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Sample records for brazil comportamento geoquimico

  1. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  2. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; de Andrade, Victor Piana; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-10-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  3. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi. PMID:16318703

  4. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  5. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  6. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-16

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03851

  7. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  8. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  9. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  10. Brazil Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Brazil was the eighth-largest energy consumer in the world and the third-largest in the Americas, behind the United States and Canada, according to BP statistics. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has nearly doubled in the past decade1 because of sustained economic growth. The largest share of Brazil's total energy consumption is oil and other liquid fuels, followed by hydroelectricity and natural gas

  11. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  12. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967. PMID:14964714

  13. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  14. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  15. Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, Dionne Bezerra; Vilar, Dina Cortez Feitosa Lima; Sousa, Anastacio Queiroz; Miralles, Iracema Sampaio; Almeida de Oliveira, Diana Carmen; Harnett, Gerry; O'Reilly, Lyn; Howard, Kay; Sampson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Melioidosis was first recognized in northeastern Brazil in 2003. Confirmation of additional cases from the 2003 cluster in Ceará, more recent cases in other districts, environmental isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei, molecular confirmation and typing results, and positive serosurveillance specimens indicate that melioidosis is more widespread in northeastern Brazil than previously thought. PMID:16229782

  16. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  17. Brazil: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-19

    7 AOAB B89 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G 5/5 BRAZIL : A COUNTRY STUOY.(Ul UNLSIID APR 82 W L STEININSER I U LASIEEEEEEEE S E C U R I T Y...COVERED Brazil ; A Country Study Student Essay G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) W. L. Steininger Jr. Colonel...reverse aide if necessy and Identify by block number) "Assesses, the political, economic and military factors in Brazil highlighting the Lountry’s drive

  18. Audiology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Novaes, Beatriz Caiuby; Morata, Thais C

    2008-02-01

    The profession of audiology took root in Brazil nearly a half a century ago and has since blossomed into a flourishing, well-developed field. Currently, audiologists in Brazil work at private institutions, including private medical practices and dedicated speech and hearing clinics. They are also employed in a wide array of public institutions, including community clinics, elementary schools, colleges, and universities. In both the private sector and health clinics, audiologists perform diagnostic evaluations of auditory and vestibular disorders, select and fit hearing aids, and provide aural rehabilitation. At the public level, they assist with workers' health programs, dispense hearing aids, and aural rehabilitation. There is always room to grow, however, and the future of audiology in Brazil holds both challenges and opportunity. The following article will sketch the development of audiology training and practice in Brazil, provide a picture of how the field stands today, and summarize the unique challenges which the profession faces in this large and diverse nation.

  19. Brazil-Bolivia Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-16

    This image of the river-delineated border between western Brazil Acre province, and northwestern Bolivia Pando Department, demarcates a remarkable difference in land use and development practices as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  20. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  1. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  2. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  3. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  4. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  5. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  6. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  7. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  8. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  9. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  10. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  11. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  12. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  13. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215 km(2)) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche.

  14. IHY activities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  15. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Organization for Economic Co-operation ( OECD ,) the World Bank, the UN, and the IMF will provide sufficient information to compare Brazil to the...is also prohibited from negotiating a FTA with the EU because of its membership in the South American Common Market (Mercosur). An EU- Brazil FTA...capable countries like Uruguay and Paraguay to rely on the political stability of a more capable Brazil through membership in Mercosur. Without a

  16. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  17. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  18. Cape Baleia, Caravelas, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Cape Baleia (17.5N, 39.0W), on the north central coast of Brazil illustrates a good example of multiple coastal sand spits. Over a several thousand year time period, shifting regimes of wave and current patterns have piled up sand onto a series of beach ridges and tidal lagoons. Offshore, several prominent reefs and sandbanks can be seen paralleling the coast. The largest is the Recife da Pedra Grande (Big Rocks Reef).

  19. Lung cancer in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Algranti, E; Menezes, A M; Achutti, A C

    2001-04-01

    Lung cancer is the second leading cause of death in Brazil, after exclusion of external causes. Registries in the country are not reliable because of under-registration and limited coverage. Incidence rates for Brazil are less then half those for selected areas with good registries. Crude and adjusted incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer are rising, particularly among women. The main reason is the acceleration in tobacco consumption and the spread of smoking among women. At present, approximately 40% of men and 25% of women, 15 years of age or older, are current smokers. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where registries are reliable, incidence and mortality for males are similar to US data and the figures for women are rapidly approaching those for men. Occupations associated with risks of exposure to respiratory carcinogens show a rise in the incidence of lung cancer in the industrialized area of São Paulo. The main occupational risk in Brazil is exposure to mineral dusts, silica, or asbestos. Although about 15 million Brazilians are exposed to pesticides, agricultural workers were not a risk group for lung cancer in a case-control study. Pesticides containing arsenic and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are banned. In recent years, a trend towards a decrease in male smoking has been noted, but there is still a high tobacco exposure burden in both males and females, with a forecast of a further increase in rates of lung cancer incidence and deaths. Control of respiratory carcinogens at work continues to be a problem, particularly in the present scenario of economic and political pressures on Brazil and other developing nations. Semin Oncol 28:143-152. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  20. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  1. Brazil's Route to ESO Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A.

    2011-06-01

    On 29 December 2010, in a ceremony held at the Ministry of Science and Technology in Brazil's capital, Brasília, the then Minister, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw signed the accession agreement by which, pending ratification by the Brazilian Congress, Brazil becomes the 15th ESO Member State and the first non-European member. An overview of the historical background, the current state of astronomy in Brazil, and the motivation that made Brazil apply to become an ESO Member State is presented.

  2. Upwelling at Cabo Frio (Brazil).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Upwelling, *Atlantic Ocean), Sea water, Wind, Sea level, Surface temperature, Correlation techniques, Ocean bottom, Shallow water, Fluid flow, Air water interactions, Time series analysis, Continental shelves, Theses, Brazil

  3. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Treesearch

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  4. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  5. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  6. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  7. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil. PMID:23171598

  8. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  9. Unifocal Bone Paracoccidioidomycosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Castro, Bruna; Pompilio, Mauricio A.; Odashiro, Danilo N.; Odashiro, Maçanori; Arão-Filho, Adalberto; Paniago, Anamaria M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a 47 year-old man from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with unifocal tibial paracoccidioidomycosis. A radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion on the tibial middle third diaphysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic analysis, and treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was started. After three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement. Ten months after treatment, the patient showed lesion bone healing. This case describes the rare occurrence of an osteolytic lesion caused by endemic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Latin America. PMID:22403319

  10. Cape Baleia, Caravelas, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-86-001 (13-19 Jan. 1993) --- This 70mm view shows a spectacular multiple spit on the coast of Brazil, about halfway between Rio de Janeiro and the mouth of the Amazon River. Over a few thousand years, according to NASA scientists, shifting regimes of wave and current patterns piled up sand onto a series of beach ridges and tidal lagoons. The present swirls of sediment along the coast evidently were derived from beach erosion, because streams flowing into the Atlantic contain dark, clear water. Offshore, reefs and sandbanks parallel the coast. The largest is the Recife da Pedra Grande (Big Rocks Reef).

  11. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  12. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  13. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  14. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  15. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  16. [Chagas disease in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vinhaes, M C; Dias, J C

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the current situation for Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, based on data from the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FNS). Over the course of the last 20 years, continuous chemical control has resulted in a clear reduction of triatomine densities and Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian dwellings. Results have been particularly promising in relation to Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus, considered the most important species in the past. In parallel, data from school serological surveys, hospitalized patients, and mortality records show an important decrease in the disease. Nevertheless, some areas of the Brazilian Northeast and some residual foci of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus remain as major challenges for public health authorities, requiring effective epidemiological surveillance. States and municipalities are required to assume this task at present, as the traditional Brazilian National Health Foundation is undergoing decentralization.

  17. [Psychotherapy in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Stubbe, H

    1980-01-01

    Present conditions in Brazil are characterized by sharp contrasts and rapid social changes. Modern Brazilian civilisation has its roots in Indian, Portuguese and African cultures, which have grown together in the course of many years to form a harmonious union of civilisations. The Indian and Afro-Brazilian elements of this civilisation in particular have brought about a great number of syncretistic cults, hitherto scarcely explored; such as Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba and Spiritualism, all of which, together with a vigorously active folklore, exert an important psychohygienic function. The institutions created within these cults provide a ritualized therapeutic treatment of psychiatric conditions supplementing the professional psychiatric care available to the population. The variety of forms of the Brazilian psychotherapy stretches from the pre-scientifical methods of the Indian medicine man through the seemingly medieval forms of exorcisme and spiritualism right to the scientifically founded psychotherapy in all its lines. Integrative endeavours towards a culture-anthropological psychotherapy are becoming evident.

  18. Diabetes Care in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Maria Aurora Dropa Chrestani; Neves, Rosália Garcia; Schmidt, Paulo Ricardo Correa; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Volz, Pamela Moraes; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the primary health care offered to 8118 service users with diabetes in Brazil based on data from the PMAQ (Program to Improve Primary Care Access and Quality) first survey. Structure, access, service organization and management, and clinical care quality were analyzed. Prevalence of self-reported receipt of appropriate treatment was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.4-15.2). Following adjustment, it was 26% higher (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04-1.54) when primary health care centers had all the structure items investigated, it was 13% higher (PR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00-1.29) when the teams' work process for service organization and management was adequate and it was 14% higher (PR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.30) when the teams' clinical practice was adequate. PMID:28252499

  19. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  20. Brazil's alcohol motor fuel program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This is a status report on the production and use of ethanol as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol, called in Portuguese Proalcool, will supply at least one-third of Brazil's expected fuel demand for transportation in the year 2000. In total energy terms, it should contribute on the same level as coal and twice the combined level of nuclear, solar and geothermal energies. 2 refs.

  1. Brazil - the Challenge of Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    agency. BRAZIL -- THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL CLOVIS PURPER BANDEIRA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for publig release...MBER 7. ALU’-HOR(j) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER,’&I Clovis Purper Bandeira, LTC, IN 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PRO...agency. BRAZIL - THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPXENT AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Clovis Purper Bandeira, IN Colonel Alden M. Cunningham

  2. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  3. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  4. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  5. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  6. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  7. [Eighty years of Japanese immigration in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mita, C

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese emigration to Brazil started in 1908 with some eight hundred subsidized contract workers for coffee plantations. Hard conditions made many of them flee, and the paulista government suppressed subsidies for these projects; however, the Japanese emigration to Brazil kept on under Japanese subsidies from 1925 until 1934 when Brazil imposed immigration quotas unfavorable to Japanese immigration. International circumstances in the late 1930s and local prohibition on the use of the Japanese language in Brazil caused many immigrants to return to Japan between 1939-1941. Emigration to Brazil restarted as diplomatic relations between Japan and Brazil were reestablished in 1952 but decreased in the late 1960s. Subsequent economic evolution in both countries caused Japanese emigrants in Brazil and their [descendants] to initiate dekasegui [labor] migration from Brazil to Japan as from the late 1980s." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  8. Brazil's Education Pitted against Instability, Low Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloc, Odelia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics and problems of the students at Institute San Damiano in Goiania, Goias, Brazil; educational attitudes in Brazil; and efforts by the schools and its teachers to participate actively in the lives of their students. (CBC)

  9. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  10. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  11. Alcohol revisited: New energy strategy for Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-15

    Lower oil prices, increased production, and arguably the most ambitious fuel alcohol program in the world have strengthened Brazil's energy independence since the mid-1970s. Despite political and economic turmoil, Brazil's economy and appetite for energy continue to grow. Now, Brazil moves in a new direction by introducing market reforms in all sectors -- hand in hand with energy conservation and efficiency programs.

  12. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  13. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  14. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  15. Flood model for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  16. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  17. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  18. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  19. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  20. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  1. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  2. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Treesearch

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  3. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001. 30 “Economic Survey of Brazil 2005,” Organization...in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel. 79 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no

  4. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-06

    Latin America Regional Report, December 21, 2004. 21 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica...Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001 61 Livio Sansone, “Anti-Racism in Brazil

  5. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  6. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  7. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Treesearch

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  8. Education for Librarianship in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pamela F.

    The paper examines and describes the development, trends, and current status of education for librarianship in Brazil against the background of the contemporary library scene and the system of higher education in general, focusing on the development of the 30 undergraduate and six post-graduate library programs in existence today. The master's…

  9. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  10. Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-10-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama.

  11. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  12. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  13. The population question in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives.

  14. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  15. Denuclearization in Argentina and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.; Feiveson, H.A.

    1994-03-01

    The political process that led to the important agreements reached between Argentina and Brazil to guarantee that nuclear energy is used in both countries exclusively for peaceful purposes could prove to be a useful model. These achievements are due primarily to the return of democratic rule in both countries. While the political processes leading to fully integrated democratic institutions may not have taken hold as fully in other regions of proliferation concern, the Argentine-Brazilian agreements suggest that similar regional safeguards arrangements might be possible in South Asia, on the Korean Peninsula eventually, and perhaps in portions of the Middle East. These agreements include the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for the application of safeguards to both countries; and the Quadripartite Agreement between Brazil, Argentina, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ABACC.

  16. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  17. Environmental impact assessment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.G.; De Aguiar, A.M.D. . Dept. de Ecologia e Programa de Pos- graduac ao em Analise Ambiental)

    1993-05-01

    Brazilian environmental impact assessment (EIA) had a relatively late birth and is still far from being operative by international standards. Currently, geological, economic, and social considerations are more highly valued. Nevertheless, EIA has become important in shaping governmental policy. The state of Sao Paulo is responsible for 40% of all EIAs produced in Brazil, and the number of EIAs produced is proportional to stat population density.

  18. Brazil: Colossus of the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    restaurants. Cariocas, as the residents of Rio are called, enjoy their passions: scenic beaches, notorious carnivals , and futebol (soccer). The popularity of...say: "It’s about the size of Germany, the capital is Rio de Janeiro, and they speak Spanish." Many are surprised to learn that Brazil is bigger than...Portuguese spelling of this country is "Brasil." However, sunny Rio was the capital from 1822 to 1960 and was actually the seat of the Portuguese

  19. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: SECOND WAVE BRAZIL AND FINLAND,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLITICAL SCIENCE, PUBLIC OPINION), (*PUBLIC OPINION, POLITICAL SCIENCE), FOREIGN POLICY, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), SAMPLING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SOCIOLOGY, TEST METHODS, PROBABILITY, COMMUNISM, BRAZIL , FINLAND

  20. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  1. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  2. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  3. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  4. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  5. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  6. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  7. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  8. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  9. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  10. Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Bensabath, Gilberta; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Martins, Lívia Carício; de Oliveira Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro

    2007-01-01

    Oropouche fever has reemerged in Parauapebas and Porto de Moz municipalities, Pará State, Brazil. Serologic analysis (immunoglobulin M–ELISA) and virus isolation confirmed Oropouche virus (OROV) in both municipalities. Nucleotide sequencing of 2 OROV isolates from each location indicated genotypes I (Parauapebas) and II (Porto de Moz) in Brazil. PMID:17553235

  11. Reemergence of Oropouche fever, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimundado Socorro da Silva; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Bensabath, Gilberta; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Martins, Lívia Carício; Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Oropouche fever has reemerged in Parauapebas and Porto de Moz municipalities, Pará State, Brazil. Serologic analysis (immunoglobulin M-ELISA) and virus isolation confirmed Oropouche virus (OROV) in both municipalities. Nucleotide sequencing of 2 OROV isolates from each location indicated genotypes I (Parauapebas) and II (Porto de Moz) in Brazil.

  12. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  13. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  14. US and Brazil: Prospective National Security Partners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5, “National Security,” data as of April 1997. Maxwell, Kenneth. “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” Article published by Council on Foreign...22. [22] Kenneth Maxwell, “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” article published by Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Dec 2000. (Hereafter referred

  15. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  16. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  17. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  18. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  19. Brazil, A Potential World Power?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-22

    highlands ; and the temperate south. The Amazon region is a sparsely settled, low-lying, tropical valley dominated by the Amazon River which rises in Peru...recurring economic crises. 3 The south-central highlands and the temperate south make up the heartland of present day Brazil. The most fertile and pro...VENEUELASURINAM{ GUIANA COLOMBIA GUIANA NF Jy1 Recife PERU 0. >f BOLIVIA <. au:c )Nier6 POPULATION DENSITY ------ iAat Rio d aer Per square Per square mile

  20. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  1. Commentary: Health Concerns of Brazil Nut Consumption.

    PubMed

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Liontiris, Michael I

    2017-08-14

    Brazil nuts are the fruit of the enormous tropical tree Bertholletia excelsa that are produced in and exported from the territory of the Amazon. As a natural rich source of selenium (Se), the consumption of Brazil nuts is often suggested as therapeutic among patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the main health concerns of Brazil nut consumption, such as Se toxicity, Se-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus, weight gain, radioactivity, aflatoxins, and allergic reactions, is presented and discussed.

  2. Proposed hydrologic analyses of streamflow for Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Henry Chiles

    1974-01-01

    Streamflow records are evaluated for the Rio Jacui basin in the state of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, in reference to data reliability, length of record, and density of areal coverage. Availability of water is a factor in the development of a country, and surface water is of especial importance in Brazil. This report is intended as a reference for further investigation of the flow characteristic of the basin to provide (1) information for utilization of streamflow and (2) information to improve the data collection and analytic procedures. In addition the evaluation study can serve as a pilot for other developing river basins in Brazil. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poffo, Robinson; Toschi, Alisson P; Pope, Renato B; Montanhesi, Paola K; Santos, Ricardo S; Teruya, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Dina M; Rusca, Gabriel F; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo C; Makdisse, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci(®) robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery. Twenty-seven patients were male (69.2%), with the mean age of 51.3±17.9 years. Participants had a mean ejection fraction of 62±5%. The procedures included in this study were mitral valve surgery, surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect closure, resection of intra-cardiac tumors, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and pericardiectomy. The mean time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during RCS was 154.9±94.2 minutes and the mean aortic cross-clamp time was 114.48±75.66 minutes. Thirty-two patients (82%) were extubated in the operating room immediately after surgery. The median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was 1 day (ranging from 0 to 25) and the median hospital length of stay was 5 days (ranging from 3 to 25). For each type of procedure, endpoints were individually reported. There were no conversions to sternotomy and no intra-operative complications. Patient follow-up was complete in 100% of the participants, with two early deaths unrelated to the procedures and no re-operations at mid-term. Despite the heterogeneity of this series, RCS appears to be feasible, safe and effective when used for the correction of various intra- and extra-cardiac pathologies. Adopting the robotic system has been a challenge in Brazil, where its limited clinical application may be related to the lack of specific training and the high cost of technology.

  4. Robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Alisson P.; Pope, Renato B.; Montanhesi, Paola K.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Teruya, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Dina M.; Rusca, Gabriel F.; Fischer, Claudio H.; Vieira, Marcelo C.; Makdisse, Marcia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci® robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. Methods From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery. Twenty-seven patients were male (69.2%), with the mean age of 51.3±17.9 years. Participants had a mean ejection fraction of 62±5%. The procedures included in this study were mitral valve surgery, surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect closure, resection of intra-cardiac tumors, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and pericardiectomy. Results The mean time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during RCS was 154.9±94.2 minutes and the mean aortic cross-clamp time was 114.48±75.66 minutes. Thirty-two patients (82%) were extubated in the operating room immediately after surgery. The median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was 1 day (ranging from 0 to 25) and the median hospital length of stay was 5 days (ranging from 3 to 25). For each type of procedure, endpoints were individually reported. There were no conversions to sternotomy and no intra-operative complications. Patient follow-up was complete in 100% of the participants, with two early deaths unrelated to the procedures and no re-operations at mid-term. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of this series, RCS appears to be feasible, safe and effective when used for the correction of various intra- and extra-cardiac pathologies. Adopting the robotic system has been a challenge in Brazil, where its limited clinical application may be related to the lack of specific training and the high cost of technology. PMID:28203537

  5. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  6. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  7. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.

  8. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  9. Primary Care Dentistry in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics, health care indicators, work process characteristics, and the performance of preventive dental procedures by oral health care teams (OHCTs) assessed during the first phase of the PMAQ in Brazil. A census of 10 334 primary OHCTs was conducted. The outcome included topical application of fluoride, application of sealants, detection of oral lesions, and monitoring of suspected or confirmed cases of oral cancer. The multilevel Poisson regression model was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. The performance of preventive dental procedures was 29.46% (3044/10 334; 95% confidence interval, 28.57-30.33), which was considered low. PMID:28252501

  10. Thorium: Determination by CDTN, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, M. A. B. C.; Sabino, C. V. S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Radiochemical Sector, CDTN/CNEN, Brazil, is to meet the clients' analytical needs. The Sector has been facing the challenges of determining several elements in diversified matrixes from all over the country since the sixties. It has been giving analytical support to universities, industries, environmental monitoring programs, research institutes. Due to the growing need to determine thorium isotopes through the years it was necessary to work out a routine procedures. Nowadays the determination of thorium consists of a well established routine whose procedures are applied to grouped samples according to their kind, physical state, matrix interference, detection limits and number of samples. This paper describes the methods used by CDTN to determine232Th by neutron activation analysis and230Th and228Th by radiochemical separations and alpha spectrometry in several matrixes.

  11. Brazil comes in from the cold

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Brazil is well on its way to rolling back its nuclear program from the brink of developing nuclear explosives. The reason for this dramatic reversal can be traced to international diplomatic pressure on Brazil to accept full-scope safeguards and implement the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to the growth of democracy in Brazil, which has provided an opportunity for groups such as the Brazilian Physics Society to work politically to end their country's effort to build nuclear weapons. The recent developments in Brazil underscore the importance of responsible civilian control of the nuclear program, and the role of domestic and international inspections of nuclear facilities to verify that weapons-related activities are not taking place. More importantly, these developments show that knowledgeable and dedicated people and groups opposed to nuclear weapons production can make a significant contribution to stopping their country from going nuclear.

  12. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.

    1998-01-01

    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  13. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  14. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  15. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  16. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  17. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.

    1998-01-01

    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  18. Brazil opens its first private research institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanissevich, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    The Brazilian filmmaker João Moreira Salles - whose family owns one of the largest banks in Brazil - has established a new institute in Rio de Janeiro that will support basic research across all sciences.

  19. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  20. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  1. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  2. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  3. [The health system of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  4. Military parachuting injuries in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; de Souza, Márcio Nogueira; de Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the main injuries caused by military parachuting jumping techniques in Brazil. With this aim, their distribution by anatomical site and their association with aircraft type and drop zone characteristics were analysed. Data for the study were obtained by the analysis of accident reports, completed after each jumping training mission in which an injury occurred, during the period January 2005-August 2006. The overall lesion rate during the period was 1.2%, with 189 injured subjects, and the highest injury rate was detected for the foot/ankle anatomical site (32.8%). The relative injury rates according to drop zone were 1.00% (main drop zone-Afonsos) and 2.94% for the remaining zones. Regarding aircraft type, these rates were 0.91% for the C130, 2.03% for the C115 and 2.68% for the C95 airplanes. The relative risk for the drop zone categories (reference category Afonsos) was 2.94 (95% CI: [2.10; 4.04]); while for aircraft types (reference category C130) these values were 2.95 (95% CI: [2.18; 3.98]; C95 aircraft) and 2.23 (95% CI: [1.34; 3.70]; C115). The study suggests that ankle stabilisers should be put into use by military parachuters, and that a better-planned schedule should be implemented for the used drop zones.

  5. Spread F modeling over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, I. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Based on a numerical model developed by Carrasco et al. (2014), the dynamics and morphology of ionospheric plasma bubbles for both magnetic hemispheres over Brazil are examined. Observational results show that the post sunset maximum velocity of the pre-reversal vertical drift velocity, VP , has different values at the conjugate points. This information on the asymmetry of the vertical drift or zonal electric field is used in the simulation of bubbles over Brazilian sector. The simulations were conducted considering two different cases: (a) simulation of trans-equatorial bubble neglecting the meridional winds, and (b) considering the effect of meridional winds. In case (a) the bubble development is symmetric in relation to the magnetic equator, while in case (b) we raise the conjecture of a possible asymmetry. The simulation shows that the trans-equatorial bubbles may develop between ±30° of latitude and present internal structures of different sizes and shapes. In addition, three spatial perspectives of the bubbles are displayed, where each perspective reveals interesting aspects of the bubble development.

  6. Quality improvement issues in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malik, A M

    1997-01-01

    In 1988 a new constitution in Brazil brought the creation of a national health system, the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde; SUS). Accountability is not yet a strong feature of the health system, even though the Ministry of Health has made efforts to encourage the federal district and 26 states to participate in some quality-of-care projects. Initiatives include certification by the International Standards Organization (ISO; Geneva); consulting services, especially in managerial processes; total quality management; patient satisfaction; and development of new technologies to increase efficiency. Physicians' oft-repeated claim that they know all it takes to offer patients high-quality care makes it difficult to enlist their help in quality programs in general and in establishing protocols and guidelines in particular. State licenses are a prerequisite for hospitals, but this is not always enforced; the local health authority may be relieved that hospital care is at least being provided. Similarly, the government may find it important that the population has access to health services, even if the service is not considered adequate. Government can encourage quality initiatives and assess and disseminate the findings.

  7. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  8. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  9. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  10. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  11. Multiple sclerosis in Brazil: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, C C F; Thuler, L C S; Rodrigues, B C; Calmon, A B; Alvarenga, R M P

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Brazil has been available in different regions of country. There is no nationwide population-based studies that express general data in Brazil. To review and synthesize available data about MS in Brazil. Systematic review was performed through a search of medical literature databases to identify Brazilian studies published during 1990-2012. PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. "Brazil" or "Brazilian" combined with the following terms: "multiple sclerosis", "clinical profile", "demographic profile", "natural history", "clinical course", "pediatric", or "familial form". In total of 45 pediatric and 1922 adult patients, the median age at onset was 10 years in pediatric patients and 32 years in adult patients. Women were more affected. Motor-control complaints and relapsing-remitting phenotype at onset were the most common. Predictors to disability and progression were number of relapses during the first year of disease, older age, male gender and African ancestry. The profile of the MS in Brazilian seems to correspond to that observed in high-MS-prevalence areas. African ancestry is a risk factor to disability and progression early. In Brazil, factors that limit MS incidence do not interfere with the clinical pattern and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  13. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  14. [Nursing education research groups in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Canever, Bruna Pedroso

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the organization of nursing education research groups in Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive and documentary study. Census data for 2006 were collected from the CNPq database website. Brazil has 47 education research groups, comprised of 412 researchers, of whom 91% have masters, doctoral or postdoctoral degrees. There are 307 students, of whom 92% are nursing undergraduates. However, only 9% are recipients of young investigator grants. There are also 112 technicians, of whom 75% are nursing professionals; 46% have a masters or doctoral degree. In Brazil, there are a considerable number of nursing education research groups, which contribute significantly to scientific production of nursing knowledge in Latin America. In this scenario, there are many challenges to be overcome: poor interdisciplinary cooperation; limited integration between education and practice; low number of grants awarded to young investigators and significant inequalities between the country's geographic regions in terms of access to research development.

  15. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  16. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. PMID:26413514

  17. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  18. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228).

  19. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  20. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fares, Rafaelle C G; Souza, Katia P R; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  1. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  2. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  3. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  4. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    PubMed

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eis, S R; de Souza, A C

    2001-04-01

    The definition of Osteoporosis as proposed by WHO is widely accepted amongst Brazilian physicians. The main diagnostic tool in Brazil is Bone Densitometry (DXA). Both public and private health insurance systems reimburse the densitometry test. DXA have been used also for monitoring changes in BMD. Biochemical markers and peripheral methods of bone assessment are not widely used in Brazil. Estrogens, Vitamin D and its metabolites, Salmon Calcitonin, Ipriflavone, Tibolone, Etidronate, Alendronate, Raloxifene and Risendronate are currently available for treating osteoporosis. Since 1995, Brazilian Society of Clinical Densitometry have been educating Bone Densitometry Professionals and all clinicians in order to improve their ability to turn DXA results into adequate clinical decisions.

  6. Epizootic botulism of cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Döbereiner, J; Tokarnia, C H; Langenegger, J; Dutra, I S

    1992-05-01

    The first diagnosis of botulism in cattle in Brazil and its epizootiology are reviewed. The high prevalence of the disease raised on phosphorus deficient pastures in Savanna regions has caused severe economic losses in the past. The temperature induced microcomplement fixation test (TIMCF) confirmed the clinical-pathological diagnosis in all of the 24 cases studied by this method. The most important reason why botulism has not been controlled satisfactorily in Brazil is the lack of an available effective vaccine (type C and D). Additional prophylactic measures are phosphorus supplementation and removal of carcasses from the pasture.

  7. Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Gutenmann, W H; Reid, C M; Lisk, D J

    1995-02-01

    Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) natively contain very high concentrations of selenium. Since dietary selenium, including Brazil nuts, have been associated with protection against tumor development in laboratory animal studies, it was of interest to determine the selenium content of the nuts from different nut-growing regions of Brazil. In the work reported, 162 nuts from each of two regions (Acre-Rondonia and Manaus-Belem) were individually analyzed for selenium. The average +/- standard deviation and range of selenium concentrations in ppm, fresh weight for nuts from Acre-Rondonia and Manaus-Belem regions were, respectively, 3.06 +/- 4.01 (0.03-31.7) and 36.0 +/- 50.0 (1.25-512.0). The toxicology of Brazil nut consumption is discussed.

  8. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-03-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under the MTCR has succeeded in stalling Brazil's missile program, but has also: (1) further strained Brazilian security relations with the United States; (2) weakened U.S. influence over Brazil's rocket and missile programs; (3) strengthened Brazilian ties with European suppliers (especially France) of space and missile technology; (4) driven Brazil into closer technological cooperation with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union; and (5) intensified Brazilian negotiations with Iraq and Libya. As Brazil moves away from the United States (its traditional supplier of space and missile technology), it is becoming relatively more autonomous and less vulnerable to U.S. restrictions on space and missile technology. The successful implementation of an internationalist development strategy by Brazil's new president, Fernando Collor de Mello, could provide the United States with an exceptional opportunity to improve relations with Brazil.

  9. Culture Revisited: Vygotsky's Ideas in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza Lima, Elvira

    1995-01-01

    Examines educational reform and Vygotsky's influence on critical pedagogy in Brazil from two perspectives. One is the historical tradition of accepting multiplicity of learning behaviors, and the other is a close analysis of an environment that espoused the idea of literacy as a cultural production shared by everyone. (MMU)

  10. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  11. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  12. Racial Inequality and Child Mortality in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles H.; Lovell, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1980 urban Brazil, race of mother significantly affected child mortality after controlling for region, income, and parent education, with a mortality gap of 6.7 years between the whites and Afro-Brazilians. Parent education, indoor plumbing, access to public health care, and presence of adult females significantly reduced the probability of…

  13. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  14. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  16. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  17. Brazil: Changing Patterns of Foreign Trade,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Primary products other than coffee which are important in the trade——sugar , cocoa beans, frozen shrimp and lobsters, Brazil and cashew nuts , tobacco...export categories. “Vegetable products” , a class which includes coffee , cereals , nuts and oilseeds , remained the largest single category of exports

  18. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  19. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines.

  20. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  1. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  2. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  3. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  4. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Beto Perez de Leon, all USDA, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cançado, is t...

  5. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  6. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  7. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission.

  8. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  9. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  10. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Rn; Souto, Wedson Ms

    2011-07-18

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology--reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  11. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  12. NASA Spacecraft Captures Image of Brazil Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-19

    On Jan. 18, 2011, NASA Terra spacecraft captured this 3-D perspective image of the city of Nova Friburgo, Brazil. A week of torrential rains triggered a series of deadly mudslides and floods. More details about this image at the Photojournal.

  13. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  14. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  15. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  16. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity.

  17. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  18. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  19. Phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil.

  20. The water-enhanced Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. P.; Pacheco-Martinez, H. A.; Swift, M. R.; King, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that a large dense intruder may rise to the surface of a vibrated granular bed, the Brazil nut effect. In this paper we describe a water-enhanced Brazil nut effect which occurs when the vibrated granular bed is fully immersed in a liquid. We use a bed of glass beads immersed in water and monitor the behaviour of a large steel intruder as the system is vibrated vertically. To aid our understanding, we have developed numerical simulations to model this system and provide detailed information on the fluid and grain motion. The mechanism responsible for the rapid rise of the intruder is shown to be fluid-enhanced ratcheting rather than simple differential drag.

  1. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    PubMed

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  2. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  3. Echinostomes in Felid Coprolites from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sianto, L; Duarte, A N; Borba, V H; Magalhães, J G; de Souza, S M; Chame, M

    2016-06-01

    The first record of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in coprolites was from a mummified human body in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding raised questions on this parasite's incidence in prehistoric populations and the natural hosts of each species in remote times. Echinostomes occur worldwide and, despite the wide range of hosts, there is no record of Echinostomatidae in felines in Brazil. This study reports the finding of Echinostomatidae eggs in felid coprolites in the Furna do Estrago Archaeological Site, located in Pernambuco State in the Brazilian semiarid. Despite the possibility of false parasitism, the finding expands the distribution of this Digenea in remote times and raises the hypothesis of other cases of echinostomiasis in pre-Colombian populations.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Casseb, Lívia M.N.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto da Silva, Eliana V.; Silva, Mayra; Casseb, Samir M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960–2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal. PMID:21529387

  5. Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi; Castellaro, Felipe Angel Bocchi; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking and human research governance system, known as the CEP/CONEP system. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the information in the article and its contribution to the study of the biobanking ethical challenges, especially the protection of privacy. It is highlighted that biobanking regulatory harmonization among countries is necessary, since it increases scientific possibilities that can come from broader cooperation among biobanks and several research centers on the national and international levels. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. The burden of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Bruna Coelho Galvão; Guerra, Luiza Paulino; Drummond, Juliana Beaudette; Silva, Barbara C; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals.

  7. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  8. John Banister: an Elizabethan surgeon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, Amílcar D'Avila de

    2011-03-01

    In Brazil's sixteenth-century history, very few references are made to health professionals. On the expedition of Edward Fenton, dispatched by the English Crown in 1582 to set up a trading post in Asia, was the famous barber-surgeon and physician John Banister. The naval squadron, diverted from its original route to repeat the feats of Sir Francis Drake, stopped over in Africa, crossed the Atlantic and anchored off the Santa Catarina coast in Brazil. In these waters, the expedition degenerated into piracy and returned unsuccessful to Europe. John Banister is considered the person who liberated English anatomy from mediaeval slavery, shedding upon it the light of the Renaissance. It was the first time that anyone of this importance in the area of health had visited these latitudes.

  9. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980s there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Oropouche virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Nunes, Márcio R T; Casseb, Lívia M N; Carvalho, Valéria L; Pinto da Silva, Eliana V; Silva, Mayra; Casseb, Samir M M; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2011-05-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960-2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal.

  11. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  12. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  13. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  14. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A

    2011-01-01

    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  15. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thais Elias; Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyatheasubincisa, Cyclodiumtrianae, Elaphoglossumstenophyllum, Hypoderrisbrauniana, Pleopeltisstolzei, Thelypterisarcana, Thelypteriscomosa, Thelypterisvaldepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodiumflagellare, Tectariaheracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophilasalvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurumcostatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypterisrolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  16. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Becker, C. Guilherme; Tacioli, Leandro; Pereira, Vânia Rosa; Santos, André Cid F. A.; Oliveira, Igor; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species). We (i) modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii) reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii) quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100) climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife. PMID:28938024

  17. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  18. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Weekly, p. 42-45 London 7 April 1984 Dzidzienyo, Anani. Relaciones Africanas y Latino Americanos Contemnporaneas: Problemas y Perspectivas . Brown...Resources to Carry on a War, Officers Say " New York Times, p. 1. 14 May 1984 Hayes, Margaret D. Brazil y el Atlantico Sur: cambios en las perspectivas de...Alfredo. "Marinha de Brasil: Atnalidodes e Perspectivas ." (Lecture on the Brazilian Naval War College.) Rio de Janeiro, Braz~I. 31 Agosto 1984. Kelly

  19. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-31

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.

  20. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Becker, C Guilherme; Tacioli, Leandro; Pereira, Vânia Rosa; Santos, André Cid F A; Oliveira, Igor; Haddad, Célio F B; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species). We (i) modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii) reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii) quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100) climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife.

  1. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury Epidemiology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Romeu; de Sousa Filho, José Lopes; Dourado, Jules Carlos; Gontijo, Pollyana Anício Magalhães; Dellaretti, Marcos Antônio; Costa, Bruno Silva

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) stands out as a grave social and economic problem. Emerging countries possess few epidemiologic studies on the range and impact of TBI. Our study aimed to characterize the demographic, social, and economic profile of people suffering from TBI in Brazil. Data on TBI cases in Brazil between 2008 and 2012 were collected through the website of the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) maintained by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This database is fed by public hospital admission authorization forms provided nationwide. There were around 125,000 hospital admissions due to TBI a year, an incidence of 65.7 admissions per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Hospital mortality was 5.1/100,000/year, and the case fatality rate was 7.7%. The average annual cost of hospital expenses was US$ 70,960,000, with an average cost per admission of US$ 568. The age group 20-29, frequently admitted to the hospital due to TBI, presented the largest number of hospital deaths; however, the population >80 years of age showed the highest admission rate per age group, around 138/100,000/year, followed by the age group 70-79. TBI should be recognized as an important public health problem in Brazil because it is responsible for considerable social and economic costs. Besides the young adult age group (20-29 years old), the geriatric age group is especially vulnerable to the frequent and devastating consequences of TBI. The implementation of a system of effective epidemiologic vigilance for neurotrauma is urgent in Brazil and other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the "problem" posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

  4. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    credited by Brazil- ian historians with having opened up the interior of the country by their expeditions. Antonio Baposo Tavares led what was probably the...rapid inflation. Once again, disorders 36 Historical Setting flared up in Rio Grande do Sul. The governor, Antonio Augusto Borges de Medeiros, had...Meanwhile, the political maneuvering over the next presiden- tial term had begun. The governor of Minas Gerais, Antonio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada, the

  5. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  6. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  7. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro e; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas. PMID:28382937

  8. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  9. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  10. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mosquitoes infected with dengue viruses in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dengue epidemics have been reported in Brazil since 1985. The scenery has worsened in the last decade because several serotypes are circulating and producing a hyper-endemic situation, with an increase of DHF/DSS cases as well as the number of fatalities. Herein, we report dengue virus surveillance in mosquitoes using a Flavivirus genus-specific RT-Hemi-Nested-PCR assay. The mosquitoes (Culicidae, n = 1700) collected in the Northeast, Southeast and South of Brazil, between 1999 and 2005, were grouped into 154 pools. Putative genomes of DENV-1, -2 and -3 were detected in 6 mosquito pools (3.8%). One amplicon of putative DENV-1 was detected in a pool of Haemagogus leucocelaenus suggesting that this virus could be involved in a sylvatic cycle. DENV-3 was found infecting 3 pools of larvae of Aedes albopictus and the nucleotide sequence of one of these viruses was identified as DENV-3 of genotype III, phylogenetically related to other DENV-3 isolated in Brazil. This is the first report of a nucleotide sequence of DENV-3 from larvae of Aedes albopictus. PMID:20624314

  12. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  13. Comments on cosmic ray research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Enio F.

    2013-05-01

    Cosmic Rays (CR) have been studied since their discovery by Victor Hess in the years 1911-1913. Interestingly, research in Physics in Brazil started with experiments on CR. Bernhard Gross (INT/Rio), Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini (USP) carried out their investigations on CR in Brazil in the 30's. Franz X. Roser worked with V. Hess (Nobel Prize, 1936) and Cesar Lattes collaborated with Cecil Powell (Nobel Prize, 1950). Nowadays, most of CR research in Brazil is conducted by the Pierre Auger Project. Nevertheless, there is an enormous lack of information on the effects of CR in matter, particularly in organic and biological materials, which motivates measurements of relevant physicochemical data, such as parameters of crystalline structure modifications, sputtering yields and cross sections for inducing associative or dissociative processes of atoms, molecules and molecular fragments. A fascinating question about CR is whether they are/were one of the agents responsible for the transformation of inorganic into organic material, synthesizing pre-biotic molecules in the whole Universe. The physicochemical effects of CR analogues in condensed gases, analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy - subject of our own work on CR - are discussed at the end of this article.

  14. Mental health economics: insights from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi

    2013-04-01

    As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.

  15. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  16. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François

    2008-01-01

    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  17. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  18. Food-fuel conflicts: the Brazil case

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.

    1981-01-01

    Brazil has decided to commit a significant part of its agricultural resources to the production of sugarcane and other crops to be processed into fuel grade alcohol. Concerns are already being raised about potential food-fuel conflicts, especially in the major food-sugarcane producing areas of the state of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane areas of northeast Brazil. The objective of this paper is to explore the dimensions of this emerging food-fuel issue in Brazil. The energy supply and use situation along with a brief description of the alcohol program are presented first. Current land use in relation to food and export crop production is presented next. This is followed by a description of the energy crops to be used for alcohol production. The paper concludes with an investigation of the food-fuel conflicts on a national and regional basis with the identification of some changes in program emphasis that will lessen the impact of the alcohol program on food supplies and prices.

  19. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  20. Infant mortality and child health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Denisard; Belluzzo, Walter

    2004-12-01

    Child health is a central issue in the public policy agenda of developing countries. Several policies aimed at improving child health have been implemented over the years, with varying degrees of success. In Brazil, such policies have triggered a significant decline in infant mortality rates over the last 30 years. Despite this improvement, however, mortality rates are still high compared to international standards. Moreover, there is considerable imbalance across Brazilian municipalities suggesting that various policies should be adopted. We investigate the determinants of infant mortality at the municipal level and provide an analysis of the factors affecting child health at the individual level. To analyze the mortality rate, we estimate static and dynamic panel data models using four censuses covering the period from 1970 to 2000. The demand for child health, on the other hand, is addressed through a household decision model, estimated using anthropometric data from the 1996 Standard of Living Survey. The results obtained indicate that a rise in sanitation, education and per capita income contributed to the decline of infant mortality in Brazil, with stronger impacts in the long run than in the short run. The fixed effects associated with county characteristics explain the observed dispersion in child mortality rates. The results from the decision model are confirmed by the findings of the mortality model: education, sanitation and poverty are the most important causes of poor child health in Brazil.

  1. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  2. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  3. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    brazilian-history/3-the- old-republic-1889-1930/ republica -velha-1889-1930/. 180 Ibid. 45 equal...2014. http://soulbrasileiro.com/main/brazil/brazilian-history/3-the-old-republic-1889- 1930/ republica -velha-1889-1930/. Spektor, Matias. “U.S

  4. Popular Education in Brazil. A Report on the LASG/WEA 1985 Study Visit to Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, Sunderland (England). Northern District.

    The 11 "themes" in this report describe the three-week study visit of 11 adult education workers from Northern England to Brazil. The report describes contacts with Brazilian colleagues in workers' and popular education and in related support services and trade and popular organizations they serve. "Organization of the Visit"…

  5. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  6. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  7. 77 FR 65906 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...\\ and that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from China and Ukraine would be... contained in USITC Publication 4354 (October 2012), entitled Silicomanganese from Brazil, China, and Ukraine...

  8. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  9. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  10. Focus on Brazil: A Case Study of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhan, Deborah L.

    The teaching unit is designed to help senior high school and college students learn about national development in Brazil. In this case study, development is defined as advances in social well-being and economic growth. Brazil was chosen as an example of a developing nation which depends upon foreign markets, technology, and capital. The country…

  11. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  12. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  13. Troglobitic scorpions: a new genus and species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce

    2004-12-01

    A new genus and species of troglobitic buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Brazil. This is the first cavernicolous scorpion ever found in Brazil, and only the second to be found in South America. Some considerations on troglobitic scorpions are proposed.

  14. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  15. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  16. Brazil: Finance of Primary Education. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, D.; And Others

    Compiled by the World Bank, this study of educational finance in Brazil identifies principal problems, possible solutions, and recommendations for policy changes. The study indicates that Brazil has not given high priority to educational investment, and identifies the problems as: (1) a lack of financial policy analysis and planning; (2) too…

  17. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  18. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations. PMID:28098542

  19. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  20. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…

  1. An Overview of Engineering Courses in Brazil: Actual Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canen, Alberto G.; Tammela, Iara; Camatta, Diogo Cevolani

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world as well one of the greatest economies among developing countries. To be competitive, Brazil needs to be able to develop technology, research and knowledge. In this sense, we argue that economic growth is directly related to technological development, which is linked to the investments in…

  2. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

    2013-06-28

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  3. [AIDS along Brazil's borders, 1990-2003].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS epidemic in Brazil's border areas, from the spatial and temporal perspective. This was an ecological study in which the cases of AIDS reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil from 1990-2003 were grouped according to "hunger areas" as defined by Josué de Castro in the 1940s and according to 19 cultural subregions. Spatial assessment was based on incidence rates for border municipalities; temporal assessment considered the absolute number of cases occurring quarterly from 1990-2003 in each of the hunger areas studied (Extreme South, Midwest, and Amazon). During the study period, 7,973 cases of AIDS were reported from the Brazilian border areas: 648 in the Amazon area, 1,579 in the Midwest, and 5,746 in the Extreme South (populations of 668,098, 895,489, and 2,769,361, respectively). The subregions with the highest AIDS incidence rates in each of the three border areas were those near triple-borders, between more than two Latin American countries. Sexual transmission was predominant, with heterosexual transmission being the most frequent, followed by transmission by male homosexuality. These two categories accounted for 87.2% of the cases reported. The estimates of the trend parameter in the temporal analysis were 0.53 (P < 0.0001), 0.83 (P < 0.0001), and 3.47 (P < 0.0001), respectively, for the Amazon, Midwest, and Extreme South areas. The improvement of health care services along Brazil's borders may be a strategy for territorial integration and for dealing with the AIDS epidemic, as long as social, economic, and cultural differences are taken into account.

  4. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ierecê ML; Alves, Rômulo RN; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana PR; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-01-01

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality. PMID

  6. Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Brasília-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

  7. Genetic diversity of Yersinia pestis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M B M; Barros, M P S; Silveira-Filho, V M; Araújo-Nepomuceno, M R; Balbino, V Q; Leal, N C; Almeida, A M P; Leal-Balbino, T C

    2012-09-25

    Plague outbreaks are occasionally reported in Brazil. Unfortunately, due to great genetic similarity, molecular subtyping of Yersinia pestis strains is difficult. Analysis of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), also known as MLVA, has been found to be a valuable tool to discriminate among strains. To check for genetic differences, strains obtained from two different ecological complexes in Brazil collected during two different epidemiological events, an epizootic in Sítio Alagoinha in 1967 and an outbreak in Planalto da Borborema in 1986, were subtyped through MLVA using 12 VNTR loci. Three clusters (A, B and C) were observed. Of the 20 strains from the epizootic, 18 fit into cluster A. Cluster A was divided into two subgroups: A(1) (15 strains) and A(2) (3 strains). Of the 17 strains from the outbreak, 15 fit into cluster B. Cluster B was divided into three subgroups: B(1) (4 strains), B(2) (4 strains) and B(3) (7 strains). Cluster C is a singleton with one epizootic strain. The external standards, Y. pestis CO92 and Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953, formed two clusters of singletons. The stability of 12 VNTR loci of three unrelated cultures included in this study was assessed. The 12 VNTR loci were stable through multiple serial subcultures in the laboratory. MLVA revealed that Y. pestis populations in Brazil are not monomorphic, and that there is intraspecific genetic diversity among Brazilian plague strains. We conclude that there is some correlation among genetic groups of this species, related to the temporal and geographic origin of isolates.

  8. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  9. Is Hepatitis Delta infections important in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Cicero, Maira Ferreira; Pena, Nathalia Mantovani; Santana, Luiz Claudio; Arnold, Rafael; Azevedo, Rafael Gonçalves; Leal, Élcio de Souza; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie; Komninakis, Shirley Vasconcelos

    2016-09-29

    The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) can increase the incidence of fulminant hepatitis. For this infection occurs, the host must also be infected with Hepatitis B Virus. Previous studies demonstrated the endemicity and near exclusivity of this infection in the Amazon region, and as a consequence of the difficulty in accessing this area we used dried blood spots (DBS) in sample collection. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of recombination, to analyze the epidemiology, ancestry and evolutionary pressures on HDV in Brazil. Blood samples from 50 individuals were collected using dried-blood spots (DBS 903, Whatman), and sent via regular mail to Retrovirology Laboratory from Federal University of São Paulo, where the samples were processed. In the analysis the following software were used: PhyML, RDP, BEAST, jModelTest and CODEML. Our results confirm the prevalence of HDV-3 in the Amazon region of Brazil, with the absence of inter-genotypic recombination. It was identified a positive selection in probable epitopes of HDV on B lymphocytes that might indicate that the virus is changing to escape the humoral response of the host. The analysis of the time of the most common ancestor demonstrated the exponential growth of this virus in late 1970s that lasted until 1995, after which it remained constant. It was also observed a probable founder effect in two cities, which demonstrate the need to focus on prevention methods against HBV/HDV infection. We confirmed the prevalence of HDV-3 in the Amazon region of Brazil, without inter-genotypic recombination. The analysis of the time of the most common ancestor showed that this infection remain constant in the studied area. Taking into account the probable founder effect established in the cities of Rio Branco and Porto Velho, a focus on preventive methods is recommended against these infections.

  10. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  11. Access to postpartum sterilization in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, B; Higgins, J E; Clopton, D C; Nakamura, M S; Brown, M L

    1982-05-01

    All women hospitalized for delivery over a ten-week period at the largest maternity hospital in Campinas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were questioned about their interest in and plans for sterilization. Results from a categorical data analysis indicate that among the study variables, cesarean delivery was the necessary condition for postpartum sterilization and was significantly associated with the patient's ability to pay for services. Further, the variability in the proportion of women sterilized postpartum was almost perfectly explained by a linear model with main effects for parity and for the patient's ability to pay for services.

  12. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  13. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  14. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  15. [Reproductive rights and racism in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Roland, E

    1995-01-01

    Sterilization in Brazil is discussed in a racial context and contrasted with the experience of the United States, demonstrating the historical differences between these two societies regarding race relations and reproductive rights. The American feminist Angela Davis referred to the control of fertility as genocide, especially as practiced in the first half of the 20th century. In 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt characterized the drop of White fertility caused by rapid urbanization as racial suicide. In 1932 the development of the eugenic movement resulted in inducing 26 states to adopt compulsory sterilization laws for persons considered unfit for reproduction. Margaret Sanger, the protagonist of fertility control, advocated a program of compulsory sterilization for imbeciles, illiterates, criminals, epileptics, the mentally retarded, prostitutes, and drug traffickers. 7686 sterilizations were performed in North Carolina, of which about 5000 were performed on Blacks to prevent the reproduction of mentally retarded persons. It was only in 1974 that guidelines were drawn up to prevent sterilization abuses. Under federal programs 100,000-200,000 persons were sterilized in 1972, and 35% of Puerto Rican women of reproductive age underwent sterilization. In Brazil 44% of the population of 147 million is Black. In 1940 the White population was the majority, but by 1980 a steady increase of the mulatto population had occurred. From 1965 on the White population began to decrease both because of oral contraceptive use and intermarriage. The fertility rate of the mulatto population was 4.1% in 1980 and 2.3% in 1990, less than the 2.4% rate of whites. The total fertility rate (TFR) in Brazil was 3.5 children per woman in 1986, which dropped to 2.5 in 1991. In the northeast, where the majority of the population is Black, the TFR was 3.7 in 1991 vs. 7.5 in 1970. Although in Brazil racial intolerance is not acceptable, there is still inequality of opportunity for Blacks. In

  16. [Medicine in Brazil today: education and practice].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, E L

    1990-01-01

    Present situation of medical education and medical practice in Brazil is analyzed, and the scientific-technological impact in medical practice is studied, in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The influence of scientific methods in medical education, specifically the Flexner's contribution, is evaluated. In the recent years, Flexner's propositions have been put in question, particularly because of important contributions of psychology, anthropology and sociology to a better knowledge of human nature. Therefore many curricular alternatives have been proposed, aiming at a medical education that would favor the formation of well poised personality and a critical intelligence.

  17. Production and marketing of drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castelo, A; Colombo, A L; Holbrook, A M

    1991-01-01

    Brazil is typical of many developing countries in its struggle to provide basic healthcare for its citizens in face of national economic instability. Since pharmaceuticals represent a major component of modern healthcare, their production, regulation and use become an area of concern. It appears that any change in the current production patterns will require a major commitment from governments, understanding external economic pressures. There are pros and cons in a policy directed towards pharmaceutical self-sufficiency. Aside from production, efforts directed towards extending access to essential drugs and improving the appropriateness of use, would appear to be warranted.

  18. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-11-27

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions.

  19. Dermatological diseases of compulsory notification in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2011-01-01

    The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented.

  20. Biocatalysis and biotransformation in Brazil: An overview.

    PubMed

    Birolli, Willian G; Ferreira, Irlon M; Alvarenga, Natália; Santos, Darlisson de A; de Matos, Iara L; Comasseto, João V; Porto, André L M

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the recent research in biocatalysis and biotransformation in Brazil. Several substrates were biotransformed by fungi, bacteria and plants. Biocatalytic deracemization of secondary alcohols, oxidation of sulfides, sp(3) CH hydroxylation and epoxidation of alkenes were described. Chemo-enzymatic resolution of racemic alcohols and amines were carried out with lipases using several substrates containing heteroatoms such as silicon, boron, selenium and tellurium. Biotransformation of nitriles by marine fungi, hydrolysis of epoxides by microorganisms of Brazilian origin and biooxidation of natural products were described. Enzymatic reactions under microwave irradiation, continuous flow, and enzymatic assays using fluorescent probes were reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  2. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A

    1993-01-01

    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  3. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  4. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  5. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes da Silva, Aracy

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  6. Brazil and the United States. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series No. 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.

    One of a series, this booklet on world issues explains why Brazil has become important for the United States. Brazil's rise from a sleeping giant to continental leader is investigated. Brazil's impressive economic growth from the mid-1960s through the 1970s is explored. An analysis of Brazil's economic crisis of the 1980s is also explained.…

  7. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

  8. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  9. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil.

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael M; Levy, Renata B; Popkin, Barry M; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002-2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48,470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption.

  11. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  12. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.

  13. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  14. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  15. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  16. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  17. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  18. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  19. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  20. Multidecadal Variability of the North Brazil Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; McPhaden, M.

    2009-04-01

    The North Brazil Current (NBC) flowing northward in the tropical south Atlantic is one of the strongest western boundary currents in the world ocean. It's unique location, straddling the tropical Atlantic where currents are predominately zonal, suggests that it is a major component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Fritz Schott was one of the first to suggest using the NBC as an index for AMOC transport, which is difficult to simulate accurately in models and data assimilation systems due to a lack of observational constraints. Here, we calculate an NBC transport time series based on five decades of historical ocean observations near the western boundary off the coast of Brazil between 6° and 11°S. Results reveal a large magnitude NBC variation on multidecadal time scales that is coherent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in sea surface temperature, multidecadal swings in Sahel Drought and Atlantic hurricane activity, as well as the subtropical and subpolar upper ocean salinity anomalies. All of these multidecadal variations have been linked to the AMOC in a number of modelling studies, suggesting that our observed multidecadal NBC variability is an useful indicator of the AMOC. Concerning the possible slowdown of AMOC under global warming and the debate about whether a slowdown has already occurred, our NBC transport time series shows no significant trend over the last half century. The results provide important constraints on climate models used for climate change projections and decadal time scale climate predictions.

  1. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  2. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  3. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  4. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  5. Decentralising the health sector: issues in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Araujo, J; Barbosa, J

    2000-06-01

    The health sector in Brazil has undergone important changes, particularly with the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). Decentralisation is an important principle of SUS and advances have been made in transferring responsibilities and resources to the local government units, known as municipios. This article describes the changes introduced, focusing on the system of municipio classification and the funding mechanisms introduced through the basic operating rule (BOR) of 1996. The paper then moves on to analysing three key issues of decentralisation in Brazil that are related to the policy process, the system of decentralisation and the output of decentralisation. Firstly, the formal process by which decisions on health sector reform are made is discussed with particular attention being paid to the negotiated and relatively open policy space. Secondly, the role of the states is discussed within the decentralised system. Thirdly, the impact of decentralisation on equity is discussed with particular reference to the resourcing of the Municipal Health Funds. The article concludes by emphasising the political nature of health sector decentralisation and the need to develop the conditions for effectiveness in decentralisation programmes.

  6. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J; Badaró Trindade, Angela C; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO's (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors' offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  7. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  8. Misuse of organomercury fungicides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, W. F.; Pregnolatto, W.; Pigati, P.

    1976-01-01

    A methoxyethyl mercuric compound, licensed in Brazil as a fungicide for seed dressing, was widely used for spraying tomato and other vegetable crops in 1966 and 1967. Mercury residues ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 mg/kg were detected in 14% of the tomatoes, 13% of other vegetable samples, and 57% of the tomato paste batches. A wide campaign through newspapers, radio, and television was quickly established to educate farmers and the population in general on the hazards of ingestion of mercury-contaminated food. All samples of tomatoes and other vegetables positive for mercury (residues above 0.05 mg/kg) were destroyed. Inspection posts on the main roads and highways prevented the delivery of contaminated food to cities and food processing plants. The sale of organomercury fungicides is now controlled in Brazil; however, treated seeds which are not planted may be diverted to human or animal consumption. There is no official record of accidents, but occasional cases of poisoning are known. The mercury residue level in Brazilian fish is low, indicating that environmental pollution by mercury is not a big problem in the country. However, some fresh-water and estuarine fish may contain mercury residues ranging from 0.01 to 0.66 mg/kg. PMID:1086162

  9. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Renata B.; Popkin, Barry M.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. Methods. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002–2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48 470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Results. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). Conclusions. High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption. PMID:22095333

  10. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  11. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  12. Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; Collier, Carolina Alves; de Almeida Neto, Miguel Santana; Silva, Karina Maria de Souza; Policarpo, Iamara da Silva; Araújo, Thiago Antonio S.; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species) used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices. PMID:22454668

  13. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  14. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  15. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, J E; Noronha, I L

    2003-02-01

    Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease in Brazil, with glomerulonephritis still the leading cause of ESRD. Little is known about the epidemiology of renal disease in the Brazilian (or Latin American) native population, which is numerous in some Central and South American countries, but constitute a very small minority in Brazil. However, interesting information has been obtained from the Yanomamis, a tribe living in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela. Hypertension is virtually absent among these people, who ingest very little sodium, lending strong support to the concept that sodium retention, a "civilization" factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Despite Brazil's striking socioeconomic disparities, access to RRT is in principle accessible to all those in need of it. The dialysis units have been modernized in recent years, whereas the Government covers most expenses related to RRT. However, the prevalence of RRT in Brazil is currently approximately 320 per million population, less than one third as high as in the US, suggesting that ESRD may be underdiagnosed in the country. Much effort is still needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease and to improve the quality and the reach of RRT in Brazil and in Latin America.

  16. A Checklist of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colpani, Daniara; Benetti, Cesar João; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-12-01

    A checklist of all known species of the water beetle family Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) recorded from Brazil is assembled. This checklist is based on literature published prior to 2012. A total of 206 species and subspecies are cited for Brazil, distributed among three genera (Enhydrus Laporte, 1834, Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762 and Gyretes Brullé, 1835). For each species we also include a complete account of its nomenclature including synonyms and historical combinations. The geographical distribution of each species both inside and outside of Brazil is provided.

  17. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  18. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Lino; Faria da Silva, Gláucia; Mutarelli Setúbal, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará”) in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture. PMID:27417350

  19. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  20. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  1. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  2. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    PubMed

    Blum-Menezes, Dulcinéa; Deliberalli, Ivânia; Bittencourt, Najara Carneiro; Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares do; Barbosa, Liana Nunes; Santos, Alessandro Marques dos; Pinto, Gabriel Godinho

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  3. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, Seasonal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01733

  4. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with < 30 MW installed capacity number in the hundreds. Amazonian dams have substantial environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country

  5. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and the suspended... steel from Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and/ or the...

  6. Size segregation in the Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soterroni, Aline C.; Ramos, Fernando M.

    2013-10-01

    Granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and in our daily lives, and used in many industrial processes. Depending on the physical conditions that they are subjected, granular materials may present unusual behavior, combining properties of solids, liquids or gases, and displaying interesting and diversified phenomena. In this work we numerically simulated a granular system in order to investigate the phenomena of size segregation in the Brazil Nut Effect. Our simulations indicate that the phenomenon of size segregation results from the combined effect of two different mechanisms: buoyancy and convection. Increasing the vibration amplitude, the behavior of the system becomes less periodic and more turbulent, with evidence of deterministic chaos in the dynamics of the large particle.

  7. Literacy in Brazil: from Rights to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Timothy D.

    2008-11-01

    At a time when some 24% of the Brazilian population of 182 million are functionally illiterate, the author shows how illiteracy is concentrated in traditionally poor and disadvantaged social and ethnic groups as well as in certain regions of the country. He surveys the changes in legislation, policies and attitudes relating to literacy over the past few decades and describes how literacy is increasingly seen as a continuous process rather than a short-term, low-cost intervention. While there is still a lack of a broad, coordinated policy and adequate funding in this area, and while the challenges remain formidable, the author concludes that Brazil is moving slowly in the right direction.

  8. [Social inequality and health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neri, Marcelo; Soares, Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between social inequality and health in Brazil. The strategy adopted by the authors was to analyze needs and uses of medical care as well as access to health insurance plans according to income distribution. Determinants of health care consumption were also studied by means of logistic regression. The main source of data was the 1998 National Sample Household Survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (PNAD-IBGE). In general, individuals in the lowest income distribution deciles had less access to health insurance, greater need for medical care, and lower consumption of such services. Other determinants of health care consumption were heavily associated with the most privileged social strata (greater access to schooling, water supply, sewerage, electricity, garbage collection, and health insurance) and with factors pointing to the capacity to supply these services in country.

  9. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  10. Religious Dissociation and Economic Appraisal in Brazil.

    PubMed

    François Dengah, H J

    2016-04-01

    Research on the association between religion and health often neglects to provide an explicit theoretical mechanism of influence between faith and well-being. This research posits that dissociative behaviors, such as glossolalia, may provide a biological pathway that influences both physiological and psychological health. This paper argues that religious dissociation acts as a moderator between economic stressors and psychobiological appraisal. Brazil, with its economic inequality and preponderance of religious dissociative rituals, provides an ideal context to examine religious dissociation as a moderator of stress. Utilizing data from a cross section of Brazilian faiths, this paper examines: (1) Whether individuals with low socioeconomic status preferentially participate and experience religious dissociative states and (2) whether dissociative states are correlated with greater psychological appraisal of status.

  11. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-01-01

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit. PMID:27226956

  12. Radioactive characterization of phosphogypsum from Imbituba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renata Coura; Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido

    2013-12-01

    This research aims to characterize the content of natural occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum stacks at Imbituba, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th were determined in PG, soils and sediment samples by gamma spectrometry using the hyper pure germanium detector and neutron activation. The migration of radionuclides in the phosphogypsum profile did not show the same behavior for all sampling sites. The mean activity concentration of (226)Ra was 95 Bq kg(-1), which is far below the limit recommended by the U.S. Environmental Agency (USEPA) for its application in agriculture (370 Bq kg(-1)) and the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy Resolution 113 that established a reference level of 1000 Bq kg(-1) of (226)Ra or (228)Ra for the use of PG in agriculture as well as building materials.

  13. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  14. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  15. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-05-20

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit.

  16. The challenges of ageism in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The material and symbolic resource flows and obligations between generations leave an indelible imprint on family members. These intergenerational exchanges have increased in recent years with growing human longevity and they thus have become important to current academic and policy agendas. Concurrently, ageism and age discrimination have emerged as important subjects. The main goal of this article is to call attention to these issues and their relationship with the current policy debate on resource allocation by age groups. We argue that ageism and the practice of age discrimination in Brazil should be viewed as part of the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by individuals. While noticing someone’s age is not inherently offensive, acting on age-based stereotypes clearly works against the individual and often goes unchallenged by mainstream society. A central assumption in this paper is that the way we frame ageism and intergenerational relations significantly affects perceived age discrimination and support for age-based social programs. PMID:26401063

  17. [The anti-asylum movement in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lüchmann, Lígia Helena Hahn; Rodrigues, Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the history of the national anti-asylum struggle in Brazil. It analyzes some of the movement's difficulties, achievements and challenges. The theory of social movements is used here as an important analytical tool to understand this collective action, to the degree in which theory allows an appraisal of this type of social action rooted in its many configurations, evidencing the complexity of the contemporary world. The anti-asylum movement is composed of many stakeholders whose struggles and conflicts have been developed through different social-political-institutional dimensions. It encompasses at different moments and to different degrees, a movement which articulates solidarity and conflict relations and social denunciations in an attempt to transform relations and conceptions that are discriminatory and which are intended to control the "insane" and "insanity" in our country.

  18. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  19. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  20. [Religious affiliation and mental health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dalgalarrondo, P

    1994-12-01

    Religiosity is a complex and fundamental socio-cultural phenomenon. Its possible positive or negative influence on the ethiology and treatment of mental illness remains controversial. Evangelical sects, specially the Pentecostals, have expanded dramatically in the last 40 years, in Latin America. Until now, the socio-cultural implications of this process have not been systematically studied. In the present study a group of patients admitted to a psychiatric unit in a general hospital in Campinas, Brazil, was investigated. Diagnosis distribution and length of hospital stay was related to religion affiliation. More functional psychosis and a shorter length of stay was found in the Pentecostal group. Possible implications of these findings are critically discussed.

  1. Biomass gasification: A demonstration in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine (BIG-GT) cycles offer considerable opportunities for improved efficiency in biomass power systems. As a result of international collaboration, a full-scale plant in Brazil will be the first commercial scale demonstration plant to utilise this system. The project, if successful, will lead to the commercial development of highly efficient, relatively easily installed biomass energy plants. The global implications could be significant, with biomass possibly contributing to power supplies in a scale similar to nuclear and hydro by the mid 21st century. It could provide a basis for rural development and employment in developing countries, and utilization of excess crop land in the industrial world.

  2. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  3. Current biomass energy technology in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, H.G.

    1985-06-01

    The potential for major biomass energy production in Brazil is very great because of the significant possibilities for expansion of the agricultural and forest production there. For example, production of 20 t/ha (metric) of dry wood in the Amazon basin is reported here by the senior author, who worked with the huge JARI operation there. In addition to the current large ethanol production (7.5 billion liters estimated 1983/84) based mainly on sugar cane, the potential for expanding this with sweet sorghum and cassava is promising. Research and development there and in the US resulted in a high-compression ethanol tractor showing slightly higher thermal efficiency than a standard diesel tractor under field operating conditions.

  4. Paraiba do Sul river delta, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-738-019 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- The Delta of the Paraiba do Sul River, northeast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, stands out in this 70mm frame exposed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The brown color of the river water and offshore sediment plume show that the river is in flood stage. This delta attracts much attention from orbit because of its prominent beach ridges either side of the river mouth. River sediment from inland supplies the material which is redistributed by coastal currents to form the parallel beach ridges. The lower 20 miles of the river appear in this scene. The river flows into the Atlantic in an easterly direction.

  5. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima; MODENA, Karin Cristina da Silva; FREITAS, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; FAGUNDES, Ticiane Cestari

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in Brazilian dental schools. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the followig subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. Results: A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%), and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%). The majority (35.3%) of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%). It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice), and the disciplines involved in its teaching. Conclusions: It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil. PMID:21499663

  6. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  7. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  8. Mucorales from the semiarid of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco), Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene) bis (3-thioallophanate)] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospora, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24159320

  9. Brazil: a clinic for street kids.

    PubMed

    Adams, I K

    1993-01-01

    Physicians at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1989 teamed up with the Archdiocese Street Youth Ministry to finance Clinica Ammor, the Street Kids' Clinic of Belo Horizonte. Belo Horizonte is the third largest city in Brazil, with a population of 3.5 million. Although the clinic was established to study risk behavior for HIV, a far greater need was found for medical care and education of which HIV is only a small part. A doctor and a nurse offer drop-in care to children and adolescents who live on the street. More than 600 children came for an average of four visits during the first three years ranging in age from the newborn to over 20 years. 80% of clients, however, have been aged 12-18; 75% are male. The staff encourages complete check-ups, including HIV testing, as part of an ongoing program to develop body and health awareness. Medication and laboratory examinations are provided to the extent that available resources permit. When appropriate, clients are referred to various specialized medical facilities in the city. Sex and drug education focus upon the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Special attention is given to street girls and their babies. The clinic since March 1991 has participated in the Integrated Plan for Attention to Street Youth in Belo Horizonte, a group of 17 governmental and nongovernmental organizations which work with street youth in the city. The clinic would like to add a social worker, a part-time pediatrician, and a part-time gynecologist-obstetrician. Funding is needed to continue and expand services. The author stresses that successful AIDS prevention must be linked to projects concerned with the reality and reasons for the marginalization of street children and promote changes at that level. Intimate staff-client interaction at the clinic conveys to the youths a message of commitment, respect, and self value.

  10. Controversy erupts in Brazil over penis nicknames.

    PubMed

    1995-10-09

    Commissioned by the Brazilian health ministry to conduct a publicity campaign designed to encourage the use of condoms, the Master Communication and Marketing company conducted a survey in which it collected dozens of nicknames for the penis. The television component of the campaign involves an actor who holds a heart-to-heart conversation with his penis, recommending that it use condoms and showing it, with a candle, how to do so. "Braulio" was chosen as the name for the penis. Braulio, however, is a common men's name in Brazil. Shortly after the launch of the campaign, men named Braulio staged numerous protests against the use of their name. The Health Minister subsequently suspended the campaign on September 23, 1995, to allow selection of an alternate name for the penis. The campaign has resumed, this time using eight impersonal expressions such as "partner" and "him" to identify the penis, and is planned to run for three months despite the controversy. A journalist formerly named Braulio has officially changed his name to avoid being mocked, a lawyer in Sao Paulo named Braulio will continue to head a suit against the government filed by a group of Braulios alleging moral damage, and the Catholic Church criticizes the bluntness of the campaign, which mentions oral and anal sex on the radio. Nonetheless, a health ministry poll of almost 1000 people found that 80% supported the campaign. The coordinator of the Program of Sexually Transmitted Diseases insists that the blunt language is necessary to reach the lower-income, less-educated masculine population. Official figures indicate that 80% of the slightly more than 71,000 registered AIDS cases in Brazil are among men aged 19-35 years, and it is among men aged 20-40 years that HIV is spreading most rapidly. The health ministry has been bombarded with alternate nicknames for the penis since the initial uproar, enough to fill a book. The article points out that the nicknames vary according to region.

  11. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  12. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in Brazilian dental schools. A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the following subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%), and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%). The majority (35.3%) of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%). It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice), and the disciplines involved in its teaching. It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil.

  13. Vaccine Protection Against Zika Virus from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Larocca, Rafael A.; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S.; de A. Zanotto, Paolo M.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng’ang’a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B.; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T.; Bricault, Christine A.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Giglio, Patricia B.; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Maxfield, Lori F.; De La Barrera, Rafael A.; Jarman, Richard G.; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for an unprecedented current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas1,2. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans3–8 and mice9–11. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority1,2, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization of a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a ZIKV outbreak strain from northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice11. We produced DNA vaccines expressing full-length ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env) as well as a series of deletion mutants. The full-length prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV as measured by absence of detectable viremia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte depletion in vaccinated mice did not abrogate protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans will likely be readily achievable. PMID:27355570

  14. Prevalence of Trachoma in Schoolchildren in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Lopes, Maria de Fátima Costa; Medina, Norma Helen; Favacho, Joana; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2016-12-01

    Trachoma was hyperendemic in Brazil until the 20th century. The prevalence has declined sharply in the past decades. The aim of this study was to estimate trachoma prevalence in schoolchildren in Brazilian municipalities with a Human Development Index (HDI) below the national mean. A cluster random sampling survey on trachoma prevalence was carried out. Brazilian municipalities with HDI below the national mean, within each of the 27 states, were stratified into three strata according to population size. In each stratum, schools were systematically selected to comprise a sample of 2400 schoolchildren, totaling 7200 per state. In each selected school, children enrolled from 1st to 4th grade were examined for trachoma. The simplified trachoma grading system was used. At a meeting held in each school, the study was explained to parents, and verbal consent sought. A total of 185,862 children were enrolled in the selected schools. Of these, 171,973 (92.5%) participated in the study. The overall prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 4.7-5.3%), varying from 1.5% to 9.0% among the states. Prevalence was significantly associated with the sampling stratum (being higher in small municipalities), the zone in which the school was located (higher in rural schools), and with age (higher among younger children). Trachoma is still a public health problem in Brazil, although at a low level of endemicity. As the country advances towards the elimination of blinding trachoma, this survey provides a baseline for evaluation of ongoing and future elimination interventions.

  15. Alcohol consumption among drivers in Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Sandra Lúcia Vieira Ulinski; Sripad, Pooja; Lunnen, Jeffrey Craig; Moyses, Simone Tetu; Chandran, Aruna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The combination of drinking and driving is globally understood as a risk factor for road traffic crashes and disastrous outcomes such as injury and disability or death. However, the magnitude of the problem may not always be known in many countries, particularly where there are legislative loopholes. In Brazil, until December 2012, verification by breathalyzer of drinking and driving was dependent on drivers' acceptance of the tests after being stopped by the police. To describe the epidemiological profile of drinking and driving behaviors of a sample of drivers from Curitiba, Brazil, and explore the sociodemographic characteristics of those interviewed at police sobriety checkpoints. Drivers were selected and interviewed at police checkpoints on public roads in Curitiba. The local police, after informed consent, applied breathalyzer tests to check the drivers' blood alcohol content and the results were compared with data previously collected through interviews containing self-reports of drinking and driving. Data were collected between March and November 2012. Of the 511 drivers asked to participate in the study, 398 (77.9%) agreed to give a roadside interview. Most respondents were single men between the ages of 18 and 29 years, with 8.3% of interviewed drivers self-reporting alcohol consumption in the last 6 h before driving. On the other hand, only 46.2% of the whole sample accepted the breathalyzer testing. Among those breathalyzed by the police, 2.7% tested positive for alcohol. This study, conducted on public roads in Curitiba, shows a noticeable proportion of drivers voluntarily self-reporting drinking and driving. However, a smaller percentage was confirmed to have positive blood alcohol content, likely due to the high breathalyzer refusal rate.

  16. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory before Departing Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-19

    After months of environmental tests at Brazil National Institute for Space Research Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE, NASA Aquarius/SAC-D observatory is loaded into a crate for shipment to Vandenberg Air Force Base.

  18. Burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Amine Farias; Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Costa, Maria de Fátima Dos Santos; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Lobato, Luiz Cláudio da Paixão; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2017-03-30

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus currently ranks high among indicators used in Global Burden of Disease Studies. The current study estimated the burden of disease attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications in Brazil, 2008. We calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) stratified by gender, age bracket, and major geographic region. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounted for 5% of the burden of disease in Brazil, ranking 3rd in women and 6th in men in the composition of DALYs. The largest share of DALYs was concentrated in the 30-59-year age bracket and consisted mainly of YLDs. The highest YLL and YLD rates were in the Northeast and South of Brazil, respectively. Chronic complications represented 80% of YLDs from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus ranked as a leading health problem in Brazil in 2008, accounting for relevant shares of mortality and morbidity.

  19. New species and records of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new species of Anastrepha from Brazil are described and illustrated: A. matogrossensis (Mato Grosso), A. oiapoquensis (Amapá), and A. siculigera (Amapá). Anastrepha rafaeli Norrbom & Korytkowski also is reported from the state of Tocantins....

  20. Interruption of measles transmission in Brazil, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Prevots, D Rebecca; Parise, M Salet; Segatto, Teresa Cristina V; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; dos Santos, Elizabeth D; Ganter, Bernardus; Perreira, Maria Carolina C Q; Domingues, Carla A; Lanzieri, Tatiana; Da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa

    2003-05-15

    In 1992, Brazil adopted the goal of measles elimination by the year 2000; however, in 1997, after a 4-year period of good control, there was a resurgence of measles in Brazil. In 1999, to achieve the elimination goal, Brazil implemented the Supplementary Emergency Measles Action plan, with one measles surveillance technician designated to each state. Of 10,007 suspected measles cases reported during 1999, 908 (9.1%) were confirmed, and of them 378 (42%) were confirmed by laboratory analysis. Of 8358 suspected measles cases reported in 2000, 36 (0.4%) were confirmed (30 [83%] by laboratory); 92% of the discarded cases were classified on the basis of laboratory testing. In 2001, only 1 of 5599 suspected measles cases was confirmed, and it was an imported case from Japan. The last outbreak occurred in February 2000, with 15 cases. Current data suggest interruption of indigenous measles transmission in Brazil.

  1. A new Tanaostigmodes Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perioto, N W; Lara, R I R

    2013-05-01

    Tanaostigmodes horacioi sp. nov. Perioto & Lara (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil is described and illustrated. T. horacioi is the second included species in the insculptus species group of Tanaostigmodes Ashmead, 1896. A key to species of the insculptus group is provided.

  2. Historical amphibian declines and extinctions in Brazil linked to chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Tamilie; Becker, C Guilherme; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-02-08

    The recent increase in emerging fungal diseases is causing unprecedented threats to biodiversity. The origin of spread of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a matter of continued debate. To date, the historical amphibian declines in Brazil could not be attributed to chytridiomycosis; the high diversity of hosts coupled with the presence of several Bd lineages predating the reported declines raised the hypothesis that a hypervirulent Bd genotype spread from Brazil to other continents causing the recent global amphibian crisis. We tested for a spatio-temporal overlap between Bd and areas of historical amphibian population declines and extinctions in Brazil. A spatio-temporal convergence between Bd and declines would support the hypothesis that Brazilian amphibians were not adapted to Bd prior to the reported declines, thus weakening the hypothesis that Brazil was the global origin of Bd emergence. Alternatively, a lack of spatio-temporal association between Bd and frog declines would indicate an evolution of host resistance in Brazilian frogs predating Bd's global emergence, further supporting Brazil as the potential origin of the Bd panzootic. Here, we Bd-screened over 30 000 museum-preserved tadpoles collected in Brazil between 1930 and 2015 and overlaid spatio-temporal Bd data with areas of historical amphibian declines. We detected an increase in the proportion of Bd-infected tadpoles during the peak of amphibian declines (1979-1987). We also found that clusters of Bd-positive samples spatio-temporally overlapped with most records of amphibian declines in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Our findings indicate that Brazil is post epizootic for chytridiomycosis and provide another piece to the puzzle to explain the origin of Bd globally. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Brazil: U.S. Strategy for the Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-21

    prominently in future international relations. 12 The other developing problem is the Amazon Basin’s deforestation resulting from opening the interior to...northern Brazil, near the mouth of the Amazon River.15 The country in 1981 consumed about one million barrels per day and produced about 250,000 barrels...trade agreements and gain external capital. Brazil’s 1978 Amazon Pact was seen as a first step in shifting diplomatic attitudes favoring only the United

  4. [One photograph, myriad images: rural education in Northern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Sonia Maria da Silva

    2010-12-01

    The article addresses the processes by which schools have been established and institutionalized on extensive-grazing ranches in rural Soure, Marajó Island, Brazil. Emergence of these schools has been tied to large landholdings and to the political relations between ranchers, vaqueiros, and government. Theoretical reflections, social data, and events are placed side-by-side with photographs that depict the fragile state of public education available to children living in the rural areas of far northern Brazil.

  5. [Social spending in Brazil: income transfer programs versus social investments].

    PubMed

    Lavinas, Lena

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the dynamics of social spending in Brazil, with lower outlays on basic services and more direct monetary transfers through means-test programs, highlighting the fact that as Brazil's social safety net concentrates on cash transfer programs without simultaneously increasing per capita outlays on education, basic sanitation and housing, it is not resolving the issue of inequality. This paper works with secondary data from the National Household Sampling Survey, together with Federal, State and Municipal budgets.

  6. Capillaria hepatica in Puma concolor: first report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Rosiléia M; Pilati, Célso; Marques, Sandra M T; Mazzolli, Marcelo; Benedet, Rodrigo C

    2009-09-01

    Capillaria hepatica was detected by histopathologic diagnosis in two cougars that were shot in April 2008 in Painel, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Macroscopic analysis of their livers revealed the presence of diffuse granulomas, and the histopathologic analysis indicated the presence of C. hepatica eggs, surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate, small foci of necrosis, and mild-to-moderate fibrosis. This is the first report of C. hepatica in cougars (Puma concolor) in Brazil.

  7. Aspidochirotida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, Jéssica; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2014-11-28

    This is a taxonomic work on the aspidochirotid sea cucumbers from shallow waters in Northeast Brazil. We studied 165 specimens, classified into 2 families, 3 genera, 7 subgenera and 9 species. Descriptions, illustrations and literature data are included for each species, in addition to ecological notes and information on their distribution in the northeast coast of Brazil. A taxonomic key is provided for the identification of the species.

  8. The first clinical liver transplantation of Brazil revisited.

    PubMed

    Bacchella, T; Machado, M C C

    2004-05-01

    The first clinical orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil was performed on August 5, 1968. The patient was awake after surgery and died on the seventh postoperative day due to subdural hematoma, bronchopneumonia, renal failure, and graft rejection. The report of this case is important to understand the evolution of clinical liver transplantation in Brazil, where this procedure is now routinely carried out in many medical centers.

  9. Brazil to help develop oil, gas in Argentina's Northeast basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that Brazil and Argentina have agreed to joint exploration and development of oil and gas in Argentina's Northeast basin. Although not covered by the accord, the venture could lead to a 2,400 km, $2.5 billion gas pipeline system form the Argentine basin to southern Brazil, beyond almost $2 billion in exploration and development costs. The Northeast basin has proved reserves of 95 million bbl of crude oil and 2.1 tcf of gas.

  10. The EDUCAR Foundation in Brazil: Two Experiences. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfim, Maria Nubia Barbosa

    Data from a 1980 population census indicates that of the over 73.5 million people in Brazil who were over 15 years of age, 25.4 percent were illiterate and 27.42 percent had less than 1 year of schooling. Such data show the precarious situation of education in Brazil, particularly that of adolescents and adults. Its origins lie in the dual nature…

  11. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  12. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  13. [Malaria control in Brazil: 1965 to 2001].

    PubMed

    Loiola, Carlos Catão Prates; da Silva, C J Mangabeira; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2002-04-01

    This paper reviews malaria control initiatives in Brazil, from the Malaria Eradication Campaign (Campanha de Erradicação da Malária), which was launched in 1965 and was based on spraying dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and on administering antimalarial drugs, to the implementation, in 2000, of the Program for Intensification of Malaria Control in the nine-state Legal Amazon region of Brazil (Plano de Intensificação das Ações de Controle da Malária na Amazônia Legal), which was implemented in response to the World Health Organization's Roll Back Malaria effort. Among the Brazilian initiatives discussed are epidemiological stratification, the Impact Operation (Operação Impacto), the Amazon Basin Malaria Control Project (Projeto de Controle da Malária na Bacia Amazônica), and the Integrated Malaria Control Program (Programa de Controle Integrado da Malária). Although there was progress in the control of malaria before the Intensification Program was launched in 2000, the actions carried out were not sustained. From 1998 to 1999 there was even a 34% increase in the number of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon. The Intensification Program set a goal, in comparison to 1999, of reducing by 50% the number of malaria cases by the end of 2001 and of cutting by 50% the mortality due to malaria by the end of 2002. Data for 2001 showed an overall 39% decrease in the number of malaria cases in the nine Amazonian states of the Intensification Program. The smallest decrease (15%) was in the state of Amapá, where the plan was not implemented until the second half of 2001. In terms of incidence by species, there was a 35% reduction in cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum and a 41% reduction in cases caused by P. vivax. The only independent variable that explains this reduction is the implementation of the Intensification Program. Although preliminary, these results indicate considerable gains. Decisive to this progress has been the strong mobilization of

  14. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  15. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  16. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  17. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-03-30

    Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67-2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25-4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. The inequalities among the country's regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. Avaliar os ambientes escolares aos quais estão expostos estudantes do nono ano no Brasil e nas cinco regiões do país segundo diretrizes de promoção da saúde. Estudo transversal, de 2012, com amostra representativa do Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Escolares do nono ano e gestores de escolas públicas e privadas foram entrevistados. Foi proposto o Escore de Promoção de Saúde no Ambiente Escolar (EPSAE) e foi estimada a distribuição dos escolares segundo esse escore e segundo odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, por regressão ordinal, para exposição dos escolares a escolas com escores mais elevados, segundo as variáveis independentes. Um escolar tem mais probabilidade de frequentar escola com EPSAE elevado na região Sul (OR = 2,80; IC95% 2,67-2,93) se a escola for privada privada (OR = 4,52; IC95% 4,25-4,81) e estiver localizada em capital de estado e se o

  18. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  19. Origin and Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n = 107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998–2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000–2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22970331

  20. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  1. Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Golding, Nick; Kraemer, Moritz U G; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; da Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Cruz, Ana Cecília Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vianez, Joao Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Bruno Tardelli Diniz; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Tesh, Robert B; Hay, Simon I; Pybus, Oliver G; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-04-30

    In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. We compiled epidemiological and clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil and polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April and September 2014. Two imported and four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities. We detected 41 CHIKV importations and 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola and developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country and provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil. The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian and ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance and vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

  2. Using the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Persch, Karina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has received influxes of people, mainly from Africa, Europe and Japan, forming one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world. Some groups, particularly in Southern Brazil, have retained their original cultural traditions, whilst acquiring elements of the typical local Brazilian cultural identity. This is the first study designed to formally evaluate biculturality in Brazil. To psychometrically assess and validate the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale (BS) in Brazil. The BS was adapted and translated to Portuguese and tested for the first time in Brazil in a sample of descendants (n = 160) from four immigrant groups and respective locations in Southern Brazil. A series of psychometric tests were conducted in order to examine the validity of the Portuguese version of the BS. Analyses of variance across scores for all subgroups were also conducted. Factor analysis revealed two main factors contributing to most of the variance in scores. The 10 items measuring affiliation with minority cultural characteristics and the typical Brazilian culture yielded Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69 and 0.78 respectively, whereas the overall Cronbach's alpha for all 20 items of the BS was 0.67. There was a significant correlation between items related to the typical Brazilian culture and the generation since immigration of research participants (r = 0.23, p = 0.004). The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 7.4 minutes. The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the BS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use instrument to assess biculturality experienced by descendants of immigrants in southern Brazil.

  3. The privatization of medical education in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2015-12-17

    Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader

  4. The Group Oral Health Movement in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Chaves, Sonia Cristina de Lima; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Barros, Sandra Garrido; Cruz, Denise Nogueira

    2017-06-01

    Group Oral Health (GOH) is a specific phenomenon in time, separate from other "Alternative Odontology", and a theoretical reference for dental practice in healthcare services. This study is an attempt to understand how long "Alternative Odontology" will remain with the social context of struggling for oral health in Brazil, based on the positions of the founding agents and their precursors, bearing in mind the concepts of GOH, GH (Group Health) and the SUS (Unified Healthcare System). We started out with Pierre Bourdieu's Practice Theory, complemented with Gramsci's concept of hegemony and counter-hegemony. We completed 12 in-depth interviews, reviewed the literature and analyzed the scientific output. We also looked at the trajectories of the agents and their capital between 1980 and 2013. The results show that the concept of GOC and GH as a breach with health practices, which gave rise to "Alternative Odontology", prevailed among those with the political will to defend democracy and Healthcare Reforms. Although GOC is a critical proposal, the older "Odontology" remains in scientific journals, and in the practice of oral care.

  5. How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

  6. Brazil advances subsea technology in Marlim pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-29

    Petroleum Brasileiro SA has extended several water depth records for subsea technology during a pilot project in giant Marlim oil field in the Campos basin off Brazil. Petrobras finished the 10 well Marlim pilot last December. The field's pilot phase was intended to begin early production and enable Petrobras to gather more reservoir data. Ten satellite wells, including two prepilot wells, were completed during the Marlim pilot phase with guidelineless (GLL) wet christmas trees designed and fabricated by FMC Corp., Houston, and CBV Industrial Mechanic SA, Rio de Janeiro. The subsea wells are producing 52,000 b/d of oil and 21.19 MMCfd of gas in water depths of 1,847-2,562 ft. Marlim pilot well flow is routed to a permanent semisubmersible floating production system (FPS). Oil moves from the FPS to a monobuoy that offloads to a shuttle tanker. In addition to marking the first successful uses of purpose-built GLL wet trees, FMC said the Marlim pilot project allowed GLL subsea technology to evolve from conceptual status into a proven deepwater completion method. The paper describes the project.

  7. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.

  8. Diarrhoea and garbage disposal in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, R F; Moraes, L R S; Dourado, I

    2005-01-01

    The association of infantile diarrhoea with the presence of garbage in the environment was investigated in Canabrava, a peripheral neighbourhood of Salvador, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with all the 184 children aged less than two years residing in Canabrava, which is located close to the city garbage dump. Variables selected for study included the method used for the disposal of excrement, type of floor, mother's education, unemployment of the head of the family, regularity of the water supply, presence of toilet, storage of garbage inside the house, age, gender, duration of breastfeeding, and the number of people per room. The estimated prevalence of diarrhoea was 21.2%. Exposure to garbage in the environment was found to be the most important factor associated with diarrhoea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.98, 95% CI 1.56-10.13). Other important variables were the mother's education (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.09-7.13), maternal breastfeeding (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.05-5.04), and unemployment of the head of the family (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.93-4.69). These findings indicate the necessity of adopting solutions in the public domain and of intersectorial policies for the reduction of diarrhoea.

  9. [Methylphenidate in Brazil: a decade of publications].

    PubMed

    Itaborahy, Claudia; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Methylphenidate is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though this psychostimulant has been on the market in Switzerland, Germany and the US since the 1950s. After its association with ADHD, Ritalin has become the world's most widely used psychostimulant. The scope of this article is to present the results of an analysis of publications concerning the use of Methylphenidate in Brazil over a decade. It seeks to understand how the information is presented or omitted in the different printed materials. For the analysis, the most important Brazilian psychiatric journals as well as major Brazilian newspapers and magazines for the general public for the 1998-2008 period were consulted. One important point that resulted from analysis of the empirical material was the participation of pharmaceutical laboratories in the funding of research groups on ADHD. The findings reveal several controversial issues in the publications, such as the combination of drugs and psychotherapy, as well as issues of addiction and over-prescription.

  10. Onychomycosis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Martinez, Patricio; Nunes, Fabiane G; Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane; Urrutia, Milton; Zaror, Luis; Silva, Victor; Fischman, Olga

    2009-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails with broad aetiological scope, and it represents 18-40% of all onychopathies and 39% of all superficial mycotic infections. From July 1996 to December 1999, samples of nails were collected from 588 patients with presumptive diagnosis of onychomycosis at the Dermatology and Mycology Divisions EPM\\UNIFESP, Brazil, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 247 of these cases. The most common pathogens isolated in this study were yeasts in 52% of positive cultures (Candida albicans 18.3%, Candida parapsilosis 13.8%, other species of Candida 15.4% and other yeasts 4.6%), followed by dermatophytes in 40.6% of positive cultures (the most commonly isolated organisms were Trichophyton rubrum in 33.2%, followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 6.3% and others 1.2%). Non-dermatophyte moulds were isolated in 7.4% of positive cultures (Fusarium spp. 4.5%, Nattrassia mangiferae 2.3% and Aspergillus spp. 0.6%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) was the commonest clinical pattern 44.6% followed by free edge onycholysis (FEO) 38.8% and others. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that T. rubrum is the main agent causing onychomycosis in toenails, and species of genus Candida were the main agents isolated in fingernail onychomycosis in our region.

  11. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  12. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  13. Space science education and training in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.

    With the beginning of space research in Brazil in the early 60's a national commission for space activities was created. This commission took important steps, in parallel, to create a program of education and training activities that was forseen as of critical importance for the maintenance of a desirable to ambitious degree of space activity in the country. Early efforts were, as a first step, in favour of training of Brazilian students in foreign centers of excellence (mostly in the US and Europe), as a means for achieving the potential human resource necessary for eventual development of a national program. Today a large percentage of the needs in the area is met by programs developed inside the country at different institutions, the most notable being the ``Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais'' - INPE (National Institute for Space Research) at Sa~o José dos Campos, where post graduate courses and training programs are well established. Under-graduate courses in selected areas are provided at some Universities, notably at the University of Sa~o Paulo. A brief description of the existing programs and an evaluation of the results being achieved are presented in this paper.

  14. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Henrique V; Lopes, Mário Lucio; de Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2011-09-01

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO₂ by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes.

  15. Nitrogen availability in tropical forests of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen availability is considered to be high in tropical forest, especially in relation to temperate forests. However, there is among tropical forest a significant variability in nutrient concentrations and stocks either in soils as well as in the vegetation. Here we review the nitrogen distribution and availability in more than 60 forest sites encompassing different soil types and precipitation regimes of the two main tropical forests biomes of Brazil: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. We aimed to determine factors that control nitrogen availability in these forests, using as a proxy of such availability parameters like: foliar and soil nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen stable isotopic composition, and foliar nitrogen:phosphorus ratio. Our main hypothesis is that nitrogen availability will be higher in forest where dry-season precipitation is low and/or weathered old soils prevailed. On the contrary, tropical forests over young soils and/or precipitation is high over the year will have a lower nitrogen availability and will be more phosphorus than nitrogen limited.

  16. Job satisfaction among dental assistants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loretto, Nelson Rubens Mendes; Caldas, Arnaldo de França; Coelho Junior, Luiz Gutenberg Toledo de Miranda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expressed levels of job satisfaction of dental assistants working in Brazil and whether there are relationships among professional formation standards, workplace relations and job satisfaction. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out with a calculated sample of 443 dental assistants. A questionnaire was developed for this purpose and its validity was verified in a pilot study. The questionnaire provided data for socioeconomic and demographic categorization and identified the variables that could be correlated to professional satisfaction. Job satisfaction was stratified into satisfaction and no satisfaction. All participants signed an informed consent form. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13.0. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed. Among the 443 participants, 94.6% were women, 72.7% were aged between 21 and 40 years and 65.0% were single. Over half had 37 or more months of job experience and had completed their course at a public institution. The majority earned between US$141.00 and US$190.00 per month. Job satisfaction was mentioned by 81.5% of the dental personnel. It was found that most subjects were satisfied with their job, and that the level satisfaction is influenced negatively by salary, workplace, workload and dentist's personality.

  17. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, C

    1996-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, in southern Brazil, has been known for its environmental-friendly urban planning. Its quality of life has encouraged the natural growth of the city, which has doubled its population to over 1.3 million in the last 20 years while retaining 52 m of green area per inhabitant. In this article, the city's efforts to retain its success in the face of a growing population are documented. An integrated transport system has been created, a main commercial street was turned into a pedestrian street, the building of the Wire Opera and the Free Environment University was created, and the decentralization of the country's health system, and the launching of a program of waste sorting. All these accomplishments subsequently generated tourism, bringing in an income of about 4% of the city's net income. In addition, they have helped the 300,000 inhabitants of the city's slums with their rubbish by selling them carts on a low installment price. Migratory flow has been curbed since the creation of the Return House, wherein social workers offer free tickets to potential migrants; and the Vila Rural (Rural Town), consisting of small rural properties where peasant farmers will be able to farm in between industrial jobs. In conclusion, if Curitiba's Institute of Urban Research and Planning team is successful in transposing to the State its achievements in the municipal administration, by the year 2000 Curitiba will have proved to be the seed of a revolution that will improve the development of the whole region.

  18. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  19. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01712

  20. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man.

  1. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  2. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  3. Unmixing for race making in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stanley R

    2008-11-01

    This article analyzes race-targeted policy in Brazil as both a political stake and a powerful instrument in an unfolding classificatory struggle over the definition of racial boundaries. The Brazilian state traditionally embraced mixed-race classification, but is adopting racial quotas employing a black/white scheme. To explore potential consequences of that turn for beneficiary identification and boundary formation, the author analyzes attitudinal survey data on race-targeted policy and racial classification in multiple formats, including classification in comparison to photographs. The results show that almost half of the mixed-race sample, when constrained to dichotomous classification, opts for whiteness, a majority rejects mixed-race individuals for quotas, and the mention of quotas for blacks in a split-ballot experiment nearly doubles the percentage choosing that racial category. Theories of how states make race emphasize the use of official categories to legislate exclusion. In contrast, analysis of the Brazilian case illuminates how states may also make race through policies of official inclusion.

  4. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  5. 76 FR 70635 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ..., 2011 Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for the..., with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged...

  6. 75 FR 75853 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of... for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1...

  7. 77 FR 65457 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of... for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1...

  8. Brazil-nut effect versus reverse Brazil-nut effect in a moderately dense granular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzó, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    A segregation criterion based on the inelastic Enskog kinetic equation is derived to show the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by varying the different parameters of the system. In contrast to previous theoretical attempts, the approach is not limited to the near-elastic case, takes into account the influence of both thermal gradients and gravity, and applies for moderate densities. The form of the phase diagrams for the BNE-RBNE transition depends sensitively on the value of gravity relative to the thermal gradient, so that it is possible to switch between both states for given values of the mass and size ratios, the coefficients of restitution, and the solid volume fraction. In particular, the influence of collisional dissipation on segregation becomes more important when the thermal gradient dominates over gravity than in the opposite limit. The present analysis extends previous results derived in the dilute limit case and is consistent with the findings of some recent experimental results.

  9. Control of salt tectonics by young basement tectonics in Brazil`s offshore basins

    SciTech Connect

    Szatmari, P.; Mohriak, W.

    1995-08-01

    The Campos basin (offshore SE Brazil) is one of the most successful areas of oil exploration in South America. Discovered 20 years ago, its production (500,000 b/d) and reserves (2.9 billion barrels) are second only to Venezuela`s. This richness is due, to a large extent, to intense salt tectonics and the abundance of turbidites. Reactivated basement structures onshore provide a unique opportunity to understand the role of young basement tectonics in controlling salt tectonics and petroleum occurrence. The mountains of SE Brazil, over 1500 m high, formed by the reactivation of late Precambrian thrust and wrench zones under E-W compression, presumably caused by Mid-Atlantic ridge push. Coastal mountain ranges, up to 3000 m high, are limited to the segment of the Atlantic between the Vitoria-Trindade hotspot chain and the Rio Grande Rise. The coastal ranges formed as this segment of oceanic crust and adjacent continental margin were pushed WSW along a reactivated Precambrian wrench zone. To the north of this segment, salt tectonics is mostly due to basinward sliding on a tilted salt layer. Along the coastal ranges, to this is added basinward escape of the salt from beneath prograding sediments derived from the rising mountains. Extension above the salt tends to be compensated by compression farther basinward. Salt canopies, frequent in the Gulf of Mexico, occur only near the Abrolhos hotspot, where high temperatures during volcanic activity sharply reduced the viscosity of the salt.

  10. Nutrition support in Brazil: past, present, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Campos, Antonio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The history of nutrition support in Brazil is parallel to its development in the world. Inspired by the publications of the surgical group headed by Professor Rhoads at the University of Pennsylvania, a group of Brazilian physicians pioneered the beginning of parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy. The Brazilian Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SBNPE) was officially founded in 1975. Soon, scientific contributions started to appear, reflected by articles in the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and other journals and by books. In many states of Brazil, nutrition support services were created to carry out scientific and educational activities. The relationship with the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition was fundamental in the development of clinical nutrition in Brazil because of the strong scientific exchange between the United States and Brazil. However, after the stimulating initial launching, momentum slowed because of the lack of medical awareness and inadequate reimbursement. In Brazil, the federal government is responsible for the majority of health care, but enteral nutrition was not reimbursed. In response to this situation, a study in 4000 hospitalized patients was undertaken in Brazil. It was reported that nearly half of them presented with malnutrition, and > 12% had severe malnutrition. These alarming results were decisive in persuading the Brazilian government to begin reimbursement for enteral nutrition. Today, Brazilian hospitals that assist public health system patients receive reimbursement for enteral nutrition. However, it is required to have an officially registered nutrition support team and a certified and approved facility for enteral feeding preparation. Considering that low nutrition prescription in Brazil could be the result of lack of nutrition education (not required in most medical schools), the SBNPE participated in the creation of 2 very effective, practical, and dynamic courses for the basic teaching

  11. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  12. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  13. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy.

  14. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  15. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  16. Potential Geographic Distribution of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin. PMID:24391989

  17. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  18. Born in Brazil: shining a light for change.

    PubMed

    Torloni, Maria Regina; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Belizán, José M

    2016-10-17

    The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource.These articles describe a range of practices, determinants and risk factors that affect women and their babies in Brazil, a country of paradoxes. In the era of overmedicalization and high-tech medicine - arguably -, these articles highlight the unprecedented rates of cesarean sections in Brazil and differences between the public and the private sectors. It provides evidence for the need for adequate human resources, medications and emergency care equipment in many settings; and explains the use of non-evidence based interventions during labor and delivery. On the other hand, these studies also point to promising interventions that could be used to change this situation not only in Brazil but also in other countries facing similar challenges.

  19. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.

  20. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  1. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  2. Racialized Boundaries: Women's Studies and the Question of "Difference" in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Kia Lilly

    2001-01-01

    Examines racial politics of knowledge production in Brazil, comparing trends in women's studies scholarship in North America, England, and Brazil by investigating the significance of the intersection of race and gender in women's studies. Discusses how minority women's feminist scholarship has traveled to Brazil and how work by Afro-Brazilian…

  3. Racialized Boundaries: Women's Studies and the Question of "Difference" in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Kia Lilly

    2001-01-01

    Examines racial politics of knowledge production in Brazil, comparing trends in women's studies scholarship in North America, England, and Brazil by investigating the significance of the intersection of race and gender in women's studies. Discusses how minority women's feminist scholarship has traveled to Brazil and how work by Afro-Brazilian…

  4. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  5. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  6. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  7. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY... order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International Trade Commission..., 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012)...

  8. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

  9. 78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this...

  10. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... were the orders to be revoked. See Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the...

  11. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  12. 77 FR 66798 - Silicomanganese from Brazil: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) and Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine, 76 FR 45856 (August 1, 2011). \\2\\ See Silicomanganese From Brazil, the People's Republic of China...

  13. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  14. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications should...

  15. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section will...

  16. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  17. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  18. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  19. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary... film) from Brazil. This administrative review covers one respondent, Terphane, Inc. (Terphane) and the... Department published the antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  20. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in me as....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  1. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  2. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  3. 78 FR 62951 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...--Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of..., with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged...

  4. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  5. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  6. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H

    2013-09-27

    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them.

  7. Wing geometry of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2017-04-01

    Triatoma sordida has a widespread distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and is frequently found in peridomestic environments. We investigated size and shape variability of T. sordida wings across Brazil. Field-collected adults from twelve populations were studied. For each individual female, seven landmarks on the right wing were digitalized. Shape variables derived from Procrustes superimposition were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Wing size and shape variations among populations was explored by means of ANOVA. Wing centroid size was significantly different among T. sordida populations; specimens from Bahia (East) were larger than those of Mato Grosso do Sul (West). PCA based on wing shape variables showed low wing shape variability. These results reinforce previous data showing low genetic variability among T. sordida populations from Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Obesity among the poor in Brazil: female vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2011-04-01

    The increase in obesity among women in the lower income bracket in Brazil has been singled out as a priority issue in the field of Public Health today. Concern about future repercussions of obesity in the less privileged groups calls for an in-depth theoretical approach and the energetic definition of public policy for prevention and control of the affliction in these segments. In this respect, the scope of this work is to attempt to pinpoint some analytical categories in the phenomenon of obesity among the underprivileged female population in Brazil. Biological, socioeconomic and cultural factors appear to interact in the dynamics of female obesity in the context of poverty revealing the complexity of this problem. Public policies of job creation, social inclusion and gender equality in the labor market would appear to be more promising ways of tackling obesity in underprivileged females in Brazil.

  9. Brazil 1986: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The Brazil Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was conducted by the Society for the Welfare of the Family in Brazil within the framework of the DHS Program of the Institute for Resource Development of Westinghouse. The survey is national in scope, covering 95% of the population. Data were collected in 8519 households and complete interviews were conducted with 5892 women aged 15-44. Fieldwork for the survey took place between May and August, 1986. The summary statistics presented here were taken from the Brazil First Country Report, with exceptions as noted. The summary statistics include: population characteristics, fertility patterns, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception knowledge, nuptiality and exposure-to-conception status, postpartum variables, infant mortality, disease prevention and treatment, and nutritional status.

  10. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  11. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  12. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  13. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  14. [Generic drugs in Brazil: historical overview and legislation].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lorena Ulhôa; Albuquerque, Kemile Toledo de; Kato, Kelly Cristina; Silveira, Gleiciely Santos; Maciel, Náira Rezende; Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Barcellos, Neila Márcia Silva; Souza, Jacqueline de; Bueno, Márcia; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2010-12-01

    The Brazilian generic drugs policy was implemented in 1999 with the aim of stimulating competition in the market, improve the quality of drugs and improve the access of the population to drug treatment. The process of implementing this policy allowed the introduction and discussion of concepts that had never before been used in the context of drug registration in Brazil: bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmaceutical equivalence, generic drugs, biopharmaceutical classification system, biowaiver. The present article provides definitions for these concepts in the context of Brazilian legislation as well as a historical and chronological description of the implementation of the generic drugs policy in Brazil, including a list of current generic drug legislation. This article contributes to the understanding of the Brazilian generic drugs policy and facilitates the search for information concerning the legal requirements for registration of drugs in Brazil.

  15. Brazil nuts: Nutritional composition, health benefits and safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bárbara R; Duarte, Graziela B Silva; Reis, Bruna Z; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2017-10-01

    Brazil nuts are among the richest selenium food sources, and studies have considered this Amazonian nut as an alternative for selenium supplementation. Besides selenium, Brazil nuts present relevant content of other micronutrients such as magnesium, copper, and zinc. The nutritional composition of nuts, also characterized by adequate fatty acid profile and high content of protein and bioactive compounds, has many health benefits. In the present review, we examine the nutritional composition of Brazil nuts, comparing it with other nuts, and describe the relevance of possible contaminants and metal toxicants observed in this nut for human health. Furthermore, we report different trials available in the literature, which demonstrate positive outcomes such as modulation of the lipid serum profile, enhancement of the antioxidant system and improvement of anti-inflammatory response. These effects have been assessed under different conditions, such as cognitive impairment, dyslipidemia, cancer, and renal failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Shared decision making in Brazil: history and current discussion.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes de; Battisti, Raphael; Martins, Rachel Samhan; Baumgratz, Thiago Dias; Cuziol, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    There is no SDM in clinical practice in Brazil. The first steps have been taken towards research and tool development recently. Likewise, our society is starting to get involved with decision making in health care. This paper aims to offer an overview of the Brazilian health system history, its values, and its influence on SDM. The participative social control concept is introduced as a result of the movement against the dictatorship era. In addition, the influence of social changes on the Medical Ethical Code is delineated. SDM state of the art in Brazil is also discussed and the challenges to implement it on clinical practice are described. Regardless the challenges, it is possible to make a positive assessment of SDM in Brazil.

  17. First Occurrence of Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Ricalde, M P

    2017-05-24

    Specimens of the mango stone weevil Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were found in fruits of mango from a tree in the residential area of the Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This is the first report of the S. mangiferae in Brazil, currently regulated as an absent quarantine pest in the country. A taxonomist specialized in Curculionidae confirmed the identification based on morphological diagnostics characteristics. This detection is a relevant finding, because Brazil is a major producer and exporter of mango and the main areas of mango for exportation are located very far from this detection point. This pest damages seed and embryo of mango fruits and it causes reduction of fruit size and its premature dropping. The detection was notified to the Plant Health Department, division of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), which is the National Plant Protection Organization of Brazil.

  18. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis

    2012-01-01

    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  19. Medical and agricultural entomology in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, J L

    2008-12-01

    Medical Entomology emerged in Brazil in the late nineteenth century, through the initiative of a group of physicians dedicated to researching microorganisms related to diseases of public health importance, especially yellow fever and malaria. They led the institutionalization of Bacteriology and Tropical Medicine in southeast Brazil and the sanitation of coastal cities and, subsequently, rural areas. Medical Entomology provided the professionals who would undertake campaigns against agricultural plagues, as well as the institutionalization of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine. In the present article, I intend to show how relations between the professionals who gave life to Medical Entomology in Brazil were interwoven and to illustrate their relations with entomologists in other countries. I will also present an overview of the research problems faced by Brazilian entomologists at the turn of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth.

  20. Ecology and geography of plague transmission areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giles, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-04

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation-rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history.

  1. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Dias, Monike Lourenço; de Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco; Ferreira, Sandra RG; Franco, Denise Reis; Eliaschewitz, Freddy Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. PMID:25609989

  2. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  3. Evaluation removes obstacles to sterilization in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    In 1978, Centro de Pesquisas de Assitencia Integrada a Mulher e a Crianca (CPAIMC) in Rio de Janeiro began to offer interval sterilizations in an attempt to increase the access of poor women to sterilization services. By the end of 1984, the program had provided in excess of 19,000 sterilizations, making CPAIMC Brazil's largest single source of voluntary interval sterilization. Despite the program's success, CPAIMC was concerned that obstacles still existed in the poor woman's path to sterilization access. A study was conducted by Family Health International (FHI) in collaboration with the Pathfinder Fund and CPAIMC's Department of Information, Evaluation and Research to locate possible barriers. The study indicated that less than half of the women who requested sterilization between June 1 and August 31, 1983 actually had the procedure. During that period, 1256 women requested sterilization at the CPAIMC clinic. Of these, 925 were approved, and 639 were scheduled for surgery. Only 559 were actually sterilized within 3 months of receiving approval. 1 possible reason why women were not receiving the surgery was that the women requesting sterilization actually were not highly motivated to obtain the service. Yet, study results indicate this probably was not the reason. During initial interviews at the clinic, many women said they had thought very carefully about being sterilized, and more than 40% reported deciding to have a tubal ligation before their last pregnancy. Almost 3/4 of the women reported that they did not plan their last pregnancy, and almost 2/3 indicated that the pregnancy was unwanted. About 63% were contracepting, and many were using effective methods. More than half of the non-contraceptors were not using a method because they had just ended a pregnancy and were not sexually active. As a group, the women requesting sterilization were highly motivated to avoid having more children. Age and number of children were the most important criteria used by

  4. Regional Climate Change Projections over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassain Sales, Domingo; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; Cavalcante, Arnóbio M. B.; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco; Martins de Araújo Junior, Luiz; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and climate change impact studies often require a spatial resolution beyond the horizontal grid spacing of the data generated by Global Climate Models (GCMs). Dynamical Downscaling is one of techniques that allow regionalization of information from such models, in which the GCM data drive a Regional Climate Model (RCM) that in turn, at least theoretically, presents the climatological fields in more detail and can add value to climatic analysis. In this context, CORDEX is a coordinated experiment that standardizes dynamical downscaling simulations over continental regions, to provide a contribution from the regional climate modeling community to the IPCC/AR5 and beyond. Because computer resources are limited, a modeling group involved in CORDEX typically chooses one or few of the suggested domains, and use one or a few CMIP5 GCM data to drive its regional model. At the State University of Ceará (UECE), in Brazil, we used RAMS6.0 (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0), driven by HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Enviroment Model Version 2 - Earth System) data, over a extended CORDEX Central America domain (longitude: 124.5W to 24.5W, latitude: 33.5N to 17.5S). This work presents the evaluation of climatological features of precipitation and temperature over Northeast Brazil region (longitude: 47W to 34.5W, latitude: 2.5S to 17.5S) for 20 years of the historical period (1985-2005) evaluating short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079-2099) changes, under the RCP4.5 e RCP8.5 scenarios. For the historical period, the results were compared against several observed data sets, in order to evaluate the performance of RAMS6.0 nested to HadGEM2-ES. The correlation between the simulated and observed annual cycle of precipitation is high (above 0.93). RAMS6.0 shows a wet bias of 0.706 mm/day that is larger than HadGEM2-ES bias (0.197 mm/day), however the regional model corrects the month of maximum precipitation (the global model

  5. Investing in the future in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Madina, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1991, a survey conducted in northeastern Brazil by BEMFAM, the International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, revealed that 15% of female adolescent respondents had children or were pregnant and that the fertility rate for adolescents aged 15-19 was 41 births/1000. In addition, the fact that 33% of all cases of HIV/AIDS reported between 1980 and 1996 involved 20-29 year olds means that a significant number were infected as adolescents. BEMFAM responded by launching (in 1993) a school-based adolescent HIV/STD prevention campaign in Alagoas state (where BEMFAM found the school in a deplorable state of filth, with every surface covered with graffiti) and in Paraiba state. Today the school buildings are clean, the graffiti is gone, and students are learning to talk openly about their bodies and sexuality. The most innovative aspect of the program is that sex education is incorporated in every part of the curriculum instead of being isolated in a separate course. History teachers incorporate gender issues in their discussions; math teachers use AIDS statistics in class; and other teachers discuss such issues as personal hygiene, sexuality, and unwanted pregnancy. The school staff received 40 hours of training in sexuality, reproduction, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, communication and leadership skills, gender, and self-worth. A serious implementation impediment is the fact that Brazilian teachers are rotated annually from school to school, and new staff must be trained each year. The project has had beneficial results for all involved and has earned the support of the community at large.

  6. Modern Dolomitic Stromatolites from Lagoa Vermelha, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, C.; Visscher, P.; Warthmann, R.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Classic examples of modern stromatolites, such as those found in Shark Bay (Western, Australia) and Highborne Cay (Bahamas), furnish important insights to better interpret the environmental conditions of ancient biogeochemical process leading to calcification. Although these living examples may serve as modern analogues for ancient stromatolites, they do not precipitate primary dolomite, a carbonate mineral commonly found in Precambrian stromatolites and, thus, do not represent the full range of environmental conditions existing in early Earth history. Here, we report on the first recognized occurrence of microbiolite stromatolitic structures, associated with Ca-dolomite, growing in a hypersaline coastal lagoon, Lagoa Vermelha, near Rio de Janerio, Brazil. We examined the microbial community using microelectrode measurements, which indicate high rates of photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation and fermentation. The ratio between precipitation and dissolution inside the microbial mat has been estimated. The high pH recorded during daytime in the microbial mats reflects increased alkalinity associated with progressive increase of Mg in the mineral phase with depth below the surface, whereas the detection of zero-valent sulfur and polythionates produced by sulfide oxidizing bacteria indicates an additional process increasing alkalinity. Ca+2 microsensors studies and silver foil experiments, combined with the EDS/SEM examination of the biofilm, provide evidence also for the importance of EPS in the calcification processes. This geomicrobiology approach, linking studies of population, processes and products, permits us to estimate the role that specific microorganisms play during high Mg-calcite and Ca-dolomite precipitation. As dolomitic stromatolites were abundant in the Precambrian, the Lagoa Vermelha microbial community, which is adapted for survival under extreme salinity variations, may represent a modern analogue for a microcosm

  7. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  8. The Rio Doce Orogeny, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, M. C. Campos; Figueiredo, M. C. H.

    1995-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic superposed orogenic system of Southeastern Brazil, which was active during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Cycle during the assembly of this sector of the Gondwana Supercontinent, includes distinct terranes such as the Guanhães, Curitiba, Apiaí-Guaxupé and Serra do Mar microplates and the Juiz de Fora Thrust Belt. These orogenic systems also affected the reworked border of the São Francisco Craton. The collisional or ocean plate subduction-controlled "Brasiliano I" Orogeny was responsible for the generation of fold belts along the southeastern border of the São Francisco Craton, the accretion of different microplates and the formation of a magmatic arc associated with the roots of a northwestward trending thrust belt. The "Brasiliano I" evolution occurred during the Neoproterozoic and by 600 Ma was already in a post-orogenic stage in the Apiaí-Guaxupé Microplate, with the intrusion of rapakivi-like granitoids. The Rio Doce Orogeny is best characterized in the Serra do Mar Microplate by a magmatic arc, active between 590 and 570 Ma, with batholithic calc-alkaline plutonism exhibiting subduction zone components and a chemical zonation indicative of northwestward subduction. The collisional stage (560-530 Ma) accounted for the accretion of the Serra do Mar Microplate to the former orogenic domains. Anatexis of mostly metasediments producing peraluminous migmatites and granites, began at the calc-alkaline magmatic arc stage and culminated during crustal thickening associated with the northwesterly piling-up of large thrust slices. The post-collisional plutonism (520-480 Ma) is characterized by plutons and dikes of mainly alkali-calcic granitoids enriched in incompatible elements.

  9. Brazil's staple food and incident diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Falcão, Paula M; Yokoo, Edna Massae; da Cruz Filho, Rubens Antunes; Alcoforado, Veronica Miranda; de Souza, Barbara da Silva Nalin; Pinto, Fernanda Neves; Nery, Aline Barreto

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Brazil's staple food, rice, beans and manioc, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in adults assisted by a Brazilian Family Doctor Program (FDP). The baseline information was collected on visits to 13 units of the FDP from July 2006 to December 2007 (CAMELIA Study). The units were revisited by trained researchers between July and December 2011, who reviewed medical records of all participants of the baseline. Biochemical, anthropometrical and blood pressure measurements, new diagnoses, and medical prescriptions were collected. Individuals ages ≥20 y, who were non-diabetic at baseline were included (N = 409). Food consumption was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Incident of diabetes was classified according to fasting serum glucose (≥126 mg/dL), individual's use of antidiabetic drugs, and/or diagnosis of diabetes described in the medical record. Individuals who were negative at baseline and also were negative for the above conditions were classified as non-diabetics. Individuals who developed T2DM (N = 30) reported higher consumption of red meat and beans and less consumption of cassava flour, independent of the interval between visits and other potential confounding variables. The cassava flour showed a protective effect (relative risk, 0.910; 95% confidence interval, 0.842-0.982). The consumption of cassava flour, a low-cost product, could be considered in diets for the prevention and control of diabetes. The hypothesis must be investigated in cohorts from different populations and tested in randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geology of petroleum in Campos basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.

    1984-04-01

    A schematic model of oil generation, migration, accumulation, and alteration is presented for the Campos basin, a sedimentary province covering an area of nearly 31,000 km/sup 2/ (12,000 mi/sup 2/) offshore southeastern Brazil, where an estimated 1 billion m/sup 3/ (6.3 billion bbl) of oil in place has been discovered since 1974. Source rocks for this oil belong to the Lower Cretaceous Lagoa Feia Formation; oil generation probably started in the Miocene. At that time, a series of local windows opened in the regional evaporite seal at the top of the Lagoa Feia Formation and focused the upward escape of hydrocarbons, mainly along halokinetic fault surfaces. Reservoirs of Albian, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary age were charged and their porosities enhanced by natural fracturing, solution, and/or grain rearrangement. Original oil (postulated range of 30/sup 0/-35/sup 0/ API gravity) underwent differentiation by migration, reflected in relative enrichment of aromatics and of the light /sup 12/C stable carbon isotope. Alteration of oil by water occurs if one of the two fluids in contact is allochthonous; bacterial alteration is important in low-temperature regimes. Oil entrapment is helped by hydrodynamic conditions, with the intake area of the Paraiba do Sul river delta supposedly playing an important part. Lopatin-type plots gave the first clue for establishing this model, which takes into account a large number of facts about the basin, such as well and seismic information, clay diagenesis, water and petroleum geochemistry, pressure data, and their geologic field relationships.

  11. Brazil: sex and self-worth.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    An AIDS education project in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil has enabled male sex workers to discuss safe sex, sexual preference, and self-worth. The project, known as Pegacao ("Cruising"), is designed to establish personal contact with the male prostitutes. The educators most of whom are openly homosexual, and some of whom are former sex workers, operate out of 4 outposts in the city. In one such outpost, a popular restaurant, the educators wait for male sex workers (Miches, as they are called) to come and talk. The Miches come from several reasons. Some come to talk about life, other about sexuality, and others want to help in contacting a doctor or a psychologist. Pegacao now has contact with some 400-600 male prostitutes aged 14-23. Since most of the male prostitutes are illiterate, the education is based on discussion, not on printed materials. The discussions focus primarily on sexuality and sexual practices. Many of the Miches, who often come from the poor families, say that they are involved in prostitution as a temporary way of earning money. Most deny being homosexual, and many say that they have girlfriends and are thinking about getting married. The educators, however, suspect that many Miches hide their sexual preferenced and use prostitution as a way to express their repressed homosexuality. While the Miches admit penetrating their clients (identifying it with the "male" role), few acknowledge being penetrated (the "female" or "gay" role). But the high rate of sexually acquired infections in the rectum suggest that the Miches are engaging in receptive, unprotected anal intercourse more often that they care to admit. In addition to teaching them about safe sex, the educators try to help Miches develop a positive attitude towards their sexuality and develop a sense of self-worth.

  12. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103) and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103). Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43) and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23) between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events. PMID:21929810

  13. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  14. Catastrophic expenditure on medicines in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the magnitude of the expenditure on medicines in Brazil according to region, household size and composition in terms of residents in a situation of dependency. METHODS Population-based data from the national household survey were used, with probabilistic sample, applied between September 2013 and February 2014 in urban households. The expenditure on medicines was the main outcome of interest. The prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) of the outcomes were stratified according to socioeconomic classification and calculated according to the region, the number of residents dependent on income, the presence of children under five years and residents in a situation of dependency by age. RESULTS In about one of every 17 households (5.3%) catastrophic health expenditure was reported and, in 3.2%, the medicines were reported as one of the items responsible for this situation. The presence of three or more residents (3.6%) and resident in a situation of dependency (3.6%) were the ones that most reported expenditure on medicines. Southeast was the region with the lowest prevalence of expenditure on medicines. The prevalence of households with catastrophic health expenditure and on medicines in relation to the total of households showed a regressive tendency for economic classes. CONCLUSIONS Catastrophic health expenditure was present in 5.3%, and catastrophic expenditure on medicines in 3.2% of the households. Multi-person households, presence of residents in a situation of economic dependency and belonging to the class D or E had the highest proportion of catastrophic expenditure on medicines. Although the problem is important, permeated by aspects of iniquity, Brazilian policies seem to be protecting families from catastrophic expenditure on health and on medicine. PMID:27982383

  15. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-14

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems. This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02700

  16. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  17. Spatiotemporal Analysis of AIDS Incidence Among Adults in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2016-01-01

    AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis. The proposed statistical model allows obtaining a standardized incidence ratio (SIR, adjusted by gender and age). Among the men, our results show higher incidence rates in the States of the Southern regions as well as in the state of Amazonas (Northern Brazil). In females, we found other patterns for SIR, with higher incidence rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region), Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (both in Southern region). Among men it was observed as an expressive association between the SIR values and the overall HDI and income and education components, but it was observed to have an inverse association with the life expectancy component. Among women, it is noted that the SIR values are associated with the overall HDI and the education components only at the beginning of the studied period. AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happened because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.

  18. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  19. Protozoan infections in farmed fish from Brazil: diagnosis and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mauricio Laterça; Cardoso, Lucas; Marchiori, Natalia; Benites de Pádua, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The Phylum Protozoa brings together several organisms evolutionarily different that may act as ecto or endoparasites of fishes over the world being responsible for diseases, which, in turn, may lead to economical and social impacts in different countries. Apart from the recent advances for the diagnosis of fish diseases in Brazil, little is known on the protozoan parasites and their relationship with environment and host. This revision presents the most important protozoan parasites found in farmed fish from Brazil, not only with emphasis on its diagnosis, biology, transmission and host-parasite relationship, but also on some information that may be useful to researchers in determining the correct diagnosis in fish farms.

  20. Experimental Verification of the Reverse Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Smoyer, Justin

    2007-03-01

    In the Brazil nut problem (BNP), hard spheres with larger diameters rise to the top. In a previous paper, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 ,423(2001), A theory was presented for the crossover from BNP to the reverse Brazil nut problem (RBNP) based on the competition between the percolation effect and the condensation of hard spheres. We experimentally test the crossover condition as predicted by the theory. Our results show that the the RBNP does occur under certain conditions. We then verify the crossover conditions as predicted by the theory in three dimensions.

  1. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  2. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  3. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi.

  4. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanluca, Camila; Melo, Vanessa Campos Andrade de; Mosimann, Ana Luiza Pamplona; Santos, Glauco Igor Viana Dos; Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos; Luz, Kleber

    2015-06-01

    In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

  5. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas. PMID:27489476

  6. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil.

  7. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  8. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  9. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United...'') from Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and the suspended... antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot...

  10. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case.

    PubMed

    Martins, Demetrius da Silva; Xavier, Mariana Fabris; Masiero, Franciéle de Souza; Cordeiro, Juliana; Thyssen, Patrícia Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). We confirmed disease expansion to Southern Brazil. We demonstrated the effectiveness of SINAN to monitor notifiable diseases. Our results are useful to develop preventive actions for schistosomiasis control.

  11. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  12. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro rivers just before they combine at Manaus to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. The false colors are created by displaying three L-band polarization channels; red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low returns at VV polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Using this coloring scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north towards a tributary of Rio Negro. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio

  13. Fishers' knowledge on the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2016-06-01

    Although fishers' knowledge has been recently considered into management programmes, there is still the need to establish a better understanding of fishers' perceptions and cognition. Fishers can provide novel information on the biology and ecology of species, which can potentially be used in the management of fisheries. The knowledge fishers have and how they classify nature is empirically based. It is common, for example, to observe that fishers' taxonomy is often represented by the generic level, one of the hierarchical categories of folk classification that is somewhat analogous to the Linnean genus, as it groups organisms of a higher rank than the folk species.In this study we compiled the knowledge fishers have on local fish, such as their folk names, diet and habitat. Five coastal communities widely distributed along the Brazilian coast were studied: two from the northeast (Porto Sauípe and Itacimirim, in Bahia State, n of interviewees = 34), two from the southeast (Itaipu at Niterói and Copacabana at Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, n = 35) and one from the south coast (Pântano do Sul, in Santa Catarina State, n = 23). Fish pictures were randomly ordered and the same order was presented to all interviewees (n = 92), when they were then asked about the species name and classification and its habitat and diet preferences. Fishers make clusters of fish species, usually hierarchically; fishers of the coast of Brazil use mostly primary lexemes (generic names) to name fish; and fishers did not differentiate between scientific species, since the same folk generic name included two different scientific species. Fishers provide information on species to which there is scarce or no information on diet and habitat, such as Rhinobatos percellens (chola guitarfish, arraia viola or cação viola), Sphoeroides dorsalis (marbled puffer, baiacu), Mycteroperca acutirostris (comb grouper, badejo) and Dasyatis guttata (longnose stingray, arraia, arraia

  14. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Jose Manuel Santos de Varge; Marques, Alexandre Barbosa; Cruz, Antonio

    2016-11-03

    Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Resumo: A telemedicina está sendo vista como uma ferramenta importante para enfrentar os desafios dos sistemas de saúde universais. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir os principais desafios para a sua plena disseminação no Brasil. Em função do caráter relativamente emergente desta área, existe uma escassez relativa de trabalhos científicos que a sistematizem. Por isso, este artigo se enquadra na categoria de trabalho exploratório, já que tem por objetivo proporcionar uma visão geral sobre o tema. Destaca-se, que do ponto de vista econômico, a telemedicina se constitui em uma área estratégica por seu potencial intrínseco de ser fonte geradora de inovações, por demandar e incorporar avanços tecnológicos oriundos de outras áreas e, em função da sua natureza interdisciplinar e de suas inter-relações dinâmicas, pela possibilidade de impulsionar diferentes indústrias. Do ponto de vista social, tem o potencial de democratizar o acesso aos serviços de saúde, integrando regiões remotas com serviços de saúde localizados em

  15. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  16. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro rivers just before they combine at Manaus to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. The false colors are created by displaying three L-band polarization channels; red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low returns at VV polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Using this coloring scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north towards a tributary of Rio Negro. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio

  17. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  18. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  19. Laser ultrasonics in Brazil for aeronautics and space engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi Sakamoto, João Marcos; Pacheco, Gefeson Mendes

    2010-01-01

    This work is a report bringing the experimental setup and the initial developments to establish a laser ultrasonics system at the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica in Brazil. Present-day development aim to substitute piezoelectric transducer by a high power pulsed laser to generate ultrasound.

  20. Measuring Cognitive Achievement Gaps and Inequalities: The Case of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Jose Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of educational inequalities based on cognitive achievement data, and uses it to examine achievement inequalities in mathematics between groups of students enrolled in basic education in Brazil. The groups of students are defined by their race, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and region of residence. The…