(IV). Rape accumulated V in the sequence: roots > > stem > leaf > seed. As indicated by the remarkably low root bioconcentration factor of V(V) (0.41-7.24 %), rape had a lower ability to accumulate V than other plants reported in the literature (14.6-298 %). Only a small fraction of V in rape roots was translocated to the aboveground organs (the translocation factor was 3.57-46.9 %). No V was detectable in seeds in the soils at 147 and 197 mg V kg(-1), and no seed was produced in the soils at higher V concentrations. Thus, the risk of V intake by humans via the consumption of rapeseed-based foods under normal conditions is considered to be lower than that of other plants. PMID:25586612

  19. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the rhizosphere soils of rape (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Yan; Yang, Jin-Yan; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-06-01

    The response of rape (Brassica juncea L.) to different vanadium (V) speciation in rhizosphere soils was investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil containing 147 mg V kg(-1) supplemented with 0-500 mg V kg(-1) of pentavalent V [V(V)] and a mining soil containing 774 mg V kg(-1). Tetravalent V [V(IV)] accounted for 76.1 and 85.9 % of total V in the untreated agricultural soil and mining soil, respectively. The proportion of both V(V) and water-extractable V increased with increasing concentrations of V(V) in the agricultural soil. The growth of rape substantially reduced the concentrations of V(V) but not V(IV) in the rhizosphere soil, suggesting that V(V) was actively involved in the soil-rape interaction of V. Both soil V(V) and water-extractable V were negatively related to the total rape biomass, but were positively correlated with the concentration of root V. No such relationships were found for total V and soil V(IV). Together, these results indicate that soil V(V) and water-extractable V might better reflect the toxicity of V in soils than total V and soil V(IV). Rape accumulated V in the sequence: roots > > stem > leaf > seed. As indicated by the remarkably low root bioconcentration factor of V(V) (0.41-7.24 %), rape had a lower ability to accumulate V than other plants reported in the literature (14.6-298 %). Only a small fraction of V in rape roots was translocated to the aboveground organs (the translocation factor was 3.57-46.9 %). No V was detectable in seeds in the soils at 147 and 197 mg V kg(-1), and no seed was produced in the soils at higher V concentrations. Thus, the risk of V intake by humans via the consumption of rapeseed-based foods under normal conditions is considered to be lower than that of other plants.

  20. Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase: localization of mRNA and protein.

    PubMed

    Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2005-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGS; EC 2.3.3.10) synthesizes HMG-CoA, a substrate for mevalonate biosynthesis in the isoprenoid pathway. It catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA (AcAc-CoA) to yield S-HMG-CoA and HS-CoA. In Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), HMGS is encoded by four isogenes (BjHMGS1-BjHMGS4). We have already enzymatically characterized recombinant BjHMGS1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and have identified its residues that are significant in catalysis. To further study HMGS mRNA expression that is developmentally regulated in flowers and seedlings, we have examined its mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed predominant localization of HMGS mRNA in the stigmas and ovules of flower buds and in the piths of seedling hypocotyls. RT-PCR analysis revealed that BjHMGS1 and BjHMGS2 but not BjHMGS3 and BjHMGS4were expressed in floral buds. To investigate the subcellular localization of BjHMGS1, we fused BjHMGS1 translationally in-frame either to the N- or C-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). BjHMGS1-GFP and GFP-BjHMGS1 fusions were used in particle gun bombardment of onion epidermal cells and tobacco BY-2 cells. The GFP-BjHMGS1 construct was also used in agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves. Both GFP-fusion proteins were observed transiently expressed in the cytosol on confocal microscopy of onion epidermal cells, tobacco BY-2 cells, and agroinfiltrated tobacco leaves. Further, subcellular fractionation of total proteins from transgenic plants expressing GFP-BjHMGS1 derived from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation confirmed that BjHMGS1 is a cytosolic enzyme. We suggest that the presence of BjHMGS isoforms is likely related to the specialization of each in different cellular and metabolic processes rather than to a different intracellular compartmentation of the enzyme.

  1. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  2. Proteome analysis of the Albugo candida–Brassica juncea pathosystem reveals that the timing of the expression of defence-related genes is a crucial determinant of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Parwinder; Jost, Ricarda; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin John

    2011-01-01

    White rust, caused by Albugo candida, is a serious pathogen of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and poses a potential hazard to the presently developing canola-quality B. juncea industry worldwide. A comparative proteomic study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie the defence responses of Brassica juncea to white rust disease caused by the biotrophic oomycete Albugo candida. Nineteen proteins showed reproducible differences in abundance between a susceptible (RH 819) and a resistant variety (CBJ 001) of B. juncea following inoculation with A. candida. The identities of all 19 proteins were successfully established through Q-TOF MS/MS. Five of these proteins were only detected in the resistant variety and showed significant differences in their abundance at various times following pathogen inoculation in comparison to mock-inoculated plants. Among these was a thaumatin-like protein (PR-5), a protein not previously associated with the resistance of B. juncea towards A. candida. One protein, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) isoform CYP20-3, was only detected in the susceptible variety and increased in abundance in response to the pathogen. PPIases have recently been discovered to play an important role in pathogenesis by suppressing the host cell's immune response. For a subset of seven proteins examined in more detail, an increase in transcript abundance always preceded their induction at the proteome level. These findings are discussed within the context of the A. candida–Brassica juncea pathosystem, especially in relation to host resistance to this pathogen. PMID:21193577

  3. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  4. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  5. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Salt, David E

    2007-01-01

    Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point for the development of plants for phytoremediation. Our goal in this study is to determine the transcriptional regulation of MTP1 in order to start to better understanding the physiological role of MTP1 in B. juncea. Results Steady-state mRNA levels of BjMTP1 were found to be enhanced 8.8, 5.9, and 1.6-fold in five-day-old B. juncea seedlings after exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+, respectively. This was also reflected in enhanced GUS activity in B. juncea seedlings transformed with BjMTP1 promoter::GUSPlus after exposure to these metals over a similar range of toxicities from mild to severe. However, no increase in GUS activity was observed after exposure of seedlings to cold or heat stress, NaCl or hydrogen peroxide. GUS expression in Ni2+ treated seedlings was localized in roots, particularly in the root-shoot transition zone. In four- week- old transgenic plants BjMTP1 promoter activity also primarily increased in roots in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ in plants transformed with either GUS or mRFP1 as reporter genes, and expression was localized to the secondary xylem parenchyma. In leaves, BjMTP1 promoter activity in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ spiked after 24 h then decreased. In shoots GUS expression was prominently present in the vasculature of leaves, and floral parts. Conclusion Our studies establish that a 983 bp DNA fragment upstream of the BjMTP1 translational start site is sufficient for the specific activation by Ni2+ and Cd2+ of BjMTP1 expression primarily in roots. Activation of

  6. Isolation and characterization of juncin, an antifungal protein from seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiujuan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-05-27

    An 18.9 kDa antifungal protein designated juncin was isolated from seeds of the Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia). The purification protocol employed comprised anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Juncin was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose but unadsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The protein exhibited antifungal activity toward the phytopathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with IC(50) values of 13.5, 27, and 10 μM, respectively. It was devoid of mitogenic activity toward splenocytes and nitric oxide inducing activity toward macrophages. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 6.4 μM, respecitvely, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.5 μM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins that have been reported to date. Compared with Brassica campestris and Brassica alboglabra antifungal peptides, juncin exhibits a different molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence but similar biological activities. PMID:19354248

  7. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  8. Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2015-07-01

    Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 μmol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea cv Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 μmol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v = F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ≈50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25471475

  9. Mapping of yield influencing QTL in Brassica juncea: implications for breeding of a major oilseed crop of dryland areas.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, N; Padmaja, K L; Sharma, S; Gupta, V; Sodhi, Y S; Mukhopadhyay, A; Arumugam, N; Pental, D; Pradhan, A K

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of yield influencing traits was carried out in Brassica juncea (AABB) using a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of 123 lines derived from a cross between Varuna (a line representing the Indian gene pool) and Heera (representing the east European gene pool) to identify potentially useful alleles from both the parents. The existing AFLP based map of B. juncea was further saturated with RFLP and SSR markers which led to the identification of the linkage groups belonging to the A (B. rapa) and B (B. nigra) genome components of B. juncea. For QTL dissection, the DH lines were evaluated at three different environments and phenotyped for 12 quantitative traits. A total of 65 QTL spread over 13 linkage groups (LG) were identified from the three environments. QTL analysis showed that the A genome has contributed more than the B genome to productivity (68% of the total QTL detected) suggesting a more prominent role of the A genome towards domestication of this crop. The east European line, Heera, carried favorable alleles for 42% of the detected QTL and the remaining 58% were in the Indian gene pool line, Varuna. We observed clustering of major QTL in a few linkage groups, particularly in J7 and J10 of the A genome, with QTL of different traits having agronomically antagonistic allelic effects co-mapping to the same genetic interval. QTL analysis also identified some well-separated QTL which could be readily transferred between the two pools. Based on the QTL analysis, we propose that improvement in yield could be achieved more readily by heterosis breeding rather than by pure line breeding.

  10. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S S

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.

  11. Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2015-07-01

    Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 μmol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea cv Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 μmol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v = F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ≈50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions.

  12. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S S

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis. PMID:22363404

  13. Polyphyletic origin of Brassica juncea with B. rapa and B. nigra (Brassicaceae) participating as cytoplasm donor parents in independent hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Puneet; Banga, Shashi; Kumar, Nitin; Gupta, Shilpa; Akhatar, Javed; Banga, Surinder S

    2014-07-16

    • Premise of the study: Brassica juncea is a major source of edible oil in the Indian subcontinent and northern China. It is also used as a root and leaf vegetable in China and as a condiment in Europe and America. There is a long-standing view that B. juncea originated from multiple hybridization events between B. rapa and B. nigra and that hybridizations were always unidirectional with B. rapa as the cytoplasmic donor. These conclusions were, however, centered primarily on nuclear markers.• Methods: Two hundred forty-six accessions of B. juncea, B. rapa, and B. nigra were genotyped using chloroplast and nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.• Key results: A structure analysis assigned B. juncea germplasm (122) into three major groups based on plasmotype variation. The bulk of Indian B. juncea genotypes were grouped along with Chinese and Australian accessions. This plasmotype was absent in sampled accessions of B. rapa (97), B. nigra (27), and other wild crucifers (10). The second group of B. juncea included East European genotypes and four accessions from India. It showed unambiguous homology with the predominant B. nigra plasmotype. The neighbor joining tree produced seven subgroups, arranged into two broad lineages. The first lineage included Indian, Australian, and Chinese B. juncea genotypes; it was associated with wild species belonging to the "rapa" lineage. Nuclear SSR marker-based analyses were largely supportive of results from chloroplast SSR analyses.• Conclusions: Based on these results, we provide the first report that B. juncea originated several times with both B. rapa and B. nigra as cytoplasmic donors in separate hybridization events.

  14. Polyphyletic origin of Brassica juncea with B. rapa and B. nigra (Brassicaceae) participating as cytoplasm donor parents in independent hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Puneet; Banga, Shashi; Kumar, Nitin; Gupta, Shilpa; Akhatar, Javed; Banga, Surinder S

    2014-07-16

    • Premise of the study: Brassica juncea is a major source of edible oil in the Indian subcontinent and northern China. It is also used as a root and leaf vegetable in China and as a condiment in Europe and America. There is a long-standing view that B. juncea originated from multiple hybridization events between B. rapa and B. nigra and that hybridizations were always unidirectional with B. rapa as the cytoplasmic donor. These conclusions were, however, centered primarily on nuclear markers.• Methods: Two hundred forty-six accessions of B. juncea, B. rapa, and B. nigra were genotyped using chloroplast and nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.• Key results: A structure analysis assigned B. juncea germplasm (122) into three major groups based on plasmotype variation. The bulk of Indian B. juncea genotypes were grouped along with Chinese and Australian accessions. This plasmotype was absent in sampled accessions of B. rapa (97), B. nigra (27), and other wild crucifers (10). The second group of B. juncea included East European genotypes and four accessions from India. It showed unambiguous homology with the predominant B. nigra plasmotype. The neighbor joining tree produced seven subgroups, arranged into two broad lineages. The first lineage included Indian, Australian, and Chinese B. juncea genotypes; it was associated with wild species belonging to the "rapa" lineage. Nuclear SSR marker-based analyses were largely supportive of results from chloroplast SSR analyses.• Conclusions: Based on these results, we provide the first report that B. juncea originated several times with both B. rapa and B. nigra as cytoplasmic donors in separate hybridization events. PMID:25030348

  15. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought. PMID:24444925

  16. A proteomic analysis of seeds from Bt-transgenic Brassica napus and hybrids with wild B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Zhang, Ying-Xue; Song, Song-Quan; Li, Junsheng; Neal Stewart, C; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Transgene insertions might have unintended side effects on the transgenic host, both crop and hybrids with wild relatives that harbor transgenes. We employed proteomic approaches to assess protein abundance changes in seeds from Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its hybrids with wild mustard (B. juncea). A total of 24, 15 and 34 protein spots matching to 23, 13 and 31 unique genes were identified that changed at least 1.5 fold (p < 0.05, Student's t-test) in abundance between transgenic (tBN) and non-transgenic (BN) oilseed rape, between hybrids of B. juncea (BJ) × tBN (BJtBN) and BJ × BN (BJBN) and between BJBN and BJ, respectively. Eight proteins had higher abundance in tBN than in BN. None of these proteins was toxic or nutritionally harmful to human health, which is not surprising since the seeds are not known to produce toxic proteins. Protein spots varying in abundance between BJtBN and BJBN seeds were the same or homologous to those in the respective parents. None of the differentially-accumulated proteins between BJtBN and BJBN were identical to those between tBN and BN. Results indicated that unintended effects resulted from transgene flow fell within the range of natural variability of hybridization and those found in the native host proteomes. PMID:26486652

  17. Spread of introgressed insect-resistance genes in wild populations of Brassica juncea: a simulated in-vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Darmency, Henri

    2013-08-01

    Introgression between transgenic, insect-resistant crops and their wild relatives could lead to a progressive increase of the frequency of resistant plants in wild populations. However, few studies help predict the impact on the population dynamics. To simulate the performance of introgressed insect-resistant plants of wild Brassica juncea, independently from the interspecific hybridization cost, healthy plants were cultivated in pure and mixed stands with damaged plants through cutting leaves in field experiments over two field seasons. As expected, resistant (healthy) plants held a competitive advantage when in competition with susceptible (damaged) plants. Individual biomass and seed production of both types of plants decreased as the percentage of resistant plants increased, so that the relative advantage of resistant plants increased. The combined effects of defoliation and competition on the individual performance of B. juncea were additive. Replacement series experiments confirmed this trend but did not show different seed output in pure stand of susceptible versus resistant plots. The total vegetative and reproductive production of mixed populations was not significantly different of that of pure populations. These results suggest that if a transgene for insect-resistance were to colonize wild populations, high herbivory of susceptible plant and low resource availability would facilitate the spread of resistant individuals. However, at the population level, the shift from an insect-susceptible to a predominantly resistant population would not result in exacerbated habitat colonization. PMID:23250587

  18. A proteomic analysis of seeds from Bt-transgenic Brassica napus and hybrids with wild B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Zhang, Ying-Xue; Song, Song-Quan; Li, Junsheng; Neal Stewart, C; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Transgene insertions might have unintended side effects on the transgenic host, both crop and hybrids with wild relatives that harbor transgenes. We employed proteomic approaches to assess protein abundance changes in seeds from Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its hybrids with wild mustard (B. juncea). A total of 24, 15 and 34 protein spots matching to 23, 13 and 31 unique genes were identified that changed at least 1.5 fold (p < 0.05, Student's t-test) in abundance between transgenic (tBN) and non-transgenic (BN) oilseed rape, between hybrids of B. juncea (BJ) × tBN (BJtBN) and BJ × BN (BJBN) and between BJBN and BJ, respectively. Eight proteins had higher abundance in tBN than in BN. None of these proteins was toxic or nutritionally harmful to human health, which is not surprising since the seeds are not known to produce toxic proteins. Protein spots varying in abundance between BJtBN and BJBN seeds were the same or homologous to those in the respective parents. None of the differentially-accumulated proteins between BJtBN and BJBN were identical to those between tBN and BN. Results indicated that unintended effects resulted from transgene flow fell within the range of natural variability of hybridization and those found in the native host proteomes.

  19. Transcriptomics profiling of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) under arsenate stress identifies key candidate genes and regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Srivastava, Ashish K; Sablok, Gaurav; Deshpande, Tejaswini U; Suprasanna, Penna

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a non-essential element, a groundwater pollutant, whose uptake by plants produces toxic effects. The use of As-contaminated groundwater for irrigation can affect the crop productivity. Realizing the importance of the Brassica juncea as a crop plant in terms of oil-yield, there is a need to unravel mechanistic details of response to As stress and identify key functional genes and pathways. In this research, we studied time-dependent (4-96 h) transcriptome changes in roots and shoots of B. juncea under arsenate [As(V)] stress using Agilent platform. Among the whole transcriptome profiled genes, a total of 1,285 genes showed significant change in expression pattern upon As(V) exposure. The differentially expressed genes were categorized to various signaling pathways including hormones (jasmonate, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene) and kinases. Significant effects were also noticed on genes related to sulfur, nitrogen, CHO, and lipid metabolisms along with photosynthesis. Biochemical assays were conducted using specific inhibitors of glutathione and jasmonate biosynthesis, and kinases. The inhibitor studies revealed interconnection among sulfur metabolism, jasmonate, and kinase signaling pathways. In addition, various transposons also constituted a part of the altered transcriptome. Lastly, we profiled a set of key functional up- and down-regulated genes using real-time RT-PCR, which could act as an early indicators of the As stress.

  20. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  1. Transcriptomics profiling of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) under arsenate stress identifies key candidate genes and regulatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Srivastava, Ashish K.; Sablok, Gaurav; Deshpande, Tejaswini U.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a non-essential element, a groundwater pollutant, whose uptake by plants produces toxic effects. The use of As-contaminated groundwater for irrigation can affect the crop productivity. Realizing the importance of the Brassica juncea as a crop plant in terms of oil-yield, there is a need to unravel mechanistic details of response to As stress and identify key functional genes and pathways. In this research, we studied time-dependent (4–96 h) transcriptome changes in roots and shoots of B. juncea under arsenate [As(V)] stress using Agilent platform. Among the whole transcriptome profiled genes, a total of 1,285 genes showed significant change in expression pattern upon As(V) exposure. The differentially expressed genes were categorized to various signaling pathways including hormones (jasmonate, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene) and kinases. Significant effects were also noticed on genes related to sulfur, nitrogen, CHO, and lipid metabolisms along with photosynthesis. Biochemical assays were conducted using specific inhibitors of glutathione and jasmonate biosynthesis, and kinases. The inhibitor studies revealed interconnection among sulfur metabolism, jasmonate, and kinase signaling pathways. In addition, various transposons also constituted a part of the altered transcriptome. Lastly, we profiled a set of key functional up- and down-regulated genes using real-time RT-PCR, which could act as an early indicators of the As stress. PMID:26347763

  2. Exposure of Brassica juncea (L) to arsenic species in hydroponic medium: comparative analysis in accumulation and biochemical and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohd Anwar; Gupta, Meetu

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in the environment has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The objective of the present study was to see the comparative effect of As species As(III) and As(V) on accumulation, biochemical responses, and gene expression analysis in Brassica juncea var. Pusa Jaganath (PJn). Hydroponically grown 14-day-old seedlings of B. juncea were treated with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V). Accumulation of total As increased with increasing concentration of both As species and exposure time, mainly in roots. Reduction in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll, and protein content were observed with increasing concentration and exposure time of both As species, being more in As(III)-treated leaves. PJn variety showed that antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) and stress-related parameters (cysteine, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were stimulated and allows plant to tolerate both As species. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis in leaves showed significant changes in protein profile with more stringent effect with As(III) stress. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed regulation in expression of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothionine-2 (MT-2), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione synthetase (GS) genes under both As(III) and As(V) stresses. Results suggested that accumulation and inhibition on physiological parameters differ according to the As species, while molecular and biochemical parameters showed a combinatorial type of tolerance mechanism against As(III) and As(V) stresses.

  3. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots.

  4. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. PMID:26986237

  5. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  6. Salicylic acid-mediated establishment of the compatibility between Alternaria brassicicola and Brassica juncea is mitigated by abscisic acid in Sinapis alba.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Das, Srirupa; Saha, Upala; Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Bannerjee, Kaushik; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-09-01

    This work addresses the changes in the phytohormonal signature in the recognition of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by susceptible Brassica juncea and resistant Sinapis alba. Although B. juncea, S. alba and Arabidopsis all belong to the same family, Brassicaceae, the phytohormonal response of susceptible B. juncea towards this pathogen is unique because the latter two species express non-host resistance. The differential expression of the PR1 gene and the increased level of salicylic acid (SA) indicated that an SA-mediated biotrophic mode of defence response was triggered in B. juncea upon challenge with the pathogen. Compared to B. juncea, resistant S. alba initiated enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses following challenge with this pathogen, as revealed by monitoring the expression of ABA-related genes along with the concentration of ABA and JA. Furthermore, these results were verified by the exogenous application of ABA on B. juncea leaves prior to challenge with A. brassicicola, which resulted in a delayed disease progression, followed by the inhibition of the pathogen-mediated increase in SA response and enhanced JA levels. Therefore, it seems that A. brassicicola is steering the defence response towards a biotrophic mode by mounting an SA response in susceptible B. juncea, whereas the enhanced ABA response of S. alba not only counteracts the SA response but also restores the necrotrophic mode of resistance by enhancing JA biosynthesis.

  7. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24491701

  8. Natural mutations in two homoeologous TT8 genes control yellow seed coat trait in allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB).

    PubMed

    Padmaja, Lakshmi K; Agarwal, Parul; Gupta, Vibha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Sodhi, Yaspal S; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2014-02-01

    Identification of the candidate gene responsible for the seed coat colour variation in Brassica juncea was undertaken following an earlier study where two independent loci (BjSc1 and BjSc2) were mapped to two linkage groups, LG A9 and B3 (Padmaja et al. in Theor Appl Genet 111:8-14, 2005). The genome search from BRAD data for the presence of flavonoid genes in B. rapa identified three candidate genes namely, DFR, TT1 and TT8 in the LG A9. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed absence of transcript for the late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) and showed significant reduction of transcript in the TT8 from the developing seeds of yellow-seeded line. While mapping of two DFR genes, the BjuA.DFR and BjuB.DFR did not show perfect co-segregation with the seed coat colour loci, that of the two TT8 genes, BjuA.TT8 and BjuB.TT8 showed perfect co-segregation with the seed coat colour phenotype. The BjuA.TT8 allele from the yellow-seeded line revealed the presence of an insertion of 1,279 bp in the exon 7 and did not produce any transcript as revealed by reverse transcriptase PCR. The BjuB.TT8 allele from the yellow-seeded line revealed the presence of an SNP (C→T) in the exon 7 resulting in a stop codon predicting a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal 8 amino acid residues and produced significantly low level of transcript than its wild-type counterpart. Hence, it is hypothesized that the mutations in both the TT8 genes are required for inhibiting the transcription of LBGs in the yellow-seeded mutant of B. juncea.

  9. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  10. Natural mutations in two homoeologous TT8 genes control yellow seed coat trait in allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB).

    PubMed

    Padmaja, Lakshmi K; Agarwal, Parul; Gupta, Vibha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Sodhi, Yaspal S; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2014-02-01

    Identification of the candidate gene responsible for the seed coat colour variation in Brassica juncea was undertaken following an earlier study where two independent loci (BjSc1 and BjSc2) were mapped to two linkage groups, LG A9 and B3 (Padmaja et al. in Theor Appl Genet 111:8-14, 2005). The genome search from BRAD data for the presence of flavonoid genes in B. rapa identified three candidate genes namely, DFR, TT1 and TT8 in the LG A9. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed absence of transcript for the late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) and showed significant reduction of transcript in the TT8 from the developing seeds of yellow-seeded line. While mapping of two DFR genes, the BjuA.DFR and BjuB.DFR did not show perfect co-segregation with the seed coat colour loci, that of the two TT8 genes, BjuA.TT8 and BjuB.TT8 showed perfect co-segregation with the seed coat colour phenotype. The BjuA.TT8 allele from the yellow-seeded line revealed the presence of an insertion of 1,279 bp in the exon 7 and did not produce any transcript as revealed by reverse transcriptase PCR. The BjuB.TT8 allele from the yellow-seeded line revealed the presence of an SNP (C→T) in the exon 7 resulting in a stop codon predicting a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal 8 amino acid residues and produced significantly low level of transcript than its wild-type counterpart. Hence, it is hypothesized that the mutations in both the TT8 genes are required for inhibiting the transcription of LBGs in the yellow-seeded mutant of B. juncea. PMID:24247234

  11. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  12. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. PMID:26351151

  13. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil.

  14. Study on the correlation between copper oxide nanoparticles induced growth suppression and enhanced lignification in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the morphological, physiological and molecular level effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were studied in an economically important oil seed crop Brassica juncea L. The possible involvement of lignification on shoot-root growth retardation was also studied. The seedlings were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500mg/L of CuONPs in semi-solid half strength Murashige and Skoog medium under controlled growth chamber conditions for 14 days. Exposure to CuONPs resulted in suppression of shoot-growth, reduction in total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents as well modification of root system architecture such as shortening of primary and lateral roots. Significant increases in hydrogen peroxide formation, peroxidase enzyme activity and lignification of shoots and roots were observed. The lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in shoots and roots of B. juncea seedlings. Phloroglucinol-HCl staining revealed enhanced lignification of shoot and roots. Gene expression studies revealed significant activation of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in roots at all concentrations of CuONPs exposure. In shoots significant up-regulation of CuZnSOD gene was observed upon exposure to 100, 200 and 400 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. However no change in the expression levels of MnSOD gene was observed in both stem and roots. The expression of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) genes were also not changed in shoots. However, significant inhibition of CAT and APX genes were observed in roots of B. juncea plants under exposure to 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. The SOD enzyme activity significantly increased in roots under exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs and in shoots as a result of exposure to 100-500 mg/L of CuONPs. The APX activity significantly decreased in roots upon exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs. In shoots, the APX activity significantly decreased upon exposure to 200-500 mg/L of CuONPs. PMID:25528486

  15. Study on the correlation between copper oxide nanoparticles induced growth suppression and enhanced lignification in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the morphological, physiological and molecular level effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were studied in an economically important oil seed crop Brassica juncea L. The possible involvement of lignification on shoot-root growth retardation was also studied. The seedlings were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500mg/L of CuONPs in semi-solid half strength Murashige and Skoog medium under controlled growth chamber conditions for 14 days. Exposure to CuONPs resulted in suppression of shoot-growth, reduction in total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents as well modification of root system architecture such as shortening of primary and lateral roots. Significant increases in hydrogen peroxide formation, peroxidase enzyme activity and lignification of shoots and roots were observed. The lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in shoots and roots of B. juncea seedlings. Phloroglucinol-HCl staining revealed enhanced lignification of shoot and roots. Gene expression studies revealed significant activation of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in roots at all concentrations of CuONPs exposure. In shoots significant up-regulation of CuZnSOD gene was observed upon exposure to 100, 200 and 400 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. However no change in the expression levels of MnSOD gene was observed in both stem and roots. The expression of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) genes were also not changed in shoots. However, significant inhibition of CAT and APX genes were observed in roots of B. juncea plants under exposure to 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. The SOD enzyme activity significantly increased in roots under exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs and in shoots as a result of exposure to 100-500 mg/L of CuONPs. The APX activity significantly decreased in roots upon exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs. In shoots, the APX activity significantly decreased upon exposure to 200-500 mg/L of CuONPs.

  16. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  17. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  18. Alloplasmic male-sterile Brassica juncea with Enarthrocarpus lyratus cytoplasm and the introgression of gene(s) for fertility restoration from cytoplasm donor species.

    PubMed

    Banga, S S; Deol, J S; Banga, S K

    2003-05-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) source in Brassica juncea (2n = 36; AABB) was developed by substituting its nucleus into the cytoplasm of Enarthrocarpus lyratus (2n = 20; E(l)E(l)). Male sterility was complete, stable and manifested in either petaloid- or rudimentary-anthers which were devoid of fertile pollen grains. Male sterile plants resembled the euplasmic B. juncea except for slight leaf yellowing and delayed maturity. Leaf yellowing was due mainly to higher level of carotenoids rather than a reduction in chlorophyll pigments. Female fertility in male-sterile plants varied; it was normal in lines having rudimentary anthers but poor in those with petaloid anthers. Each of the 62 evaluated germplasm lines of B. juncea was a functional maintainer of male sterility. The gene(s) for male-fertility restoration ( Rf) were introgressed from the cytoplasm donor species through homoeologous pairing between A and E(l) chromosomes in monosomic addition plants (2n = 18II+1E(l)). The percent pollen fertility of restored F(1) ( lyr CMS x putative restorer) plants ranged from 60 to 80%. This, however, was sufficient to ensure complete seed set upon by bag selfing. The CMS ( lyr) B. juncea compared favourably with the existing CMS systems for various productivity related characteristics. However, the reduced transmission frequency of the Rf gene(s) through pollen grains, which was evident from the sporadic occurrence of male-sterile plants in restored F(1) hybrids, remains a limitation.

  19. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  20. Characterization of seed germination, seedling growth, and associated metabolic responses of Brassica juncea L. cultivars to elevated nickel concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sveta; Sharma, Shanti S

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination and seedling growth responses of three Brassica juncea L. cultivars, namely Varuna, Kranti, and Pusa Jai Kisan, to nickel have been characterized. Ni suppressed the seed germination differentially, suppression being greater in cv. Kranti than in others. On the basis of seedling growth performance, cv. Varuna proved most tolerant to Ni. The Ni accumulation in seedlings differed strongly among the three cultivars. The lowest and highest Ni contents were observed in the seedlings of cvs. Kranti and Pusa Jai Kisan, respectively. Despite substantial Ni accumulation, cv. Varuna was most tolerant to Ni. Ni accumulation in seedlings was accompanied by differentially altered Fe and K contents and increased levels of non-protein thiols and free proline. The O2- and H2O2 contents and their respective scavenging enzymes in the seedlings responded differentially to the Ni treatment suggesting the involvement of redox imbalance in the development of Ni toxicity. Interestingly, the greater Ni tolerance of cv. Varuna coincided with the elevated constitutive activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The data have implications for seedling establishment under Ni-rich conditions and in turn for phytoremediation. PMID:26025262

  1. Low level of selenium increases the efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide through altered physiological and biochemical traits of Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Naz, Fatima Salva; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to provide an insight into the effect of Se (through soil) induced changes in Brassica juncea plants in the presence and absence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; foliar). The Se treatments showed dual response, 10 μM of Se significantly increased growth, water relations, photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas its higher concentrations proved inhibitory in concentration dependent manner. The follow-up application of EBL to the Se stressed plants improved growth, water relations, photosynthesis and simultaneously enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase with the excess accumulation of proline. In addition to this, 10 μM Se increases the efficacy of 10(-8) M of EBL and both in combination showed maximum increase for the growth and photosynthetic traits of plants. On the other hand, the elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the Se-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis.

  2. Characterization of a new oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen, Bra j IE: detection of an allergenic epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, R I; Gonzalez de la Peña, M A; Menendez-Arias, L; Lopez-Otin, C; Villalba, M; Rodriguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Bra j IE, a major allergen from oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds, has been isolated and characterized. Its primary structure has been elucidated. This protein is composed of two chains (37 and 92 amino acids) linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence obtained is closely related to that previously determined for Sin a I, an allergen isolated from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). A common epitope has been detected in the large chain of both Bra j IE and Sin a I by means of electroblotting and immunodetection with 2B3, which is a monoclonal antibody raised against the yellow-mustard allergen. A histidine residue of the large chain of both mustard allergens has been found to be essential for the recognition by 2B3 antibody. A synthetic multiantigenic peptide containing this His was recognized by 2B3 as well as by sera of mustard-hypersensitive individuals. Therefore this antigenic determinant must be involved in the allergenicity of these proteins. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7688955

  3. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  4. Effect of feeding Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea diet on [correction] kidney functions and glucose levels in streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S P; Vats, V

    2003-03-01

    Purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding 15% of powdered leaves of Murraya koeingii (MK) (commonly called as Curry patta) and 10% powder of seeds of Brassica juncea (BJ) (commonly called as Rai) for 60 days on serum glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ; 100mg/kg) diabetic rats. Serum glucose levels, body weight, urine volume, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin (UAE) levels were monitored on day 0, 10, 25, 40, and 70 of the experiment. After 60 days of STZ administration, urine volume per day and UAE levels were significantly higher (P<0.0005) in diabetic controls (DC) as compared to normal controls (NC). Although feeding of the MK/BJ showed a trend towards improvement in most of the parameters, results were not statistically different from the DC except in serum creatinine values in BJ-fed rats on day 70. Thus, these plants can be best utilized by promoting them as preferable food adjuvants for diabetic patients.

  5. Characterization of seed germination, seedling growth, and associated metabolic responses of Brassica juncea L. cultivars to elevated nickel concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sveta; Sharma, Shanti S

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination and seedling growth responses of three Brassica juncea L. cultivars, namely Varuna, Kranti, and Pusa Jai Kisan, to nickel have been characterized. Ni suppressed the seed germination differentially, suppression being greater in cv. Kranti than in others. On the basis of seedling growth performance, cv. Varuna proved most tolerant to Ni. The Ni accumulation in seedlings differed strongly among the three cultivars. The lowest and highest Ni contents were observed in the seedlings of cvs. Kranti and Pusa Jai Kisan, respectively. Despite substantial Ni accumulation, cv. Varuna was most tolerant to Ni. Ni accumulation in seedlings was accompanied by differentially altered Fe and K contents and increased levels of non-protein thiols and free proline. The O2- and H2O2 contents and their respective scavenging enzymes in the seedlings responded differentially to the Ni treatment suggesting the involvement of redox imbalance in the development of Ni toxicity. Interestingly, the greater Ni tolerance of cv. Varuna coincided with the elevated constitutive activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The data have implications for seedling establishment under Ni-rich conditions and in turn for phytoremediation.

  6. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-11-01

    Glucosinolates are Capparales-specific secondary metabolites that have immense potential in human health and agriculture. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about glucosinolate regulators in the Brassica crops is sparse. In the current study, four MYB28 homologues were identified (BjuMYB28-1,-2,-3,-4) from the polyploid Brassica juncea, and the effects of allopolyploidization on the divergence of gene sequence, structure, function, and expression were assessed. The deduced protein sequences of the four BjuMYB28 genes showed 76.1-83.1% identity with the Arabidopsis MYB28. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four BjuMYB28 proteins have evolved via the hybridization and duplication processes forming the B. juncea genome (AABB) from B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), while retaining high levels of sequence conservation. Mutant complementation and over-expression studies in A. thaliana showed that all four BjuMYB28 genes encode functional MYB28 proteins and resulted in similar aliphatic glucosinolate composition and content. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays and promoter-GUS lines revealed that the BjuMYB28 genes have both tissue- and cell-specific expression partitioning in B. juncea. The two B-genome origin BjuMYB28 genes had more abundant transcripts during the early stages of plant development than the A-genome origin genes. However, with the onset of the reproductive phase, expression levels of all four BjuMYB28 increased significantly, which may be necessary for producing and maintaining high amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates during the later stages of plant development. Taken together, our results suggest that the four MYB28 genes are differentially expressed and regulated in B. juncea to play discrete though overlapping roles in controlling aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis.

  7. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-11-01

    Glucosinolates are Capparales-specific secondary metabolites that have immense potential in human health and agriculture. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about glucosinolate regulators in the Brassica crops is sparse. In the current study, four MYB28 homologues were identified (BjuMYB28-1,-2,-3,-4) from the polyploid Brassica juncea, and the effects of allopolyploidization on the divergence of gene sequence, structure, function, and expression were assessed. The deduced protein sequences of the four BjuMYB28 genes showed 76.1-83.1% identity with the Arabidopsis MYB28. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four BjuMYB28 proteins have evolved via the hybridization and duplication processes forming the B. juncea genome (AABB) from B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), while retaining high levels of sequence conservation. Mutant complementation and over-expression studies in A. thaliana showed that all four BjuMYB28 genes encode functional MYB28 proteins and resulted in similar aliphatic glucosinolate composition and content. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays and promoter-GUS lines revealed that the BjuMYB28 genes have both tissue- and cell-specific expression partitioning in B. juncea. The two B-genome origin BjuMYB28 genes had more abundant transcripts during the early stages of plant development than the A-genome origin genes. However, with the onset of the reproductive phase, expression levels of all four BjuMYB28 increased significantly, which may be necessary for producing and maintaining high amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates during the later stages of plant development. Taken together, our results suggest that the four MYB28 genes are differentially expressed and regulated in B. juncea to play discrete though overlapping roles in controlling aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:24043856

  8. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  9. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K.

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  10. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities along with the aforesaid physiological and biochemical parameters in order of ELE > ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P < 0.05) increase in percent contents of C and N in leaves as per said order. These findings suggested that improved performance of C-N metabolism could be a possible approach for CO2 assimilation and adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios.

  11. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    PubMed

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22382070

  12. Expression of an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma virens confers enhanced tolerance to Alternaria blight in transgenic Brassica juncea (L.) czern and coss lines.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Suchita; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Eapen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    An endochitinase gene 'ech42' from the biocontrol fungus 'Trichoderma virens' was introduced to Brassica juncea (L). Czern and Coss via Agrobaterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation method. Integration and expression of the 'ech42' gene in transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Transgenic lines (T1) showed expected 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio when segregation analysis for inheritance of transgene 'hpt' was carried out. Fluorimetric analysis of transgenic lines (T0 and T1) showed 7 fold higher endochitinase activity than the non-transformed plant. Fluorimetric zymogram showed presence of endochitinase (42 kDa) in crude protein extract of transgenic lines. In detached leaf bioassay with fungi Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola, transgenic lines (T0 and T1) showed delayed onset of lesions as well as 30-73 % reduction in infected leaf area compared to non-transformed plant. PMID:27186020

  13. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  14. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  15. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  16. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  17. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

  18. Modulation of antioxidant machinery in α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic Brassica juncea plants tolerant to abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Singh, Preeti; Sardar, Meryam; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant machinery in plants consists of several components with unique or overlapping functions that combat the deleterious production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by stress conditions. Tocopherols are a group of powerful antioxidants having additional roles in signaling and gene expression, with α-tocopherol being the most potent form. In the present study, we used wild-type (WT) and α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic (TR) Brassica juncea plants grown under salt, heavy metal, and osmotic stress to compare their relative tolerance to these stresses and to assess the effects of increased α-tocopherol content on the other antioxidative enzymes and molecules. The oxidative damage caused by induced stress was lower in TR plants compared to WT plants as assessed by their higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content as well as H(2)O(2) accumulation. Lesser superoxide and H(2)O(2) accumulation was also observed by histochemical staining in TR seedlings exposed to stress. Though no significant differences were evident under normal growth conditions, TR plants showed higher activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase than WT plants under similar stress conditions. A decrease in ascorbate and glutathione content with marginally higher reductive ratios of these compounds was also observed in TR plants under the stress conditions. Our findings implicate the role of higher α-tocopherol levels in conferring better tolerance against salt, heavy metal, and osmotic stresses and also establish the existence of interplay between this lipid-soluble antioxidant and other water-soluble components of plant antioxidant defense.

  19. Nitrilotriacetate- and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Quartacci, M F; Baker, A J M; Navari-Izzo, F

    2005-06-01

    In a pot experiment the effects of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid applications on Cd extractibility from soil as well as on its uptake and accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were investigated. Plants were grown in a sandy soil with added CdS at four levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. After 30 days of growth, pots were amended with NTA or citric acid at 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1). Control pots were not treated with chelates. Harvest of plants was performed immediately before and one week after chelate addition. Soil water-, NH(4)NO(3)- and EDTA-extractable Cd fractions increased constantly with both increasing soil metal application and chelate concentration. Shoot dry weights did not suffer significant reductions with increasing Cd addition to the soil except for both NTA treatments in which at 200 mg Cd kg(-1) a 30% decrease in dry matter was observed. Generally, following NTA and citric acid amendments, Cd concentration in shoots increased with soil Cd level. However, due to Cd toxicity, at the highest metal application rate both NTA treatments lowered Cd concentration in the above-ground parts. Compared to the control, at 10 mmol kg(-1) citric acid did not change Cd concentration in shoots, whereas NTA-treated plants showed an about 2-fold increase. The addition of chelates at 20 mmol kg(-1) further enhanced Cd concentration in shoots up to 718 and 560 microg g(-1) dry weight in the NTA and citrate treatments, respectively.

  20. Light- and temperature-regulated BjAPY2 may have a role in stem expansion of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Liu, Bin; Li, Junxing; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-11-01

    Tuber mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee) is an important vegetable crop with a characteristic of expanded stem that is edible. The underlying molecular mechanism of the stem expansion is not well understood. Here, we reported that a total of 51 differentially expressed fragments (DEFs) with three expression patterns during stem expansion of tuber mustard were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis. Among the DEFs, DEF11 with high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase 2 (AtAPY2) that encodes an enzyme with ATPase and ADPase activity was development- and tissue-specific. DEF11 was thus renamed as BjAPY2. The expression levels of BjAPY2 increased with the stem expression and were the highest at stage IV, a developmental stage at which the stem expanded most rapidly. In contrast, the BjAPY2 expression levels in leaves were much lower and remained unchanged during leaf development and expansion, suggesting that BjAPY2 was closely associated with the expansion of stems but not of leaves in the tuber mustard. Interestingly, the expression of BjAPY2 was higher in the mustard under short-day (SD) photoperiod (8 h/16 h) than that under long-day (LD) photoperiod (16 h/8 h); similarly, the transcript levels of BjAPY2 were higher in the mustard grown at low temperature (14 °C/12 °C) than that at high temperature (26 °C /24 °C). The SD photoperiod and low temperature were two environmental conditions that favored the mustard stem expansion. Further cloning and analysis of the promoter region of BjAPY2 revealed that there were indeed several types of motifs in the promoter region, including the light and temperature responsive elements. These results suggested that BjAPY2 might play an important role during the stem expansion of the tuber mustard. PMID:26277720

  1. Light- and temperature-regulated BjAPY2 may have a role in stem expansion of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Liu, Bin; Li, Junxing; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-11-01

    Tuber mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee) is an important vegetable crop with a characteristic of expanded stem that is edible. The underlying molecular mechanism of the stem expansion is not well understood. Here, we reported that a total of 51 differentially expressed fragments (DEFs) with three expression patterns during stem expansion of tuber mustard were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis. Among the DEFs, DEF11 with high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase 2 (AtAPY2) that encodes an enzyme with ATPase and ADPase activity was development- and tissue-specific. DEF11 was thus renamed as BjAPY2. The expression levels of BjAPY2 increased with the stem expression and were the highest at stage IV, a developmental stage at which the stem expanded most rapidly. In contrast, the BjAPY2 expression levels in leaves were much lower and remained unchanged during leaf development and expansion, suggesting that BjAPY2 was closely associated with the expansion of stems but not of leaves in the tuber mustard. Interestingly, the expression of BjAPY2 was higher in the mustard under short-day (SD) photoperiod (8 h/16 h) than that under long-day (LD) photoperiod (16 h/8 h); similarly, the transcript levels of BjAPY2 were higher in the mustard grown at low temperature (14 °C/12 °C) than that at high temperature (26 °C /24 °C). The SD photoperiod and low temperature were two environmental conditions that favored the mustard stem expansion. Further cloning and analysis of the promoter region of BjAPY2 revealed that there were indeed several types of motifs in the promoter region, including the light and temperature responsive elements. These results suggested that BjAPY2 might play an important role during the stem expansion of the tuber mustard.

  2. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials.

  3. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26503637

  4. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  5. Assessment of the root system of Brassica juncea (L.) czern. and Bidens pilosa L. exposed to lead polluted soils using rhizobox systems.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Natalia Soledad; Salazar, María Julieta; Pignata, María Luisa; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior of the root system of one of the most frequently cited species in phytoremediation Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and a representative perennial herb (Bidens pilosa L.) native of Argentina, for different concentrations of lead in soils through chemical and visualization techniques of the rhizosphere. Lead polluted soils from the vicinity of a lead recycling plant in the locality of Bouwer, were used in juxtaposed rhizobox systems planted with seedlings of B. juncea and B. pilosa with homogeneous and heterogeneous soil treatments. Root development, pH changes in the rhizosphere, dry weight biomass, lead content of root and aerial parts and potential extraction of lead by rhizosphere exudates were determined. In both species lead was mainly accumulated in roots. However, although B. juncea accumulated more lead than B. pilosa at elevated concentrations in soils, the latter achieved greater root and aerial development. No changes in the pH of the rhizosphere associated to lead were observed, despite different extractive potentials of lead in the exudates of the species analyzed. Our results indicated that Indian mustard did not behave as a hyperaccumulator in the conditions of the present study.

  6. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  7. Biochemical characterization of laccase from hairy root culture of Brassica juncea L. and role of redox mediators to enhance its potential for the decolorization of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Desai, Neetin S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-12-01

    In vitro transgenic hairy root cultures provide a rapid system for physiological, biochemical studies and screening of plants for their phytoremediation potential. The hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L. showed 92% decolorization of Methyl orange within 4 days. Out of the different redox mediators that were used to achieve enhanced decolorization, 2, 2'-Azinobis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) was found to be the most efficient. Laccase activity of 4.5 U mg(-1) of protein was observed in hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L., after the decolorization of Methyl orange. Intracellular laccase produced by B. juncea root cultures grown in MS basal medium was purified up to 2.0 fold with 6.62 U mg(-1) specific activity using anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 148 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme efficiently oxidized ABTS which was also required for oxidation of the other tested substrates. The pH and temperature optimum for laccase activity were 4.0 and 40°C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable up to 50°C and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Laccase activity was strongly inhibited by sodium azide, EDTA, dithiothreitol and L: -cysteine. The purified enzyme decolorized various textile dyes in the presence of ABTS as an efficient redox mediator. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the enzymatic process involved in phytoremediation of textile dyes by using hairy roots.

  8. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea. PMID:23546828

  9. A genome-wide perspective of miRNAome in response to high temperature, salinity and drought stresses in Brassica juncea (Czern) L.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur R; Joshi, Gopal; Pandey, Ritu; Kukreja, Bharti; Goel, Shailendra; Jagannath, Arun; Kumar, Amar; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Agarwal, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes including adaptive response towards abiotic stresses. To unravel small RNAs and more specifically miRNAs that can potentially regulate determinants of abiotic stress tolerance, next generation sequencing of B. juncea seedlings subjected to high temperature, high salt and drought conditions was carried out. With the help of UEA sRNA workbench software package, 51 conserved miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families were identified. As there was limited genomic information available for B. juncea, we generated and assembled its genome sequence at a low coverage. Using the generated sequence and other publically available Brassica genomic/transcriptomic resources as mapping reference, 126 novel (not reported in any plant species) were discovered for the first time in B. juncea. Further analysis also revealed existence of 32 and 37 star sequences for conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. The expression of selected conserved and novel miRNAs under conditions of different abiotic stresses was revalidated through universal TaqMan based real time PCR. Putative targets of identified conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted in B. rapa to gain insights into functional roles manifested by B. juncea miRNAs. Furthermore, SPL2-like, ARF17-like and a NAC domain containing protein were experimentally validated as targets of miR156, miR160 and miR164 respectively. Investigation of gene ontologies linked with targets of known and novel miRNAs forecasted their involvement in various biological functions.

  10. A genome-wide perspective of miRNAome in response to high temperature, salinity and drought stresses in Brassica juncea (Czern) L.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur R; Joshi, Gopal; Pandey, Ritu; Kukreja, Bharti; Goel, Shailendra; Jagannath, Arun; Kumar, Amar; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Agarwal, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes including adaptive response towards abiotic stresses. To unravel small RNAs and more specifically miRNAs that can potentially regulate determinants of abiotic stress tolerance, next generation sequencing of B. juncea seedlings subjected to high temperature, high salt and drought conditions was carried out. With the help of UEA sRNA workbench software package, 51 conserved miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families were identified. As there was limited genomic information available for B. juncea, we generated and assembled its genome sequence at a low coverage. Using the generated sequence and other publically available Brassica genomic/transcriptomic resources as mapping reference, 126 novel (not reported in any plant species) were discovered for the first time in B. juncea. Further analysis also revealed existence of 32 and 37 star sequences for conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. The expression of selected conserved and novel miRNAs under conditions of different abiotic stresses was revalidated through universal TaqMan based real time PCR. Putative targets of identified conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted in B. rapa to gain insights into functional roles manifested by B. juncea miRNAs. Furthermore, SPL2-like, ARF17-like and a NAC domain containing protein were experimentally validated as targets of miR156, miR160 and miR164 respectively. Investigation of gene ontologies linked with targets of known and novel miRNAs forecasted their involvement in various biological functions. PMID:24671003

  11. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants.

  12. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  13. A Genome-Wide Perspective of miRNAome in Response to High Temperature, Salinity and Drought Stresses in Brassica juncea (Czern) L

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ritu; Kukreja, Bharti; Goel, Shailendra; Jagannath, Arun; Kumar, Amar; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Agarwal, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes including adaptive response towards abiotic stresses. To unravel small RNAs and more specifically miRNAs that can potentially regulate determinants of abiotic stress tolerance, next generation sequencing of B. juncea seedlings subjected to high temperature, high salt and drought conditions was carried out. With the help of UEA sRNA workbench software package, 51 conserved miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families were identified. As there was limited genomic information available for B. juncea, we generated and assembled its genome sequence at a low coverage. Using the generated sequence and other publically available Brassica genomic/transcriptomic resources as mapping reference, 126 novel (not reported in any plant species) were discovered for the first time in B. juncea. Further analysis also revealed existence of 32 and 37 star sequences for conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. The expression of selected conserved and novel miRNAs under conditions of different abiotic stresses was revalidated through universal TaqMan based real time PCR. Putative targets of identified conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted in B. rapa to gain insights into functional roles manifested by B. juncea miRNAs. Furthermore, SPL2-like, ARF17-like and a NAC domain containing protein were experimentally validated as targets of miR156, miR160 and miR164 respectively. Investigation of gene ontologies linked with targets of known and novel miRNAs forecasted their involvement in various biological functions. PMID:24671003

  14. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. PMID:22959315

  15. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  16. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. 'a'. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  17. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  18. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. 'a'. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  19. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. ‘a’. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  20. Functional analyses of the chitin-binding domains and the catalytic domain of Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ce Mun; Chye, Mee-Len; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Ouyang, Shi-Wen; Zhao, Kai-Jun; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Mowbray, Sherry L

    2004-09-01

    We previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains. Synthesis of its mRNA is induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate treatment, Aspergillus niger infection and caterpillar (Pieris rapae) feeding, suggesting that the protein has a role in defense. In that it possesses two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of Urtica dioica agglutinin but unlike that protein, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. To explore the properties of multi-domain BjCHI1, we have expressed recombinant BjCHI1 and two derivatives, which lack one (BjCHI2) or both (BjCHI3) chitin-binding domains, as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, showed apparent molecular masses on SDS-PAGE larger than calculated, and could be deglycosylated using alpha-mannosidase. Recombinant BjCHI3, without the proline/threonine-rich linker region containing predicted O-glycosylation sites, did not appear to be processed by alpha-mannosidase. BjCHI1's ability to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes is unique among known chitinases. Both chitin-binding domains are essential for agglutination; this property is absent in recombinant BjCHI2 and BjCHI3. To identify potential catalytic residues, we generated site-directed mutations in recombinant BjCHI3. Mutation E212A showed the largest effect, exhibiting 0% of wild-type specific activity. H211N and R361A resulted in considerable (>91%) activity loss, implying these charged residues are also important in catalysis. E234A showed 36% retention of activity and substitution Y269D, 50%. The least affected mutants were E349A and D360A, with 73% and 68% retention, respectively. Like Y269, E349 and D360 are possibly involved in substrate binding rather than catalysis. PMID:15604744

  1. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  2. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL. PMID:21355422

  3. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments.

  5. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcóllar (Spain): the effect of soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2005-11-01

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH < 5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 microg g(-1), respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. PMID:15894412

  6. Effect of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide on growth and photosynthetic parameters of Brassica juncea L. in imidacloprid soil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides are widely used to protect crop plants from various insect pests. However, application of pesticides causes phytotoxicity to plants which results in their impaired growth and development. Brassinosteroids are well known to protect plants under abiotic stress conditions. The purpose of the present study was to access the ameliorative role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) in Brassica juncea L. under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. B. juncea plants were raised from seeds soaked in 0.1, 1 and 100nM of EBR, and grown in soils amended with 250, 300 and 350mgkg(-1) IMI pesticide, and observed for growth, pigments and photosynthetic parameters after 30, 60 and 90 days of seed sowing. The plants grown in soil treated with IMI exhibited a significant reduction in shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic parameters like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, inter-cellular CO2 and transpiration rate, when compared with their respective controls. However, pigments which act as antioxidants such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and xanthophylls were increased with IMI stress. Pre-sowing seed treatment with EBR decreased the toxic effects of IMI and increased the growth, pigment biosynthesis and photosynthetic parameters of the plants grown in IMI amended soil. Maximum increase in all the growth and photosynthetic parameters was noticed in plants raised from seeds treated with 100nM EBR and grown in IMI amended soil. PMID:27454204

  7. Effect of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide on growth and photosynthetic parameters of Brassica juncea L. in imidacloprid soil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides are widely used to protect crop plants from various insect pests. However, application of pesticides causes phytotoxicity to plants which results in their impaired growth and development. Brassinosteroids are well known to protect plants under abiotic stress conditions. The purpose of the present study was to access the ameliorative role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) in Brassica juncea L. under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. B. juncea plants were raised from seeds soaked in 0.1, 1 and 100nM of EBR, and grown in soils amended with 250, 300 and 350mgkg(-1) IMI pesticide, and observed for growth, pigments and photosynthetic parameters after 30, 60 and 90 days of seed sowing. The plants grown in soil treated with IMI exhibited a significant reduction in shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic parameters like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, inter-cellular CO2 and transpiration rate, when compared with their respective controls. However, pigments which act as antioxidants such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and xanthophylls were increased with IMI stress. Pre-sowing seed treatment with EBR decreased the toxic effects of IMI and increased the growth, pigment biosynthesis and photosynthetic parameters of the plants grown in IMI amended soil. Maximum increase in all the growth and photosynthetic parameters was noticed in plants raised from seeds treated with 100nM EBR and grown in IMI amended soil.

  8. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here. PMID:22350176

  9. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Alyemeni, Mohammed N.; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  10. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, A A; Alyemeni, Mohammed N; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones.

  11. Role of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (var. Vaibhav) in the phytoextraction of Ni from soil amended with fly ash: selection of extractant for metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2006-08-21

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the potential of the plant of Brassica juncea for the phytoextraction of metal from fly ash amended soil and to study correlation between different pool of metals (total, DTPA, CaCl(2) and NH(4)NO(3)) and metal accumulated in the plant in order to assess better extractant for plant available metals. The results of total metal analysis in the soil revealed the presence of Cr, which was found below detection limit (BDL) in the plants. The fly ash (FA) amendments and soil samples were extracted with different extractants and the level of metal vary from one extractant to another. The regression analysis between total and extractable metals showed better regression for all the tested metals except Mn (R(2)=0.001) in DTPA extraction. Correlation coefficient between metal accumulation by the plant tissues and different pool of metals showed better correlation with DTPA in case of Fe, Zn and Ni, whereas, Cu was significantly correlated with NH(4)NO(3) and other metals (Pb, Mn) with CaCl(2). The soil analysis results revealed that the mobility and plant availability of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni) within the profiles of amended soils was influenced by the change in pH, however, Pb and Cu was not affected. The metal accumulation in total plant tissues was found in the order of Fe>Ni>Zn>Mn>Cu>Pb and its translocation was found more in upper part. The plants grown on soil amended with 25%FA have shown significant increase in plant biomass, shoot and plant height, whereas, no significant effect was observed in root length. The cluster analysis showed 10%FA behave differently on the basis of physico-chemical properties and metal behavior. Thus, it may be concluded that B. juncea can be used for phytoextraction of metals, especially Ni in fly ash amendment soil. PMID:16434138

  12. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues. PMID:16421878

  13. Influence of sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid on phenolic and organic acids in Brassica juncea grown in excess of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Irtelli, Barbara; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2006-11-01

    Brassica juncea cv. 426308 was grown in soils containing 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil. After 38 days, the soil was amended with two rates of citric acid or NTA (10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil). Control soil was not amended with chelates. Plants were harvested during growth, immediately before and seven days after chelate addition. Shoot composition of organic and phenolic acids and shoot Cd(2+) concentration were determined. Cadmium concentration remained constant during the growth and increased following NTA and citric acid amendments depending on chelate type and concentration. The highest increments in Cd(2+) were measured after the addition of NTA. Compared to the control, 10 and 20 NTA-treated plants showed two- and three-fold increases, respectively. At 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil the amount of organic and phenolic acids in the leaves of B. juncea was always higher than that detected in the control. A direct correlation between organic acid concentration and cadmium content was detected both during growth and after chelate addition. On the contrary, the amount of phenols seemed to be correlated with the metal content only in non-amended and NTA-treated plants. The 10 and 20 citric acid additions caused 45% and 90% increases in shoot phenolic acids although cadmium content rose to a smaller extent. The inhibition of citrate synthase and the entrance of phosphoenolpyruvate in shikimate pathway leading to the formation of aromatic compounds might come into play. The increase in phenylalanine ammonialyase activity following citric acid amendments suggested this metabolic response.

  14. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues.

  15. TinII intron, an enhancer to affect the function of the cytoplasmic male sterility related gene T in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jin, ZhuPing; Wu, LingLing; Cao, JiaShu; Chen, ZhuJun; Pei, YanXi

    2013-12-01

    The T gene, which was cloned from the mitochondria of tumorous stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida), is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-related gene that can produce two transcripts, T1170 and T1243. The latter is transcribed with the uncleaved intron TinII. In our previous study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing the T1243 transcript (OE-T1243) showed a severe male-sterile phenotype, whereas OE-T1170 plants did not. However, the functional mechanism of the T gene in B. Juncea remained unknown. In this study, microscopic analyses of paraffin sections of anthers confirmed that OE-T1243 plants did not produce normal pollen, whereas OE-T1170 plants did. We analyzed the transcription of 15 anther development-related genes and found that transcript levels of nozzle/sporocyteless and barely any meristem 1 and 2 were markedly lower in OE-T1243 plants than those in wild type, while the transcript levels of these genes in OE-T1170 plants were unchanged. To investigate the potential roles of TinII, we inserted the TinII sequence upstream of a minimal region (-60) of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter fused to the 5' end of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of the transgenic plants suggested that TinII acted as an enhancer to significantly increase GUS expression. The potential action mechanism is that the TinII intron acts as an enhancer to affect the function of the CMS-related gene T. PMID:24302291

  16. Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-10-01

    The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45-53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species. PMID:27314514

  17. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, A A; Alyemeni, Mohammed N; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  18. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

  19. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    PubMed

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  20. Bacteria–zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg−1 Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  1. Phytoextraction and accumulation of mercury in three plant species: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata).

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X; Chen, Jian; Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Monts, David L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles. PMID:19260232

  2. Cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial glyoxalase II from Brassica juncea that is upregulated by NaCl, Zn, and ABA

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Mukesh; Bisht, Rekha; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Sopory, S.K.; Bhalla-Sarin, Neera . E-mail: neerasarin@rediffmail.com

    2005-10-28

    A cDNA (1061 bp) Bj glyII was cloned from a mannitol induced library of Brassica juncea. It encoded a protein of 335 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.52 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the clone showed 92% and 56% identity with Pennisetum and rice glyoxalase II, respectively, and 30% identity was observed with the human glyoxalase II. Search for the identical residues revealed the presence of highly conserved THHHXDH domain which is involved in zinc binding. p-NN and pSORT analysis of this sequence revealed a N-terminal mitochondrial target peptide. The cDNA was cloned in pMAL and a fusion protein with MBP (78 kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified approximately sixfold by affinity purification on amylose column and showed its pH optima at 7.0. The K {sub m} was determined to be 120 {mu}M using S-D-lactoylglutathione as substrate. The expression of Bj glyII under various abiotic stress conditions showed that it is upregulated by salinity, heavy metal stress, and ABA.

  3. Bacteria-zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg(-1) Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  4. Induced lead binding phytochelatins in Brassica juncea and Sesuvium portulacastrum investigated by orthogonal chromatography inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zaier, H; Mudarra, A; Kutscher, D; Fernández de la Campa, M R; Abdelly, C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2010-06-25

    The accumulation and transport of lead in Brassica juncea and Sesuvium portulacastrum plants and the possible formation of complexes of this element with bioligands such as phytochelatins was studied in roots and shoots of plants exposed to different amounts of Pb(NO(3))(2). Speciation studies on the plant extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography and ion pair liquid chromatography coupled to UV and ICP-MS to monitor lead and sulphur. The identification of the species separated by chromatography was performed by MALDI-TOF-MS. In both types of exposed plants it was possible to identify the presence of the phytochelatin isoform PC(3). The results obtained suggest that both types of plants can be useful in studies of phytoremediation but the ability of S. portulacastrum to accumulate and redistribute Pb from root to shoot is more effective than B. juncea.

  5. Carbon: Nitrogen Interaction Regulates Expression of Genes Involved in N-Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Parul; Bhuria, Monika; Kaushal, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    In plants, several cellular and metabolic pathways interact with each other to regulate processes that are vital for their growth and development. Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) are two main nutrients for plants and coordination of C and N pathways is an important factor for maintaining plant growth and development. In the present work, influence of nitrogen and sucrose (C source) on growth parameters and expression of genes involved in nitrogen transport and assimilatory pathways was studied in B. juncea seedlings. For this, B. juncea seedlings were treated with four combinations of C and N source viz., N source alone (-Suc+N), C source alone (+Suc-N), with N and C source (+Suc+N) or without N and C source (-Suc-N). Cotyledon size and shoot length were found to be increased in seedlings, when nitrogen alone was present in the medium. Distinct expression pattern of genes in both, root and shoot tissues was observed in response to exogenously supplied N and C. The presence or depletion of nitrogen alone in the medium leads to severe up- or down-regulation of key genes involved in N-uptake and transport (BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.8) in root tissue and genes involved in nitrate reduction (BjNR1 and BjNR2) in shoot tissue. Moreover, expression of several genes, like BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2 and BjPK in root and two genes BjAMT2 and BjGS1.1 in shoot were found to be regulated only when C source was present in the medium. Majority of genes were found to respond in root and shoot tissues, when both C and N source were present in the medium, thus reflecting their importance as a signal in regulating expression of genes involved in N-uptake and assimilation. The present work provides insight into the regulation of genes of N-uptake and assimilatory pathway in B. juncea by interaction of both carbon and nitrogen. PMID:27637072

  6. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Penna, Suprasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content. PMID:24058504

  7. Separation and determination of heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) by size exclusion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenggui G; Wong, Jonathan Woonchung C; Zhao, Haiyan Y; Zhang, Huijuan J; Li, Huixin X; Hu, Feng

    2007-08-01

    To elucidate the role of low molecular weight chelators in long-distance root-to-shoot transport of heavy metals in Indian mustard, an "off-line" size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to investigate heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). The size exclusion chromatogram presented only the peaks with molecular weight for all xylem saps and directly indicated the long-distance transport of phytochelatins (PCs) of Indian mustard under Cd stress. In the absence of Cd stress, only organic acids and inorganic anions participated in the long-distance transport of Cd, but organic acids, inorganic anions, glutathione (GSH), and cysteine might relate to the long-distance transport of Cu or Zn. In the presence of Cd stress, PCs were induced, and Cd ions in xylem saps were associated with the induced PCs. As the Cd levels in nutrient solution increased, more Cd in xylem saps adopted the form of PC-Cd. Although PCs might participate in the long-distance transport of Cd under Cd stress, the majority of Cd was still transported by organic acids and inorganic anions in xylem vessels. Moreover, results indicated the existence of complexation competition for GSH and cysteine between Cd and Cu (or Zn) and complexation competition for Cd between PCs and GSH (or cysteine) in xylem vessels. Our work might be very useful for understanding the mechanism of long-distance transport of heavy metals in hyperaccumulator.

  8. Effect of Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr Natural Isotopes on Foliar Structure and Plant Spectral Reflectance of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

    SciTech Connect

    Maruthi Sridhar, Y.S.B.B.; Han, F.X.; Monts, D.L.; Diehl, S.V.

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this study are: 1.) evaluate the capacity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for uptake and accumulation of Cs and Sr natural isotopes; 2.) identify foliar structural and other physiological changes (biomass, relative water content, etc.) resulting from the accumulation of these two elements; and 3.) monitor Cs and Sr uptake and bioaccumulation process by spectral reflectance. Potted Indian mustard plants were exposed to different concentrations of Cs (50 and 600 ppm) and Sr (50 and 300 ppm) natural isotopes in solution form for 23 days. Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr was found in the order of leaves > stems > roots for both Cs- and Sr-treated plants. The highest leaf Sr accumulation is observed to be 2708 mg kg{sup -1}, and the highest leaf Cs accumulation is 12251 mg kg{sup -1}. High translocation efficiency for both elements is documented by shoot/root concentration ratios greater than one. Relative water content (RWC) of the plants showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Cs-treated plants. Cs accumulation also affected the pigment concentration and internal structure of the leaf and the spectral characteristics of plants. Within the applied concentration range, Sr accumulation resulted in no significant changes in RWC, structural and spectral characteristics of mustard plants. Cs shoot concentration showed significant negative correlation with relative water content RWC (r = -0.88) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (r = -0.68) of plant shoots. The canopy spectral reflectance and NDVI analysis clearly revealed (p < 0.05) the stress caused by Cs accumulation. (authors)

  9. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, NA

    2004-01-01

    Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gS), carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic capacity of RH30 increased

  10. Thiourea, a ROS Scavenger, Regulates Source-to-Sink Relationship to Enhance Crop Yield and Oil Content in Brassica juncea (L.)

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Penna, Suprasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content. PMID:24058504

  11. Cloning sulfur assimilation genes of Brassica juncea L.: cadmium differentially affects the expression of a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter and isoforms of ATP sulfurylase and APS reductase.

    PubMed

    Heiss, S; Schäfer, H J; Haag-Kerwer, A; Rausch, T

    1999-03-01

    The heavy-metal accumulator Brassica juncea L. is a high-biomass crop able to extract heavy-metal ions from the soil, a substantial part being translocated from root to shoot. Previous work has shown that Cd accumulation is accompanied by massive formation of phytochelatins (PCs). Rapid de novo synthesis of PCs in roots and leaves requires an increased synthesis of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), which in turn depends on increased sulfur assimilation. Therefore. we have cloned cDNAs for three enzymes involved in sulfur assimilation, i.e. a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter (LAST) and two isoforms each for ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and APS reductase (APSR). As degradation of glucosinolates might provide an additional sulfur source under stress, we also cloned a myrosinase (MYR). RNA blot analysis of transcript amounts indicated that upon Cd exposure (25 microM) the expression of ATPS and APSR in roots and leaves of 6-week-old Brassica juncea plants was strongly increased, whereas the expression of MYR was unaffected. LAST transcripts were significantly reduced in the root but remained unchanged in the leaves. Concomitant with Cd induction of ATPS and APSR mRNAs, cysteine concentrations in roots and leaves increased by 81% and 25%, respectively, whereas GSH concentrations decreased in roots and leaves by 39% and 48%, respectively. In agreement with our previous report on Cd induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in B. juncea, the results indicate coordinate changes of expression for several sulfur assimilation enzymes in response to an increased demand for cysteine during PC synthesis. PMID:10350097

  12. Development of selectable marker free, insect resistant, transgenic mustard (Brassica juncea) plants using Cre/lox mediated recombination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic/ herbicide resistant marker genes have been proven to be very useful in plant transformation for the initial selection of desired transgenic events. However, presence of these genes in the genetically modified crops may render the crop less acceptable to the consumers. Among several different approaches, the effectiveness of Cre/lox mediated recombination strategy for selectable marker gene (SMG) elimination has previously been demonstrated by different groups in several plants including Brassica. In the present study exploiting Cre/lox mediated recombination strategy, attempt has been made for selectable marker gene elimination from Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) expressing Brassica plants with hemipteran insect resistant phenotype. Results Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) linked with lox flanked hygromycin resistant (hpt) gene was introduced in mustard. Cre recombinase gene cassette was also integrated in separate event. A Cre/lox mediated recombination using crossing strategy was adopted to remove the hpt gene from the subsequent generation of selected hybrid events. Reciprocal crosses were made between T1ASAL-lox-hpt-lox and cre-bar plants. Marker gene elimination was confirmed in the resulting F1 hybrid progenies by PCR analysis, using hpt, cre and ASAL specific primers followed by Southern hybridization. In marker free plants, expression of ASAL was also confirmed by western blotting and ELISA analysis. Retention of functionality of expressed ASAL was investigated by agglutination assay using rabbit erythrocytes. Expressed ASAL was also found to be thermo-sensitive. In planta insect bioassay on F1 hybrid progenies exhibited detrimental effect on the performance of devastating target pest, Lipaphis erysimi. The F1 hybrid hpt negative, ASAL positive plants were allowed to self- fertilize to obtain F2 progeny plants. In some of these plants cre gene was found to be segregated out of the ASAL gene by genetic segregation yielding

  13. Impact of fermentation on phenolic compounds in leaves of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) and Chinese leaf mustard (Brassica juncea coss).

    PubMed

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Four different cultivars of Chinese Brassica vegetables (two pak choi cultivars and two Chinese leaf mustard cultivars) were fermented according to a traditional Chinese method called pickling. The plant material was investigated before and after the fermentation procedure to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in its polyphenols. A detailed description of the identified phenolic compounds of leaf mustard by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) is presented here for the first time, including hydroxycinnamic acid mono- and diglycosides (gentiobioses) and flavonoid tetraglycosides. Flavonoid derivatives with a lower molecular mass (di- and triglycosides) and aglycones of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected in fermented cabbages compared to the main compounds detected in nonfermented cabbages (tri- and tetraglycosides of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of malic acid, glycoside, and quinic acid). During the fermentation process, contents of flavonoid derivatives and some hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found to decrease. Some marginal losses of polyphenols were observed even in the kneading step of the plant material prior to the fermentation procedure. The antioxidative potential of fermented cabbages was much higher compared to that of nonfermented cabbages in the TEAC assay, but not observable in the DPPH assay. The increase of the antioxidative potential detected in the TEAC assay was attributed to the qualitative changes of polyphenols as well as other reductones potentially present. PMID:18078315

  14. Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. Results The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea – a naturally occurring allotetraploid species – grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. Conclusions A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least

  15. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review.

  16. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  17. Interactive effects of sulfur and nitrogen supply on the concentration of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Gerendás, Jóska; Podestát, Jana; Stahl, Thorsten; Kübler, Kerstin; Brückner, Hans; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Mühling, Karl H

    2009-05-13

    Food derived from Brassica species is rich in glucosinolates. Hydrolysis of these compounds by myrosinase yields isothiocyanates and other breakdown products, which due to their pungency represent the primary purpose of Indian mustard cultivation. Strong interactive effects of S (0.0, 0.2, and 0.6 g pot(-1)) and N (1, 2, and 4 g pot(-1)) supply on growth, seed yield, and the concentrations of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in seeds were observed in growth experiments, reflecting the involvement of S-containing amino acids in both protein and glucosinolate synthesis. At intermediate S supply, a strong N-induced S limitation was apparent, resulting in high concentrations of sinigrin (12 micromol g(-1) of DM) and allyl isothiocyanate (213 micromol kg(-1) of DM) at low N supply only. Myrosinase activity in seeds increased under low N and low S supply, but the results do not suggest that sinigrin functions as a transient reservoir for S. PMID:19309148

  18. Two plastid DNA lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--within the tribe Brassiceae can be best explained by reciprocal crosses at hexaploidy: evidence from divergence times of the plastid genomes and R-block genes of the A and B genomes of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarita; Padmaja, K Lakshmi; Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K; Pental, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle--B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)--originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages.

  19. Two Plastid DNA Lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—within the Tribe Brassiceae Can Be Best Explained by Reciprocal Crosses at Hexaploidy: Evidence from Divergence Times of the Plastid Genomes and R-Block Genes of the A and B Genomes of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K.; Pental, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle—B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)—originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages. PMID:24691069

  20. Two plastid DNA lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--within the tribe Brassiceae can be best explained by reciprocal crosses at hexaploidy: evidence from divergence times of the plastid genomes and R-block genes of the A and B genomes of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarita; Padmaja, K Lakshmi; Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K; Pental, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle--B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)--originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages. PMID:24691069

  1. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue.

  2. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. PMID:22639957

  3. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  4. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  5. Accumulation of Gold Nanoparticles in Brassic Juncea

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.T.; Haverkamp, R.G.; Davies, C.E.; Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Agterveld, D.van

    2009-06-03

    Enzymatic digestion is proposed as a method for concentrating gold nanoparticles produced in plants. The mild conditions of digestion are used in order to avoid an increase in the gold particle size, which would occur with a high-temperature process, so that material suitable for catalysis may be produced. Gold nanoparticles of a 5-50-nm diameter, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), at concentrations 760 and 1120 ppm Au, were produced within Brassica juncea grown on soil with 22-48 mg Au kg{sup -1}. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that the plant contained approximately equal quantities of Au in the metallic (Au{sup 0}) and oxidized (Au{sup +1}) states. Enzymatic digestion dissolved 55-60 wt% of the plant matter. Due to the loss of the soluble gold fraction, no significant increase in the total concentration of gold in the samples was observed. However, it is likely that the concentration of the gold nanoparticles increased by a factor of two. To obtain a gold concentration suitable for catalytic reactions, around 95 wt% of the starting dry biomass would need to be solubilized or removed, which has not yet been achieved.

  6. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  7. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-08-04

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  8. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  9. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  10. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  11. Synthesis of intergeneric hybrids and establishment of genomic affinity between Diplotaxis catholica and crop Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Banga, S S; Bhaskar, P B; Ahuja, I

    2003-05-01

    Intergeneric hybrids of the wild crucifer Diplotaxis catholica (2n = 18, D(C)D(C)) as female with two crop Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (2n = 20; AA) and Brassica juncea (2n = 36; AABB) as male, were developed, using ovary and sequential culture. Reciprocal crosses were not successful, suggesting unilateral cross incompatibility. Morphologically, the hybrid plants resembled the crop brassica parents, but were nearly male- as well as female-sterile. Induction of amphiploidy helped to improve pollen fertility for the D. catholica x B. rapa cross (73%), but less so for the D. catholica x B. juncea cross (35-40%). Female fertility was also higher in both the amphiploids. Cytological analysis of the F(1) hybrids revealed aberrant meiosis with predominant occurrence of the univalents. Partial genomic homoeology between the A genome of B. rapa and the D(C) genome of D. catholica was indicated by the presence of up to five bivalents in 14.7% of the PMCs in the D. catholica x B. rapa hybrid, and 1-2 trivalents or a quadrivalent in nearly 44% of the PMCs in the derived amphiploid. In the second cross, D. catholica x B. juncea, up to six bivalents and one trivalent were observed indicating homoeology between the A/B genomes of B. juncea and the D(C) genome of D. catholica. The possibility of introgression of desirable genes from D. catholica into crop Brassica species exists in view of significant affinity between the D(C) and A/B genomes.

  12. Characterization of Brassica nigra collections using simple sequence repeat markers reveals distinct groups associated with geographical location, and frequent mislabelling of species identity.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aneeta; Nelson, Matthew N; Plummer, Julie A; Cowling, Wallace A; Yan, Guijun

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 180 Brassica nigra (L.) Kochgenotypes from 60 different accessions was evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat markers with known locations on the Brassica A, B, and C genomes. Two lines each from Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Brassica carinata Braunwere also included as comparator species. A total of 218 high quality alleles were used to generate a genetic distance matrix, and clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses were used to investigate genetic relationships among the accessions. Accessions from the same country of origin tended to cluster together. Surprisingly, 13 accessions declared to be B. nigra had A- and B-genome alleles and morphology consistent with them being B. juncea, which was supported by their positioning near B. juncea in the cluster analysis. Two B. nigra accessions possessed alleles associated more closely with the A genome than the B genome, and these may be Brassica rapa L. accessions. One B. nigra accession had B- and C-genome alleles and morphology consistent with it being B. carinata. The remaining 44 accessions (73%) appeared to be truly B. nigra and formed morphologically and genetically distinct groups associated with country or region of origin, notably Ethiopia, Israel, India, and Europe. Most B. nigra accessions were highly heterozygous, consistent with their obligate outcrossing habit. This study demonstrated the value of using molecular markers with known genome locations (in this case, in the Brassica A, B, and C genomes) to confirm species identity in families such as Brassicaceae where species identification based solely on morphological characters is difficult.

  13. Polymorphic minisatellites in the mitochondrial DNAs of Oryza and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yujiro; Yoshida, Yu; Terachi, Toru; Toriyama, Kinya; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphic analyses of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are rare in comparison with chloroplast DNA, because few target sequences in angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are known. Minisatellites, a tandem array of repeated sequences with a repeat unit of 10 to ~100 bp, are popular target sequences of animal mitochondria, but Beta vulgaris is the only known angiosperm species for which such an analysis has been conducted. From this lack of information, it was uncertain as to whether polymorphic minisatellites existed in other angiosperm species. Ten plant mitochondrial DNAs were found to contain minisatellite-like repeated sequences, most of which were located in intergenic regions but a few occurred in gene coding and intronic regions. Oryza and Brassica accessions were selected as models for the investigation of minisatellite polymorphism because substantial systematic information existed. PCR analysis of 42 Oryza accessions revealed length polymorphisms in four of the five minisatellites. The mitochondrial haplotypes of the 16 Oryza accessions with chromosomal complement (genome) types of CC, BBCC and CCDD were identical but were clearly distinguished from BB-genome accessions, a result consistent with the notion that the cytoplasmic donor parent of the amphidiploid species might be the CC-genome species. Twenty-nine accessions of six major cultivated species of Brassica were classified into five mitochondrial haplotypes based on two polymorphic minisatellites out of six loci. The haplotypes of Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata accessions were identical to Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra accessions, respectively. The haplotypes of Brassica napus accessions were heterogeneous and unique, results that were consistent with previous studies.

  14. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex.

  15. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex. PMID:11500539

  16. Multiple flowering time QTLs within several Brassica species could be the result of duplicated copies of one ancestral gene.

    PubMed

    Axeisson, T; Shavorskaya, O; Lagercrantz, U

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to study the evolution of genes controlling the timing of flowering in four Brassica genomes that are all extensively replicated. Comparative mapping showed that a chromosomal region from the top of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5 corresponded to three homoeologous copies in each of the diploid species Brassica nigra, B. oleracea, and B. rapa and six copies in the amphidiploid B. juncea. QTLs were detected in two of the three replicated segments in each diploid genome and in three of the six replicated segments in B. juncea. These results indicate that, for the studied trait, multiple QTLs resulting from genome duplication is the rule rather than the exception. Brassica homologues to two candidate genes (CO and FLC) identified from the corresponding A. thaliana region were mapped. CO homologues mapped close to the QTL peaks in eight of nine QTLs, while FLC homologues mapped farther away in those cases where the mapping resolution allowed a comparison. Thus, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that all the major QTLs we detected in the different species of Brassica could be the result of duplicated copies of the same ancestral gene, possibly the ancestor of CO.

  17. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  18. Different genome-specific chromosome stabilities in synthetic Brassica allohexaploids revealed by wide crosses with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xian-Hong; Wang, Jing; Li, Zai-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer, Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), parental genome separation during mitosis and meiosis is under genetic control but this phenomenon varies depending upon the Brassica species. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in parental genome separation, complex hybrids between synthetic Brassica allohexaploids (2n = 54, AABBCC) from three sources and O. violaceus were obtained and characterized. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to explore chromosomal/genomic components and rRNA gene expression of the complex hybrids and their progenies. Key Results Complex hybrids with variable fertility exhibited phenotypes that were different from the female allohexaploids and expressed some traits from O. violaceus. These hybrids were mixoploids (2n = 34–46) and retained partial complements of allohexaploids, including whole chromosomes of the A and B genomes and some of the C genome but no intact O. violaceus chromosomes; AFLP bands specific for O. violaceus, novel for two parents and absent in hexaploids were detected. The complex hybrids produced progenies with chromosomes/genomic complements biased to B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) and novel B. juncea lines with two genomes of different origins. The expression of rRNA genes from B. nigra was revealed in all allohexaploids and complex hybrids, showing that the hierarchy of nucleolar dominance (B. nigra, BB > B. rapa, AA > B. oleracea, CC) in Brassica allotetraploids was still valid in these plants. Conclusions The chromosomes of three genomes in these synthetic Brassica allohexaploids showed different genome-specific stabilities (B > A > C) under induction of alien chromosome elimination in crosses with O. violaceus, which was possibly affected by nucleolar dominance. PMID:19403626

  19. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification.

  20. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification. PMID:26276216

  1. Development of a high density integrated reference genetic linkage map for the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Van Nguyen, Dan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Yang, Hyeon Kook; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    We constructed a high-density Brassica rapa integrated linkage map by combining a reference genetic map of 78 doubled haploid lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × Kenshin (CKDH) and a new map of 190 F2 lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × rapid cycling B. rapa (CRF2). The integrated map contains 1017 markers and covers 1262.0 cM of the B. rapa genome, with an average interlocus distance of 1.24 cM. High similarity of marker order and position was observed among the linkage groups of the maps with few short-distance inversions. In total, 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, anchored to 102 new bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and 146 intron polymorphic (IP) markers were mapped in the integrated map, which would be helpful to align the sequenced BACs in the ongoing multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP). Further, comparison of the B. rapa consensus map with the 10 B. juncea A-genome linkage groups by using 98 common IP markers showed high-degree colinearity between the A-genome linkage groups, except for few markers showing inversion or translocation. Suggesting that chromosomes are highly conserved between these Brassica species, although they evolved independently after divergence. The sequence information coming out of BrGSP would be useful for B. juncea breeding. and the identified Arabidopsis chromosomal blocks and known quantitative trait loci (QTL) information of B. juncea could be applied to improve other Brassica crops including B. rapa.

  2. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. PMID:26685787

  3. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance.

  4. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan.

  5. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. PMID:27062083

  6. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs.

  7. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  8. Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: Implications for phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V.

    1997-05-01

    The toxicity of Zn and Cu in three species from the genus Brassica was examined to determine if these plants showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate a site contaminated with these two heavy metals. Hydroponically grown 12-d-old plants of Brassica juncea, B. rapa, and B. napus were grown for an additional 14 d in the presence of either elevated Zn (6.5 mg L{sup {minus}1}), Cu (0.32 mg L{sup {minus}1}), or Zn+Cu to quantify the toxic effects of these metals on several different growth parameters. With few exceptions, both root and shoot dry weight for all three species decreased significantly in the presence of heavy metals. Cu inhibited lateral root elongation in B. rapa, B. napus, and, to a lesser extent, B. juncea, while Zn tended to decrease only lateral root diameter. Both metals reduced shoot Fe and Mn concentrations in all three Brassica spp. to levels associated with Fe and Mn deficiencies. These deficiencies, however, did not correlate with observed patterns of leaf chlorosis. Nonetheless, heavy metal-induced inhibition of Fe and Mn accumulation may have been a significant factor in reducing plant growth. In terms of heavy metal removal, the Brassica spp, were more effective at removing Zn from the nutrient solution than Cu. The extent of Zn and Cu removal was reduced in the presence of both metals, as compared to the single heavy metal treatments. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  10. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  11. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  12. New briaranes from the South China Sea gorgonian Junceella juncea.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Xiao, Zhi-Hui; Huang, Jian-She; Li, Qing-Xin

    2004-11-01

    Three new briarane diterpenes, juncins O-Q (1-3), along with five known briaranes, praelolide, junceellin A, gemmacolide A, gemmacolide B, and junceellolide D, were isolated from the EtOH/CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of the South China Sea gorgonian coral Junceella juncea. The structures of 1-3 were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data.

  13. Unique chromosome behavior and genetic control in Brassica x Orychophragmus wide hybrids: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zai-yun; Ge, Xian-hong

    2007-06-01

    Researchers recognized early that chromosome behavior, as other morphological characters, is under genetic control and gave some cytogenetical examples such as the homoeologous chromosome pairing in wheat. In the intergeneric sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus, the phenomenon of parental genome separation was found under genetic control during mitosis and meiosis. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) might contribute to the different cytology of hybrids with three tetraploids (B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). The finding that genome-specific retention or loss of chromosomes in hybrids of O. violaceus with B. carinata and synthetic Brassica hexaploids (2n=54, AABBCC) is likely related to nucleolar dominance gives new insight into the molecular mechanisms regarding the cytology in these hybrids. It is proposed that the preferential expressions of genes for centromeric proteins from one parent (such as the well presented centromeric histone H3) are related with chromosome stability in wide hybrids and nucleolar dominance is beneficial to the production of centromere-specific proteins of the rRNAs-donor parent and to the stability of its chromosomes.

  14. Correlations between tocopherol and fatty acid components in germplasm collections of Brassica oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanlong; Hussain, Nazim; Zhang, Lingmin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Lixi

    2013-01-01

    To date, little is known about the correlations among the tocopherol (T) and fatty acid (FA) components in rapeseed oils. In the current study, a germplasm collection of landraces from the species Brassica juncea , Brassica rapa , and Brassica napus and a collection of low erucic acid (EA) breeding lines from B. napus were analyzed for FA and T contents. In the groups comprising landraces, the most notable correlation was the significantly positive one between α-T and the sum of C18:1 and C18:2, whereas neither positive correlations were found between α-T and C18:3 nor were positive correlations observed between α-T and very long chain FAs (VLCFA). Hardly any association between γ-T and FA components was observed, indicating the possible function of α-T beyond its antioxidant property. The complexity of correlation between T and FA components in Brassica oils may arise from the role of α-T in the FA metabolism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  16. Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-02-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

  17. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. PMID:23987810

  18. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  19. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  20. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  1. Phytochemical changes induced by different nitrogen supply forms and radiation levels in two leafy Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Fallovo, Carlo; Schreiner, Monika; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe; Krumbein, Angelika

    2011-04-27

    The effect of three different nitrogen (N) supply forms differing in their ammonium-to-nitrate (NH(4):NO(3)) ratio (100% NH(4), 50% NH(4) + 50% NO(3), 100% NO(3)) under three different levels of daily photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (low, 5.0; medium, 6.8; high, 9.0 mol m(-2) day(-1)) on a range of desirable health-promoting phytochemicals in Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. chinoleifera and Brassica juncea was determined. The 100% NH(4) supply under medium PAR levels led to the highest concentration of glucosinolates based on a low nitrogen/sulfur ratio as well as high levels of carotenoids in the leaves of both Brassica species. However, the 100% NH(4) supply under low and medium PAR levels resulted in low concentrations of flavonoids based on high N concentration in the leaves. Thus, the data provided here have strong implications for crop management strategies aimed at optimizing both the concentration and composition of a range of phytochemicals.

  2. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds. PMID:24697626

  3. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes. PMID:24558262

  4. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes.

  5. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds.

  6. A comprehensive transcriptome analysis of silique development and dehiscence in Arabidopsis and Brassica integrating genotypic, interspecies and developmental comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Masrur R; Ruegger, Max; Bowling, Andrew; Butler, Holly; Cutler, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous flowering of Brassica napus (canola) leads to seeds and siliques at varying stages of maturity as harvest approaches. This range of maturation can result in premature silique dehiscence (pod shattering), resulting in yield losses, which may be worsened by environmental stresses. Therefore, a goal for canola crop improvement is to reduce shattering in order to maximize yield. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis on the dehiscence zone (DZ) and valve of Arabidopsis and Brassica siliques in shatter resistant and sensitive genotypes at several developmental stages. Among known Arabidopsis dehiscence genes, we confirmed that homologs of SHP1/2, FUL, ADPG1, NST1/3 and IND were associated with shattering in B. juncea and B. napus. We noted a correlation between reduced pectin degradation genes and shatter-resistance. Tension between lignified and non-lignified cells in the silique DZ plays a major role in dehiscence. Light microscopy revealed a smaller non-lignified separation layer in relatively shatter-resistant B. juncea relative to B. napus and this corresponded to increased expression of peroxidases involved in monolignol polymerization. Sustained repression of auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling in B. juncea relative to B. napus may cause differences in dehiscence zone structure and cell wall constituents. Tension on the dehiscence zone is a consequence of shrinkage and loss of flexibility in the valves, which is caused by senescence and desiccation. Reduced shattering was generally associated with upregulation of ABA signaling and down-regulation of ethylene and jasmonate signaling, corresponding to more pronounced stress responses and reduced senescence and photosynthesis. Overall, we identified 124 cell wall related genes and 103 transcription factors potentially involved in silique dehiscence. PMID:25523176

  7. A comprehensive transcriptome analysis of silique development and dehiscence in Arabidopsis and Brassica integrating genotypic, interspecies and developmental comparisons.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Masrur R; Ruegger, Max; Bowling, Andrew; Butler, Holly; Cutler, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous flowering of Brassica napus (canola) leads to seeds and siliques at varying stages of maturity as harvest approaches. This range of maturation can result in premature silique dehiscence (pod shattering), resulting in yield losses, which may be worsened by environmental stresses. Therefore, a goal for canola crop improvement is to reduce shattering in order to maximize yield. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis on the dehiscence zone (DZ) and valve of Arabidopsis and Brassica siliques in shatter resistant and sensitive genotypes at several developmental stages. Among known Arabidopsis dehiscence genes, we confirmed that homologs of SHP1/2, FUL, ADPG1, NST1/3 and IND were associated with shattering in B. juncea and B. napus. We noted a correlation between reduced pectin degradation genes and shatter-resistance. Tension between lignified and non-lignified cells in the silique DZ plays a major role in dehiscence. Light microscopy revealed a smaller non-lignified separation layer in relatively shatter-resistant B. juncea relative to B. napus and this corresponded to increased expression of peroxidases involved in monolignol polymerization. Sustained repression of auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling in B. juncea relative to B. napus may cause differences in dehiscence zone structure and cell wall constituents. Tension on the dehiscence zone is a consequence of shrinkage and loss of flexibility in the valves, which is caused by senescence and desiccation. Reduced shattering was generally associated with upregulation of ABA signaling and down-regulation of ethylene and jasmonate signaling, corresponding to more pronounced stress responses and reduced senescence and photosynthesis. Overall, we identified 124 cell wall related genes and 103 transcription factors potentially involved in silique dehiscence. PMID:25523176

  8. Cloning of TTG1 gene and PCR identification of genomes A, B and C in Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingli; Liu, Xianjun; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Lili; Xiang, Jianhua; Lu, Ying; Liu, Zhongsong

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) genes were cloned from three diploid Brassica species (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) and two amphidiploids species (B. juncea and B. carinata) by homology cloning. TTG1 homologues identified in all the accessions of the investigated species had a coding sequence of 1,014 bp. One copy was obtained from each diploid species and two copies from each amphidiploid species. Combined analysis of the TTG1 sequences cloned in this study with those obtained from public databases demonstrated that three, forty-five and seven nucleotides were specific variations in TTG1 genes from genomes A, B and C, respectively. Primers designed with genome-specific nucleotide variations were able to distinguish among TTG1 genes originating from genomes A, B and C in Brassica. Therefore, the TTG1 gene could serve as a candidate marker gene to detect the pollen flow of Brassica and provide an alternative method for the detection of pollen drift and risk assessment of gene flow in Brassica species.

  9. Cloning of TTG1 gene and PCR identification of genomes A, B and C in Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingli; Liu, Xianjun; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Lili; Xiang, Jianhua; Lu, Ying; Liu, Zhongsong

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) genes were cloned from three diploid Brassica species (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) and two amphidiploids species (B. juncea and B. carinata) by homology cloning. TTG1 homologues identified in all the accessions of the investigated species had a coding sequence of 1,014 bp. One copy was obtained from each diploid species and two copies from each amphidiploid species. Combined analysis of the TTG1 sequences cloned in this study with those obtained from public databases demonstrated that three, forty-five and seven nucleotides were specific variations in TTG1 genes from genomes A, B and C, respectively. Primers designed with genome-specific nucleotide variations were able to distinguish among TTG1 genes originating from genomes A, B and C in Brassica. Therefore, the TTG1 gene could serve as a candidate marker gene to detect the pollen flow of Brassica and provide an alternative method for the detection of pollen drift and risk assessment of gene flow in Brassica species. PMID:24752509

  10. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  11. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  12. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  13. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  14. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communities were examined 2 months after squash was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Amendment increased (P < 0.05) omnivorous nematodes in both experiments but increased only bacterivorous nematodes in ST experiment (P < 0.05), where the soil had relatively low organic matter (<2%). This effect of C. juncea amendment did not occur in LT experiment, in which bacterivores were already abundant. Fungivorous nematodes were not increased by C. juncea amendment in either experiment, but predatory nematodes were increased when present. Although most nematode faunal indices, including enrichment index, structure index, and channel index, were not affected by C. juncea amendment, structure index values were affected by previous soil organic matter content. Results illustrate the importance of considering soil history (organic matter, nutrient level, free-living nematode number) in anticipating changes following amendment with C. juncea hay. PMID:19262764

  15. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment.

  16. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  17. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Suma, A.; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A. K.; Radhamani, J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa. PMID:24489504

  18. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  19. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea. At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na+ extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchangers; (ii) better root K+ retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H+-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  20. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  1. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

  2. Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and susceptibility of donkeys to Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa poisoning were determined at high and low doses. Seeds of C. juncea conaining 0.074% of dehyrdropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) were administered to three donkeys at 0.3, 0.6 and 1 g/kg body weight daily for 365 day...

  3. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) -chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence.

    PubMed

    Warwick, S I; Black, L D

    1991-07-01

    Chloroplast DNA restriction sites for 20 endonucleases were mapped using cpDNA probes from Brassica juncea and site variation was surveyed in 33 diploid taxa of the Subtribe Brassicinae. A total of 419 mutations was observed, including both site (i.e., gain/ loss) and fragment length (i.e., insertions or deletions); 221 (53%) mutations showed variation at the interspecific level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear division of the subtribe into two ancient evolutionary lineages. These were (I) the "Nigra" lineage: Brassica nigra, B. fruticulosa, B. tournefortii, Sinapis pubescens, S. alba, S. flexuosa, S. arvensis, Coincya cheiranthos, Erucastrum canariense, and Hirschfeldia incana, and (II) the "Rapa/ Oleracea" lineage: Brassica rapa, B. oleracea ssp. oleracea and ssp. alboglabra, B. rupestris-villosa complex (B. rupestris, B. drepanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. villosa), B. barrelieri, B. deflexa, B. oxyrrhina, B. gravinae, Diplotaxis erucoides, D. tenuifolia, Eruca sativa, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, and Sinapis aucheri. In the "Nigra" lineage, Brassica nigra was most closely related to the annual Sinapis species, S. arvensis and S. alba. In the "Rapa/Oleracea" lineage, the Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes formed a distinct group whose closest relatives were the wild species of the B. oleracea (n=9) complex (i.e., B. rupestris-villosa complex). Species with n=7 chromosomes exist in both lineages. Hirschfeldia incana (n=7), in the "Nigra" lineage, was most closely related to Sinapis pubescens. In the "Rapa/Oleracea" lineage three taxa with n=7 - B. deflexa, D. erucoides, and S. aucheri - were closely related, advanced in the lineage, and were the closest apparent relatives (particularly D. erucoides) to B. rapa, B. oleracea, and its wild relatives. Levels of genetic divergence suggested by the cpDNA data were consistent with cytodeme recognition in the subtribe, but provided evidence for inconsistencies in the current generic delimitations based on

  4. Reducing progoitrin and enriching glucoraphanin in Brassica napus seeds through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Hirani, Arvind H; McVetty, Peter B E; Daayf, Fouad; Quiros, Carlos F; Li, Genyi

    2012-05-01

    The hydrolytic products of glucosinolates in brassica crops are bioactive compounds. Some glucosinolate derivatives such as oxazolidine-2-thione from progoitrin in brassica oilseed meal are toxic and detrimental to animals, but some isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane are potent anti-carcinogens that have preventive effects on several human cancers. In most B. rapa, B. napus and B. juncea vegetables and oilseeds, there is no or only trace amount of glucoraphanin that is the precursor to sulforaphane. In this paper, RNA interference (RNAi) of the GSL-ALK gene family was used to down-regulate the expression of GSL-ALK genes in B. napus. The detrimental glucosinolate progoitrin was reduced by 65 %, and the beneficial glucosinolate glucoraphanin was increased to a relatively high concentration (42.6 μmol g(-1) seed) in seeds of B. napus transgenic plants through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family. Therefore, there is potential application of the new germplasm with reduced detrimental glucosinolates and increased beneficial glucosinolates for producing improved brassica vegetables.

  5. Sources and Origin of Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica Genomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J D; Conway, J; Roberts, S J; Astley, D; Vicente, J G

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two hundred and seventy-six accessions of mainly Brassica spp. were screened for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris races. In Brassica oleracea (C genome), the majority of accessions were susceptible to all races, but 43% showed resistance to one or more of the rare races (2, 3, 5, and 6) and a single accession showed partial resistance to races 1, 3, 5, and 6. Further searches for resistance to races 1 and 4, currently the most important races worldwide, and race 6, the race with the widest host range, were made in accessions representing the A and B genomes. Strong resistance to race 4 was frequent in B. rapa (A genome) and B. napus (AC genome), indicating an A genome origin. Resistance to races 1 and 4 was present in a high proportion of B. nigra (B genome) and B. carinata (BC genome) accessions, indicating a B genome origin. B. juncea (AB genome) was the most resistant species, showing either strong resistance to races 1 and 4 or quantitative resistance to all races. Potentially race-nonspecific resistance was also found, but at a lower frequency, in B. rapa, B. nigra, and B. carinata. The combination of race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance could provide durable control of black rot of crucifers.

  6. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  7. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  8. Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Kaneko, Yukio; Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant varieties of Brassica napus, or oilseed rape, from which canola oil is obtained, are imported into Japan, where this plant is not commercially cultivated to a large extent. This study aimed to examine the distribution of herbicide-resistant B. napus and transgene flow to escaped populations of its closely related species, B. rapa and B. juncea. Samples were collected from 12 areas near major ports through which oilseed rape imports into Japan passed--Kashima, Chiba, Yokohama, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Sakai-Senboku, Kobe, Uno, Mizushima, Kita-Kyushu, and Hakata--and the presence of glyphosate- and/or glufosinate-resistant B. napus was confirmed in all areas except Yokohama, Sakai-Senboku, Uno, and Kita-Kyushu. The Yokkaichi area was the focus because several herbicide-resistant B. napus plants were detected not only on the roadside where oilseed rape spilled during transportation but also on the riverbanks, where escaped populations of B. rapa and B. juncea grew. Samples of B. napus that were tolerant to both herbicides were detected in four continuous years (2005-2008) in this area, suggesting the possibility of intraspecific transgene flow within the escaped B. napus populations. Moreover, in 2008, seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-tolerant B. napus (2n = 38) and B. rapa (2n = 20) were detected; some seedlings derived from the seeds collected at a Yokkaichi site showed glyphosate resistance and had 2n = 29 chromosomes. This observation strongly suggests the occurrence of hybridization between herbicide-resistant B. napus and escaped B. rapa and the probability of introgression of a herbicide-resistance gene into related escaped species.

  9. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006–2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  10. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  11. Correlated expression of gfp and Bt cry1Ac gene facilitates quantification of transgenic hybridization between Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Shen, B-C; Stewart, C N; Zhang, M-Q; Le, Y-T; Tang, Z-X; Mi, X-C; Wei, W; Ma, K-P

    2006-09-01

    Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) might not be avoidable, thus, it is important to detect and quantify hybridization events with its relatives in real time. Data are presented showing the correlation between genetically linked green fluorescent protein (GFP) with BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (Bt) CRY1AC gene expression in hybrids formed between transgenic B. NAPUS "Westar" and a wild Chinese accession of wild mustard (B. JUNCEA) and hybridization between transgenic B. NAPUS and a conspecific Chinese landrace oilseed rape. Hybrids were obtained either by spontaneous hybridization in the field or by hand-crossing in a greenhouse. In all cases, transgenic hybrids were selected by GFP fluorescence among seedlings originating from seeds harvested from B. JUNCEA and the Chinese oilseed rape plants. Transgenicity was confirmed by PCR detection of transgenes. GFP fluorescence was easily and rapidly detected in the hybrids under greenhouse and field conditions. Results showed that both GFP fluorescence and Bt protein synthesis decreased as either plant or leaf aged, and GFP fluorescence intensity was closely correlated with Bt protein concentration during the entire vegetative lifetime in hybrids. These findings allow the use of GFP fluorescence as an accurate tool to detect gene-flow in time in the field and to conveniently estimate BT CRY1AC expression in hybrids on-the-plant.

  12. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment.

  13. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29–6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  14. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers' sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  15. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  16. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  17. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29-6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  18. Earliness, morphological, and reproductive variation among 16 sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accessions in Griffin, GA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous species used for cover cropping in subtropical and tropical countries. It has great potential as a new crop in the southeastern U.S. because of its ability to supply follow-up crops with adequate nitrogen levels for rotated crop sustenance. However, l...

  19. Nepetanal and nepetanoate: a new diterpene aldehyde and a benzene derivative ester from Nepeta juncea.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Farman Ullah; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Shah, M Raza; Anwar, Saeed

    2009-07-01

    One new tricyclic clerodane type diterpene aldehyde nepetanal (1) and one new benzene derivative nepetanoate (2) have been isolated from a plant Nepeta juncea together with two known compounds oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of modern spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of sixteen accessions of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous cover crop that provides benefits to a cropping system including nitrogen accumulation, weed suppression and soil stability. Adoption of sunn hemp as a cover crop is limited primarily due to the availability of seed sources, leading to high seed cost...

  1. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on germination of vegetables and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop in the Southeastern U.S., but it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp on weeds, vegetable crops, and cover crops were evaluated in growth chamber an...

  2. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  3. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  4. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  5. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  6. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): An apomictic invader on three continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive populations using molecular markers provides insights into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) is an apomictic perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, Argentina, Canada and the USA. Invasive biotypes...

  7. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  8. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  9. Comparative genome mapping in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, U; Lydiate, D J

    1996-12-01

    A Brassica nigra genetic linkage map was developed from a highly polymorphic cross analyzed with a set of low copy number Brassica RFLP probes. The Brassica genome is extensively duplicated with eight distinct sets of chromosomal segments, each present in three copies, covering virtually the whole genome. Thus, B. nigra could be descended from a hexaploid ancestor. A comparative analysis of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa genomes, based on maps developed using a common set of RFLP probes, was also performed. The three genomes have distinct chromosomal structures differentiated by a large number of rearrangements, but collinear regions involving virtually the whole of each the three genomes were identified. The genic contents of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa were basically equivalent and differences in chromosome number (8, 9 and 10, respectively) are probably the result of chromosome fusions and/ or fissions. The strong conservation of overall genic content across the three Brassica genomes mirrors the conservation of genic content observed over a much longer evolutionary span in cereals. However, the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in crucifers is much higher than that observed in cereal genomes.

  10. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids.

  11. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids. PMID:26583027

  12. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids. PMID:26583027

  13. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  14. Cytoplasmic and genomic effects on meiotic pairing in Brassica hybrids and allotetraploids from pair crosses of three cultivated diploids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-07-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids.

  15. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  16. Cytoplasmic and genomic effects on meiotic pairing in Brassica hybrids and allotetraploids from pair crosses of three cultivated diploids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-07-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  17. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  19. Analysis of a salinity induced BjSOS3 protein from Brassica indicate it to be structurally and functionally related to its ortholog from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Hemant R; Kumar, Gautam; Verma, Praveen K; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2011-09-01

    Arabidopsis has been a favorite model system for plant biologist. It is anticipated that comparative analysis of this plant with other members of Brassicaceae may aid in identification of orthologs playing role as key genetic determinants for salinity response. In this endeavor, we have recently identified SOS family members from Brassica juncea in our laboratory and reported their salinity responsive transcriptional induction in seedlings of various diploid and amphidiploids species. In the present study, we have carried out detailed time kinetics for BjSOS3 expression in a salinity tolerant B. juncea var. CS52. Transcript analysis at the sensitive growth stages of plants viz. seedling and reproductive stage indicated clear differential transcriptional regulation of BjSOS3 under non-induced as well as salinity induced conditions in a time and organ specific manner, mirroring their respective tolerance physiology. Similar to its ortholog from Arabidopsis thaliana, the modeled BjSOS3 protein show typical features of a Ca(2+) binding protein with four conserved EF-hands. We have also attempted to study the binding of SOS3 protein with the modeled SOS2 protein. It has been established that SOS3 protein senses Ca(2+) though the binding is very weak; we show the down regulation of BjSOS3 mRNA in presence of calcium chelator - EGTA under the various stress conditions including ABA. In situ localization of BjSOS3-GFP fusion protein in onion peel has shown its presence strongly in plasma membrane as well as cytosol. The leads presented in the paper will assist in understanding and establishing the SOS signaling machinery in B. juncea. PMID:21482126

  20. Susceptibility of Brassica species to cauliflower mosaic virus infection is related to a specific stage in the virus multiplication cycle.

    PubMed

    Saunders, K; Lucy, A P; Covey, S N

    1990-08-01

    The relative susceptibilities and symptom responses of different Brassica species to infection by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have been compared and related to molecular events of the virus multiplication cycle. Variants of B. rapa (genome descriptor aa) were highly susceptible to infection by CaMV strain Cabb B-JI and contained relatively large amounts of virus; B. oleracea (cc) variants showed low susceptibility and contained small amounts of virus. B. nigra (bb) and allotetraploid species. B. juncea (aabb), B. napus (aacc) and B. carinata (bbcc), showed moderate responses to CaMV. CaMV unencapsidated DNA forms were isolated from different Brassica plants and examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and blot hybridization. Viral RNA was estimated by dot blot analysis. These analyses showed differences in accumulation of key viral replication cycle intermediates within the broad range of host plants studied. The most susceptible species contained relatively small amounts of supercoiled (SC) DNA, a component of the CaMV mini-chromosome, but abundant viral transcripts and reverse transcription replication products. Tolerant plant hosts contained high levels of SC DNA but low levels of viral transcripts and reverse transcription DNA products. Allotetraploids contained SC DNA, RNA transcripts and replication product levels which were generally intermediate between those of their respective progenitor species. Evidence is presented that accumulation of CaMV SC DNA in the less susceptible host species is probably not due to autonomous DNA replication or tissue-specific expression. We conclude that a major component of the susceptibility of Brassica plants (and probably all CaMV host species) to CaMV infection is the level of viral minichromosome expression, influenced directly by the host genotype.

  1. Zinc induces distinct changes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the roots of two Brassica species with different sensitivity to zinc stress

    PubMed Central

    Feigl, Gábor; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient naturally present in soils, but anthropogenic activities can lead to accumulation in the environment and resulting damage to plants. Heavy metals such as Zn can induce oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which can reduce growth and yield in crop plants. This study assesses the interplay of these two families of molecules in order to evaluate the responses in roots of two Brassica species under high concentrations of Zn. Methods Nine-day-old hydroponically grown Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and B. napus (oilseed rape) seedlings were treated with ZnSO4 (0, 50, 150 and 300 µm) for 7 d. Stress intensity was assessed through analyses of cell wall damage and cell viability. Biochemical and cellular techniques were used to measure key components of the metabolism of ROS and RNS including lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants, protein nitration and content of superoxide radical (O2·−), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Key Results Analysis of morphological root damage and alterations of microelement homeostasis indicate that B. juncea is more tolerant to Zn stress than B. napus. ROS and RNS parameters suggest that the oxidative components are predominant compared with the nitrosative components in the root system of both species. Conclusions The results indicate a clear relationship between ROS and RNS metabolism as a mechanism of response against stress caused by an excess of Zn. The oxidative stress components seem to be more dominant than the elements of the nitrosative stress in the root system of these two Brassica species. PMID:25538112

  2. Identification of expressed genes during infection of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan F; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen-host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed in the infection of Arabidopsis plants, indicating that these genes play an important role in P. brassicae infection.

  3. High-resolution molecular karyotyping uncovers pairing between ancestrally related Brassica chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Batley, Jacqueline; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Hayward, Alice; Cowling, Wallace A; Nelson, Matthew N

    2014-05-01

    How do chromosomal regions with differing degrees of homology and homeology interact at meiosis? We provide a novel analytical method based on simple genetics principles which can help to answer this important question. This method interrogates high-throughput molecular marker data in order to infer chromosome behavior at meiosis in interspecific hybrids. We validated this method using high-resolution molecular marker karyotyping in two experimental Brassica populations derived from interspecific crosses among B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata, using a single nucleotide polymorphism chip. This method of analysis successfully identified meiotic interactions between chromosomes sharing different degrees of similarity: full-length homologs; full-length homeologs; large sections of primary homeologs; and small sections of secondary homeologs. This analytical method can be applied to any allopolyploid species or fertile interspecific hybrid in order to detect meiotic associations. This genetic information can then be used to identify which genomic regions share functional homeology (i.e., retain enough similarity to allow pairing and segregation at meiosis). When applied to interspecific hybrids for which reference genome sequences are available, the question of how differing degrees of homology and homeology affect meiotic interactions may finally be resolved. PMID:24471809

  4. Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Wen; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3-5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77%) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1%) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22%) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77%) were polymorphic, 111 (22%) were not polymorphic and 5 (1%) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90% amplified a PCR product; 132 (25%) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8%) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa.

  5. Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Wen; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3-5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77%) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1%) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22%) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77%) were polymorphic, 111 (22%) were not polymorphic and 5 (1%) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90% amplified a PCR product; 132 (25%) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8%) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa. PMID:22972202

  6. Study on the chemical constituents of the South China Sea gorgonian Junceella juncea.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Zhi-Hui; Huang, Jian-She; Wu, Jun; Li, Qing-Xin

    2004-12-01

    A new steroidal glycoside--4'-O-acetyl-3-O-[beta-D-arabino-pyranosyl-oxy]-cholest-5-ene-3beta,19-diol (1), and a new glycerol derivative--1,2-O-[2'-hydroxyoctadecyl]-glycerol (2), along with 16 known compounds were isolated from the EtOH/CH2Cl2 extracts of the South China Sea gorgonian coral Junceella juncea. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data.

  7. Brassica oleracea and B. napus.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Penny A C Hundleby Née; Irwin, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    With the accelerating advances in genetics and genomics research in Arabidopsis and Brassica, transformation technologies are now routinely being exploited to elucidate gene function as well as contributing to the development of novel enhanced crops. When a researcher's desired goal is simply to modify or introduce candidate genes into a Brassica, the availability of easy-to-follow protocols and knowledge of readily transformable genotypes becomes a valuable resource. In this chapter we outline a basic A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation method, using 4-day-old cotyledonary explants, that has been successfully applied to a range of different B. oleracea and B. napus genotypes. For demonstration purposes, we focus primarily on the diploid species B. oleracea using a model doubled haploid genotype, AG DH1012. After only 3-4 weeks on kanamycin selection the first transgenic shoots can be isolated. Transformation efficiencies are typically in the region of 15-25 % (based on 15-25 PCR-positive independent shoots from 100 inoculated explants). Most explants will produce multiple shoots (1-3+ per explant) and so the total number of transgenic shoots produced will exceed 15-25 per 100 explant experiment. The protocol is also applicable to B. napus and modifications specific to this species are highlighted accordingly. For researchers wishing to use their own plant genotype, tissue culture phenotypes that are conducive to efficient transformation are also highlighted within this chapter.

  8. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-12-19

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae.

  9. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions’ (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5M, 1.5M and 2M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals’ tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals. PMID:26010144

  10. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals. PMID:26010144

  11. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Velasco, P

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-one cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) varieties, including 16 local varieties and five commercial hybrids, were screened for resistance to the moth Mamestra brassicae L. under natural and artificial conditions in northwestern Spain. Resistance was assessed as the proportion of damaged plants and damaged leaves, leaf feeding injury, and number of larvae present. Correlation coefficients among damage traits showed that a visual scale (general appearance rating) should be a useful indicator of resistance. Most local varieties were highly susceptible to M. brassicae, whereas the commercial hybrids tested were resistant in terms of head foliage consumption and number of larvae per plant. Performance of varieties was similar under natural and artificial infestation although some of them performed differently at each year. Three local varieties (MBG-BRS0057, MBG-BRS0074, and MBG-BRS0452) were highly susceptible at both natural and artificial infestation conditions being MBG-BRS0074 the most damaged variety. Two local varieties (MBG-BRS0402 and MBG-BRS0535) and commercial hybrids were identified as resistant or moderately resistant to M. brassicae. Among them, 'Corazón de Buey' and 'Cabeza negra' were the most resistant and produced compact heads. These varieties could be useful sources of resistance to obtain resistant varieties to M. brassicae or as donors of resistance to other Brassica crops. The possible role of leaf traits, head compactness, and leaf glucosinolate content in relation to M. brassicae resistance is discussed.

  12. Epigenetic chromatin modifications in Brassica genomes.

    PubMed

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Bernas, Tytus; Maluszynska, Jolanta

    2010-03-01

    Epigenetic modifications such as histone and DNA methylation are highly conserved among eukaryotes, although the nuclear patterns of these modifications vary between different species. Brassica species represent a very attractive model for analysis of epigenetic changes because of their differences in genome size, ploidy level, and the organization of heterochromatin blocks. Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are diploid species, and B. napus is an allotetraploid species that arose from the hybridization of these two diploids. We found that patterns of DNA and histone H3 methylation differ between Brassica species. The most prominent differences concern the two diploids. DNA methylation was present exclusively in the heterochromatin only in B. rapa. In B. oleracea and B. napus this modification was detected in both euchromatin and heterochromatin. A similar pattern was observed for dimethylation of lysine 9. Dimethylation of lysine 4 is a typical marker of euchromatin in Brassica species, like it is in other plant species. We conclude that the diploid species differ in patterns of analyzed epigenetic modifications and the allotetraploid B. napus has combined patterns from both diploids. Differences in patterns of DNA and histone H3 methylation between Brassica species can be attributed mainly to the genome structure and heterochromatin localization rather than ploidy level.

  13. Unleashing the genome of brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica's genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with A. thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from A. thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in B. rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved non-coding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each "cookbook style" analysis includes a step-by-step walk-through with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  14. Identification of two novel genes for blackleg resistance in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Yu, F; Lydiate, D J; Rimmer, S R

    2005-03-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major disease of Brassica napus. Two populations of B. napus DH lines, DHP95 and DHP96, with resistance introgressed from B. rapa subsp. sylvestris, were genetically mapped for resistance to blackleg disease with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. Examination of the DHP95 population indicated that a locus on linkage group N2, named LepR1, was associated with blackleg resistance. In the DHP96 population, a second locus on linkage group N10, designated LepR2, was associated with resistance. We developed BC1 and F2 populations, to study the inheritance of resistance controlled by the genes. Genetic analysis indicated that LepR1 was a dominant nuclear allele, while LepR2 was an incompletely dominant nuclear resistance allele. LepR1 and LepR2 cotyledon resistance was further evaluated by testing 30 isolates from Canada, Australia, Europe, and Mexico. The isolates were from B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea and represented different pathogenicity groups of L. maculans. Results indicated that LepR1 generally conferred a higher level of cotyledon resistance than LepR2. Both genes exhibited race-specific interactions with pathogen isolates; virulence on LepR1 was observed with one isolate, pl87-41, and two isolates, Lifolle 5, and Lifolle 6, were virulent on LepR2. LepR1 prevented hyphal penetration, while LepR2 reduced hyphal growth and inhibited sporulation. Callose deposition was associated with resistance for both loci.

  15. Development of synthetic Brassica amphidiploids by reciprocal hybridization and comparison to natural amphidiploids.

    PubMed

    Song, K; Tang, K; Osborn, T C

    1993-08-01

    In a previous study we proposed that cytoplasmic genomes have played an important role in the evolution of Brassica amphidiploid species. Based on this and other studies, we hypothesized that interactions between the maternal cytoplasmic genomes and the paternal nuclear genome may cause alterations in genome structure and/or gene expression of a newly synthesized amphidiploid, which may play an important role in the evolution of natural amphidiploid species. To test this hypothesis, a series of synthetic amphidiploids, including all three analogs of the natural amphidiploids B. napus, B. juncea, and B. Carinata and their reciprocal forms, were developed. These synthetic amphidiploids were characterized for morphological traits, chromosome number, and RFLPs revealed by chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA clones. The maternal transmission of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes was observed in all of the F1 hybrids examined except one hybrid plant derived from the B. rapa x B. oleracea combination, which showed a biparental transmission of organelles. However, the paternal chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were not observed in the F2 progeny. Nuclear genomes of synthetic amphidiploids had combined RFLP patterns of their parental species for all of the nuclear DNA clones examined. A variation in fertility was observed among self-pollinated progenies of single amphidiploids that had completely homozygous genome constitutions. Comparisons between natural and synthetic amphidiploids based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns indicated that natural amphidiploids are considerably more distant from the progenitor diploid species than the synthetic amphidiploids. The utility of these synthetic amphidiploids for investigating the evolution of amphidiploidy is discussed.

  16. (n-7) and (n-9) cis-Monounsaturated fatty acid contents of 12 Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2008-01-01

    cis-Vaccenic acid or cis-11-octadecenoic acid, a C18:1 (n-7) isomer of oleic acid (C18:1 (n-9)) has been found in several oilseeds. It is synthesized from palmitic acid (C16:0) via production of C16:1 (n-7) by a Delta9 desaturase and elongation by an elongase giving C18:1 (n-7). In this study, the fatty acid composition of 12 Brassica species was analyzed by GC-FID and confirmed by GC-MS. All species contained C18:1 (n-7), C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7) fatty acid isomers, suggesting that C18:1 (n-7) was elongated. The levels of these fatty acids varied according to the species. C18:1(n-7)) represented from 0.4% to 3.3% of the total relative fatty acid contents of the seeds. The contents of C20:1(n-7) and C22:1(n-7) levels were lower than C18:1(n-7) contents; the relative fatty acid composition varied from 0.02% to 1.3% and from below the limit of detection to 1.3% for C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7), respectively. The ratios of (n-7)/(n-9) ranged from 2.8% to 16.7%, 0.6% to 29.5% and 0% to 2.6% for C18:1, C20:1 and C22:2, respectively. Using statistical similarities or differences of the C18:1 (n-7)/(n-9) ratios for chemotaxonomy, the surveyed species could be arranged into three groups. The first group would include Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. tournefortii with Eruca sativa branching only related to B. napus. The second group would include B. tournefortii, Raphanus sativus and Sinapis alba. The last group would include B. juncea, B. carinata and B. nigra with no similarity/relationship between them and between the other species. Results suggested that the level of C20:1 (n-7) influenced the levels of all monounsaturated fatty acids with chain length higher than 20 carbons. On the other hand, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) levels, C16:1 being the parent of all (n-7) fatty acids, had no statistically significant correlation with the content of any of the fatty acids of the (n-7) or (n-9) family.

  17. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  18. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools.

  19. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. PMID:25645061

  20. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of four new steroidal glycosides from a gorgonian coral Junceella juncea.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shuhua; Zhang, Si; Huang, Jianshe; Xiao, Zhihui; Wu, Jun; Li, Qingxin

    2005-03-01

    Four new cholest-type steroidal glycosides, junceellosides A-D, isolated from the EtOH/CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of the South China Sea gorgonian coral Junceella juncea, were identified. Complete assignments of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts for these compounds were achieved by means of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata. PMID:25767903

  3. In vitro anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea for its biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P; Selvi, S Senthamil; Govindaraju, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea (J. juncea) against biofilm forming pathogenic strains. Methods Gorgonians were extracted with methanol and analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by Congo red agar supplemented with sucrose. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to monitor in vitro biofilm reduction by microtitre plate assay. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic gorgonian extract (MGE) was carried out by disc diffusion method followed by calculating the percentage of increase with crude methanol (CM). Results The presence of active functional group was exemplified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry, black, crystalline colonies confirm the production of extracellular polymeric substances responsible for biofilm formation in Congo red agar. MGE exhibited potential anti-biofilm activity against all tested bacterial strains. The anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract was comparably higher in Salmonella typhii followed by Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. The overall percentage of increase was higher by 50.2% to CM. Conclusions To conclude, anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial efficacy of J. juncea is impressive over biofilm producing pathogens and are good source for novel anti-bacterial compounds. PMID:23593571

  4. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  5. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and others demonstrated that WGT plays an important role in the speciation and morphotype diversification of Brassica plants. Comparative genomic analysis based on the genome sequences of B. rapa and A. thaliana clearly identified the WGT event and further demonstrated that the translocated Proto-Calepine Karyotype (tPCK, n=7) was the diploid ancestor of the three subgenomes in B. rapa. Following WGT, subsequent extensive genome fractionation, block reshuffling and chromosome reduction accompanied by paleocentromere descent from the three tPCK subgenomes during the rediploidization process produced stable diploid species. Genomic rearrangement of the diploid species and their hybridization then contributed to Brassica speciation. The subgenome dominance effect and biased gene retention, such as the over-retention of auxin-related genes after WGT, promoted functional gene evolution and thus propelled the expansion of rich morphotypes in the Brassica species. In conclusion, the WGT event initiated subsequent genomic and gene-level evolution, which further drove Brassica speciation and created rich morphotypes in each species.

  6. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and others demonstrated that WGT plays an important role in the speciation and morphotype diversification of Brassica plants. Comparative genomic analysis based on the genome sequences of B. rapa and A. thaliana clearly identified the WGT event and further demonstrated that the translocated Proto-Calepine Karyotype (tPCK, n=7) was the diploid ancestor of the three subgenomes in B. rapa. Following WGT, subsequent extensive genome fractionation, block reshuffling and chromosome reduction accompanied by paleocentromere descent from the three tPCK subgenomes during the rediploidization process produced stable diploid species. Genomic rearrangement of the diploid species and their hybridization then contributed to Brassica speciation. The subgenome dominance effect and biased gene retention, such as the over-retention of auxin-related genes after WGT, promoted functional gene evolution and thus propelled the expansion of rich morphotypes in the Brassica species. In conclusion, the WGT event initiated subsequent genomic and gene-level evolution, which further drove Brassica speciation and created rich morphotypes in each species. PMID:26504539

  7. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  8. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with A. thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from A. thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in B. rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved non-coding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each “cookbook style” analysis includes a step-by-step walk-through with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process. PMID:22866056

  9. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  10. Evaluation of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) for potential risks of food allergy using bioinformatics and literature searches.

    PubMed

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Gupta, Vibha; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database. Initial comparisons in 2012 were performed with version 12 by methods recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India. Searches were repeated with version 15 in 2015. A literature search was performed using PubMed to identify reports of allergy associated with the sources of the three transgenes. Potential open reading frames at the DNA insertion site were evaluated for matches to allergens. No significant sequence identity matches were identified with Bar, Barnase or Barstar proteins or potential fusion peptides at the genomic-insert junctions compared to known allergens. No references were identified that associated the sources of the genes with allergy. Based on these results we conclude that the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins are unlikely to present any significant risk of food allergy to consumers. PMID:26079618

  11. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn analysis of anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in red mustard green (Brassica juncea (L) Coss variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the polyphenols in red mustard greens and identified 209 phenolic compounds: 67 anthocyanin, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned ...

  12. Evaluation of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) for potential risks of food allergy using bioinformatics and literature searches.

    PubMed

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Gupta, Vibha; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database. Initial comparisons in 2012 were performed with version 12 by methods recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India. Searches were repeated with version 15 in 2015. A literature search was performed using PubMed to identify reports of allergy associated with the sources of the three transgenes. Potential open reading frames at the DNA insertion site were evaluated for matches to allergens. No significant sequence identity matches were identified with Bar, Barnase or Barstar proteins or potential fusion peptides at the genomic-insert junctions compared to known allergens. No references were identified that associated the sources of the genes with allergy. Based on these results we conclude that the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins are unlikely to present any significant risk of food allergy to consumers.

  13. Genotyping the clonal structure of a gorgonian coral, Junceella juncea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), using microsatellite loci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Dai, Chang-Feng

    2005-11-01

    The identification of different clones is fundamental to the study of population structure among organisms with mixed reproductive modes such as cnidarians. However, due to the low genetic variation of coral mtDNA and contamination by zooxanthellate DNA, very few molecular markers are available for studying the clonal structure of cnidarians. Herein we used four polymorphic loci of microsatellite DNA isolated from a zooxanthellae-free octocoral, Junceella juncea, to study its clonal structure in seven populations collected from three localities in Taiwan. In total, 40 multilocus genotypes were found among 152 colonies, and the number of genotypes (clones) identified in the seven populations ranged from 2 to 16. Each of the 40 multilocus genotypes was restricted to a single population, even where adjacent populations were only 100 m distant. The ratio of observed to expected genotypic diversity (Go:Ge) ranged from 0.217 to 0.650, and Go showed a significant departure from Ge ( p<0.05) at each site indicating that asexual fragmentation may play a major role in the maintenance of established populations. Mean relatedness ( R) values showed that genotypes within reefs were more closely related than those between regions. The results indicate that microsatellites are useful for discerning the clonal structures among and within populations at different spatial scales.

  14. Structural and functional comparative mapping between the Brassica A genomes in allotetraploid Brassica napus and diploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Congcong; Ramchiary, Nirala; Ma, Yongbiao; Jin, Mina; Feng, Ji; Li, Ruiyuan; Wang, Hao; Long, Yan; Choi, Su Ryun; Zhang, Chunyu; Cowling, Wallace A; Park, Beom Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Meng, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    Brassica napus (AACC genome) is an important oilseed crop that was formed by the fusion of the diploids B. rapa (AA) and B. oleracea (CC). The complete genomic sequence of the Brassica A genome will be available soon from the B. rapa genome sequencing project, but it is not clear how informative the A genome sequence in B. rapa (A(r)) will be for predicting the structure and function of the A subgenome in the allotetraploid Brassica species B. napus (A(n)). In this paper, we report the results of structural and functional comparative mapping between the A subgenomes of B. napus and B. rapa based on genetic maps that were anchored with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-sequence of B. rapa. We identified segmental conservation that represented by syntenic blocks in over one third of the A genome; meanwhile, comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed quality traits identified a dozen homologous regions with conserved function in the A genome of the two species. However, several genomic rearrangement events, such as inversions, intra- and inter-chromosomal translocations, were also observed, covering totally at least 5% of the A genome, between allotetraploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa. Based on these results, the A genomes of B. rapa and B. napus are mostly functionally conserved, but caution will be necessary in applying the full sequence data from B. rapa to the B. napus as a result of genomic rearrangements in the A genome between the two species.

  15. Targeted metabolite analysis and biological activity of Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Noites, Alexandra; Valentão, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, José A; Vale-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-01-28

    For the first time, an insect-plant system, Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa, was tested for its biological capacity, namely, antioxidant (DPPH*, *NO, and O(2)*- radicals) and antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) activities. Samples from the insect's life cycle (larvae, excrements, exuviae, and butterfly) were always found to be more efficient than the host plant. Also, P. brassicae materials, as well as its host plant, were screened for phenolics and organic acids. The host plant revealed higher amounts of both compounds. Two phenolic acids, ferulic and sinapic, as well as kaempferol 3-Osophoroside, were common to insect (larvae and excrements) and plant materials, with excrements being considerably richer. Detection of sulfated compounds in excrements, absent in host plant, revealed that metabolic processes in this species involved sulfation. Additionally, deacylation and deglycosilation were observed. All matrices presented the same organic acids qualitative profile, with the exception of excrements.

  16. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas.

  17. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  18. The Brassica napus receptor-like protein RLM2 is encoded by a second allele of the LepR3/Rlm2 blackleg resistance locus.

    PubMed

    Larkan, Nicholas J; Ma, Lisong; Borhan, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) are highly adaptable parts of the signalling apparatus for extracellular detection of plant pathogens. Resistance to blackleg disease of Brassica spp. caused by Leptosphaeria maculans is largely governed by host race-specific R-genes, including the LRR-RLP gene LepR3. The blackleg resistance gene Rlm2 was previously mapped to the same genetic interval as LepR3. In this study, the LepR3 locus of the Rlm2 Brassica napus line 'Glacier DH24287' was cloned, and B. napus transformants were analysed for recovery of the Rlm2 phenotype. Multiple B. napus, B. rapa and B. juncea lines were assessed for sequence variation at the locus. Rlm2 was found to be an allelic variant of the LepR3 LRR-RLP locus, conveying race-specific resistance to L. maculans isolates harbouring AvrLm2. Several defence-related LRR-RLPs have previously been shown to associate with the RLK SOBIR1 to facilitate defence signalling. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation of RLM2-SOBIR1 studies revealed that RLM2 interacts with SOBIR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana when co-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The interaction of RLM2 with AtSOBIR1 is suggestive of a conserved defence signalling pathway between B. napus and its close relative A. thaliana.

  19. A computational study of the aerodynamic forces and power requirements of dragonfly (Aeschna juncea) hovering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mao; Lan, Shi Long

    2004-05-01

    Aerodynamic force generation and mechanical power requirements of a dragonfly (Aeschna juncea) in hovering flight are studied. The method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids is used. When the midstroke angles of attack in the downstroke and the upstroke are set to 52 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively (these values are close to those observed), the mean vertical force equals the insect weight, and the mean thrust is approximately zero. There are two large vertical force peaks in one flapping cycle. One is in the first half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the hindwings in their downstroke; the other is in the second half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the forewings in their downstroke. Hovering with a large stroke plane angle (52 degrees ), the dragonfly uses drag as a major source for its weight-supporting force (approximately 65% of the total vertical force is contributed by the drag and 35% by the lift of the wings). The vertical force coefficient of a wing is twice as large as the quasi-steady value. The interaction between the fore- and hindwings is not very strong and is detrimental to the vertical force generation. Compared with the case of a single wing in the same motion, the interaction effect reduces the vertical forces on the fore- and hindwings by 14% and 16%, respectively, of that of the corresponding single wing. The large vertical force is due to the unsteady flow effects. The mechanism of the unsteady force is that in each downstroke of the hindwing or the forewing, a new vortex ring containing downward momentum is generated, giving an upward force. The body-mass-specific power is 37 W kg(-1), which is mainly contributed by the aerodynamic power.

  20. The Korea brassica genome project: a glimpse of the brassica genome based on comparative genome analysis with Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jung-Sun; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jin-A; Jin, Mina; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Ho-Il; Kim, Seog Hyung; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok

    2005-01-01

    A complete genome sequence provides unlimited information in the sequenced organism as well as in related taxa. According to the guidance of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project (MBGP), the Korea Brassica Genome Project (KBGP) is sequencing chromosome 1 (cytogenetically oriented chromosome #1) of Brassica rapa. We have selected 48 seed BACs on chromosome 1 using EST genetic markers and FISH analyses. Among them, 30 BAC clones have been sequenced and 18 are on the way. Comparative genome analyses of the EST sequences and sequenced BAC clones from Brassica chromosome 1 revealed their homeologous partner regions on the Arabidopsis genome and a syntenic comparative map between Brassica chromosome 1 and Arabidopsis chromosomes. In silico chromosome walking and clone validation have been successfully applied to extending sequence contigs based on the comparative map and BAC end sequences. In addition, we have defined the (peri)centromeric heterochromatin blocks with centromeric tandem repeats, rDNA and centromeric retrotransposons. In-depth sequence analyses of five homeologous BAC clones and an Arabidopsis chromosomal region reveal overall co-linearity, with 82% sequence similarity. The data indicate that the Brassica genome has undergone triplication and subsequent gene losses after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica. Based on in-depth comparative genome analyses, we propose a comparative genomics approach for conquering the Brassica genome. In 2005 we intend to construct an integrated physical map, including sequence information from 500 BAC clones and integration of fingerprinting data and end sequence data of more than 100,000 BAC clones.

  1. RGA- and RAPD-derived SCAR markers for a Brassica B-genome introgression conferring resistance to blackleg in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Saal, B; Struss, D

    2005-07-01

    An introgression derived from the B genome of Brassica juncea in spring-type oilseed rape (B. napus) conferring recessively inherited cotyledon resistance against several pathotypes of the blackleg fungus Leptosphaeria maculans was mapped using PCR-based molecular markers. Resistance-associated B-genome-specific randomly amplified (RAPD) and resistance gene analog (RGA) DNA polymorphisms were converted into three sequence-specific markers (SCARs; B5-1520, C5-1000, RGALm). The flanking sequence of the RGALm locus was determined by genomic walking, leading to a 1,610-bp EcoRV fragment which showed extensive homology to known and putative resistance genes of a cluster on Arabidopsis chromosome 5. Partial sequence analysis of the genomic RAPD segment OPC-05-1700 revealed strong homology to the gibberellin 2-oxidase gene of Arabidopsis. The SCAR markers were analyzed in two segregating populations and were found to be linked in coupling to each other, and in repulsion to the resistance locus. In both populations, markers deviated significantly from a monogenic 3:1 segregation ratio, with plants lacking the markers being more frequent than expected. Although the mode of introgression is yet unknown, the recombinant individuals observed among susceptible progeny suggest homeology between the B-genome-specific segment and its B. napus counterpart. This would offer prospects for reducing the size of the introgression and further fine mapping of the resistance locus.

  2. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  3. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes. PMID:27526322

  4. Pairing and recombination at meiosis of Brassica rapa (AA) x Brassica napus (AACC) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Leflon, M; Eber, F; Letanneur, J C; Chelysheva, L; Coriton, O; Huteau, V; Ryder, C D; Barker, G; Jenczewski, E; Chèvre, A M

    2006-11-01

    Interspecific crosses contribute significantly to plant evolution enabling gene exchanges between species. The efficiency of interspecific crosses depends on the similarity between the implicated genomes as high levels of genome similarity are required to ensure appropriate chromosome pairing and genetic recombination. Brassica napus (AACC) is an allopolyploid, resulting from natural hybridization between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC), both being diploid species derived from a common ancestor. To study the relationships between genomes of these Brassica species, we have determined simultaneously the pairing and recombination pattern of A and C chromosomes during meiosis of AAC triploid hybrids, which result from the interspecific cross between natural B. napus and B. rapa. Different AAC triploid hybrids and their progenies have been analysed using cytogenetic, BAC-FISH, and molecular techniques. In 71% of the pollen mother cells, homologous A chromosomes paired regularly, and usually one chromosome of each pair was transmitted to the progeny. C chromosomes remained mainly univalent, but were involved in homoeologous pairing in 21.5% of the cells, and 13% of the transmitted C chromosomes were either recombined or broken. The rate of transmission of C chromosomes depended on the identity of the particular chromosome and on the way the hybrid was crossed, as the male or as the female parent, to B. napus or to B. rapa. Gene transfers in triploid hybrids are favoured between A genomes of B. rapa and B. napus, but also occur between A and C genomes though at lower rates.

  5. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development. PMID:26711633

  6. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  7. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of

  8. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with

  9. Genetic enhancement of Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Hannoufa, Abdelali; Pillai, Bhinu V S; Chellamma, Sreekala

    2014-02-01

    The ultimate value of the Brassica napus (canola) seed is derived from the oil fraction, which has long been recognized for its premium dietary attributes, including its low level of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and favorable omega-3 fatty acid profile. However, the protein (meal) portion of the seed has also received favorable attention for its essential amino acids, including abundance of sulfur-containing amino acids, such that B. napus protein is being contemplated for large scale use in livestock and fish feed formulations. Efforts to optimize the composition of B. napus oil and protein fractions are well documented; therefore, this article will review research concerned with optimizing secondary metabolites that affect the quality of seed oil and meal, from undesirable anti-nutritional factors to highl value beneficial products. The biological, agronomic, and economic values attributed to secondary metabolites have brought much needed attention to those in Brassica oilseeds and other crops. This review focuses on increasing levels of beneficial endogenous secondary metabolites (such as carotenoids, choline and tochopherols) and decreasing undesirable antinutritional factors (glucosinolates, sinapine and phytate). Molecular genetic approaches are given emphasis relative to classical breeding.

  10. Identification of two loci for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin) in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, K; Tsukazaki, H; Iketani, H; Hatakeyama, K; Fujimura, M; Nunome, T; Fukuoka, H; Matsumoto, S; Hirai, M

    2003-10-01

    In an analysis of 114 F(2) individuals from a cross between clubroot-resistant and susceptible lines of Brassica rapa L., 'G004' and 'Hakusai Chukanbohon Nou 7' (A9709), respectively, we identified two loci, Crr1 and Crr2, for clubroot (caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin) resistance. Each locus segregated independently among the F(2) population, indicating that the loci reside on a different region of chromosomes or on different chromosomes. Genetic analysis showed that each locus had little effect on clubroot resistance by itself, indicating that these two loci are complementary for clubroot resistance. The resistance to clubroot was much stronger when both loci were homozygous for resistant alleles than when they were heterozygous. These results indicate that clubroot resistance in B. rapa is under oligogenic control and at least two loci are necessary for resistance.

  11. Construction of Near Isogenic Lines in Brassica oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The single species Brassica oleracea encompasses a remarkable diversity of morphotypes, including cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, marrowstem kale, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts as well as rapid-flowering morphologically simple genotypes reminiscent of Arabidopsis. To dissect the molecular basis of ...

  12. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Jing, Jing; Zhan, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10) were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR), unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS) markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR) genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R) on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  13. Identification of Novel QTLs for Isolate-Specific Partial Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10) were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR), unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS) markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR) genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R) on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa. PMID:24376876

  14. Surface Disinfestation of Resting Spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae Used to Infect Hairy Roots of Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Asano, T; Kageyama, K; Hyakumachi, M

    1999-04-01

    ABSTRACT Resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae were surface-disinfested by treatment with 2% chloramine-T for 20 min and then with an antibiotic solution (1,000 ppm of colistin sulfate, 1,000 ppm of vancomycin hydrochloride, and 6,000 ppm of cefotaxime sodium) for 1 day. The disinfested resting spores were used to inoculate hairy roots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Fuji Wase), Chinese cabbage (B. pekinensis cv. Musou Hakusai), turnip (B. rapa var. rapifera cv. Wase Okabu), and rape (B. napus line Dc 119). Differences among hosts in susceptibility to clubroot in hairy roots were evident. Chinese cabbage and turnip hairy roots supported the highest percentages of root hair infection (53.3 to 80%) and the greatest production of zoosporangial groups (8.5 to 32.5 per root). Moreover, gall formation was observed only on Chinese cabbage and turnip hairy roots. The morphology of zoo-sporangia, plasmodia, and resting spores in diseased hairy roots was found to be identical to that in infected intact plants by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the infectivity of resting spores produced in hairy roots. Thus, the hairy root culture technique should prove useful as a dual culture system for P. brassicae.

  15. Spontaneous gene flow from rapeseed (Brassica napus) to wild Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Ford, Caroline S; Allainguillaume, Joël; Grilli-Chantler, Phil; Cuccato, Giulia; Allender, Charlotte J; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2006-12-22

    Research on the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives has traditionally emphasized recipients yielding most hybrids. For GM rapeseed (Brassica napus), interest has centred on the 'frequently hybridizing' Brassica rapa over relatives such as Brassica oleracea, where spontaneous hybrids are unreported in the wild. In two sites, where rapeseed and wild B. oleracea grow together, we used flow cytometry and crop-specific microsatellite markers to identify one triploid F1 hybrid, together with nine diploid and two near triploid introgressants. Given the newly discovered capacity for spontaneous introgression into B. oleracea, we then surveyed associated flora and fauna to evaluate the capacity of both recipients to harm cohabitant species with acknowledged conservational importance. Only B. oleracea occupies rich communities containing species afforded legislative protection; these include one rare micromoth species that feeds on B. oleracea and warrants further assessment. We conclude that increased attention should now focus on B. oleracea and similar species that yield few crop-hybrids, but possess scope to affect rare or endangered associates.

  16. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  17. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  18. Differential Expression of miRNAs in Brassica napus Root following Infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shiv S.; Rahman, Muhammad H.; Deyholos, Michael K.; Basu, Urmila; Kav, Nat N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.) is susceptible to infection by the biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot. To understand the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the post-transcriptional regulation of disease initiation and progression, we have characterized the changes in miRNA expression profiles in canola roots during clubroot disease development and have compared these to uninfected roots. Two different stages of clubroot development were targeted in this miRNA profiling study: an early time of 10-dpi for disease initiation and a later 20-dpi, by which time the pathogen had colonized the roots (as evident by visible gall formation and histological observations). P. brassicae responsive miRNAs were identified and validated by qRT-PCR of miRNAs and the subsequent validation of the target mRNAs through starBase degradome analysis, and through 5′ RLM-RACE. This study identifies putative miRNA-regulated genes with roles during clubroot disease initiation and development. Putative target genes identified in this study included: transcription factors (TFs), hormone-related genes, as well as genes associated with plant stress response regulation such as cytokinin, auxin/ethylene response elements. The results of our study may assist in elucidating the role of miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes during disease development and may contribute to the development of strategies to engineer durable resistance to this important phytopathogen. PMID:24497962

  19. Computational tools for Brassica-Arabidopsis comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Paul; Bancroft, Ian; Trick, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances, such as the availability of extensive genome survey sequence (GSS) data and draft physical maps, are radically transforming the means by which we can dissect Brassica genome structure and systematically relate it to the Arabidopsis model. Hitherto, our view of the co-linearities between these closely related genomes had been largely inferred from comparative RFLP data, necessitating substantial interpolation and expert interpretation. Sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project will, however, enable an entirely computational approach to this problem. Meanwhile we have been developing databases and bioinformatics tools to support our work in Brassica comparative genomics, including a recently completed draft physical map of B. rapa integrated with anchor probes derived from the Arabidopsis genome sequence. We are also exploring new ways to display the emerging Brassica-Arabidopsis sequence homology data. We have mapped all publicly available Brassica sequences in silico to the Arabidopsis TIGR v5 genome sequence and published this in the ATIDB database that uses Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse). This in silico approach potentially identifies all paralogous sequences and so we colour-code the significance of the mappings and offer an integrated, real-time multiple alignment tool to partition them into paralogous groups. The MySQL database driving GBrowse can also be directly interrogated, using the powerful API offered by the Perl BioColon, two colonsDBColon, two colonsGFF methods, facilitating a wide range of data-mining possibilities.

  20. Incidence of the major Brassica pests in northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Padilla, G; Vilar, M; Velasco, P

    2009-04-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. acephala group) crops are common in northwestern Spain, where they are severely damaged by different insect pests. The damage notably affects the value of this crop because it is freshly consumed and fresh processed. The objective of this work was to determine the abundance and relative importance of the main Lepidoptera pests of Brassica crops for 6 yr at five localities in northwestern Spain and to relate the seasonal changes of larval populations and environmental conditions. Pheromone traps were used as a method of monitoring adults. Larval populations were monitored on kales by counting the larvae for several years and locations at different sample dates. Five species were found: Mamestra brassicae (L.); imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.); Pieris brassicae (L.); diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L.); and Autographa gamma L. Proportions of each insect fluctuated over the years and in the different locations. M. brassicae was the most abundant (48.5% of the total of Lepidoptera species) followed by P. xyllostella (25%) and P. rapae (15%). The use of pheromone traps combined with plant sampling permitted the detection of two generations of M. brassicae. However, adult counts were not correlated to the number of larvae on plants. PMID:19449659

  1. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  2. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  3. A Novel Formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis for the Control of Brassica Leaf Beetle, Phaedon brassicae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunseong; Jeoung, Sujin; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kunwoo; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-12-01

    Cabbage is a major vegetable crop over the world. Various insect pests can affect cabbage production. Excessive spray of chemical insecticides can lead to the development of insecticide resistance with various adverse effects on the environment and humans. Brassica leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly, is a coleopteran pest. Both larvae and adults cause damages to cabbage. The objective of this study was to develop an effective microbial insecticide against P. brassicae by adding an immunosuppressive agent to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The immunosuppressive agent was chosen from bacterial cultured broth of Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Ptt). Reverse phase HPLC revealed that Ptt-cultured broth possessed at least two eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (oxindole and indole) in its hexane extract. The bacterial cultured broth exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity against P. brassicae. Based on toxicity results, B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis (BtT) was selected from four strains of Bts. When Ptt-cultured broth was added to spore-producing BtT cells, the insecticidal activities of BtT against both larvae and adults of P. brassicae were significantly increased. This bacterial mixture applied to develop a "Bt-Plus," which was formulated by mixing BtT cells (10(11) spores per ml) and 48-h Ptt-cultured broth along with additives (surfactant and preservative). When Bt-Plus was sprayed to cabbage infested by P. brassicae at 1,000-fold dilution, the mixture exhibited much higher control efficacy than BtT treatment alone, suggesting it could be used as a novel Bt insecticide for the control of P. brassicae. PMID:26470390

  4. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers. PMID:23653472

  5. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with

  7. Metabolic characterization of Brassica rapa leaves by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim Bayoumi; Kim, Hye Kyong; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2007-09-19

    The Brassica has been intensively studied due to the nutritional and beneficial effects. However, many species, varieties, and cultivars of this genus and the resulting large metabolic variation have been obstacles for systematic research of the plant. In order to overcome the problems posed by the biological variation, the metabolomic analysis of various cultivars of Brassica rapa was performed by NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. Discriminating metabolites in different cultivars and development stages were elucidated by diverse 2D-NMR techniques after sorting out different significant signals using (1)H NMR measurements and principal component analysis. Among the elucidated metabolites, several organic and amino acids, carbohydrates, adenine, indole acetic acid (IAA), phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and glucosinolates were found to be the metabolites contributing to the differentiation between cultivars and age of Brassica rapa. On the basis of these results, the distribution of plant metabolites among different cultivars and development stages of B. rapa is discussed.

  8. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Bancroft, Ian; Cheng, Feng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Xixiang; Hua, Wei; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Xiyin; Freeling, Michael; Pires, J Chris; Paterson, Andrew H; Chalhoub, Boulos; Wang, Bo; Hayward, Alice; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Weisshaar, Bernd; Liu, Binghang; Li, Bo; Liu, Bo; Tong, Chaobo; Song, Chi; Duran, Christopher; Peng, Chunfang; Geng, Chunyu; Koh, Chushin; Lin, Chuyu; Edwards, David; Mu, Desheng; Shen, Di; Soumpourou, Eleni; Li, Fei; Fraser, Fiona; Conant, Gavin; Lassalle, Gilles; King, Graham J; Bonnema, Guusje; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Haiping; Belcram, Harry; Zhou, Heling; Hirakawa, Hideki; Abe, Hiroshi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Hui; Jin, Huizhe; Parkin, Isobel A P; Batley, Jacqueline; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Just, Jérémy; Li, Jianwen; Xu, Jiaohui; Deng, Jie; Kim, Jin A; Li, Jingping; Yu, Jingyin; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jinpeng; Min, Jiumeng; Poulain, Julie; Wang, Jun; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Wu, Kui; Wang, Li; Fang, Lu; Trick, Martin; Links, Matthew G; Zhao, Meixia; Jin, Mina; Ramchiary, Nirala; Drou, Nizar; Berkman, Paul J; Cai, Qingle; Huang, Quanfei; Li, Ruiqiang; Tabata, Satoshi; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shujiang; Huang, Shunmou; Sato, Shusei; Sun, Silong; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Choi, Su-Ryun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Xiang; Tan, Xu; Xu, Xun; Wang, Yan; Qiu, Yang; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yongchen; Liao, Yongcui; Lim, Yongpyo; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhiwen; Xiong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-10-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.

  9. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Bancroft, Ian; Cheng, Feng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Xixiang; Hua, Wei; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Xiyin; Freeling, Michael; Pires, J Chris; Paterson, Andrew H; Chalhoub, Boulos; Wang, Bo; Hayward, Alice; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Weisshaar, Bernd; Liu, Binghang; Li, Bo; Liu, Bo; Tong, Chaobo; Song, Chi; Duran, Christopher; Peng, Chunfang; Geng, Chunyu; Koh, Chushin; Lin, Chuyu; Edwards, David; Mu, Desheng; Shen, Di; Soumpourou, Eleni; Li, Fei; Fraser, Fiona; Conant, Gavin; Lassalle, Gilles; King, Graham J; Bonnema, Guusje; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Haiping; Belcram, Harry; Zhou, Heling; Hirakawa, Hideki; Abe, Hiroshi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Hui; Jin, Huizhe; Parkin, Isobel A P; Batley, Jacqueline; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Just, Jérémy; Li, Jianwen; Xu, Jiaohui; Deng, Jie; Kim, Jin A; Li, Jingping; Yu, Jingyin; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jinpeng; Min, Jiumeng; Poulain, Julie; Wang, Jun; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Wu, Kui; Wang, Li; Fang, Lu; Trick, Martin; Links, Matthew G; Zhao, Meixia; Jin, Mina; Ramchiary, Nirala; Drou, Nizar; Berkman, Paul J; Cai, Qingle; Huang, Quanfei; Li, Ruiqiang; Tabata, Satoshi; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shujiang; Huang, Shunmou; Sato, Shusei; Sun, Silong; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Choi, Su-Ryun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Xiang; Tan, Xu; Xu, Xun; Wang, Yan; Qiu, Yang; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yongchen; Liao, Yongcui; Lim, Yongpyo; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhiwen; Xiong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-10-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops. PMID:21873998

  10. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied.

  11. Integration of Brassica A genome genetic linkage map between Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Keita; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian

    2008-03-01

    An integrated linkage map between B. napus and B. rapa was constructed based on a total of 44 common markers comprising 41 SSR (33 BRMS, 6 Saskatoon, and 2 BBSRC) and 3 SNP/indel markers. Between 3 and 7 common markers were mapped onto each of the linkage groups A1 to A10. The position and order of most common markers revealed a high level of colinearity between species, although two small regions on A4, A5, and A10 revealed apparent local inversions between them. These results indicate that the A genome of Brassica has retained a high degree of colinearity between species, despite each species having evolved independently after the integration of the A and C genomes in the amphidiploid state. Our results provide a genetic integration of the Brassica A genome between B. napus and B. rapa. As the analysis employed sequence-based molecular markers, the information will accelerate the exploitation of the B. rapa genome sequence for the improvement of oilseed rape.

  12. Comparative analysis of S haplotypes with very similar SLG alleles in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Kusaba, M; Nishio, T

    1999-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassica is controlled by a single multi-allelic locus (the S locus) which harbors at least two highly polymorphic genes, SLG and SRK. SRK is a putative transmembrane receptor kinase and its amino acid sequence of the extracellular domain of SRK (the S domain) exhibits high homology to that of SLG. The amino acid sequences of the SLGs of S8 and S46 haplotypes of B. rapa are very similar and those of S23 and S29 haplotypes of B. oleracea were also found to be almost identical. In both cases, SLG and the S domain of SRK of the same haplotype were less similar. This seems to contradict the idea that SLG and SRK of the same haplotype have the same self-recognition specificity. In the transmembrane-kinase domain, the SRK alleles of the S8 and S46 haplotypes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in spite of their lower homology in the S domain. Such a cluster of nucleotide substitutions is probably due to recombination or related events, although recombination in the S locus is thought to be suppressed. Based on our observations, the recognition mechanism and the evolution of self-incompatibility in Brassica are discussed.

  13. Low probability of chloroplast movement from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into wild Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Scott, S E; Wilkinson, M J

    1999-04-01

    Pollen-mediated movement of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into wild relatives will be avoided if chloroplasts are maternally transmitted. We assess the probability of chloroplast exchange between conventional oilseed rape and wild Brassica rapa to model the future behavior of transplastomic cultivars. Primers specific to cpDNA were used to demonstrate maternal inheritance of chloroplasts in 47 natural hybrids between cultivated B. napus and wild B. rapa. We conclude that there will be no or negligible pollen-mediated chloroplast dispersal from oilseed rape. Transgene introgression could still occur in mixed populations, however, if B. napus acted as the recurrent female parent. Rate of transfer would then depend on the abundance of mixed populations, their persistence as mixtures, and hybridization frequency within stands. A low incidence of sympatry (0.6-0.7%) between wild B. rapa and cultivated B. napus along the river Thames, UK, in 1997 and 1998, suggests mixed stands will form only rarely. Eighteen feral populations of B. napus also showed a strong tendency toward rapid decline in plant number, seed return, and ultimately, extinction within 3 years. Conversely, hybrid production is significant in mixed stands, and the absence of control practices means that oilseed rape will have slightly greater persistence. We infer that some introgression from transplastomic B. napus into B. rapa is inevitable in mixed populations even though such populations will occur infrequently and will tend to lose B. napus plants relatively quickly. Chloroplast exchange will be extremely rare and scattered.

  14. Selection against hybrids in mixed populations of Brassica rapa and Brassica napus: model and synthesis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Tom J; Hesse, Elze

    2012-06-01

    Pollen of the crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) can cross-fertilize ovules of Brassica rapa (AA), which leads to an influx of unpaired C-chromosomes into wild B. rapa populations. The presence of such extra chromosomes is thought to be an indicator of introgression. Backcrosses and F(1) hybrids were found in Danish populations but, surprisingly, only F(1) hybrids were found in the UK and the Netherlands. Here, a model tests how the level of selection and biased vs unbiased transmission affect the population frequency of C-chromosomes. In the biased-transmission scenario the experimental results of the first backcross are extrapolated to estimate survival of gametes with different numbers of C-chromosomes from all crosses in the population. With biased transmission, the frequency of C-chromosomes always rapidly declines to zero. With unbiased transmission, the continued presence of plants with extra C-chromosomes depends on selection in the adult stage and we argue that this is the most realistic option for modeling populations. We suggest that selection in the field against plants with unpaired C-chromosomes is strong in Dutch and UK populations. The model highlights what we do not know and makes suggestions for further research on introgression.

  15. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  16. Glucosinolate biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Jian; Sun, Silong; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Wang, Xiaowu

    2011-11-10

    Glucosinolates (GS) are a group of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites found throughout the Cruciferae family. Glucosinolates and their degradation products play important roles in pathogen and insect interactions, as well as in human health. In order to elucidate the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. We identified 102 putative genes in B. rapa as the orthologs of 52 GS genes in A. thaliana. All but one gene was successfully mapped on 10 chromosomes. Most GS genes exist in more than one copy in B. rapa. A high co-linearity in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway between A. thaliana and B. rapa was also established. The homologous GS genes in B. rapa and A. thaliana share 59-91% nucleotide sequence identity and 93% of the GS genes exhibit synteny between B. rapa and A. thaliana. Moreover, the structure and arrangement of the B. rapa GS (BrGS) genes correspond with the known evolutionary divergence of B. rapa, and may help explain the profiles and accumulation of GS in B. rapa.

  17. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well. PMID:24818510

  18. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  19. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  20. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species. PMID:24130371

  1. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  2. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  3. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  4. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  5. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  6. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  7. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  8. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  9. Chalazal seed coat development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jenna L; Khan, Deirdre; Becker, Michael G; Chan, Ainsley; Dufresne, André; Sumner, Michael; Belmonte, Mark F

    2015-12-01

    The chalazal seed coat (CZSC) is a maternal subregion adjacent to the funiculus which serves as the first point of entry into the developing seed. This subregion is of particular interest in Brassica napus (canola) because of its location within the seed and its putative contribution to seed filling processes. In this study, the CZSC of canola was characterized at an anatomical and molecular level to (i) describe the cellular and subcellular features of the CZSC throughout seed development, (ii) reveal cellular features of the CZSC that relate to transport processes, (iii) study gene activity of transporters and transcriptional regulators in the CZSC subregion over developmental time, and (iv) briefly investigate the contribution of the A and C constituent genomes to B. napus CZSC gene activity. We found that the CZSC contains terminating ends of xylem and phloem as well as a mosaic of endomembrane and plasmodesmatal connections, suggesting that this subregion is likely involved in the transport of material and information from the maternal tissues of the plant to other regions of the seed. Laser microdissection coupled with quantitative RT-PCR identified the relative abundance of sugar, water, auxin and amino acid transporter homologs inherited from the constituent genomes of this complex polyploid. We also studied the expression of three transcription factors that were shown to co-express with these biological processes providing a preliminary framework for the regulatory networks responsible for seed filling in canola and discuss the relationship of the CZSC to other regions and subregions of the seed and its role in seed development.

  10. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions. PMID:26948011

  11. Fitness of hybrids between rapeseed (Brassica napus) and wild Brassica rapa in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Allainguillaume, J; Alexander, M; Bullock, J M; Saunders, M; Allender, C J; King, G; Ford, C S; Wilkinson, M J

    2006-04-01

    Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased self-pollination. Assuming 100% GM rapeseed cultivation, we conservatively predict < 7000 second-generation transgenic hybrids annually in the United Kingdom (i.e. approximately 20% of F1 hybrids). Conversely, whilst reduced hybrid fitness improves feasibility of bio-containment, stage projection matrices suggests broad scope for some transgenes to offset this effect by enhancing fitness.

  12. Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in

  13. Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in

  14. Destiny of a transgene escape from Brassica napus into Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lu, M.; Kato, M.; Kakihara, F.

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus can be easily crossed with wild Brassica rapa. The spread of the transgene to wild species has aroused the general concern about its effect on ecological and agricultural systems. This paper was designated, by means of population genetics, to study the fate of a transgene escape from B. napus to B. rapa. Three models were proposed to survey the change in gene frequency during successive backcross processes by considering selection pressures against aneuploids, against herbicide-susceptible individuals, and by considering A-C intergenomic recombination and the effect of genetic drift. The transmission rate of an A-chromosome gene through an individual to the next generation was 50%, irrespective of the chromosome number; while that of a C-chromosome transgene varied from 8.7% to 39.9%, depending on the chromosome number of the individual used in the backcross. Without spraying herbicide, the frequency of an A-chromosome gene was 50% in the BC(1) generation, and decreased by 50% with the advance of each backcross generation; that of a C-chromosome gene was around 39.9% in BC(1), 7.7% in BC(2), 1.2% in BC(3) and 0.1% in the BC(4) generation. Under the selection pressure against herbicide-susceptible individuals, the frequency of a transgene reached a stable value of about 5.5% within six generations of successive backcrossings. The effect of genetic drift and intergenomic exchange on gene transmission rate was discussed. It is suggested that the transgene integrated on a C-chromosome (or better on a cytoplasm genome) is safer than that on an A-chromosome. The transgenic cultivars should be cultivated rotationally by year(s) with other non-transgenic varieties in order to reduce the transfer of the transgene to wild B. rapa species.

  15. Commonality of self-recognition specificity of S haplotypes between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Toriyama, Kinya; Nishio, Takeshi

    2003-06-01

    We have identified several interspecific pairs of S haplotypes having highly similar SRK and SP11/SCR sequences between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. The recognition specificities of S haplotypes in these pairs were examined with three different methods. Stigmas of interspecific hybrids between an S-32 homozygote in B. oleracea and an S-60 homozygote in B. rapa, which were produced to avoid the interspecific incompatibility between the two species, showed incompatibility to the pollen of an S-8 homozygote in B. rapa and to the pollen of an S-15 homozygote in B. oleracea, while it showed compatibility to the pollen of other S haplotypes, suggesting B. oleracea S-32 and B. rapa S-60 have the same recognition specificity as B. rapa S-8 and B. oleracea S-15. Pollen grains of transgenic S-60 homozygous plants in B. rapa carrying a transgene of SP11-24 from B. oleracea were incompatible to B. rapa S-36 stigma, indicating that B. oleracea S-24 and B. rapa S-36 have the same recognition specificity. Application of the SP11 protein of B. rapa S-41 and S-47 onto the surface of B. oleracea S-64 stigmas and S-12 stigmas, respectively, resulted in the incompatibility reaction to pollen grains of another S haplotype, but application onto the stigmas of other S haplotypes did not, suggesting that B. oleracea S-64 stigmas and S-12 stigmas recognized the B. rapa SP11-41 and SP11-47 proteins as self SP11 proteins, respectively. Besides having evolutionary implications, finding of many interspecific pairs of S haplotypes can provide insight into the molecular mechanism of self-recognition. Comparing deduced amino-acid sequences of SP11 proteins and SRK proteins in the pairs, regions of SP11 and SRK important for self-recognition are discussed.

  16. Gene transferability from transgenic Brassica napus L. to various subspecies and varieties of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Lu, Changming; Zhang, Bing; Bo, Huijie; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang; Cao, Yinglong; Yu, Deyue

    2009-10-01

    Gene transferability from transgenic rapeseed to various subspecies and varieties of Brassica rapa was assessed in this study. Artificial crossability was studied in 118 cultivars of 7 B. rapa subspecies and varieties with the transgenic rapeseed GT73 (Brassica napus) as the pollen donor. On average 5.7 seeds were obtained per pollination, with a range from 0.05 to 19.4. The heading type of B. rapa L. showed significantly higher crossability than non-heading types of B. rapa. The spontaneous outcrossing rate between B. rapa (female) and the transgenic rapeseed Ms8 x Rf3 (B. napus) (male) ranged from 0.039 to 0.406%, with an average of 0.19%. The fertilization process and the development of the hybrid seeds as shown by fluorescent staining techniques indicated that the number of adhered pollens on the stigma was reduced by 80%, the number of pollen tubes in the style was reduced by 2/3 and the fertilization time was delayed by over 20 h when pollinated with the transgenic rapeseed Ms8 x Rf3 in comparison with the bud self-pollination of B. rapa as control. About 10-70% of the interspecific hybrid embryos were aborted in the course of development. Some seeds looked cracked in mature pods, which showed germination abilities lower than 10%. The spontaneous outcrossing rates were much lower than the artificial crossability, and their survival fitness of the interspecific hybrid was very low, indicating that it should be possible to keep the adventitious presence of the off-plants under the allowed threshold, if proper measures are taken.

  17. Transposon variation by order during allopolyploidisation between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    An, Z; Tang, Z; Ma, B; Mason, A S; Guo, Y; Yin, J; Gao, C; Wei, L; Li, J; Fu, D

    2014-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that transposable element (TE) activation is induced by hybridisation and polyploidisation in plants, much less is known on how different types of TE respond to hybridisation, and the impact of TE-associated sequences on gene function. We investigated the frequency and regularity of putative transposon activation for different types of TE, and determined the impact of TE-associated sequence variation on the genome during allopolyploidisation. We designed different types of TE primers and adopted the Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) method to detect variation in TE-associated sequences during the process of allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC), and in successive generations of self-pollinated progeny. In addition, fragments with TE insertions were used to perform Blast2GO analysis to characterise the putative functions of the fragments with TE insertions. Ninety-two primers amplifying 548 loci were used to detect variation in sequences associated with four different orders of TE sequences. TEs could be classed in ascending frequency into LTR-REs, TIRs, LINEs, SINEs and unknown TEs. The frequency of novel variation (putative activation) detected for the four orders of TEs was highest from the F1 to F2 generations, and lowest from the F2 to F3 generations. Functional annotation of sequences with TE insertions showed that genes with TE insertions were mainly involved in metabolic processes and binding, and preferentially functioned in organelles. TE variation in our study severely disturbed the genetic compositions of the different generations, resulting in inconsistencies in genetic clustering. Different types of TE showed different patterns of variation during the process of allopolyploidisation.

  18. Arabidopsis Mutant bik1 Exhibits Strong Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40–50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms. PMID:27679580

  19. Arabidopsis Mutant bik1 Exhibits Strong Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40–50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms.

  20. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. PMID:24029080

  1. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns.

  2. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR.

  3. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  4. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics.

  5. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant–pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR. PMID:27462338

  6. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the "candidate genes" and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops.

  7. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR. PMID:27462338

  8. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the "candidate genes" and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  9. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  10. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  11. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  12. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.

  13. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  14. Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

    Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in

  15. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  16. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents.

  17. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  18. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, A; Popova, A; Xiao, Y; Musgrave, M E

    2000-03-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  19. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures.

  20. Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals in Brassica oleracea vegetables--a review.

    PubMed

    Stoewsand, G S

    1995-06-01

    Sulfur-containing phytochemicals of two different kinds are present in all Brassica oleracea (Cruciferae) vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, etc.). They are glucosinolates (previously called thioglucosides) and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide. These compounds, which are derived in plant tissue by amino acid biosynthesis, show quite different toxicological effects and appear to possess anticarcinogenic properties. Glucosinolates have been extensively studied since the mid-nineteenth century. They are present in plant foods besides Brassica vegetables with especially high levels in a number of seed meals fed to livestock. About 100 different kinds of glucosinolates are known to exist in the plant kingdom, but only about 10 are present in Brassica. The first toxic effects of isothiocyanates and other hydrolytic products from glucosinolates that were identified were goitre and a general inhibition of iodine uptake by the thyroid. Numerous studies have indicated that the hydrolytic products of at least three glucosinolates, 4-methyl-sulfinylbutyl (glucoraphanin), 2-phenylethyl (gluconasturtiin) and 3-indolylmethyl (glucobrassicin), have anticarcinogenic activity. Indole-3-carbinol, a metabolite of glucobrassicin, has shown inhibitory effects in studies of human breast and ovarian cancers. Kale poisoning, or a severe haemolytic anaemia, was discovered in cattle in Europe in the 1930s, but its link with the hydrolytic product of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide was only shown about 35 years later. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide and its metabolite methyl methane thiosulfinate were shown to inhibit chemically-induced genotoxicity in mice. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive effects of Brassica vegetables that have been shown in human and animal studies may be due to the presence of both types of sulfur-containing phytochemicals (i.e. certain glucosinolates and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide).

  1. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  2. Transcriptome analysis in Brassica rapa under the abiotic stresses using Brassica 24K oligo microarray.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Jin A; Lee, Soo-In; Kim, Jung Sun; Jin, Mina; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Kim, Hyun Uk; Hur, Yoonkang; Park, Beom-Seok

    2008-12-31

    Genome wide transcription analysis in response to stresses is essential to provide the basis of effective engineering strategies to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. In order to perform transcriptome analysis in Brassica rapa, we constructed a B. rapa oligo microarray, KBGP-24K, using sequence information from approximately 24,000 unigenes and analyzed cold (4 degrees C), salt (250 mM NaCl), and drought (air-dry) treated B. rapa plants. Among the B. rapa unigenes represented on the microarray, 417 (1.7%), 202 (0.8%), and 738 (3.1%) were identified as responsive genes that were differently expressed 5-fold or more at least once during a 48-h treatment with cold, salt, and drought, respectively. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. In the abiotic stress responsive genes identified, we found 56 transcription factor genes and 60 commonly responsive genes. It suggests that various transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and common signaling pathway are working together under the abiotic stresses in B. rapa. In conclusion, our new developed 24K oligo microarray will be a useful tool for transcriptome profiling and this work will provide valuable insight in the response to abiotic stress in B. rapa.

  3. Characterization of Brassica napus Flavonol Synthase Involved in Flavonol Biosynthesis in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tien Thanh; Jeong, Chan Young; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Sang A; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2015-09-01

    Recently, Brassica napus has become a very important crop for plant oil production. Flavonols, an uncolored flavonoid subclass, have a high antioxidative effect and are known to have antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and neuropharmacological properties. In B. napus, some flavonoid structural genes have been identified, such as, BnF3H-1, BnCHS, and BnC4H-1. However, no studies on FLS genes in B. napus have been conducted. Thus, in this study, we cloned and characterized the function of BnFLS gene B. napus. By overexpression of the BnFLS gene, flavonol (kaempferol and quercetin) levels were recovered in the Arabidopsis atfls1-ko mutant. In addition, we found that the higher endogenous flavonol levels of BnFLS-ox in vitro shoots correlated with slightly higher ROS scavenging activities. Thus, our results indicate that the BnFLS gene encodes for a BnFLS enzyme that can be manipulated to specifically increase flavonol accumulation in oilseed plants and other species such as Arabidopsis.

  4. Progress in understanding and sequencing the genome of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jung Sun; Yang, Tae-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2008-01-01

    Brassica rapa, which is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana, is an important crop and a model plant for studying genome evolution via polyploidization. We report the current understanding of the genome structure of B. rapa and efforts for the whole-genome sequencing of the species. The tribe Brassicaceae, which comprises ca. 240 species, descended from a common hexaploid ancestor with a basic genome similar to that of Arabidopsis. Chromosome rearrangements, including fusions and/or fissions, resulted in the present-day "diploid" Brassica species with variation in chromosome number and phenotype. Triplicated genomic segments of B. rapa are collinear to those of A. thaliana with InDels. The genome triplication has led to an approximately 1.7-fold increase in the B. rapa gene number compared to that of A. thaliana. Repetitive DNA of B. rapa has also been extensively amplified and has diverged from that of A. thaliana. For its whole-genome sequencing, the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) consortium has developed suitable genomic resources and constructed genetic and physical maps. Ten chromosomes of B. rapa are being allocated to BrGSP consortium participants, and each chromosome will be sequenced by a BAC-by-BAC approach. Genome sequencing of B. rapa will offer a new perspective for plant biology and evolution in the context of polyploidization.

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection.

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. PMID:25132374

  7. The high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs profiling in wide hybridisation and allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Muhammad Awais; Li, Junxing; Rao, Linli; Raza, Muhammad Ammar; Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome reconstruction and stability in the plant. However, little is known regarding the role of small RNAs during the process of wide hybridisation and chromosome doubling. Therefore, the changes in the small RNAs were assessed during the formation of an allodiploid (genome: AB) and its allotetraploid (genome: AABB) between Brassica rapa (♀) and Brassica nigra (♂) in the present study. Here, the experimental methods described in details, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE61872) and analysis published by Ghani et al. [1]. The study showed that small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome stability, and regulate gene expression which induces the phenotype variation in the formation of an allotetraploid. This may play an important role in the occurrence of heterosis in the allotetraploid.

  8. The high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs profiling in wide hybridisation and allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Muhammad Awais; Li, Junxing; Rao, Linli; Raza, Muhammad Ammar; Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome reconstruction and stability in the plant. However, little is known regarding the role of small RNAs during the process of wide hybridisation and chromosome doubling. Therefore, the changes in the small RNAs were assessed during the formation of an allodiploid (genome: AB) and its allotetraploid (genome: AABB) between Brassica rapa (♀) and Brassica nigra (♂) in the present study. Here, the experimental methods described in details, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE61872) and analysis published by Ghani et al. [1]. The study showed that small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome stability, and regulate gene expression which induces the phenotype variation in the formation of an allotetraploid. This may play an important role in the occurrence of heterosis in the allotetraploid. PMID:26484138

  9. The high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs profiling in wide hybridisation and allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Muhammad Awais; Li, Junxing; Rao, Linli; Raza, Muhammad Ammar; Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome reconstruction and stability in the plant. However, little is known regarding the role of small RNAs during the process of wide hybridisation and chromosome doubling. Therefore, the changes in the small RNAs were assessed during the formation of an allodiploid (genome: AB) and its allotetraploid (genome: AABB) between Brassica rapa (♀) and Brassica nigra (♂) in the present study. Here, the experimental methods described in details, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE61872) and analysis published by Ghani et al. [1]. The study showed that small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome stability, and regulate gene expression which induces the phenotype variation in the formation of an allotetraploid. This may play an important role in the occurrence of heterosis in the allotetraploid. PMID:26484138

  10. Development of a NIRS method to measure quality characteristics in Brassica germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels from plant oils have been commercially demonstrated as an alternative to petroleum jet fuels, but full scale production has not occurred because of concerns over cost and competition with food production. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), along with Brassica carinata,...

  11. Anthocyanidins and polyphenols in five brassica species microgreens: analysis by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds associated with human health. A comprehensive profiling of polyphenols from five Brassica species microgreens was conducted using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography photo diode array high-resolu...

  12. Management of Rhizoctonia Damping-off of Brassica Oilseed Crops in the PNW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause pre and post-emergence damping off of Brassica oilseed species with adverse effects on stand establishment. In greenhouse experiments, we have examined resistance to two groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani among various Brassica species and varieties. R. solani AG 2-1 is ...

  13. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  14. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Alan R; Lampe, Johanna W

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of diet with prostate cancer. We review evidence that Brassica vegetables are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, cabbage, mustard and collard greens, and bok choy, contain glucosinolates, the metabolic breakdown products of which are potent modulators of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that protect DNA from damage. Twelve published studies give some information about Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk; six of these studies can be clearly interpreted. Of these, three reported statistically significant reduced risks (P < 0.05) and one reported a borderline significant reduced risk (P = 0.06) with high Brassica vegetable consumption. The epidemiological literature provides modest support for the hypothesis that high intakes of Brassica vegetables reduce prostate cancer risk.

  15. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Alan R; Lampe, Johanna W

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of diet with prostate cancer. We review evidence that Brassica vegetables are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, cabbage, mustard and collard greens, and bok choy, contain glucosinolates, the metabolic breakdown products of which are potent modulators of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that protect DNA from damage. Twelve published studies give some information about Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk; six of these studies can be clearly interpreted. Of these, three reported statistically significant reduced risks (P < 0.05) and one reported a borderline significant reduced risk (P = 0.06) with high Brassica vegetable consumption. The epidemiological literature provides modest support for the hypothesis that high intakes of Brassica vegetables reduce prostate cancer risk. PMID:12235639

  16. Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus infection and enhancing effect of proteins derived from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus in larvae of Mamestra brassicae and Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cabbage.

    PubMed

    Mukawa, Shigeyuki; Goto, Chie

    2010-04-01

    The insecticidal effect of Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV) T5 against Mamestra brassicae (L.) and Helicoverpa armnigera (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), important pests of various vegetables and ornamental crops in Japan as well as many other countries, and the enhancing activity of proteins derived from occlusion bodies of Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV) a-4, which was named GVPs, on the infectivity of MabrNPV were evaluated in a bioassay with second-instar larvae fed on virus-applied cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, plants. The lethal concentrations of MabrNPV achieving 95% mortality (LC95) were estimated to be 7.7 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(5) OBs per ml for M. brassicae and H. armigera, respectively, with MabrNPV-alone treatment. Because the mean areas of cabbage leaf consumed by one larva in 60 h were not significantly different between M. brassicae and H. armigera, we conclude that MabrNPV is more infectious to H. armigera than to M. brassicae. When larvae were fed on cabbage plants treated with 10(4) OBs per ml MabrNPV and various concentrations of the GVPs, the mortality of the two noctuid larvae increased in relation to GVP concentration. The requisite concentrations of the GVPs achieving 95% mortality with the MabrNPV for M. brassicae and H. armigera were estimated to be 5.93-8.30 and 1.94-3.48 microg/ml, respectively. In a comparison of the MabrNPV-alone treatment with equivalent 95% mortality, addition of GVPs increased the rate of larval death at younger instars, especially in M. brassicae. Our results indicate that GVPs are a potentially useful additive for improving the insecticidal efficacy of MabrNPV.

  17. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Brassica rapa-Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Hasterok, Robert; Wolny, Elzbieta; Kulak, Sylwia; Zdziechiewicz, Aleksandra; Maluszynska, Jolanta; Heneen, Waheeb K

    2005-07-01

    Interspecific alien chromosome addition lines can be very useful for gene mapping and studying chromosome homoeology between closely related species. In this study we demonstrate a simple but robust manner of identifying individual C-genome chromosomes (C5, C8 and C9) in the A-genome background through the simultaneous use of 5S and 25S ribosomal probes on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of three different Brassica rapa-B. oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic addition lines. Sequential silver staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation indicated that 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA genes on the additional chromosome C9 are expressed in the A-genome background. Meiotic behaviour of the additional chromosomes was studied in pollen mother cells at diakinesis and metaphase I. In all of the addition lines the alien chromosome was most frequently observed as a univalent. The alien chromosome C5, which carries an intercalary 5S rDNA locus, occasionally formed trivalents that involved either rDNA- or non rDNA-carrying chromosomes from the A genome. In the case of chromosomes C8 and C9, the most frequently observed intergenomic associations involved the regions occupied by 18S-5.8S-25S ribosomal RNA genes. It is possible that not all such associations represent true pairing but are remnants of nucleolar associations from the preceding interphase. Variations in the numbers and distribution of 5S and 25S rDNA sites between cultivars of B. oleracea, B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa are discussed.

  18. Recognition specificity of self-incompatibility maintained after the divergence of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryo; Sato, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Ryo; Nishio, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The determinants of recognition specificity of self-incompatibility in Brassica are SRK in the stigma and SP11/SCR in the pollen, respectively. In the pair of S haplotypes BrS46 (S46 in B. rapa) and BoS7 (S7 in B. oleracea), which have highly similar SRK alleles, the SP11 alleles were found to be similar, with 96.1% identity in the deduced amino acid sequence. Two other pairs of S haplotypes, BrS47 and BoS12, and BrS8 and BoS32, having highly similar SRK and SP11 alleles between the two species were also found. The haplotypes in each pair are considered to have been derived from a single S haplotype in the ancestral species. The allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization between homozygotes of BrS46 and BoS15 showed incompatibility with a BoS7 homozygote and compatibility with other B. oleracea S haplotypes in reciprocal crossings. This result indicates that BrS46 and BoS7 have maintained the same recognition specificity after the divergence of the two species and that amino acid substitutions found in such cases in both SRK alleles and SP11 alleles do not alter the recognition specificity. DNA blot analysis of SRK, SP11, SLG and other S-locus genes showed different DNA fragment sizes between the interspecific pairs of S haplotypes. A much lower level of sequence similarity was observed outside the genes of SRK and SP11 between BrS46 and BoS7. These results suggest that the DNA sequences of the regions intervening between the S-locus genes were diversified after or at the time of speciation. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of common S haplotypes in different plant species and presenting definite evidence of the trans-specific evolution of self-incompatibility genes.

  19. Characterization and comparison of gene-based simple sequence repeats across Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caihua; Tang, Zhanglin; Yin, Jiaming; An, Zeshan; Fu, Donghui; Li, Jiana

    2011-08-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes and may play an important role in regulating gene expression. However, the characteristics of genic SSRs and the effect of interspecific hybridization and polyploidization on genic SSRs seem not to have received desired attention in terms of scientific investigations. To determine the features of genic SSRs and elucidate their role in polyploidization process of the Brassica family, we identified SSRs in Plant Genome Database-assembled unique transcripts (PUTs) of Brassica species. A higher density of SSRs and a greater number of compound motif SSRs and mononucleotide motif types with large average number of repeats were detected in allotetraploid Brassica napus than in the diploid parental species (Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea). In addition, a greater proportion of SSR-PUTs were found to be associated with the stress response and developmental processes in B. napus than in the parents. A negative correlation between the repeat number and the motif type and the total length, and a positive correlation between the repeat number and the total length of SSRs were observed. PUT-SSR might be generated from A/T-rich regions. The successful development of 123 pairs of SSR primers for Brassica PUTs showed that SSR-PUTs could be exploited as gene-based SSR functional markers for application in Brassica breeding. These results indicate that interspecific hybridization and polyploidization could trigger the amplification of SSRs, and long SSRs might become shorter to enable the plant to adapt to environmental and artificial selection.

  20. The CACTA transposon Bot1 played a major role in Brassica genome divergence and gene proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alix, Karine; Joets, Johann; Ryder, Carol D; Moore, Jay; Barker, Guy C; Bailey, John P; King, Graham J; Pat Heslop-Harrison, John S

    2008-12-01

    We isolated and characterized a Brassica C genome-specific CACTA element, which was designated Bot1 (Brassica oleracea transposon 1). After analysing phylogenetic relationships, copy numbers and sequence similarity of Bot1 and Bot1 analogues in B. oleracea (C genome) versus Brassica rapa (A genome), we concluded that Bot1 has encountered several rounds of amplification in the oleracea genome only, and has played a major role in the recent rapa and oleracea genome divergence. We performed in silico analyses of the genomic organization and internal structure of Bot1, and established which segment of Bot1 is C-genome specific. Our work reports a fully characterized Brassica repetitive sequence that can distinguish the Brassica A and C chromosomes in the allotetraploid Brassica napus, by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We demonstrated that Bot1 carries a host S locus-associated SLL3 gene copy. We speculate that Bot1 was involved in the proliferation of SLL3 around the Brassica genome. The present study reinforces the assumption that transposons are a major driver of genome and gene evolution in higher plants.