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  1. Prevalence of drug resistance and virulence features in Salmonella spp. isolated from foods associated or not with salmonellosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health. PMID:25351537

  2. Prevalence of drug resistance and virulence features in Salmonella spp. isolated from foods associated or not with salmonellosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  3. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence characteristics of mecA-encoding coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from soft cheese in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Paiva, Mayara Rodrigues Brandão; Garcia, Rafaela Alvim; Resende, Juliana Alves; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra Barbosa; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2013-04-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), which are generally neglected as foodborne bacteria, are emerging as significant opportunistic pathogens that may be highly resistant to available antimicrobial drugs. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, mecA gene occurrence, and virulence-associated characteristics were evaluated in CoNS isolated from soft cheese in Brazil. A total of 227 bacterial isolates were recovered from 35 cheese samples belonging to 5 batches with 7 different trademarks. The CoNS counts ranged from 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g. High antimicrobial resistance percentages were observed for oxacillin (76.2%), penicillin (78.5%), erythromycin (67.8%), gentamicin (47.2%), clindamycin (35.7%), rifampicin (26.8%), azithromycin (14.7%), tetracycline (14.7%), levofloxacin (14.2%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (11.9%). A low antimicrobial resistance percentage was observed for chloramphenicol (2.3%), and all of the tested bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. In total, a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of >0.2 was observed for 80.6% of the isolated CoNS. However, the MAR index ranged from 50% to 92.6% when only bacterial cheese isolates belonging to the same trademark were considered. Regarding to the prevalence of CoNS carrying mecA gene, 81.5% of the isolated strains were mecA(+) , and 76.2% of these were phenotypically resistant to oxacillin. Three isolates carried the enterotoxin A gene (sea), 29.5% produced biofilm in a laboratory test, and α- or ß-hemolysis were observed for 3% and 5.2%, respectively. This study highlights the extent of the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon in neglected foodborne microorganisms and the potential public health risks that are related to the consumption of CoNS-contaminated soft cheese.

  4. Molecular detection of virulence factors among food and clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, A W; Pereira, R I; Oliveira, D V; Martins, P D; d'Azevedo, P A; Van der Sand, S; Frazzon, J; Frazzon, A P G

    2014-01-01

    The present report aimed to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the presence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolated from different human clinical (n = 57) and food samples (n = 55) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, collected from 2006 to 2009. In addition, the ability to form biofilm in vitro on polystyrene and the β-haemolytic and gelatinase activities were determined. Clinical strains presented a higher prevalence of aggregation substance (agg), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and cytolysin (cylA) genes when compared with food isolates. The esp gene was found only in clinical strains. On the other hand, the gelatinase (gelE) and adherence factor (ace) genes had similar prevalence among the strains, showing the widespread occurrence of these virulence factors among food and clinical E. faecalis strains in South Brazil. More than three virulence factor genes were detected in 77.2% and 18.2% of clinical and food strains, respectively. Gelatinase and β-haemolysin activities were not associated with the presence of gelE and cylA genes. The ability to produce biofilm was detected in 100% of clinical and 94.6% of food isolates, and clinical strains were more able to form biofilm than the food isolates (Student's t-test, p < 0.01). Results from the statistical analysis showed significant associations between strong biofilm formation and ace (p = 0.015) and gelE (p = 0.007) genes in clinical strains. In conclusion, our data indicate that E. faecalis strains isolated from clinical and food samples possess distinctive patterns of virulence factors, with a larger number of genes that encode virulence factors detected in clinical strains.

  5. Shigella in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mireille Ângela Bernardes; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Collares, Guilherme Birchal; Péret-Filho, Luciano Amedée; Penna, Francisco José; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Among diarrhoeagenic agents, Shigella should be highlighted due to its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. Here, we assessed Shigella prevalence, drug susceptibility and virulence factors. Faeces from 157 children with diarrhoea who sought treatment at the Children's Hospital João Paulo II, a reference children´s hospital in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were cultured and drug susceptibility of the Shigella isolates was determined by the disk diffusion technique. Shigella virulence markers were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The bacterium was recovered from 10.8% of the children (88.2% Shigella sonnei). The ipaH, iuc, sen and ial genes were detected in strains isolated from all shigellosis patients; set1A was only detected in Shigella flexneri. Additionally, patients were infected by Shigella strains of different ial, sat, sen and set1A genotypes. Compared to previous studies, we observed a marked shift in the distribution of species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei and high rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. PMID:23440111

  6. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-01-01

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars. PMID:27173264

  7. Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

  8. Molecular epidemiology and virulence markers of Salmonella Infantis isolated over 25 years in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda; Pitondo-Silva, André; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2013-10-01

    Infection of humans and animals caused by Salmonella is a major public health problem worldwide. Among the more than 2500 serovars, S. Infantis has been one of the 15 most isolated serovars in the world. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the molecular characteristics of S. Infantis strains from Brazil. The aims of this study were to type S. Infantis isolates of this country and to assess their pathogenic potential. The molecular epidemiology of 35 S. Infantis strains, isolated from human sources (25) and food items (10) between 1984 and 2009 in São Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated using ERIC-PCR, PFGE and MLST. Furthermore, the presence of some virulence markers from Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) SPI-1 and SPI-2 and from the virulence plasmid was assessed by PCR. Using ERIC-PCR, 34 S. Infantis strains exhibited a high genetic similarity (≥ 93.7%) and using PFGE, 32 strains exhibited a similarity ≥ 80.6%. Additionally, MLST showed a high clonal similarity among strains that all presented the same ST32. Thirty-two isolates under investigation contained the virulence markers invA, sopB, sopD, sipA, sipD, ssaR, sifA, flgK, fljB and flgL. In conclusion, the S. Infantis strains studied were genetically similar, suggesting that a prevalent subtype has been causing disease and food contamination during a 25year period in São Paulo State, an important metropolitan region in Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination between strains from food items and sick humans indicates that better control measures for S. Infantis may be needed in this country. PMID:23860124

  9. Molecular epidemiology and virulence markers of Salmonella Infantis isolated over 25 years in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda; Pitondo-Silva, André; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2013-10-01

    Infection of humans and animals caused by Salmonella is a major public health problem worldwide. Among the more than 2500 serovars, S. Infantis has been one of the 15 most isolated serovars in the world. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the molecular characteristics of S. Infantis strains from Brazil. The aims of this study were to type S. Infantis isolates of this country and to assess their pathogenic potential. The molecular epidemiology of 35 S. Infantis strains, isolated from human sources (25) and food items (10) between 1984 and 2009 in São Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated using ERIC-PCR, PFGE and MLST. Furthermore, the presence of some virulence markers from Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) SPI-1 and SPI-2 and from the virulence plasmid was assessed by PCR. Using ERIC-PCR, 34 S. Infantis strains exhibited a high genetic similarity (≥ 93.7%) and using PFGE, 32 strains exhibited a similarity ≥ 80.6%. Additionally, MLST showed a high clonal similarity among strains that all presented the same ST32. Thirty-two isolates under investigation contained the virulence markers invA, sopB, sopD, sipA, sipD, ssaR, sifA, flgK, fljB and flgL. In conclusion, the S. Infantis strains studied were genetically similar, suggesting that a prevalent subtype has been causing disease and food contamination during a 25year period in São Paulo State, an important metropolitan region in Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination between strains from food items and sick humans indicates that better control measures for S. Infantis may be needed in this country.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli in Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Three Cities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Laryssa Freitas; Barbosa, Mayhara Martins Cordeiro; Pinto, Fernanda de Rezende; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Oliveira, Mônica Costa; de Souza, Viviane; de Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino; Borges, Lucimara Antonio; do Amaral, Luiz Augusto; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-09-01

    The production of cheeses from unpasteurized milk is still widespread in Brazil, even with a legal ban imposed on its marketing. The manufacture of this cheese is a public health problem, due to the use of raw milk and the poor hygienic conditions throughout the supply chain process. Contamination may occur from several sources and involve several different pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. The latter can cause different clinical manifestations depending on the pathotype involved. Furthermore, some isolates manifest antimicrobial resistance and may be a risk for public health. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli in raw-milk cheese in Brazil and their possible risk to public health. A total of 83 cheeses were collected from three different cities and 169 E. coli isolates were characterized for the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence genes, phylogenetic type, antimicrobial resistance, O serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of samples positive for E. coli was highest in Aracaju (90.32%, 28/31). The prevalence of samples positive for potential ExPEC genes was similar for Uberaba and Aracaju (23.07%); the most prevalent ExPEC virulence genes were tsh, iucD, and papC. Isolates from Uberaba had a higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (38.46%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.85%), and ampicillin (61.54%) than the other cities. Overall, antimicrobial resistance genes tetB, blaTEM, and blaCMY-2 were the most prevalent genes (26.32%, 15.79%, and 28.95%, respectively) and the most prevalent serotypes were O4 (8%), 018 (12%), and O23 (8%). Clones originating from the same regions and from different regions were observed. These results emphasize the presence of a potential danger for humans in the consumption of raw-milk cheeses in three cities in Brazil due to

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli in Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Three Cities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Laryssa Freitas; Barbosa, Mayhara Martins Cordeiro; Pinto, Fernanda de Rezende; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Oliveira, Mônica Costa; de Souza, Viviane; de Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino; Borges, Lucimara Antonio; do Amaral, Luiz Augusto; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-09-01

    The production of cheeses from unpasteurized milk is still widespread in Brazil, even with a legal ban imposed on its marketing. The manufacture of this cheese is a public health problem, due to the use of raw milk and the poor hygienic conditions throughout the supply chain process. Contamination may occur from several sources and involve several different pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. The latter can cause different clinical manifestations depending on the pathotype involved. Furthermore, some isolates manifest antimicrobial resistance and may be a risk for public health. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli in raw-milk cheese in Brazil and their possible risk to public health. A total of 83 cheeses were collected from three different cities and 169 E. coli isolates were characterized for the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence genes, phylogenetic type, antimicrobial resistance, O serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of samples positive for E. coli was highest in Aracaju (90.32%, 28/31). The prevalence of samples positive for potential ExPEC genes was similar for Uberaba and Aracaju (23.07%); the most prevalent ExPEC virulence genes were tsh, iucD, and papC. Isolates from Uberaba had a higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (38.46%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.85%), and ampicillin (61.54%) than the other cities. Overall, antimicrobial resistance genes tetB, blaTEM, and blaCMY-2 were the most prevalent genes (26.32%, 15.79%, and 28.95%, respectively) and the most prevalent serotypes were O4 (8%), 018 (12%), and O23 (8%). Clones originating from the same regions and from different regions were observed. These results emphasize the presence of a potential danger for humans in the consumption of raw-milk cheeses in three cities in Brazil due to

  12. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues; Neves, Soraya da Silva; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes. PMID:25229224

  13. Detection of virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de; Neves, Soraya da Silva; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  14. Prevalence and Persistence of Escherichia coli Strains with Uropathogenic Virulence Characteristics in Sewage Treatment Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, E. M.; Matthews, B.; Gundogdu, A.; Vollmerhausen, T. L.; Ramos, N. L.; Stratton, H.; Ahmed, W.; Katouli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and persistence of Escherichia coli strains in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in a subtropical region of Queensland, Australia. In all, 264 E. coli strains were typed using a high-resolution biochemical fingerprinting method and grouped into either a single or a common biochemical phenotype (S-BPT and C-BPT, respectively). These strains were also tested for their phylogenetic groups and 12 virulence genes associated with intestinal and extraintestinal E. coli strains. Comparison of BPTs at various treatment stages indicated that certain BPTs were found in two or all treatment stages. These BPTs constituted the highest proportion of E. coli strains in each STP and belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D. No virulence genes associated with intestinal E. coli were found among the strains, but 157 (59.5%) strains belonging to 14 C-BPTs carried one or more virulence genes associated with uropathogenic strains. Of these, 120 (76.4%) strains belonged to seven persistent C-BPTs and were found in all four STPs. Our results indicate that certain clonal groups of E. coli with virulence characteristics of uropathogenic strains can survive the treatment processes of STPs. These strains were common to all STPs and constituted the highest proportion of the strains in different treatment tanks of each STP. PMID:20622128

  15. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, M.A.; Doretto Jr, L.; Camillo, S.C.A.; Reischak, D.; Ribeiro, S.A.M.; Ramazzoti, A.; Mendonça, A.O.; Spilki, F.R.; Buzinaro, M.G.; Ferreira, H.L.; Arns, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3%) were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks. PMID:24031503

  16. Biological and physicochemical wastewater treatment processes reduce the prevalence of virulent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Dominic; Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke; Gehr, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Effluents discharged from wastewater treatment plants are possible sources of pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, in the freshwater environment, and determining the possible selection of pathogens is important. This study evaluated the impact of activated sludge and physicochemical wastewater treatment processes on the prevalence of potentially virulent E. coli. A total of 719 E. coli isolates collected from four municipal plants in Québec before and after treatment were characterized by using a customized DNA microarray to determine the impact of treatment processes on the frequency of specific pathotypes and virulence genes. The percentages of potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates in the plant influents varied between 26 and 51%, and in the effluents, the percentages were 14 to 31%, for a reduction observed at all plants ranging between 14 and 45%. Pathotypes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were the most abundant at three of the four plants and represented 24% of all isolates, while intestinal pathogenic E. coli pathotypes (IPEC) represented 10% of the isolates. At the plant where ExPEC isolates were not the most abundant, a large number of isolates were classified as both ExPEC and IPEC; overall, 6% of the isolates were classified in both groups, with the majority being from the same plant. The reduction of the proportion of pathogenic E. coli could not be explained by the preferential loss of one virulence gene or one type of virulence factor; however, the quinolone resistance gene (qnrS) appears to enhance the loss of virulence genes, suggesting a mechanism involving the loss of pathogenicity islands. PMID:23160132

  17. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  18. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Lepesqueur, Laura Soares Souto; Yassuda, Cinthia Gomes; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection.

  19. Prevalence of Virulence Factors and Drug Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Enterococci: A Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2015-01-01

    Along with emergence of multidrug resistance, presence of several virulence factors in enterococci is an emerging concept. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of various virulence factors phenotypically and genotypically in enterococci and study their association with multidrug resistance. A total of 310 enterococcal isolates were studied, comprising 155 E. faecium and 155 E. faecalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion and agar dilution method. Hemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production, and haemagglutination were detected phenotypically and presence of virulence genes, namely, asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl, was detected by multiplex PCR. Of the total, 47.41% isolates were high level gentamicin resistant (HLGRE) and 7.09% were vancomycin resistant (VRE). All the virulence traits studied were found in varying proportions, with majority in E. faecalis (p > 0.05). Strong biofilm producers possessed either asa1 or gelE gene. gelE silent gene was detected in 41.37% (12/29). However, increase in resistance was associated with significant decrease in expression or acquisition of virulence genes. Further, acquisition of vancomycin resistance was the significant factor responsible for the loss of virulence traits. Though it is presumed that increased drug resistance correlates with increased virulence, acquisition of vancomycin resistance might be responsible for reduced expression of virulence traits to meet the “biological cost” relating to VRE. PMID:26366302

  20. Evaluation of the Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Chicken Carcasses in 2007 and 2013 from Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koga, Vanessa L; Rodrigues, Gabriela R; Scandorieiro, Sara; Vespero, Eliana C; Oba, Alexandre; de Brito, Benito G; de Brito, Kelly C T; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2015-06-01

    The frequent use of antimicrobials in commercial poultry production has raised concerns regarding the potential impact of antimicrobials on human health due to selection for resistant bacteria. Several studies have reported similarities between extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains isolated from birds and humans, indicating that these contaminant bacteria in poultry may be linked to human disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors among E. coli strains isolated from commercial chicken carcasses in Paraná, Brazil, in 2007 and 2013. A total of 84 E. coli strains were isolated from chicken carcasses in 2007, and 121 E. coli strains were isolated in 2013. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence genes (hlyF, iss, ompT, iron, and iutA) and to determine phylogenetic classification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using 15 antimicrobials. The strains were also confirmed as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli with phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that our strains harbored virulence genes characteristic of ExPEC, with the iutA gene being the most prevalent. The phylogenetic groups D and B1 were the most prevalent among the strains isolated in 2007 and 2013, respectively. There was an increase in the frequency of resistance to a majority of antimicrobials tested. An important finding in this study was the large number of ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from chicken carcasses in 2013, primarily for the group 2 cefotaximase (CTX-M) enzyme. ESBL production confers broad-spectrum resistance and is a health risk because ESBL genes are transferable from food-producing animals to humans via poultry meat. These findings suggest that our strains harbored virulence and resistance genes, which are often associated with plasmids that can facilitate their transmission between bacteria derived from different hosts

  1. Prevalence of hypodontia in orthodontic patients in Brasilia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Janaína Aparecida Calaça; Paula, Lílian Marly; Faber, Jorge; Acevedo, Ana Carolina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of hypodontia and associated dental anomalies in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment in Brasília, Brazil, over a 2 year period (1998-2000). The records of 1049 orthodontic patients between 10 and 15.7 years of age (507 males and 542 females) from 16 orthodontic clinics were analysed. Descriptive statistics were performed for the study variables. A chi-square test was used to determine the difference in the prevalence of hypodontia between genders. The prevalence of hypodontia was 6.3 per cent (39.4 per cent males and 60.6 per cent females) with no statistically significant difference between the genders. One case of oligodontia was observed. The maxillary lateral incisor was the most frequently missing tooth, followed by the mandibular second premolar. All cases of hypodontia, except one, were associated with at least one other dental anomaly. These associated dental anomalies were retained primary teeth (30.3 per cent), ectopic canine eruption (25.8 per cent), taurodontism (21.2 per cent), and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors (16.7 per cent). PMID:19837747

  2. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines. PMID:26861367

  3. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes.

    PubMed

    Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-02-05

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines.

  4. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes.

    PubMed

    Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines. PMID:26861367

  5. Prevalence of ten putative virulence genes in the emerging foodborne pathogen Arcobacter isolated from food products.

    PubMed

    Girbau, Cecilia; Guerra, Cristian; Martínez-Malaxetxebarria, Irati; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-12-01

    Arcobacter spp. are considered to be emerging food- and waterborne pathogens for both humans and animals. However, their virulence mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study the presence of ten virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, mviN, pldA, irgA, tlyA and iroE) was assessed in a set of 47 strains of Arcobacter butzleri, 10 of Arcobacter cryaerophilus and 1 Arcobacter skirrowii strain recovered from different food products (pork, chicken, beef, milk, clams and mussels). Overall, the genes cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA and tlyA were detected in all A. butzleri and A. skirrowii strains. Lower detection rates were observed for irgA, iroE, hecA and hecB. The genes hecB and iroE were detected neither in A. cryaerophilus nor in A. skirrowii. The genes hecA and irgA were not detected in A. skirrowii. It was noteworthy that the genes hecA and hecB were significantly (P < 0.05) highly detected in A. butzleri strains isolated from clams compared with strains isolated from milk and chicken. Therefore, our findings underline clams as a source of A. butzleri strains with high prevalence of putative virulence genes. This could be hazardous to human health, especially because these bivalves are usually consumed raw or undercooked.

  6. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M.; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis. PMID:27258021

  7. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  8. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  9. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Lepesqueur, Laura Soares Souto; Yassuda, Cinthia Gomes; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection. PMID

  10. Prevalence of Virulence-Related Determinants in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jazayeri Moghadas, Ali; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis, a member of the human flora, is recognized as an opportunistic pathogen and cause of nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis surface components are able to establish bacteria on the host surface, and cause infection. Objectives The frequency of icaA, IS256, aap, fbe and bhp in clinical isolates of S. epidermidis were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine S. epidermidis isolates were collected from blood (50), wound (1), urine (4) and tracheal (4) samples (Tehran, Iran). Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were identified with conventional bacteriological tests. Virulence-associated genes were detected by specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Results Of the 59 S. epidermidis, fbe was found in 89.8%, while aap and bhp were observed in 64.4% and 15.3% of the samples, respectively. Coexistence of aap and fbe was found in 32 isolates, while coexistence of bhp and fbe was observed in five isolates. Two isolates were negative for the investigated genes. Conclusions Prevalence of fbe and aap was significantly different from similar studies, yet frequency of bhp was in accordance with other studies. Prevalence of icaA and IS256 was not significantly different from some studies while a significant difference was observed when results were compared with some other studies. PMID:27800129

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae in Brazil: serotype distribution, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a major cause of neonatal sepsis and is also associated with invasive and noninvasive infections in pregnant women and non-pregnant adults, elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions. Ten capsular serotypes have been recognized, and determination of their distribution within a specific population or geographical region is important as they are major targets for the development of vaccine strategies. We have evaluated the characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from individuals with infections or colonization by this microorganism, living in different geographic regions of Brazil. Methods A total of 434 isolates were identified and serotyped by conventional phenotypic tests. The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method. Genes associated with resistance to erythromycin (ermA, ermB, mefA) and tetracycline (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO) as well as virulence-associated genes (bac, bca, lmb, scpB) were investigated using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to examine the genetic diversity of macrolide-resistant and of a number of selected macrolide-susceptible isolates. Results Overall, serotypes Ia (27.6%), II (19.1%), Ib (18.7%) and V (13.6%) were the most predominant, followed by serotypes IV (8.1%) and III (6.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to the beta-lactam antimicrobials tested and 97% were resistant to tetracycline. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 4.1% and 3% of the isolates, respectively. Among the resistance genes investigated, tetM (99.3%) and tetO (1.8%) were detected among tetracycline-resistant isolates and ermA (39%) and ermB (27.6%) were found among macrolide-resistant isolates. The lmb and scpB virulence genes were detected in all isolates, while bac and bca were detected in 57 (13.1%) and 237 (54.6%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing by PFGE showed that resistance to erythromycin was associated

  12. Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Souza, Lucieri O P; Gandra, Rafael M; Galdino, Anna Clara M; Baptista, Andréa R S; Nunes, Ana Paula F; Ribeiro, Mariceli A; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2015-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; however, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of FKS1 gene has solved the identification inaccuracy, revealing that 43 (81.1%) isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 10 (18.9%) as C. orthopsilosis. No C. metapsilosis was found. The geographic distribution of these Candida species was uniform among the studied Brazilian States (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo). All C. orthopsilosis and almost all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (95.3%) isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Nevertheless, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to fluconazole and another one was resistant to caspofungin. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates exhibited higher MIC mean values to amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin than those of C. orthopsilosis, while C. orthopsilosis isolates displayed higher MIC mean to itraconazole compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Identical MIC mean values to voriconazole were measured for these Candida species. All the isolates of both species were able to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Impressively, biofilm-growing cells of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis exhibited a considerable resistance to all antifungal agents tested. Pseudohyphae were observed in 67.4% and 80

  13. Prevalence, virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains, isolated from beef in Greater Tunis (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Walid; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jbeli, Mounir; Zrelli, Samia; Ettriqui, Abdelfettah

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in 300 beef meat samples collected from cattle carcasses of different categories (young bulls, culled heifers and culled cows). The detection of Salmonella spp. was performed by the alternative VIDAS Easy Salmonella technique and confirmed by PCR using Salmonella specific primers. Salmonella serotypes were determined by slide agglutination tests. The resistance to 12 antibiotics was determined by the diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar antibiotic discs. The overall contamination rate of beef by Salmonella spp. was 5.7% (17/300). This rate varied from naught (0/100) in bulls' meat to 14% (14/100) in culled cows' meat (p<0.001). The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was higher in summer and in cattle with digestive disorders: chronic gastroenteritis (6/17), traumatic peritonitis (3/17) and intestinal obstruction (2/17) (p<0.0001). Of the 17 Salmonella isolates, 6 serotypes were identified, namely Salmonella Montevideo (8/17), Salmonella Anatum (3/17), Salmonella Minnesota (2/17), Salmonella Amsterdam (2/17), Salmonella Kentucky (1/17) and Salmonella Brandenburg (1/17) (p<0.05). Unlike other serotypes, S. Montevideo was present during the whole year except winter. Almost all of the strains (16/17) were resistant to at least one of the 12 tested antibiotics. Multidrug-resistance concerned 14/17 of the strains, including Amoxicillin (13/17), Tetracycline (12/17), Streptomycin (10/17) and Nalidixic acid (6/17). All the strains were sensitive to the association (Amoxicillin+Clavulanic acid), Cefoxitin and Ceftazidime. In addition, our study showed that all Salmonella strains (17) were positive for invasion gene invA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Only one isolate (S. Kentucky) harbored the h-li virulence gene.

  14. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  15. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  16. First description of Candida nivariensis in Brazil: antifungal susceptibility profile and potential virulence attributes

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Ramos, Livia de Souza; Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Chaves, Alessandra Leal da Silva; Muramoto, Ilda Akemi; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs) to amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS), and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS) and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001). AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50%) in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management. PMID:26814644

  17. Virulence gene content in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry flocks with clinical signs of colibacillosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Silvia; Ikuta, Nilo; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; da Silveira, Vinicius Proença; de Melo Predebon, Gabriela; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the bird's intestinal tract, but it can invade different tissues resulting in systemic symptoms (colibacillosis). This disease occurs only when the E. coli infecting strain presents virulence factors (encoded by specific genes) that enable the adhesion and proliferation in the host organism. Thus, it is important to differentiate pathogenic (APEC, avian pathogenic E. coli) and non-pathogenic or fecal (AFEC, avian fecal E. coli) isolates. Previous studies analyzed the occurrence of virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from birds with colibacillosis, demonstrating a high frequency of the bacterial genes cvaC, iroN, iss, iutA, sitA, tsh, fyuA, irp-2, ompT and hlyF in pathogenic strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of these virulence genes in E. coli isolated from poultry flocks in Brazil. A total of 138 isolates of E. coli was obtained from samples of different tissues and/or organs (spleen, liver, kidney, trachea, lungs, skin, ovary, oviduct, intestine, cloaca) and environmental swabs collected from chicken and turkey flocks suspected to have colibacillosis in farms from the main Brazilian producing regions. Total DNA was extracted and the 10 virulence genes were detected by traditional and/or real-time PCR. At least 11 samples of each gene were sequenced and compared to reference strains. All 10 virulence factors were detected in Brazilian E. coli isolates, with frequencies ranging from 39.9% (irp-2) to 68.8% (hlyF and sitA). Moreover, a high nucleotide similarity (over 99%) was observed between gene sequences of Brazilian isolates and reference strains. Seventy-nine isolates were defined as pathogenic (APEC) and 59 as fecal (AFEC) based on previously described criteria. In conclusion, the main virulence genes of the reference E. coli strains are also present in isolates associated with colibacillosis in Brazil. The analysis of this set of virulence factors can be

  18. Molecular screening of virulence genes in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from human blood culture in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koga, Vanessa L; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Cyoia, Paula S; Neves, Meiriele S; Vidotto, Marilda C; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is one of the main etiological agents of bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. In the present study, 20 E. coli isolates from human hemocultures were characterized to identify genetic features associated with virulence (pathogenicity islands markers, phylogenetic group, virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and conjugative plasmids) and these results were compared with commensal isolates. The most prevalent pathogenicity island, in strains from hemoculture, were PAI IV536, described by many researchers as a stable island in enterobacteria. Among virulence genes, iutA gene was found more frequently and this gene enconding the aerobactin siderophore receptor. According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found. Additionally, through plasmid analysis, 14 isolates showed plasmids and 3 of these were shown to be conjugative. Although in stool samples of healthy people the presence of commensal strains is common, human intestinal tract may serve as a reservoir for ExPEC.

  19. Brief Report: Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Brazil--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paula, Cristiane S.; Ribeiro, Sabrina H.; Fombonne, Eric; Mercadante, Marcos T.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study presents preliminary results concerning the prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in South America. It was a three-phase study conducted in a typical town in Southeast Brazil. Case definition was based in a combination of standardized instruments and clinical evaluations by experts. The prevalence of PDD was…

  20. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  1. Prevalence and significance of plasmid maintenance functions in the virulence plasmids of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Manjistha; Austin, Stuart

    2011-07-01

    Virulence functions of pathogenic bacteria are often encoded on large extrachromosomal plasmids. These plasmids are maintained at low copy number to reduce the metabolic burden on their host. Low-copy-number plasmids risk loss during cell division. This is countered by plasmid-encoded systems that ensure that each cell receives at least one plasmid copy. Plasmid replication and recombination can produce plasmid multimers that hinder plasmid segregation. These are removed by multimer resolution systems. Equitable distribution of the resulting monomers to daughter cells is ensured by plasmid partition systems that actively segregate plasmid copies to daughter cells in a process akin to mitosis in higher organisms. Any plasmid-free cells that still arise due to occasional failures of replication, multimer resolution, or partition are eliminated by plasmid-encoded postsegregational killing systems. Here we argue that all of these three systems are essential for the stable maintenance of large low-copy-number plasmids. Thus, they should be found on all large virulence plasmids. Where available, well-annotated sequences of virulence plasmids confirm this. Indeed, virulence plasmids often appear to contain more than one example conforming to each of the three system classes. Since these systems are essential for virulence, they can be regarded as ubiquitous virulence factors. As such, they should be informative in the search for new antibacterial agents and drug targets.

  2. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors☆

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-01-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries. PMID:24027422

  3. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  4. Prevalence of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in Brazil: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon Salim Costa; Sousa, Evitom Corrêa de; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is increasing among practitioners of recreational physical activity. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of AAS in practitioners of recreational physical activity in Brazil. After systematic review of four databases, 14 articles were included. The results indicate that the prevalence of AAS varied between 2.1% and 31.6%, according to the region analyzed and the sample characteristics. The study's limitations are noted.

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Shivani; Brahmbhatt, M. N.; Chatur, Y. A.; Nayak, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Material and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27046986

  6. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  7. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  8. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-19

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  9. Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Sérgio Souza; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Genser, Bernd; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. Methods We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6–7 years and 13–14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. Results Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality. PMID:17697314

  10. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, Erlane Chaves; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANDRADE, Mônica Coelho; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; da SILVA, José Damião; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; CORREIA, João Paulo Ramalho; da CRUZ, José Napoleão Monte; CAVALCANTI, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  11. Disease dynamics of Porites bleaching with tissue loss: prevalence, virulence, transmission, and environmental drivers.

    PubMed

    Sudek, M; Williams, G J; Runyon, C; Aeby, G S; Davy, S K

    2015-02-10

    The prevalence, number of species affected, and geographical extent of coral diseases have been increasing worldwide. We present ecological data on the coral disease Porites bleaching with tissue loss (PBTL) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii, USA), affecting P. compressa. This disease is prevalent throughout the year, although it shows spatio-temporal variability with peak prevalence during the warmer summer months. Temporal variability in disease prevalence showed a strong positive relationship with elevated water temperature. Spatially, PBTL prevalence peaked in clearer waters (lower turbidity) with higher water flow and higher densities of parrotfish, together explaining approximately 26% of the spatial variability in PBTL prevalence. However, the relatively poor performance of the spatial model suggests that other, unmeasured factors may be more important in driving spatial prevalence. PBTL was not transmissible through direct contact or the water column in controlled aquaria experiments, suggesting that this disease may not be caused by a pathogen, is not highly infectious, or perhaps requires a vector for transmission. In general, PBTL results in partial tissue mortality of affected colonies; on average, one-third of the tissue is lost. This disease can affect the same colonies repeatedly, suggesting a potential for progressive damage which could cause increased tissue loss over time. P. compressa is the main framework-building species in Kaneohe Bay; PBTL therefore has the potential to negatively impact the structure of the reefs at this location.

  12. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies among blood donors in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; de Sena, Anne; Geraldo, Alexandre; Spada, Celso; Granato, Celso F H

    2016-02-01

    Brazil has been classified as moderately endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, data on the seroprevalence of HEV in this region are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection among blood donors in the metropolitan area of Itajai Valley, Southern Brazil, a region of predominant German heritage, where cultural habits result in a high consumption of pork. Serum samples from 300 blood donors were tested in December 2014 using serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 30 (10%) subjects, and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Only one subject had anti-HEV IgM, whereas none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in blood donors than previously reported in Brazil.

  13. Prevalence of Virulence Factors and Vancomycin-resistant Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    NASAJ, Mona; MOUSAVI, Seyed Masoud; HOSSEINI, Seyed Mostafa; ARABESTANI, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin-resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources. Methods: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012–14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR. Results: Totally 280 enterococcal isolates were identified as follows: E. faecalis (62.5%), E. faecium (24%) and Enterococcus spp (13.5%). The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that resistance rates to vancomycin and teicoplanin in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were 5% and 73%, respectively. Of Sixty vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains, fifty-one isolates were identified as E. faecium (VREfm) and nine as E. faecalis (VREfs). Prevalence of esp, hyl, and asa1 genes were determined as 82%, 71.6%, and 100%, respectively in E. faecium strains; and 78%, 56/6%, and 97%, respectively in E. faecalis strains. Conclusion: The increased frequency of VREF, as seen with rapid rise in the number of vanA isolates should be considered in infection control practices. PMID:27648425

  14. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  15. Suicidality among pregnant women in Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Castro e Couto, Tiago; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Faria, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of preventable death. We evaluated suicidality among pregnant women who participated in prenatal care in Brazil. A total of 255 patients were assessed using semi-structured interviews as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Thereafter, Stata 12 was used to identify the significant predictors of current suicide risk (CSR) among participants using univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). According to MINI Plus module C, the lifetime suicide attempt rate was 12.55%. The overall CSR was 23.53%, distributed across risk levels of low (12.55%), moderate (1.18%), and high (9.80%). Our rates approximate those found in another Brazilian study (18.4%). Antenatal depression (AD), lifetime bipolar disorder, and any current anxiety disorder (as measured using the MINI) as well as BDI scores ≥15 and EPDS scores ≥11 were identified as positive risk factors in a univariate analysis (p < 0.001). These factors changed after a multivariate analysis was employed, and only years of education [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.21-0.99], AD (OR = 3.42; 95% CIs = 1.37-8.53), and EPDS scores ≥11 (OR = 4.44; 95% CIs = 1.97-9.97) remained independent risk factors. AD and other psychiatric disorders were the primary risk factors for suicidality, although only the former remained an independent factor after a multivariate analysis. More than 10 years of education and EPDS scores ≥11 were also independent factors; the latter can be used as a screening tool for suicide risk.

  16. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  17. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in the city of Campina Grande, in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento; Santana, José Valfrido; Bragagnoli, Gérson; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear need to perform epidemiological studies to find the true prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica around the world. The evaluation of this prevalence has been hindered by the existence of two different species which are morphologically identical, but genetically different, namely E. histolytica, which causes amebiasis, and E. dispar, which is non-pathogenic. In Brazil, the E. dispar has been detected in communities in the Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) regions with poor sanitation. However, individuals infected with E. histolytica have been identified in other regions. There is an absence of reports on the prevalence of these parasites in the state of Paraíba, which also has areas with poor sanitary conditions where a high prevalence of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex has been detected in children from urban slums. The present study evaluated the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in 1,195 asymptomatic children between two and 10 years of age, living in a sprawling urban slum in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba, in Northeastern Brazil. These children were examined and their feces samples were analyzed microscopically. A total of 553 children tested positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex, and 456 of the positive samples were tested with the E. histolytica II® ELISA kit. All 456 samples were negative for the presence of the adhesin E. histolytica specific antigen. The evidence suggests that in this community E. histolytica is absent and E. dispar is the dominant species.

  18. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará. PMID:24356890

  19. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  20. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A.; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients. PMID:25351547

  1. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  2. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  3. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of strains of Shigella sonnei isolated over 31 years suggests the circulation of two prevalent subtypes in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Seribelli, Amanda Ap; Frazão, Miliane R; Medeiros, Marta I Cazentini; Falcão, Juliana P

    2016-07-01

    Shigella sonnei is an important causative agent of bacillary dysentery worldwide that has recently emerged in developing countries. However, there are few studies that have characterized strains ofS. sonnei isolated in Brazil. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of 12 virulence genes, the antimicrobial resistance profile against 16 drugs and the genotypic diversity of strains of S. sonnei isolated in this country. Seventy-two strains of S. sonnei isolated from human diarrhoeic faeces in São Paulo State, Brazil from 1983-2014 were studied. All of the strains contained the ipaH, iuc and sigA genes. The ipaBCD gene was detected in 19 % of the strains, the ial and virF genes in 18 % and the sen gene in 10 % of the strains. The set1A, set1B, pic,sepA and sat genes were not detected. A total of 42 (58.3 %) strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Thirty (41.6 %) strains were resistant to tetracycline. The S. sonnei strains were grouped in two clusters called A and B by PFGE and ERIC-PCR, and the majority of the strains comprised in each cluster presented ≥80 % similarity. In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the strains studied was highlighted by the presence of important virulence genes. The high rates of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline are alarming once those drugs can be used in the treatment of shigellosis. The PFGE and ERIC-PCR results suggest that there are two prevalent subtypes in the studied strains of S. sonnei that differed little over 31 years and have been contaminating humans and causing diseases in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27267912

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers.

  5. Virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Paiva, Manoel de Araújo Neto; Vasconcelos, David Caldas; de Menezes, Isis Sousa Bezerra; de Ponte, Yago Brito; Sampaio, Célia Maria de Souza; Monteiro, André Jalles; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate and identify clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. by means of biochemical tests and the automated method VITEK 2 and to investigate the presence of the virulence genes cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (asa-1), and type III secretion system (ascV), and also the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains. From the clinical isolates, 19 Aeromonas hydrophila, 3 Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, and 1 Aeromonas caviae were identified, while from the environmental strains, 11 A. hydrophila, 22 A. veronii bv. sobria, 1 A. veronii bv. veronii, and 1 A. caviae were recovered. The gene act was detected in 69.5% of clinical isolates, asa-1 in 8.6%, and ascV in 34.7%. In the environmental strains, the detection rates were 51.4%, 45.7%, and 54.2% for the genes act, asa-1, and ascV, respectively. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was observed in 15 and 3 clinical strains, respectively, and resistance to ceftazidime, meropenem, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was observed in 1 strain for each drug. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was detected in 17 and 1 environmental strain, respectively. Higher resistance percentages were observed in clinical strains, but environmental strains also showed this phenomenon and presented a higher detection rate of virulence genes. Thus, it is important to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenic potential of the environmental isolates.

  6. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Gomes, Igor Logetto Caetité; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years) were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40). There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.

  7. High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has worldwide distribution and is considered endemic in many world regions, including southwestern Japan and Brazil. Japanese immigrants and their descendants have a high risk of acquiring this infection due to intense population exchange between Brazil and Japan. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV, analyze the main risk factors associated with this infection, identify the main circulating types and subtypes of HTLV in Japanese immigrants and descendants living in Campo Grande-MS (Middle-West Brazil), as well as analyze the phylogenetic relationship among isolates of HTLV. Study Design A total of 219 individuals were interviewed and submitted to blood collection. All collected blood samples were submitted for detection of anti-HTLV-1/2 using the immunoassay ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot method. The proviral DNA of the 14 samples HTLV- 1 positive were genotyped by nucleotide sequencing. Results The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 6.8% (IC 95%: 3,5-10,2). Descriptive analysis of behavioral risk factors showed statistical association between HTLV-1 and age greater than or equal to 45 years. The proviral DNA of HTLV-1 was detected in all HTLV-1 positive samples. Of these, 14 were sequenced and classified as Cosmopolitan subtype, and 50% (7/14) belonged to subgroup A (transcontinental) and 50% (7/14) to the subgroup B (Japanese). Conclusion The high prevalence of HTLV-1 found evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and counseling of individuals infected with HTLV-1 for the control and prevention of the spread of this infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Central Brazil. PMID:25886507

  8. Prevalence of Chagas disease in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-02-01

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Brazil and Latin America. During the last years, it has become an emerging problem in North America and Europe due to increasing international migration. Here we describe the prevalence of Chagas disease in Brazil through a systematic review. We searched national and international electronic databases, grey literature and reference lists of selected articles for population-based studies on Chagas disease prevalence in Brazil, performed from 1980 until September 2012. Forty-two articles with relevant prevalence data were identified from a total of 4985 references. Prevalence ranged from 0% to 25.1%. Most surveys were performed in the Northeast region, especially in the state of Piauí. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity in most pooled estimates (I(2)>75%; p<0.001). The pooled estimate of Chagas disease prevalence across studies for the entire period was 4.2% (95% CI: 3.1-5.7), ranging from 4.4% (95% CI: 2.3-8.3) in the 1980s to 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-3.8) after 2000. Females (4.2%; 95% CI: 2.6-6.8), >60 year-olds (17.7%; 95% CI: 11.4-26.5), Northeast (5.0%; 95% CI: 3.1-8.1) and Southeast (5.0%; CI: 2.4-9.9) regions and mixed (urban/rural) areas (6.4%; 95% CI: 4.2-9.4) had the highest pooled prevalence. About 4.6 million (95% CI: 2.9-7.2 million) of people are estimated to be infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The small number of studies and small-scale samples of the general population in some areas limit interpretation, and findings of this review do not necessarily reflect the situation of the entire country. Systematic population-based studies at regional and national level are recommended to provide more accurate estimates and better define the epidemiology and risk areas of Chagas disease in Brazil.

  9. Clarithromycin resistance and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulent genotypes in patients from Southern México with chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Millán, Judit; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Castañón-Sánchez, Carlos Alberto; De Sampedro-Reyes, José; Cruz-Del Carmen, Iván; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Román-Román, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    In developing countries, clarithromycin resistance and frequency of re-infection are factors that contribute to high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this research was determine the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance and its relation with A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates in patients from Southern Mexico with chronic gastritis. Another purpose of this work was to study the prevalence of virulent genotypes and distribution of resistant strains according to the vacA/cagA/babA2 H. pylori genotypes. One hundred forty-four patients with chronic gastritis were studied. Forty-five H. pylori strains were isolated and clarithromycin susceptibility was determined by the disk-diffusion method. The 82.2% of the strains had the combination of alleles vacA s1 m1 and the cagA gene was detected in 77.8% and 40% of the strains were babA2 positive. The vacA s1 m1 genotype was detected more frequently in cagA(+) strains, vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(-) genotype was more frequent than vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(+), 37.8% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight strains were clarithromycin resistant, in three of these, point mutations were identified, but only in one strain the A2143G mutation associated with clarithromycin resistance was found. Other point mutations (A1821G, G1826A, T1830C, A2089G, T1600C, C1601T, C1602T, T1610C, A1611C and T1633G) that have not been associated with clarithromycin resistance were identified. The highest proportion of resistant strains was vacA s1m1/cagA(+) (62.5%). In patients from southern Mexico with chronic gastritis, the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance is within internationally accepted range (17.8%) and allows continued use of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. However, it is necessary to monitor the evolution of clarithromycin resistance in this area. The largest proportion of resistant H. pylori strains is not harboring the A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations

  10. Prevalence of virulence genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human, bovine and broiler.

    PubMed

    González-Hein, Gisela; Huaracán, Bernardo; García, Patricia; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtB, cst-II, ggt, and virB11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. In addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csrA linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. All the C. jejuni isolates were positive for cdtB gene. The csrA gene was detected in 100% and 92% of C. jejuni isolates from human and animal origin and the virB11 gene was detected in 7.3% and 3.6% isolates from chicken and human respectively. All isolates from bovine were negative for the virB11 gene. The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of the remaining genes. Of the C. jejuni recovered from human 83.6%, and 32.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. Out of the isolates from chicken 40% and 5.5% isolates revealed the presence of cst-II, and ggt, respectively. Finally of the C. jejuni isolates from bovine, 97.7% and 22.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. We conclude that the genes of this study circulate among humans and animals. These results led us to hypothesize that the isolates associated with enteritis (cdtB positives) are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. On the other hand, the high frequencies of csrA gene in C. jejuni show that this gene is important for the survival of C. jejuni in animals and humans.

  11. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  12. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile offenders in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Renata Candido; Assumpção, Francisco; Teixeira, Ivan Abdalla; Fonseca, Vilma Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of juvenile offenders in Brazil, mainly among young females, is on the increase. The literature on this issue indicates an increased incidence of mental disorders among young offenders in several countries, though studies in Brazil are lacking. The aim of this article is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents from a socio-educational standpoint, taking as a hypothesis the gender difference and the type of offense committed. The instrument used was the K-SADS-PL. As results, we found a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders, the most common being: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (33.3%); behavioral disorder (77%); oppositional defiant disorder (50%), anxiety disorders (70%), depressive disorder (50%), illicit drug abuse/dependence (70%), and alcohol abuse/dependence (52%). Alcohol abuse/dependence caused a 2.4-fold increase in the probability of adolescents committing a violent offence. Public health authorities should concentrate on early diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in childhood to reduce future violations. It is also suggested that mental health treatment of detained juveniles should be a fundamental part of the recuperation and reintegration of young offenders into society. PMID:21584459

  13. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  14. PREVALENCE OF Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar IN THE CITY OF CAMPINA GRANDE, IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento; Santana, José Valfrido; Bragagnoli, Gérson; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear need to perform epidemiological studies to find the true prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica around the world. The evaluation of this prevalence has been hindered by the existence of two different species which are morphologically identical, but genetically different, namely E. histolytica, which causes amebiasis, and E. dispar, which is non-pathogenic. In Brazil, the E. dispar has been detected in communities in the Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) regions with poor sanitation. However, individuals infected with E. histolytica have been identified in other regions. There is an absence of reports on the prevalence of these parasites in the state of Paraíba, which also has areas with poor sanitary conditions where a high prevalence of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex has been detected in children from urban slums. The present study evaluated the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in 1,195 asymptomatic children between two and 10 years of age, living in a sprawling urban slum in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba, in Northeastern Brazil. These children were examined and their feces samples were analyzed microscopically. A total of 553 children tested positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex, and 456 of the positive samples were tested with the E. histolytica II® ELISA kit. All 456 samples were negative for the presence of the adhesin E. histolytica specific antigen. The evidence suggests that in this community E. histolytica is absent and E. dispar is the dominant species. PMID:25229229

  15. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  16. Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes *

    PubMed Central

    de Luna, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; de Luna, João Rafael Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; de Almeida, Paulo César; Chiesa, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. RESULTS: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students. PMID:23670497

  17. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  18. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact. PMID:25456607

  19. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.

  20. [Trichomoniasis: prevalence in the female gender in 2004-2005 in Sergipe State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mayra Santos; Argôlo, Danilo Souza; Almeida Júnior, José Sodré; Pinheiro, Malone Santos; Brito, Ana Maria Guedes de

    2010-06-01

    Trichomoniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which initiates a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus, cervical cancer, infertility and other diseases. Its incidence ranges from 20% up to 40% in Brazil. The primary channel of transmission is by sexual contact and laboratorial diagnostic may be performed by chain polymerase reaction (CPR), culture medium isolation, fresh vaginal content exam and/or colored by Giemsa and Papanicolau methods. The later has limitations in the detection of pathologies considered sexually transmissible, like Thricomoniasis. This work deals with prevalence of Thricomoniasis in users of laboratories associated with the Ministry of Health, in the age group from 19 up to 44 years old which were submitted to Papanicolau test in 2004-2005 in Sergipe state, Brazil. Results have revealed that among 206,034 users, 7,349 have shown Thricomoniasis, being 3,788 in 2004 and 3,498 in 2005. It could be observed that the estimated prevalence in Sergipe in the biennium studied did not corroborate with the Brazilian reality, which may be attributed to the diagnostic executed.

  1. Genetic diversity, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from food and humans over a 24-year period in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Fábio; Moratto Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Falcão, Juliana P

    2012-12-01

    Salmonellosis is a major health problem worldwide. Serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of Salmonella outbreaks in many countries. In Brazil, few molecular typing studies have been performed. The aims of this study were to molecularly type Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated in Brazil in order to determine the genetic relationship between strains of food and human origin, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 128 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from human feces (67) and food (61) between 1986 and 2010 were studied. The genotypic diversity was assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE using XbaI, the antimicrobial resistance by the disc-diffusion assay and the presence of the SPI-1, SPI-2 and pSTV virulence genes assessed by PCR. The ERIC-PCR results revealed that 112 strains exhibited a similarity of >85.4% and the PFGE that 96 strains exhibited a similarity of >80.0%. Almost all strains (97.6%) harbored all 13 virulence genes investigated. Thirty-six strains (28.12%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. In conclusion, the nalidixic acid resistance observed after 1996 is indicative of an increase in the use of this drug. It may be suggested that these 128 strains might have descended from a common ancestor that differed little over 24 years and has been both contaminating food and humans and causing disease for more than two decades in Brazil.

  2. Prevalence of the Most Common Virulence-Associated Genes among Brucella Melitensis Isolates from Human Blood Cultures in Hamadan Province, West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Zahra; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Kamarehei, Farideh; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease causing considerable economic and public health problems. Despite animal vaccination, brucellosis remains endemic in some areas such as Iran, especially in the western Iranian province of Hamadan. We sought to detect some of the most common virulence-associated genes in Brucella isolated from human blood cultures to determine the prevalence of some virulence genes among Brucella isolates. Fifty-seven isolates were studied from patients with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis who referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward of Sina Hospital in Hamadan Province, Iran, between April 2013 and July 2014. Blood samples were collected for the diagnosis of brucellosis using the BACTEC blood culture system. All of these isolates were confirmed by the bcsp31 Brucella-specific gene. We detected 11 virulence-associated genes of Brucella, namely cβg, virB, znuA, ure, bvfA, omp25, omp31, wbkA, mviN, manA, and manB, which are important for the pathogenesis of this bacterium in the intracellular environment by multiplex PCR. Totally, 149 patients with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis were enrolled in this study. Fifty-seven (38.3%) patients had positive blood cultures. On biochemical and molecular testing, all of the isolates were Brucella melitensis. Ten of the virulence genes were detected among all of the 57 isolates, but the bvf gene was detected in 53 (93%) isolates. The high prevalence of virulence-associated genes among the Brucella isolates detected in Hamadan Province, Iran, underscores the pathogenicity of this bacterium in this region. PMID:27582592

  3. Prevalence of the Most Common Virulence-Associated Genes among Brucella Melitensis Isolates from Human Blood Cultures in Hamadan Province, West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Zahra; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Kamarehei, Farideh; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease causing considerable economic and public health problems. Despite animal vaccination, brucellosis remains endemic in some areas such as Iran, especially in the western Iranian province of Hamadan. We sought to detect some of the most common virulence-associated genes in Brucella isolated from human blood cultures to determine the prevalence of some virulence genes among Brucella isolates. Fifty-seven isolates were studied from patients with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis who referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward of Sina Hospital in Hamadan Province, Iran, between April 2013 and July 2014. Blood samples were collected for the diagnosis of brucellosis using the BACTEC blood culture system. All of these isolates were confirmed by the bcsp31 Brucella-specific gene. We detected 11 virulence-associated genes of Brucella, namely cβg, virB, znuA, ure, bvfA, omp25, omp31, wbkA, mviN, manA, and manB, which are important for the pathogenesis of this bacterium in the intracellular environment by multiplex PCR. Totally, 149 patients with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis were enrolled in this study. Fifty-seven (38.3%) patients had positive blood cultures. On biochemical and molecular testing, all of the isolates were Brucella melitensis. Ten of the virulence genes were detected among all of the 57 isolates, but the bvf gene was detected in 53 (93%) isolates. The high prevalence of virulence-associated genes among the Brucella isolates detected in Hamadan Province, Iran, underscores the pathogenicity of this bacterium in this region. PMID:27582592

  4. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated.

  5. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  6. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  7. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  8. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzx O104 and fliCH4, rfb O157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfb O157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzx O104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  9. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 and fliCH4, rfbO157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfbO157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzxO104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels. PMID:27199966

  10. Prevalence of Virulence Genes Associated with Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Domestically Harvested Rainwater during Low- and High-Rainfall Periods

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowsky, P. H.; van Deventer, A.; De Kwaadsteniet, M.; Ndlovu, T.; Khan, S.; Cloete, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    The possible health risks associated with the consumption of harvested rainwater remains one of the major obstacles hampering its large-scale implementation in water limited countries such as South Africa. Rainwater tank samples collected on eight occasions during the low- and high-rainfall periods (March to August 2012) in Kleinmond, South Africa, were monitored for the presence of virulence genes associated with Escherichia coli. The identity of presumptive E. coli isolates in rainwater samples collected from 10 domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) tanks throughout the sampling period was confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific primers were also used to routinely screen for the virulent genes, aggR, stx, eae, and ipaH found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli, respectively, in the rainwater samples. Of the 92 E. coli strains isolated from the rainwater using culture based techniques, 6% were presumptively positively identified as E. coli O157:H7 using 16S rRNA. Furthermore, virulent pathogenic E. coli genes were detected in 3% (EPEC and EHEC) and 16% (EAEC) of the 80 rainwater samples collected during the sampling period from the 10 DRWH tanks. This study thus contributes valuable information to the limited data available regarding the ongoing prevalence of virulent pathotypes of E. coli in harvested rainwater during a longitudinal study in a high-population-density, periurban setting. PMID:24375127

  11. Prevalence of virulence genes associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from domestically harvested rainwater during low- and high-rainfall periods.

    PubMed

    Dobrowsky, P H; van Deventer, A; De Kwaadsteniet, M; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2014-03-01

    The possible health risks associated with the consumption of harvested rainwater remains one of the major obstacles hampering its large-scale implementation in water limited countries such as South Africa. Rainwater tank samples collected on eight occasions during the low- and high-rainfall periods (March to August 2012) in Kleinmond, South Africa, were monitored for the presence of virulence genes associated with Escherichia coli. The identity of presumptive E. coli isolates in rainwater samples collected from 10 domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) tanks throughout the sampling period was confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific primers were also used to routinely screen for the virulent genes, aggR, stx, eae, and ipaH found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli, respectively, in the rainwater samples. Of the 92 E. coli strains isolated from the rainwater using culture based techniques, 6% were presumptively positively identified as E. coli O157:H7 using 16S rRNA. Furthermore, virulent pathogenic E. coli genes were detected in 3% (EPEC and EHEC) and 16% (EAEC) of the 80 rainwater samples collected during the sampling period from the 10 DRWH tanks. This study thus contributes valuable information to the limited data available regarding the ongoing prevalence of virulent pathotypes of E. coli in harvested rainwater during a longitudinal study in a high-population-density, periurban setting.

  12. Constipation: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Adults Living in Londrina, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fernanda Mateus Queiroz; de Gouveia Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição; de Cássia Domansky, Rita; Neves, José Marcio Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of constipation and identify associated factors among adults living in an urban area in Londrina, Brazil. This was a secondary analysis of an epidemiological, population-based study on bowel habit performed in 2008 with 2,162 individuals selected through cluster sampling. Interviews were administered using a sociodemographic questionnaire and the adapted and validated Brazilian version of the "Bowel Function in the Community" tool. Variables from the original database were used to determine the prevalence of constipation (according to the Rome Criteria III) and associated factors. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used for data analysis. The overall prevalence of constipation (14.6%; n = 315) was higher among women than among men (21.9% vs. 5.3%), increased with age among men, and was inversely related to family income. Overall, female gender, low socioeconomic status, history of anal fissure, anorectal surgery, stroke, nervous system disease, fistulae, and hemorrhoids were factors significantly associated with constipation. The variables low social economic status, stroke, anal fissure history, and anorectal surgery were statistically significant in all three tested statistical models. PMID:27258460

  13. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasites in food handlers, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Mizutani, Angelica Sayuri; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Ferreira, Erika Cristina; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and risk factors for enteroparasites were determined in food handlers from Maringá, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Fecal and subungual materials of 150 street food vendors were analyzed by the methods of Lutz, Faust, and Mello, respectively. A questionnaire on hygiene and sanitary conditions of the workplace and of domicile was applied. The prevalence of enteroparasites was 28%, and the protozoa infection was more expressive (21.3%) than by helminths (6.7%), but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Entamoeba coli was the most frequent species occurring in 15.3%, while the prevalence of protozoa pathogenic was low (Giardia lamblia: 2.7% and Entamoeba histolytica: 0.7%). The subungual material presented negative results. The presence of pets in domiciles has increased twice the risk of infection. The working conditions of the majority of street food vendors were inappropriate. The results highlight the need for more rigorous programs of continuing education, parasitological examination every six months, and health surveillance. In this way, the quality of the service provided to the population can be improved and the transmission of food-borne diseases can be prevented.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Ana Paula Cunha; Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and regional spread of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to identify herd-level risk factors, and to provide guidance for disease control and mitigation of its impact in public health. The study comprised a large-scale random sample survey of 22,990 animals and 1586 herds, distributed in seven regions. A questionnaire was applied on each farm to collect epidemiological and herd management data. Overall, 5.04 % of herds and 0.81 % of animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis. The highest herd prevalence was found in Alto Paranaíba, an expanding dairy region. The more technologically advanced dairy herds showed a prevalence ratio of 2.83 compared to others and are obvious candidates for risk-based surveillance and herd accreditation schemes. Small farms cannot be left out of disease control efforts because they are the vast majority of herds, albeit with lower individual risk. With regard to public health, there is widespread practice of producing homemade fresh cheese with raw milk and of slaughtering culled cows in places without sanitary inspection. This poses a risk to consumers and limits the efficacy of surveillance at slaughter. PMID:26584941

  16. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity in a slum in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Alves, Lucas Victor

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of physical inactivity and examine the role of potential predictors in a very low-income adult population in a slum located in Recife city, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,176 subjects aged 20-60 years residing in a slum. Using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 307 (26.1%) study participants-97 (23.8%) men and 210 (27.3%) women-have a low physical activity score (MET-minutes per week). Increased age was associated with physical inactivity only in people without overweight/obesity. Low physical activity was less common (i.e., respondents were more active) than in other Brazilian population-based studies. These results suggest that the relationship between physical activity and socioeconomic level is more complex and depends on the internal characteristics of the community.

  18. High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization among HIV-positive patients in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Robson M; Müller, André L; Zimerman, Ricardo A; Antunes, Denise B; Zinn, Vitor F; Friaza, Vicente; de la Horra, Carmen; Calderón, Enrique J; Wissmann, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    A high prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization was observed in patients positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) admitted to a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil between August 2012 and December 2012. Amplification of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in oropharyngeal samples through nested polymerase chain reaction identified P. jirovecii colonization in 26 of 58 (44.8%) HIV-positive patients admitted for causes other than Pneumocystis pneumonia. Colonization was more frequent among patients with an absolute CD4 count ≤200 cells/μl. These findings suggest that the HIV-infected population is a major reservoir and source of P. jirovecii infection and that identification of such individuals may contribute to future strategies for improving management of HIV-infected patients.

  19. Statistical innovations improve prevalence estimates of nutrient risk populations: applications in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake and excess sodium intake among adults age 19 years and older in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and sociodemographic data were collected from each participant (n=1,663) in a cross-sectional study, Inquiry of Health of São Paulo, of a representative sample of the adult population of the city of São Paulo in 2003 (ISA-2003). The variability in intake was measured through two replications of the 24-hour recall in a subsample of this population in 2007 (ISA-2007). Usual intake was estimated by the PC-SIDE program (version 1.0, 2003, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University), which uses an approach developed by Iowa State University. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was calculated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method for vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, copper, phosphorus, and selenium. For vitamin D, pantothenic acid, manganese, and sodium, the proportion of individuals with usual intake equal to or more than the Adequate Intake value was calculated. The percentage of individuals with intake equal to more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was calculated for sodium. The highest prevalence of inadequacy for males and females, respectively, occurred for vitamin A (67% and 58%), vitamin C (52% and 62%), thiamin (41% and 50%), and riboflavin (29% and 19%). The adjustment for the within-person variation presented lower prevalence of inadequacy due to removal of within-person variability. All adult residents of São Paulo had excess sodium intake, and the rates of nutrient inadequacy were high for certain key micronutrients.

  20. Low prevalence of rmpA and high tendency of rmpA mutation correspond to low virulence of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Liang; Lee, Mei-Feng; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chang, Ming-Chung; Chuang, Yin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Invasive syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), including liver abscess, is mainly caused by community-acquired strains with characteristics of positive hypermucoviscosity (HV) phenotype and regulator of mucoid phenotype A (rmpA) and transcriptional activator (rmpA2) genes. Extended- spectrum β-lactamase-producing KP (ESBL-KP) is commonly nosocomial and rarely HV-positive. We aimed to explore the reasons of the rarer prevalence of HV phenotype, rmpA and rmpA2 as well as the virulence phenotype among the ESBL-KP isolates from clinical specimens than those non-ESBL isolates. The β-lactamase genes, rmpA, rmpA2 and genes for K capsule serotype of 440 KP isolates were analyzed. The virulence of the isolates was characterized by the mouse lethality experiments. The prevalence rates of HV phenotype (∼50% vs. < 10%) as well as rmpA and rmpA2 genes (∼50–60% vs. < 20–30%) were significantly higher in non-ESBL group than in the ESBL group (p < 0.0001). Expression of HV phenotype in the rmpA-positive KP isolates was significantly rarer in the ESBL group than in non-ESBL group (33.3% vs. 91.9%, p < 0.0001). The frameshift mutations of rmpA and/or rmpA2 corresponded to negative HV phenotype of KP isolates that harbored the rmpA and/or rmpA2, resulting in variable mouse lethality (LD50, ∼103 - >5 × 107 CFU). The mutation rates might significantly differ among KP isolates from various sources. Virulence was dependent on rmpA-related HV phenotype. In conclusion, ESBL-KP isolates were less hypermucoviscous and less virulent than non-ESBL KP isolates, mostly due to concurrently lower carriage and higher mutation rates of the rmpA and rmpA2 genes. PMID:25830726

  1. Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV-HPR0) is prevalent and geographically structured in Norwegian salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Trude M; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Hjortaas, Monika J; Devold, Magnus; Aspehaug, Vidar; Larssen, Rolf B; Jansen, Peder A

    2012-11-19

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that has caused epidemic outbreaks in most salmon-producing countries worldwide. The disease is caused by virulent ISA virus (ISAV). Low virulent variants of the virus, characterised by a full-length sequence in the highly polymorphic region of segment 6 in the virus genome, have been reported with increasing frequencies. These variants of the virus, termed HPR0, have been proposed to be ancestors of virulent ISAV. We examined this idea through studies of the phylogeographic and environmental distribution of ISAV-HPR0, as well as phylogeographic associations between virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. Samples from 232 fish groups were screened for ISAV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for detection of ISAV, and the ISAV haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene was characterised for positive samples. A Mantel test was used to test phylogeographic associations between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences. A rank test was used to test associations between HE gene sequences from virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. ISAV-HPR0 was detected in fish groups both in freshwater and marine environments, and in juveniles, on-grown marine salmon and broodstock salmon. Genetic and geographic distances between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences were positively correlated, suggesting that the population of ISAV-HPR0 is geographically structured. Finally, we found a spatial association between fish groups with virulent ISAV (n = 21) and fish groups with ISAV-HPR0 (n = 27), supporting the hypothesis that ISAV-HPR0 may undergo a transition to virulent ISAV. PMID:23324416

  2. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284

  3. Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Antonini, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    Bats of the family Phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. Here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of Streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area (APA Cafuringa) in the core area of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. A total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. Ten species of streblids infected Glossophaga soricina (Pallas), whereas seven or fewer streblid species infected the other bat species. Nine bat fly species presented a prevalence of more than 50%, whereas some differences in the abundance of bat flies among hosts were observed. Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856 and Trichobius furmani Wenzel, 1966 were more host-specific compared to the other streblids, and they occurred in greater abundance on their preferred hosts. Trichobius uniformis Curran, 1935 and Strebla mirabilis (Waterhouse, 1879) were the least host-specific, occurring on five and six hosts, respectively. PMID:27507561

  4. High prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-range chicken of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Fernando Jorge Rodrigues; da Silva, José Givanildo; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Pinheiro, José Wilton; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-range chickens of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil and to identify risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Blood samples were collected from all the adult chickens raised in the Archipelago and screened by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (430 samples, in total). Univariate analysis (Chi-square) and logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship between various variables possibly predictive of an increased likelihood of T. gondii infection. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection in chickens of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was 88.4% (380/430; 84.6%-91.0%; 95% CI), ranging from 57.1% to 100.0% among the studied properties. The risk factors associated with T. gondii infection were the number of domestic cats in the properties (p=0.022), the presence of feral cats (p=0.006) and the presence of an open water source (p=0.046). Domestic and feral cats should be prevented from accessing the water and food supplied to chickens. PMID:27032879

  5. High prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-range chicken of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Fernando Jorge Rodrigues; da Silva, José Givanildo; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Pinheiro, José Wilton; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-range chickens of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil and to identify risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Blood samples were collected from all the adult chickens raised in the Archipelago and screened by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (430 samples, in total). Univariate analysis (Chi-square) and logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship between various variables possibly predictive of an increased likelihood of T. gondii infection. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection in chickens of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was 88.4% (380/430; 84.6%-91.0%; 95% CI), ranging from 57.1% to 100.0% among the studied properties. The risk factors associated with T. gondii infection were the number of domestic cats in the properties (p=0.022), the presence of feral cats (p=0.006) and the presence of an open water source (p=0.046). Domestic and feral cats should be prevented from accessing the water and food supplied to chickens.

  6. High prevalence of giardiasis and stronglyloidiasis among HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, G; Bandeira, A C; Sampaio, D P; Badaró, R; Brites, C

    2001-12-01

    Diarrhea due to intestinal microbial infections is a frequent manifestation among HIV-infected patients. It has been postulated that HIV-infected patients may have special types of intestinal infections, and that immune activation from such parasites may affect the progression of HIV disease. To evaluate these associations, the frequency of infections was examined in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. To determine the potential impact of the presence of intestinal parasitic infections on HIV disease progression, a retrospective study approach was used. The medical charts of 365 HIV-infected patients who had been treated at the AIDS Clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital were reviewed, and the prevalence of parasites was compared with 5,243 HIV-negative patients who had attended the hospital during the same period of time. Among HIV-infected subjects, CD(4) count, RNA plasma viral load (VL), and number of eosinophils were compared according to their stool examination results. The overall prevalence of each parasite was similar for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis (p<10(-7)) and G. lamblia (p=0.005) was greater for HIV-infected subjects. The mean CD(4) count and viral load of HIV patients in our clinic who had stool examinations was 350 cells +/- 340 and 4.4 +/- 1.4 log RNA viral load, respectively. In this patient group there was no clear association between the level of the absolute CD(4) count or the viral load and a specific parasitic infection. The presence of an intestinal parasitic infection was not associated with faster progression of the HIV disease among HIV-infected patients. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and giardiasis are more frequent in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. If this association is due to immune dysregulation, as has been proposed elsewhere, it must occur in patients after only minor shifts in CD(4) count from normal levels, or as a result of immune dysfunction not

  7. Enterococcus faecalis from Food, Clinical Specimens, and Oral Sites: Prevalence of Virulence Factors in Association with Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Annette C.; Jonas, Daniel; Huber, Ingrid; Karygianni, Lamprini; Wölber, Johan; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole; Vach, Kirstin; Wittmer, Annette; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci have gained significance as the cause of nosocomial infections; they occur as food contaminants and have also been linked to dental diseases. E. faecalis has a great potential to spread virulence as well as antibiotic resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. The integration of food-borne enterococci into the oral biofilm in-vivo has been observed. Therefore, we investigated the virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance of 97 E. faecalis isolates from the oral cavity, food, and clinical specimens. In addition, phenotypic expression of gelatinase and cytolysin were tested, in-vitro biofilm formation was quantified and isolates were compared for strain relatedness via pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Each isolate was found to possess two or more virulence genes, most frequently gelE, efaA, and asa1. Notably, plaque/saliva isolates possessed the highest abundance of virulence genes, the highest levels of phenotypic gelatinase and hemolysin activity and concurrently a high ability to form biofilm. The presence of asa1 was associated with biofilm formation. The biofilm formation capacity of clinical and plaque/saliva isolates was considerably higher than that of food isolates and they also showed similar antibiotic resistance patterns. These results indicate that the oral cavity can constitute a reservoir for virulent E. faecalis strains possessing antibiotic resistance traits and at the same time distinct biofilm formation capabilities facilitating exchange of genetic material. PMID:26793174

  8. Enterococcus faecalis from Food, Clinical Specimens, and Oral Sites: Prevalence of Virulence Factors in Association with Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annette C; Jonas, Daniel; Huber, Ingrid; Karygianni, Lamprini; Wölber, Johan; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole; Vach, Kirstin; Wittmer, Annette; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have gained significance as the cause of nosocomial infections; they occur as food contaminants and have also been linked to dental diseases. E. faecalis has a great potential to spread virulence as well as antibiotic resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. The integration of food-borne enterococci into the oral biofilm in-vivo has been observed. Therefore, we investigated the virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance of 97 E. faecalis isolates from the oral cavity, food, and clinical specimens. In addition, phenotypic expression of gelatinase and cytolysin were tested, in-vitro biofilm formation was quantified and isolates were compared for strain relatedness via pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Each isolate was found to possess two or more virulence genes, most frequently gelE, efaA, and asa1. Notably, plaque/saliva isolates possessed the highest abundance of virulence genes, the highest levels of phenotypic gelatinase and hemolysin activity and concurrently a high ability to form biofilm. The presence of asa1 was associated with biofilm formation. The biofilm formation capacity of clinical and plaque/saliva isolates was considerably higher than that of food isolates and they also showed similar antibiotic resistance patterns. These results indicate that the oral cavity can constitute a reservoir for virulent E. faecalis strains possessing antibiotic resistance traits and at the same time distinct biofilm formation capabilities facilitating exchange of genetic material.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  10. Hematological parameters and prevalence of anemia among free-living elderly in south Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luísa Scheer; Schneider, Rodolfo Herberto; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin; Gomes, Irenio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the hematological parameters, the prevalence of anemia and the association between anemia and socioeconomic conditions in an elderly community-based population. Methods A population-based study was performed as part of the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly in Porto Alegre, Brazil (EMIPOA). An initial total of 1058 community residents aged 60 years and older were interviewed. Of these, 392 agreed to have a physical evaluation and a blood sample was taken from each. The hematological parameters analyzed in the blood samples included the hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width (RDW). The association between the variables and the diagnosis of anemia was assessed using the chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model. Results The overall prevalence of anemia was 12.8%. Anemia was present in 13.7% of women and in 10.4% of men. Normocytic normochromic anemia without anisocytosis was the most common type of anemia (46%). The assessment of erythrocyte morphology showed significant differences between anemic and non-anemic individuals (microcytosis = 12% vs. 1.5%, hypochromia = 40% vs. 8.8%, and anisocytosis = 26% vs. 7%). In the analysis of socioeconomic conditions, significant differences were found in respect to age and race. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia increases with age and is associated with race, microcytosis, hypochromia and anisocytosis. Anemia is not a condition that should be associated only with the aging process, as it may be due to pathological conditions that occur most frequently in this age group. As a result, a diagnosis of anemia warrants adequate clinical attention. PMID:23741189

  11. Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma in Elders Admitted to a Reference Hospital in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Filho, Marcus Antonio Melo; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Dos Anjos, Rita Edna da Silveira; Pinheiro, Solange Sousa; Cardoso, Luciana de Carvalho Pádua; Moizan, Jean André Hervé; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To know the prevalence and etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma in elders. Methods Analytical quantitative cross-sectional study conducted at a public trauma hospital located in Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil. The study population comprised patients with trauma who were hospitalized from April to August 2014. Of these patients, patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were chosen to be included in the research. A questionnaire was administered in order to obtain information on socio-demographics, systemic comorbidities, use of medication, deleterious habits (smoking and alcohol consumption), etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma and type of pre-hospital care. Results Of the 280 elderly hospitalized with trauma, 47 had oral and maxillofacial trauma, with a prevalence of 16.8%. In this group, the age ranged from 60 to 88 years, with a mean age of 72.4 years (SD± 8.38). The elderly were mostly women (55.3%), self-declared pardos (53.2%), who presented with cardiovascular disorders (48.9%), and who received formal pre-hospital care (70.2%). Elderly who were in the 60–69 years age group, spent 6–9 years at school and drank alcohol were 2.64, 3.75, and 1.97, respectively, more likely to suffer oral and maxillofacial trauma. The main causes of trauma were physical aggression, traffic accidents, falls and domestic accidents. All of the physical aggressions resulted in oral and maxillofacial traumas, and the elderly who suffered traffic accidents were four times more likely to have oral and maxillofacial trauma. Conclusion The prevalence of 16.8% and the lack of research on oral and maxillofacial traumas in the elderly is worrisome and should be included in the oral health indicators for the elderly population to support the importance of oral health. PMID:26288229

  12. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  13. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Leila; Gigante, Luciana P; Fuchs, Sandra C; Busnello, Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants) using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison), with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7). After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income populations, women should be

  14. Prevalence of Marek's disease virus in different chicken populations in Iraq and indicative virulence based on sequence variation in the ecoRI-q (meq) gene.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Salih J; Katz, Margaret E; Renz, Katrin G; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2013-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in southern Iraq to determine the point prevalence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in different chicken populations followed by sequencing the meq gene for phylogenetic analysis and virulence-associated polymorphisms. A total of 109 samples from unvaccinated flocks were analyzed comprising 52 dust and 30 spleen samples from commercial broiler farms and 27 spleens from local layer chickens purchased in the town markets. The overall prevalence of MDV was 49.5% with no significant differences between provinces (P = 0.08) or sample types (P = 0.89). Prevalence ranged from 36.8% in Karbala and Nasiriyah to 65% in Amarah. The percentages of positive samples were 59.1%, 46.7%, and 48.1% in broiler dust, broiler spleen, and layer spleen, respectively. The overall mean (+/- SEM) Log10 MDV viral copy number per milligram of dust or spleen as determined by quantitative PCR was 1.78 +/- 0.19, with no significant differences between provinces (P = 0.10) or sample types (P = 0.38). In positive samples only, the overall mean was 3.43 +/- 0.18. Sequencing of the meq gene from samples that showed high levels of MDV target in qPCR testing was attempted. Nine samples were sequenced. These sequences were compared with meq sequences of MDVs of different pathotype. All the Iraqi MDVs had a short meq gene of 897 base pairs because of the deletion of 123 bp relative to the reference strain Md5. The Iraqi meq sequences also contained single-nucleotide polymorphisms, resulting in differences in the amino acid sequence. All of the nine Iraqi meq genes encoded two repeats of four-proline sequences. The published negative association between four-proline repeat number and MDV virulence suggests that the Iraqi MDVs are likely to be highly virulent, but this needs to be confirmed by in vivo testing. Taken together, these results indicate that MDV is common in unvaccinated commercial and village chickens in southern Iraq, that there is

  15. Impact of UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection on the Prevalence of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Wastewater Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm2 and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters. PMID:24727265

  16. Impact of UV and peracetic acid disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm(2) and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters. PMID:24727265

  17. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.

  18. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica) IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Raquel O.; Luque, José L.; Faro, Marta Júlia; Motta, Ester; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health. PMID:25229230

  19. Suicidal ideation during pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Chan, Ya-Fen; Tabb, Karen; Katon, Wayne; Menezes, Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women living in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed during 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 6.3%. The factors associated with suicidal ideation were common mental disorders, single partner status, past psychiatric history, and smoking tobacco. All cases of suicidal ideation were associated with common mental disorders. PMID:22382280

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    AMBROZIO, Cíntia Lima; NAGEL, Andréia Saggin; JESKE, Sabrina; BRAGANÇA, Guilherme Cassão Marques; BORSUK, Sibele; VILLELA, Marcos Marreiro

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers. PMID:27680166

  1. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Guilherme da Costa; Santos, Darci Neves; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4%) as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%). Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.

  2. Epidemiology of trachoma in Bebedouro State of São Paulo, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Luna, E J; Medina, N H; Oliveira, M B; de Barros, O M; Vranjac, A; Melles, H H; West, S; Taylor, H R

    1992-02-01

    Trachoma was considered to have been 'eradicated' from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, until 1982 when a number of new cases of trachoma were reported in preschool children in Bebedouro, a small town in northwestern São Paulo. A household survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of trachoma. A total of 2939 people of all ages was examined having been selected from a two-stage probalilistic household sampling frame based on census data. Overall, 7.2% of the population had evidence of one or more signs of trachoma and 2.1% had inflammatory trachoma. Inflammatory trachoma was more common in children aged one to ten years, especially in the peripheral urban and rural areas, and was more common in boys. The presence of chlamydia was confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody cytology. No cases of blindness due to trachoma were seen. A number of socioeconomic and hygiene variables were studied in order to determine the independent risk factors for trachoma in a household. Variables significantly associated with the occurrence of trachoma in the household were the number of children in the house aged one to ten years, the 'per capita' water consumption, the frequency of garbage collections, source of water, and the educational level of the head of household. Clustering of trachoma in different parts of this community was entirely explained by the concentration of households with these characteristics.

  3. Beyond the Chromosome: The Prevalence of Unique Extra-Chromosomal Bacteriophages with Integrated Virulence Genes in Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Utter, Bryan; Deutsch, Douglas R.; Schuch, Raymond; Winer, Benjamin Y.; Verratti, Kathleen; Bishop-Lilly, Kim; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2014-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the disease impact of chromosomally integrated prophages on virulence is well described. However, the existence of extra-chromosomal prophages, both plasmidial and episomal, remains obscure. Despite the recent explosion in bacterial and bacteriophage genomic sequencing, studies have failed to specifically focus on extra-chromosomal elements. We selectively enriched and sequenced extra-chromosomal DNA from S. aureus isolates using Roche-454 technology and uncovered evidence for the widespread distribution of multiple extra-chromosomal prophages (ExPΦs) throughout both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains. We completely sequenced one such element comprised of a 43.8 kbp, circular ExPΦ (designated ФBU01) from a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain. Assembly and annotation of ФBU01 revealed a number of putative virulence determinants encoded within a bacteriophage immune evasion cluster (IEC). Our identification of several potential ExPΦs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also revealed numerous putative virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We describe here a previously unidentified level of genetic diversity of stealth extra-chromosomal elements in S. aureus, including phages with a larger presence outside the chromosome that likely play a prominent role in pathogenesis and strain diversity driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). PMID:24963913

  4. Beyond the chromosome: the prevalence of unique extra-chromosomal bacteriophages with integrated virulence genes in pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Utter, Bryan; Deutsch, Douglas R; Schuch, Raymond; Winer, Benjamin Y; Verratti, Kathleen; Bishop-Lilly, Kim; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2014-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the disease impact of chromosomally integrated prophages on virulence is well described. However, the existence of extra-chromosomal prophages, both plasmidial and episomal, remains obscure. Despite the recent explosion in bacterial and bacteriophage genomic sequencing, studies have failed to specifically focus on extra-chromosomal elements. We selectively enriched and sequenced extra-chromosomal DNA from S. aureus isolates using Roche-454 technology and uncovered evidence for the widespread distribution of multiple extra-chromosomal prophages (ExPΦs) throughout both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains. We completely sequenced one such element comprised of a 43.8 kbp, circular ExPΦ (designated ФBU01) from a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain. Assembly and annotation of ФBU01 revealed a number of putative virulence determinants encoded within a bacteriophage immune evasion cluster (IEC). Our identification of several potential ExPΦs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also revealed numerous putative virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We describe here a previously unidentified level of genetic diversity of stealth extra-chromosomal elements in S. aureus, including phages with a larger presence outside the chromosome that likely play a prominent role in pathogenesis and strain diversity driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). PMID:24963913

  5. Determining the prevalence of SCCmec polymorphism, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from selected hospitals in west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherikalani, Morovat; Mohammadzad, Mohammad Reza; Soroush, Setareh; Maleki, Mohammad Hossein; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Pakzad, Iraj; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Asadollahi, Parisa; Emaneini, Mohammad; Monjezi, Aazam; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important pathogens worldwide and compared to other staphylococcal species that are associated with higher mortality rate. A total of 500 Staphylococcus spp. was collected from selected hospitals in Ilam, Kermanshah, Khorram Abad and Hamadan cities and, via phenotypic and genotypic methods, was assessed to find MRSA. The presence or absence of prevalent antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes was evaluated among MRSA isolates, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and then the SCCmec typing of these isolates was assayed by multiplex PCR. A total of 372 (74.4%) Stapylococcus spp. isolates were identified as S. aureus, among which 200 (53.8%) possessed the mecA gene and were distinguished as MRSA. All of MRSA isolates contained blaZ gene. The frequency of ermA and ermC genes among erythromycin-resistant MRSA isolates was 21.6% and 66.7%, respectively. The frequency of the virulence genes eta, hla and sea among MRSA isolates was 10%, 80.5% and 100%, respectively. SCCmec type IV accounted for 30.6% of the MRSA isolates and SCCmec type III, SCCmec type II and SCCmec type I accounted for 30%, 22% and 17.5% of the isolates, respectively. The antibiotic resistance genes and the virulence genes of blaZ, hla, sea, eta and ermC had high frequencies among the MRSA isolates. This study showed that the antibiotic resistance genes had higher frequencies among SCCmec types I and IV, which confirms the previous reports in this field.

  6. Prevalence of virulence genes of biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from clinical samples in Iran.

    PubMed

    Solati, Seyed Mostafa; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Khamesipour, Faham; Gugnani, Harish C

    2015-12-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci are recognized as opportunistic pathogens and are widespread in the environment. It is possible to prevent and control infections due to these bacteria if their virulence factors are recognized. Eighty isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) including 42 from urine (52.5%), 23 from blood (28.75%), 15 from dialysis bags (18.75%) were studied for biofilm production on Congo red agar (CRA). The virulence genes in S. aureus were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers. Out of 80 isolates studied, 40 isolated (50%) formed black colonies (biofilm-forming strains) on CRA. In 22 of these isolates (25%) reaction was strongly positive; in 12 isolates (15%) reaction was moderately positive, and in the remaining 6 isolates, reaction was weakly positive. In the 22 isolates that had strong positive reaction and produced black colonies on biofilm, all virulent genes (icaC, icaD, icaA icaB, icaR) were expressed. In the 12 isolates that had moderate positive reaction, 8 expressed all genes (icaC, icaD, icaA icaB, icaR) expressed while the remaining 4 expressed only ica A, and ica D genes. Of the 6 isolated which had weak positive reaction, only 1 isolate (2.5%) expressed all the genes, in the other 5 isolates no gene was observed. Urinary isolates more frequently form biofilms than the isolates from other clinical samples. Statistical analysis using Chi square test showed that there was a significant correlation between the type of sample and the biofilm production (P < 0.05). The results of biofilm production on CRA were largely in agreement with microtiter plate assay and PCR assay. The capacity of bacteria to produce biofilm is an important factor in infectivity and happens via expression of ica genes. Recognition of bacteria that produce biofilm is thus important to control infection due to these bacteria.

  7. Prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil’s health system. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. RESULTS Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil. PMID:25372175

  8. Helicobacter pylori: correlation of the virulence marker iceA allele with clinical outcome in a high prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, J; Abbas, Z; Khan, R; Salim, S A; Abrar, A; Awan, S; Ahmad, Z

    2015-01-01

    The association of Helicobacter pylori virulence marker 'induced by contact with epithelium A' (iceA) allele types was determined in H. pylori-related diseases and virulence markers. Gastric biopsies were obtained at EGD from patients for culture, histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for iceA types, cagA and vacA alleles. Two hundred and eighty-four H. pylori isolates were examined. iceA type 1 was positive in 177 (62%) and iceA type 2 in 158 (56%). In iceA type 2, gastric ulcer was present in 34 (21%) (P < 0.001) and carcinoma in 28 (25%) (P = 0.002), compared to nine (8%) and 2 (2%) in iceA type 2-negative cases. For iceA type 2, 139 (88%) were associated with chronic active gastritis compared to 95 (75%) (P = 0.006) in iceA type 2-negative. H. pylori cagA was positive in 101 (64%) iceA type 2 strains compared to 57 (45%) in negative strains (P = 0.002). H. pylori iceA type 2 was dominant and associated with cagA, chronic active inflammation, gastric ulcer and carcinoma. PMID:26126322

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with syphilis in parturient women in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital syphilis is a major public health concern, even after the implementation of intervention protocols in several countries. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional factors associated with syphilis in parturient women attending public maternity hospitals in Northeast, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2010 with a proportionate stratified sampling of 222 parturient women using a structured questionnaire. The study analyzed socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional variables. The structured questionnaire was conducted with parturient women and complementary information was obtained through hospitals records, admission forms and prenatal cards. Data were stored using the Statistical Package SPSS version 18. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using frequency distribution, central tendency and measures of spread for the variables. A bivariate analysis was done using chi square test and Fisher’s exact test, with a significance level of 5% and a 95% confidence interval, in order to analyze the relation between the variables and risk factors for syphilis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was done in the statistical package STATA, version 11.0. Results The prevalence of syphilis in parturient women was 7.7%. The bivariate analyses showed that the rate was higher among women who: were from Fortaleza (p = 0.019), studied for less than nine years (p = 0.044), had more than one sexual partner in life (p = 0.021), did not live with partner (p = 0.022), used illegal drugs (p < 0.0001), whose partner used illegal drugs and had diagnosis of syphilis (p = 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). The non-adjusted analysis found significant positive association between syphilis and the following variable: being from Fortaleza (OR = 7.26; CI 95% = 1.49-100.20), having studied for less than nine years (OR

  10. Prevalence and conditions associated with chronic pelvic pain in women from São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, L.S.C.; Brito, L.M.O.; Chein, M.B.C.; Mascarenhas, T.S.; Costa, J.P.L.; Nogueira, A.A.; Poli-Neto, O.B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in the community of São Luís, capital of the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify independent conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including a sample of 1470 women older than 14 years predominantly served by the public health system. The interviews were held in the subject's home by trained interviewers not affiliated with the public health services of the municipality. The homes were visited at random according to the city map and the prevalence of the condition was estimated. To identify the associated conditions, the significant variables (P=0.10) were selected and entered in a multivariate analysis model. Data are reported as odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, with the level of significance set at 0.05. The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain was 19.0%. The independent conditions associated with this diagnosis were: dyspareunia (OR=3.94), premenopausal status (OR=2.95), depressive symptoms (OR=2.33), dysmenorrhea (OR=1.77), smoking (OR=1.72), irregular menstrual flow (OR=1.62), and irritative bladder symptoms (OR=1.90). The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Sao Luís is high and is associated with the conditions cited above. Guidelines based on prevention and/or early identification of risk factors may reduce the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in São Luís, Brazil. PMID:25075577

  11. Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil: prevalence of infection in riverine communities in the Purus region, in the state of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Py-Daniel, Victor; Barbosa, Ulysses Carvalho; Izzo, Thiago Junqueira

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and to estimate the parasitic infection rate (PIR) in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Pauini, Amazonas, Brazil. We used thick blood films to examine 921 individuals in 35 riverine communities along the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Simuliids were caught in several communities. Flies were identified, stained with haematoxylin and dissected. Overall, 44 (24.86%) of 177 riverines were infected in communities on the Pauini River and 183 (24.19%) of 744 on the Purus. The prevalence was higher in men (31.81% and 29.82%) than in women (17.98% and 19.18%) and occurred in most age groups. The prevalence increased sharply in the 28-37 (50% and 42.68%) age group and increased in the older age classes. The highest prevalence was in farmers (44% and 52.17%, respectively) in the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Only Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae) transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality, and we found a PIR of 0-8.43% and infectivity rate of 0-3.61%. These results confirm that rates of M. ozzardi infection are high in Pauini and suggest that its prevalence may be far greater than has been previously reported due to the absence of a program for treating the population. PMID:19274380

  12. Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated from food in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Júnior, Ary Fernandes; Kaneno, Ramon; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency of enterococci from food and found 95.2% of positivity, being E. faecium and E. faecalis the most frequent species. High-level streptomycin resistance was observed, as well as gelatinase and hemolysis activity, showing the potential role of environmental strains as reservoir of virulence and resistance traits.

  13. The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massaú, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for cannabis use in low-income pregnant women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively. PMID:25971852

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for cannabis use in low-income pregnant women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively.

  16. Prevalence of enterococcus species and their virulence genes in fresh water prior to and after storm events.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, J P S; Skelly, E; Hodgers, L; Ahmed, W; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. isolates (n = 286) collected from six surface water bodies in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, prior to and after storm events, were identified to species level and tested for the presence of seven clinically important virulence genes (VGs). Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus mundtii (13%), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (13%) were frequently detected at all sites. The frequency of E. faecium occurrence increased from 6% in the dry period to 18% after the wet period. The endocarditis antigen (efaA), gelatinase (gelE), collagen-binding protein (ace), and aggregation substance (asa1) were detected in 61%, 43%, 43%, and 23% of Enterococcus isolates, respectively. The chances of occurrence of ace, gelE, efaA, and asa1 genes in E. faecalis were found to be much higher compared to the other Enterococcus spp. The observed odds ratio of occurrence of ace and gelE genes in E. faecalis was much higher at 7.96 and 6.40 times, respectively. The hyl gene was 3.84 times more likely to be detected in E. casseliflavus. The presence of multiple VGs in most of the E. faecalis isolates underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of VGs in the fresh water aquatic environment. Consequently, if contaminated surface water is to be used for production of potable and nonpotable water some degree of treatment depending upon intended use such as detention in basins prior to use or chlorination is required.

  17. Low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake in young children in the south of Brazil: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Sangalli, Caroline Nicola; Rauber, Fernanda; Vitolo, Márcia Regina

    2016-09-01

    In Brazil, children's eating patterns have been characterised by an increased consumption of ultra-processed foods that are fortified. Our aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among children from low-income families and (2) to assess micronutrient intake from fortified foods. We carried out a cross-sectional study from a randomised field trial conducted at healthcare centres in Porto Alegre, Brazil, with 446 mother-child pairs, with the children aged 2-3 years. Dietary data were assessed using two 24-h recalls. The prevalence of inadequacy for six micronutrients was estimated using the proportion of individuals with intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Micronutrient intakes from fortified foods were evaluated using EAR and upper tolerable level (UL). Healthy foods consumption was below the recommendations, except for beans, and 88·1 % of the children consumed ultra-processed foods. A low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was observed for Fe (1·2 %), vitamin C (4·7 %), vitamin A (5·2 %), Ca (11·4 %) and folate (15·2 %). None of the children had intakes less than the EAR for Zn. Fortified foods contributed between 11·3 and 38·3 % to micronutrient intakes, and 43·0 % of the children met the EAR for Fe, 13·9 % for vitamin C and 12·3 % for Zn using fortified foods only. In addition, 4·0 % of the children exceeded the UL for vitamin A, 3·1 % for Zn, 1·1 % for folic acid and 0·2 % for Fe. These results highlight a low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes among children and suggest that such a group could be at risk of excessive micronutrient intakes provided by ultra-processed foods. PMID:27452407

  18. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow’s milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5.6% of goat and 3.9% sheep milk samples, with 33.3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  19. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption.

  20. Detection of virulence factors of Escherichia coli focused on prevalence of EAST1 toxin in stool of diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets and presence of adhesion involving virulence factors in astA positive strains.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Konstantinova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel

    2012-01-27

    Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 800 Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea were tested for the presence of enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin EAST1, heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) and shigatoxin (Stx2e) by PCR with the purpose of investigating the present distribution of virulence factors on swine farms in the Czech Republic. The isolates were analyzed for their O-serogroup, fimbrial (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18) and nonfimbrial adhesins (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence AIDA and porcine attaching and effacing-associated factor PAA). The detection rates of ETEC and STEC isolates were 36.5% and 7.75%, respectively, which implies that ETEC play the major role in E. coli infections in Czech herds. Generally, the most common serotype was O149:K88 which possessed genetic determinants for LT and EAST1. None of the tested E. coli isolates was positive for genes K99, 987P and F41. It was shown that out of 800 E. coli strains isolated from pigs, 277 were EAST1 positive and 74% from the latter were identified as ETEC. Of the fimbrial adhesins, K88 and F18 were commonly detected. Over 80% of K88/EAST1 positive strains possessed the gene for paa. We detected no EAE isolate positive for fimbrial adhesins or PAA and AIDA. The AIDA was more often associated with F18 than with K88. The gene astA was also identified among E. coli isolates of non-diarrheic piglets. We tested rectal swab samples collected from apparently healthy piglets on three farms. On all farms, E. coli astA positive strains (26.66%, 90.00% and 46.66% astA positive animals) were isolated. Our results showed a significantly higher prevalence of astA positive E. coli isolates among apparently healthy piglets in comparison with diarrheic piglets. The question remains as to what is the role of the astA gene in the pathogenesis of porcine colibacillosis and as a virulence factor. PMID:21864997

  1. Molecular studies of DO alleles reveal that JO is more prevalent than HY in Brazil, whereas HY is more prevalent in New York.

    PubMed

    Castilho, L; Baleotti, W; Tossas, E; Hue-Roye, K; Ribeiro, K R; Lomas-Francis, C; Charles-Pierre, D; Reid, M E

    2008-01-01

    Because of the scarcity of anti-Hy and anti-Jo(a), hemagglutination typing for the Dombrock blood group system antigens, Hy and Jo(a), is not feasible. The molecular bases associated with these antigens have been determined, making it possible to distinguish HY and JO from wild-type DO. This provides a tool to predict the probable phenotype of patients and to screen for antigen-negative donors. PCR-RFLP assays and a microchip assay were used to determine the frequency of HY and JO alleles in donors from Brazil and New York. DNA from random Brazilian donors, 288 by PCR-RFLP and 599 by the bead array method (BeadChip, BioArray Solutions, Warren, NJ), was tested to determine 323G/T (HY+/HY-) and 350C>T (JO+/JO-) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In New York, 27,226 donors who self-identified as being African American were tested by hemagglutination with anti-Gy(a). Nonreactive and weakly reactive samples were tested by PCR-RFLP for the same alleles as listed above. In Brazil, 30 (3.4%) of the samples were JO/DO and 13 (1.4%) were HY/DO. In New York, of the samples that had HY or JO alleles, 14 were homozygous HY/HY 132 were heterozygous HY/DO, 13 were heterozygous HY/JO, 14 were heterozygous JO/DO, and 3 were homozygous JO/JO. These results show that in donors from Brazil, JO (30 alleles) is more than twice as prevalent as HY (13 alleles), whereas in donors from New York, HY (173 alleles) was more than five times more common than JO (33 alleles).

  2. PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Thaís Duquia Moraes; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; de Oliveira, Gisele Rodrigues; da Fonseca, Tânia Vieira; Gonçalves, Regina; do Amaral, Clair Teixeira; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2) is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) and Basic Health Units (BHU) in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:24037285

  3. Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; Müller, Alice Mânica; Tomasini, Karina da Silva; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Golub, Jonathan E.; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of PTB, using a symptom based active case finding (ACF) strategy in the ER of a public hospital in an area with high prevalence of TB and HIV, as well as variables associated with pulmonary TB diagnosis. Methods Cross sectional study. All patients ≥18 years seeking care at the ER were screened for respiratory symptoms and those with cough ≥2 weeks were invited to provide a chest radiograph and two unsupervised samples of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Results Among 31,267 admissions, 6,273 (20.1%) reported respiratory symptoms; 197 reported cough ≥2 weeks, of which pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 30. In multivariate analysis, the variables associated with a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis were: age (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97; p<0.0001), sputum production (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06–0.56; p = 0.003), and radiographic findings typical of TB (OR 12.11, 95% CI 4.45–32.93; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study identified a high prevalence of pulmonary TB among patients who sought care at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, emphasizing the importance of regular screening of all comers for active TB in this setting. PMID:25211158

  4. [Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among epileptic in-patients in the west of Santa Catarina--southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Trevisol-Bittencourt, P C; da Silva, N C; Figueredo, R

    1998-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is an endemic condition in several areas of Brazil. It is most likely the major responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in our country, estimated in 1-2% of general population. We performed a study to evaluate NC as aetiology of epilepsy in the west of Santa Catarina. This state belong to southern Brazil and it has a very developed economy. However, due the widespread swine farming in the west district, many of them without any sanitary control, the national health authorities have considered all this area at risk to NC. The study was carried out in Chapecó, the main town in that region, where CT Scan service was started in 1995. All patients put on hospital care due epileptic seizures in 1995-96 were considered. Febrile convulsions were excluded of the sample. We found a very expressive prevalence rate of NC among patients suffering from epilepsy. Roughly 24% of these patients, showed unequivocal tomography evidences for the diagnosis of NC. Our data suggest cysticercosis as a real endemic trouble in the area and, overdosis of information in proper language, diffuse to the whole population, seems to be the only remedy to fight against it. Moreover, we should pay special attention to everyone related to swine farming, does not matter how this activity has been classified.

  5. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  6. Oral mucosal lesions in Indians from Northeast Brazil: cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population.

  7. Wheezing conditions in early childhood: prevalence and risk factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Benício, Maria Helena D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Cardoso, Maria Regina A.; Konno, Sílvia C.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for wheezing disorders in early childhood in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest metropolitan area of South America. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1132 children aged 6-59 months was carried out between 1995 and 1996 to obtain information on recent wheezing and on independent variables such as demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal and nutritional variables and immunization status. Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed using standard techniques. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to describe associations between outcome and independent variables. FINDINGS: The prevalence of recent wheezing (one or more reported episodes in the past 12 months) was 12.5%; 93% of children with wheezing were also reported to have a medical diagnosis of asthma. Recent wheezing was associated with low per capita income, poor quality of housing, day-care attendance, low birth weight and infection with intestinal helminths. CONCLUSION: Wheezing in early childhood in São Paulo, although more common than in most developing countries, remains less prevalent than in urban areas of industrialized countries. Low income and conditions associated with poverty (poor housing, low birth weight and parasitic infections) are some of the main risk factors for wheezing disorders among young children in this city. PMID:15508196

  8. Molecular and serological prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa da Silva, Jenevaldo; Vinhote, Wagner Marcelo Sousa; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world and is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. Approximately 60% of the buffalo herds in South America are located in northern Brazil. However, compared with the research on cattle, research on buffaloes has been neglected. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the distribution of A. marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil. A total of 500 buffalo blood samples was randomly collected from 16 provinces and was analyzed using both nPCR assay and ELISA techniques. The percentage of animals that were seropositive for A. marginale according to ELISA was 49% (245/500). The main risk factors associated with seroprevalence were the region (p=0.021; OR=1.2) and the reproductive status (p=0.0001; OR=1.6). Anaplasma marginale DNA was detected in 5.4% (27/500) of the sampled buffaloes. Our data provide information about the incidence of A. marginale infection in water buffaloes and may guide future programs aimed at controlling the disease in the northern region of Brazil. Although these water buffaloes are exposed to A. marginale, a low rate of A. marginale PCR-positive animals was found, which could be explained by the habitat in which the sampled animals live because they exhibited a low rate of attached ticks on their skin.

  9. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Lara M; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P R B; de Mendonça, Carla L; Mamizuka, Elsa M

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Érico Luís de Barros; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Santos, Fabrine Alexandre dos; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos de; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Gennari, Solange Maria; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Alves, Clebert José

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this survey were to determine the flock-level and animal-level prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 540 sheep in 63 flocks in 14 municipalities in the Sertão mesoregion. To serologically diagnose T. gondiii nfection, the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Flocks with at least one seropositive animal were considered positive. Among the 63 flocks, 28 (44.44%) were positive, and 60 (11.11%) of the 540 animals were seropositive. Variable flock size > 25 animals was identified as a risk factor (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.09 - 9.34; P = 0.033). The results from this survey demonstrate that T. gondii is spread among sheep in the State of Paraíba. PMID:26291143

  11. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction among adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and associated factors in Florianopolis, Brazil. BID was analyzed in a sample (N=1720) of adults through the Figure Rating Scale. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and morbidities. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. More men (14.2%) than women (6.1%) presented BID by being lighter than ideal (LI). Conversely, more women (66.6%) than men (46.3%) showed BID by being heavier than ideal (HI). BID by being HI was higher among older women, those with high BMI and those with a partner. In men, lower BMI and the presence of common mental disorders were associated with BID due to being LI. Advanced ages, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and obesity were associated with BID due to being HI. We must consider different public health interventions for men and women to reduce BID in Brazilian adults. PMID:21768003

  13. Prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction among adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and associated factors in Florianopolis, Brazil. BID was analyzed in a sample (N=1720) of adults through the Figure Rating Scale. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and morbidities. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. More men (14.2%) than women (6.1%) presented BID by being lighter than ideal (LI). Conversely, more women (66.6%) than men (46.3%) showed BID by being heavier than ideal (HI). BID by being HI was higher among older women, those with high BMI and those with a partner. In men, lower BMI and the presence of common mental disorders were associated with BID due to being LI. Advanced ages, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and obesity were associated with BID due to being HI. We must consider different public health interventions for men and women to reduce BID in Brazilian adults.

  14. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27626648

  15. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  16. Prevalence and genetic characterisation of HTLV-1 and 2 dual infections in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Aline Garcia; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Matos, Márcia Alves Dias; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Araújo, João Alves; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB). Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49%) were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05) were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c). The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil. PMID:24141955

  17. Low genetic diversity associated with low prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the etiologic agent of bovine anaplasmosis, an important tick-borne disease affecting cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In endemic regions, the genetic diversity of this pathogen is usually related to the high prevalence of the disease in cattle. The major surface protein 1 alpha (MSP1a) has been used as a marker to characterize the genetic diversity and for geographical identification of A. marginale strains. The present study reports the characterization of A. marginale MSP1a diversity in water buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 200 water buffaloes on Marajó Island, Brazil where the largest buffalo herd is located in the Western hemisphere. Fifteen buffaloes (7.5%) were positive for A. marginale msp1α by PCR. Four different strains of A. marginale with MSP1a tandem repeat structures (4-63-27), (162-63-27), (78-24-24-25-31) and (τ-10-10-15) were found, being (4-63-27) the most common. MSP1a tandem repeats composition in buffalos and phylogenetic analysis using msp1α gene showed that the A. marginale strains identified in buffaloes are closely related to A. marginale strains from cattle. The results demonstrated low genetic diversity of A. marginale associated with low bacterial prevalence in buffaloes and suggested that buffaloes may be reservoirs of this pathogen for cattle living in the same area. The results also suggested that mechanical transmission and not biological transmission by ticks might be playing the major role for pathogen circulation among water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

  18. [Prevalence of disability in 2 different social groups in Salvador, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, A C; Lessa, I

    1989-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and/or mental disability in Salvador, Bahia, 485 favela (shantytown) dwellers and 753 non-favela dwellers, age 7 and older, were studied in October 1985. Some 77.3% of the favela dwellers were either illiterate or had incomplete primary schooling, while 77.2% of the non-favela dwellers had completed high school or college. The total prevalence of disability, adjusted by age, was 8% for favela dwellers and 2.5% for non-favela dwellers. The prevalence of physical disability was 6.2% among favela dwellers and 1.9% among non-favela dwellers; mental disability occurred among 1.8% of favela dwellers and 0.7% of non-favela dwellers. Prevalence of disability in the favela group was higher among men than women (ratio of 4.4); there was no difference between sexes in the group of non-favela dwellers (ratio of 1.1). Locomotor impairment was the most prevalent, followed by mental and sensory disabilities. The authors discussed the need for more detailed studies on disability, including aspects related to availability of and access to medical care and rehabilitation.

  19. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%). CONCLUSIONS: The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world. PMID:26602522

  20. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  1. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Subjects/Methods Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 6am-10am; Lunch, 12pm-3pm; Dinner, 6pm-9pm); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percent consuming, number of daily snacks, and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/d, kcal/snack, and % of daily energy from snacks). Results 74% of Brazilians (≥10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/d. 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥3 snacks/d). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample, but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared to non-snackers (1548 kcal/d), light (1-2 snacks/d) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/d, respectively). By time of day, the largest percent of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (3:01-5:59 pm, 47.7%). Sweetened Coffee & Tea, Sweets & Desserts, Fruit, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB), and high-calorie Salgados (Fried/baked dough with Meat/Cheese/Vegetable) were the top 5 most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for SSB’s. Conclusions Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration. PMID:23486510

  2. Prevalence of neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Andrade, Lílian Lessa; Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in an artisanal fishing community. The main health complaints included musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) attributable to working conditions. The present work found a prevalence of neck and distal upper limb MSD among the artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort epidemiological study involving 209 artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers. The Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a survey listing physical demands adapted to shellfish gathering were used for the study. The MSD values obtained in some part of the body, neck or shoulder, and distal upper limb were 94.7%, 71.3% and 70.3%, respectively. The shellfish gatherers were found to work long shifts despite the high prevalence of MSD. The factors that cause these women to keep performing such activities include the need to make a living and provide food for their families through the sale and consumption of seafood.

  3. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  4. Cryptic and rare Aspergillus species in Brazil: prevalence in clinical samples and in vitro susceptibility to triazoles.

    PubMed

    Negri, C E; Gonçalves, S S; Xafranski, H; Bergamasco, M D; Aquino, V R; Castro, P T O; Colombo, A L

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus spp. are among the most common causes of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in tertiary care hospitals. Little is known about the prevalence and in vitro susceptibility of Aspergillus species in Latin America, because there are few medical centers able to perform accurate identification at the species level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of cryptic and rare Aspergillus species among clinical samples from 133 patients with suspected aspergillosis admitted in 12 medical centers in Brazil and to analyze the in vitro activity of different antifungal drugs. The identification of Aspergillus species was performed based on a polyphasic approach, as well as sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, calmodulin, and β-tubulin genes and phylogenetic analysis when necessary. The in vitro susceptibility tests with voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole were performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 document (2008). We demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptic species causing human infection. Only three isolates, representing the species Aspergillus thermomutatus, A. ochraceus, and A. calidoustus, showed less in vitro susceptibility to at least one of the triazoles tested. Accurate identifications of Aspergillus at the species level and with in vitro susceptibility tests are important because some species may present unique resistance patterns against specific antifungal drugs.

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243

  6. [Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-04-01

    Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

  7. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention. PMID:23714275

  8. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  9. Prevalence of diabetes in Brazil over time: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Telo, Gabriela H; Cureau, Felipe Vogt; de Souza, Martina S; Andrade, Thais S; Copês, Fabiana; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most important epidemic diseases of this century and the number of people with diabetes has more than doubled over the past three decades. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the adult Brazilian population and analyze the trends for the last three decades through a systematic review with meta-analysis. This review included observational studies published between 1980 and 2015, which were independently identified by two reviewers in five databases. Random effect models were used to estimate the prevalence and trends of diabetes. In total, 50 articles were included in this review. Three different patterns for diabetes diagnosis were identified: self-report (36 studies), fasting glucose (7 studies), and complex diagnosis (fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, and self-report; 7 studies). The prevalence of diabetes was 5.6 % (95 % CI 5.0-6.3; I(2) = 100 %) by self-report, 6.6 % (95 % CI 4.8-8.9; I(2) = 94 %) by fasting glucose, and 11.9 % (95 % CI 7.7-17.8 I(2) = 100 %) by complex diagnosis. In trend analyses, we observed an increase in the prevalence of diabetes over time. The biggest increase was detected in studies using complex diagnosis: 7.4 % (95 % CI 7.1-7.7) in the 1980s to 15.7 % (95 % CI 9.8-24.3) in the 2010s. In conclusion, despite high heterogeneity, this study observed a high prevalence of diabetes in Brazilian adults over time and with a progressive increase in the last 35 years. PMID:27610204

  10. Prevalence of HPV infection in head and neck carcinomas shows geographical variability: a comparative study from Brazil and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Franziska; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Dreyer, Johannes H; Perrusi, Victor José Ferreira; Arcuri, Roberto Alfonso; Hassan, Rocio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Rising prevalence rates of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) infection in oropharyngeal carcinoma (up to 80 %) have been reported in North America and Scandinavia. We have analysed 424 German and 163 Brazilian head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) from the oral cavity (OSCC), oropharynx (OPSCC) and hypopharynx (HPSCC) using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA PCR and sequencing, hrHPV DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) and hrHPV E6/E7 RNA ISH. In the German series, 52/424 cases (12.3 %) were p16-positive/hrHPV-positive (OSCC 3.8 % [10/265], OPSCC 34.4 % [42/122], HPSCC 0 % [0/37]). In addition, there were 9 cases that were p16-positive/hrHPV-negative (5 OPSCC and 4 OSCC). In the Brazilian series, the overall hrHPV DNA prevalence by PCR was 11.0 % ([18/163]; OSCC 6 % [5/83], OPSCC 15.5 % [11/71], HPSCC 22.2 % [2/9]). Ten of these cases were hrHPV-positive/p16-positive. The remaining 8 hrHPV-positive/p16-negative cases were also negative in both ISH assays. Furthermore, 5 p16-positive/hrHPV-negative cases (2 OPSCC and 3 OSCC) were identified. In both series, HPV16 was by far the most common HPV type detected. We confirm that regardless of geographical origin, the highest hrHPV prevalence in HNSCC is observed in oropharyngeal carcinomas. The proportion of HPV-associated OPSCC was substantially higher in the German cohort than in the Brazilian series (34.4 vs. 15.5 %), and in both groups, the prevalence of hrHPV in OPSCC was much lower than in recent reports from North America and Scandinavia. We suggest, therefore, that it may be possible to define areas with high (e.g. USA, Canada, Scandinavia), intermediate (e.g. Germany) and low (e.g. Brazil) prevalences of HPV infection in OPSCC. PMID:25820374

  11. [Smoking prevalence and associated factors among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2,464 tobacco farmers in 2011. Multivariate analysis in men assessed the association between smoking and socioeconomic, behavioral, and occupational variables. Some 31.2% of men and 3.1% of women were current smokers. In men, smoking was directly associated with age, schooling, income, heavy drinking, time at work in tobacco farming, and time of exposure to pesticides. Employment relationship was a risk factor for smoking, and participation in religious activities was a protective factor. Male tobacco farmers showed multiple risk behaviors and higher smoking prevalence than other farmers. Ignoring the risk and cultural legacy may be common factors for these behaviors and suggest combined approaches. PMID:27487442

  12. High Prevalence of GB Virus C in Brazil and Molecular Evidence for Intrafamilial Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, João R. R.; Zanotto, Paolo M. De A.; Ferreira, João L. P.; Sumita, Laura M.; Carrilho, Flair J.; da Silva, Luiz C.; Capacci, M. Lourdes; Silva, Adávio O.; Guz, Betty; Gonçales, Fernando L.; Gonçales, Neiva S. L.; Buck, Gregory A.; Meyers, Gregory A.; Bernardini, A. Plínio

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) in candidate Brazilian blood donors with normal and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels was found to be 5.2% (5 of 95) and 6.5% (5 of 76), respectively. Among Brazilian patients, GBV-C was found in 9.5% (13 of 137) of cases of hepatitis not caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV, HCV, HDV, or HEV (non-A-E hepatitis) and in 18.2% (8 of 44) of individuals infected with HCV. Molecular characterization of GBV-C by partial sequencing of the NS3 region showed clustering between members of a single family, implying intrafamilial transmission. In conclusion, these results together suggest that contagion mechanisms which facilitate intrafamilial transmission of GBV-C may partially explain the high prevalence of viremic carriers worldwide. PMID:10203545

  13. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species. PMID:26982557

  14. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Functional Status in an Older Community-Representative Sample in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L; Andreoli, Sergio B; Gastal, Fábio L

    2013-01-01

    Objective Information on dependency level of elderly in rapidly aging developing countries is limited, but is needed to ascertain extent of need for help with activities of daily living (ADLs). Methods In-person information was obtained in 1995 from a statewide survey of representative community residents ≥60 years of age in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (N=7040), on demographic characteristics, health conditions, social ties, health behaviors, and ADL performance. Results Nearly 40% needed help with one or more ADLs. In controlled analyses, need for help approximately doubled with each succeeding decade. Increased education and income and regular physical activity reduced risk. Selected health conditions (stroke, depression, poor self-rated health) were consistently associated with need for help, Discussion A large proportion of noninstitutionalized elderly have ADL problems. In addition to health care, interventions promoting equity of access to education and economic opportunity could reduce ADL dependency in coming generations. PMID:20147651

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with asthma in students from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Magna Adaci de Quadros; de Pinho, Lucinéia; Marques, Paula Quadros; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of asthma and factors related to asthma development in schoolchildren aged 6 to 14, living in central and peripheral areas of the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and who were registered with the Family Health Strategy program. Initially, a standard written questionnaire, based on ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), was administered to collect personal data, information regarding income, asthma prevalence, allergic rhinitis and eczema (N = 1,131). Secondly, a case-control study was performed by grouping the patients as either asthmatic (A; N = 172) or non-asthmatic (NA; N = 379). Potential factors associated with the occurrence of asthma were evaluated using the complementary questionnaire from ISAAC phase II. Skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity (STIH) and parasitological tests were also performed. The odds ratio, estimated by multivariate analysis, indicated that asthma cases were related to kindergarten attendance, household smoking, family history of asthma, rhinitis and positive STIH. It was concluded that, in the studied population, the prevalence of asthma was related to genetic predisposition, in addition to individual history, social demographics, exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke and a positive response to allergy testing.

  17. Hepatitis B virus markers among teenagers in the Araguaia region, Central Brazil: assessment of prevalence and vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Melo, Laura Valdiane Luz; da Silva, Marcondes Alves Barbosa; Calçada, Cristiane de Oliveira Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Silvia Raquel Brandão; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2011-07-18

    The Brazilian hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was implemented in 1998 and broadened to include young people up to 20 years of age in 2001. However, HBV coverage of teenagers has not been systematically assessed in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the magnitude of HBV infection and vaccine coverage among adolescent students regularly enrolled in the public schools of Barra do Garças, a city located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A representative sample was randomly obtained and participants were interviewed and had blood samples collected to test for HBV markers. The sample was composed of 576 subjects, 51% of which were females. The average age was 15, with the group ranging from 12 to 20 years of age. There were 29 anti-HBc reactive participants (5.0%). Four out of 29 were HBsAg positive (0.7%). Anti-HBs alone (vaccinated profile) showed in 323 (56.1%) students and 224 (38.9%) were negative for all HBV markers. Increasing age was associated with HBV exposure in a χ(2) for trend analysis (p=0.004). The prevalence of anti-HBs alone decreased as the subjects' age increased. Multivariate analysis showed independent association between HBV infection and the start of sexual activity. Another associated variable was the fact that the some students were enrolled in two low-income neighborhood schools. Our findings classify this area as low endemic for HBV and suggest that there is a progressive decrease in the spread of HBV in the region due to the introduction of universal vaccination of neonates. Approximately half of the adolescents 15 years or older were not immunized, which raises a concern in terms of the need to increase the vaccination rate for this segment of the population.

  18. Virulence of Erwinia amylovora, a prevalent apple pathogen: Outer membrane proteins and type III secreted effectors increase fitness and compromise plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Holtappels, Michelle; Noben, Jean-Paul; Valcke, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Until now, no data are available on the outer membrane (OM) proteome of Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative plant pathogen, causing fire blight in most of the members of the Rosaceae family. Since the OM forms the interface between the bacterial cell and its environment it is in direct contact with the host. Additionally, the type III secretion system, embedded in the OM, is a pathogenicity factor of E. amylovora. To assess the influence of the OM composition and the secretion behavior on virulence, a 2D-DIGE analysis and gene expression profiling were performed on a high and lower virulent strain, both in vitro and in planta. Proteome data showed an increase in flagellin for the lower virulent strain in vitro, whereas, in planta several interesting proteins were identified as being differently expressed between both the strains. Further, gene expression of nearly all type III secreted effectors was elevated for the higher virulent strain, both in vitro and in planta. As a first, we report that several characteristics of virulence can be assigned to the OM proteome. Moreover, we demonstrate that secreted proteins prove to be the important factors determining differences in virulence between the strains, otherwise regarded as homogeneous on a genome level. PMID:27345300

  19. Prevalence of acanthamoeba from tap water in rio grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Winck, Mari Aline Todero; Caumo, Karin; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2011-11-01

    A total of 136 samples of tap water were collected from state and municipal schools between March and November 2009. The samples were filtered through cellulose nitrate membranes that were seeded at non-nutrient agar 1.5% containing an overlayer of Escherichia coli suspension. Thirty-one (22.79%) tap water samples investigated were found positive for free-living amoebae (FLA). From these, 13 presented as FLA that seems to belong to the genus Acanthamoeba. All samples of FLA were cloned and identified as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba by the morphology of cysts and trophozoites and by PCR using genus-specific primers that amplify the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Physiological tests of thermotolerance and osmotolerance were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolates. The sequencing analysis by comparing the sequences submitted to GenBank, showed genotype distribution into groups T2, T2/T6, T6, and T4. In tests of thermotolerance and osmotolerance, 50% of the isolates had a low pathogenic potential. The results indicated the presence of Acanthamoeba in tap water in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, revealing its importance and the need for more epidemiological studies to determine their distribution in the environment and its pathogenic potential.

  20. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods). PMID:7569635

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  3. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  4. Prevalence, genetic characterization and virulence genes of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H- and E. coli O157:H7 isolated from retail beef.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohammed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Ahdy, Asmaa Mohammed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2013-08-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Escherichia coli O157:H- strains have emerged as important pathogens and have been associated with a higher incidence of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) than non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SF E. coli O157:H- and NSF E. coli O157:H7 strains in retail beef products in Mansoura, Egypt. The contamination rates with rfbEO157-positive E. coli O157 strains were 26.7% (8/30), 10% (3/30) and 3.7% (1/27) in ground beef, beef burger, and fresh beef samples, respectively with an overall mean of 13.8% (12/87) among all meat products tested. SF E. coli O157:H- were the most dominant among the isolated O157 strains. Of the fifteen O157 strains isolated, 11 (73.3%) were SF E. coli O157:H-, while the remaining 4 (26.7%) were NSF E. coli O157:H7. The 11 SF O157H- strains were genetically positive for sfpA gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for fliC gene demonstrated a similar pattern for both SF and NSF O157 isolates. PCR assays verified the existence of stx1 gene in 7 (46.7%) and stx2 gene in 13 (86.7%) of the 15 O157 strains isolated. Unexpectedly, two of the 15 O157 strains isolated were negative for Shiga toxin genes. The eae gene was identified in all of the 15 O157 strains except in one NSF O157:H7 strain. EHEC-hlyA gene was detected in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 O157 isolates, nonetheless only 11 strains showed enterohemolytic phenotype on blood agar. A combination of the four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae and EHEC-hlyA were detected in 7 (46.7%) strains, while six (40%) strains were positive for stx2, eae and hlyA genes. This is the first record for isolation of E. coli O157: H- in Egypt as well as in the African continent.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine genital campylobacteriosis and bovine trichomonosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar; da Silva, Gesika Maria; Batista Filho, Antônio Fernando Barbosa; de Melo Borges, Jonas; de Oliveira, Pollyanne Raysa Fernandes; Brandespim, Daniel Friguglietti; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Pinheiro, José Wilton

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cows from dairy herds in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 383 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus were collected from cows on 21 herds in 19 districts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and submitted for polymerase chain reaction analysis. An investigative questionnaire was used to analyze the risk factors, using questions related to reproductive and hygiene/sanitation management. A prevalence of 1.8% (0.8-3.9%; confidence interval (CI) 95%) and 33.4% (28.7-38.4%; CI 95%) was found for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus, respectively. In terms of the number of foci, 28.6% of the herds contained at least one animal that was positive for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 90.5% for T. foetus. The present study identified herds larger than 100 animals as a risk factor for bovine genital campylobacteriosis (OR = 7.2; CI 1.3-38.4%; p = 0.020) and the use of natural breeding as a risk factor for bovine trichomonosis (OR = 2.4; CI 1.1-5.9%; p = 0.041). In conclusion, C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus infections occurred in the region studied and high numbers of foci were found. Thus, prophylaxis and control measures, such as diagnosis, separation, and sexual rest for infected females, are suggested. An artificial insemination program with early rigorous sanitary care should be implemented on the properties in order to avoid the spread of agents in the herds.

  6. Risk factors and prevalence of newborn hearing loss in a private health care system of Porto Velho, Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Rodrigues, Liliane Barbosa; Aurélio, Fernanda Soares; da Silva, Virgínia Braz

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hearing loss and to analyze the results of newborn hearing screening and audiological diagnosis in private health care systems. METHODS Cross-sectional and retrospective study in a database of newborn hearing screening performed by a private clinic in neonates born in private hospitals of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Northern Brazil. The screening results, the risk for hearing loss, the risk indicators for hearing loss and the diagnosis were descriptively analyzed. Newborns cared in rooming in with their mothers were compared to those admitted to the Intensive Care Unit regarding risk factors for hearing loss. RESULTS: Among 1,146 (100%) enrolled newborns, 1,064 (92.8%) passed and 82 (7.2%) failed the hearing screening. Among all screened neonates, 1,063 (92.8%) were cared in rooming and 83 (7.2%) needed intensive care; 986 (86.0%) were considered at low risk and 160 (14.0%) at high risk for hearing problems. Of the 160 patients identified as having high risk for hearing loss, 83 (37.7%) were admitted to an hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit, 76 (34.5%) used ototoxic drugs and 38 (17.2%) had a family history of hearing loss in childhood. Hearing loss was diagnosed in two patients (0.2% of the screened sample). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hearing loss in newborns from private hospitals was two cases per 1,000 evaluated patients. The use of ototoxic drugs, admission to Intensive Care Unit and family history of hearing loss were the most common risk factors for hearing loss in the studied population. PMID:24142311

  7. Current practices in managing acutely disturbed patients at three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Huf, Gisele; da Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Fagundes, Hugo M; Oliveira, Edmar S; Lopez, Jose Ramon RA; Gewandszajder, Marcio; da Luz Carvalho, Andreia; Keusen, Alexandre; Adams, Clive E

    2002-01-01

    Background The medical management of aggressive and violent behaviour is a critical situation for which there is little evidence. In order to prepare for a randomised trial, due to start in the psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio de Janeiro in 2001, a survey of current practice was necessary. Methods A seven day survey of pharmacological management of aggressive people with psychosis in the emergency rooms of all four public psychiatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results In one hospital data were not available. Of the 764 people with psychosis attending these ERs, 74 were given IM medication for rapid tranquillisation (9.7%, 2.1/week/100,000). A haloperidol-promethazine mix (with or without other drugs) was used for the majority of patients (83%). Conclusion The haloperidol-promethazine mix, given intramuscularly for rapid tranquilization, is prevalent in Rio, where it is considered both safe and efficient. However, scientific evaluation of all pharmacological approaches to rapid tranquilization of psychotic people is inadequate or incomplete and a randomized trial of IM haloperidol-promethazine is overdue. PMID:11860610

  8. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%). Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65), sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59), hospitalization (OR = 1.90), groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53), and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value). The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b), 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care system and society at

  10. [Prevalence of drinking and driving in a city of Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Duailibi, Sérgio; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2007-12-01

    Problems due to alcohol use among drivers have been assessed worldwide and studies indicate high morbidity and mortality rates related to drinking and driving. There are few national studies about this subject. Thus, this study was conducted aiming at estimating the prevalence of drinking and driving and testing the acceptability of passive and active breathalyzers. A total of 908 drivers were tested in the main streets of a city in the state of São Paulo, from February 2005 to March 2006. The methodology adopted was sobriety checkpoints. In 23.7% of the drivers some level of alcohol was found in the exhaled air; in 19.4% alcohol level was equal to or higher than the legal limit. The passive breathalyzer was reliable and presented results comparable to the active one. These findings were six times higher than those found in similar surveys carried out in other countries, indicating the relevance of this problem. Specific public policies to fight the problem and more national studies are needed.

  11. [Prevalence of drinking and driving in a city of Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Duailibi, Sérgio; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2007-12-01

    Problems due to alcohol use among drivers have been assessed worldwide and studies indicate high morbidity and mortality rates related to drinking and driving. There are few national studies about this subject. Thus, this study was conducted aiming at estimating the prevalence of drinking and driving and testing the acceptability of passive and active breathalyzers. A total of 908 drivers were tested in the main streets of a city in the state of São Paulo, from February 2005 to March 2006. The methodology adopted was sobriety checkpoints. In 23.7% of the drivers some level of alcohol was found in the exhaled air; in 19.4% alcohol level was equal to or higher than the legal limit. The passive breathalyzer was reliable and presented results comparable to the active one. These findings were six times higher than those found in similar surveys carried out in other countries, indicating the relevance of this problem. Specific public policies to fight the problem and more national studies are needed. PMID:17923887

  12. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Ana Gabriela Álvares; Brites, Carlos; Netto, Eduardo M; Fernandes, Sheyla de Almeida; Rutherford, George W; Queiroz, Conceição Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected pregnant women followed for prenatal care in Salvador, Bahia. This was a cross-sectional study of 63 women seeking prenatal care at a reference center. Participants were interviewed regarding socio-epidemiological and clinical history, and were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti HTLV I/II, VDRL, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, CD4 count, and HIV plasma viral load. The main outcome variable was the presence of any STI. The mean age of patients was 28.2 years (16-40 years). 23 (36.5%) were diagnosed with at least one STI. The frequency of diagnoses was: HBV, 3.2%; HCV, 8.1%; HTLV I/II, 3.4%; syphilis, 9.5%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 11.1%; HPV, 15.0%; Mycoplasma hominis, 2.1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, 2.1%. No case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified. No association was found between socio-epidemiological variables and the presence of an STI. CD4 T lymphocyte < 500 cells/μL (p=0.047) and plasma viral load >1,000 copies (p = 0.027) were associated with the presence of STI. STIs are frequent in pregnant women infected with HIV, and all HIV-infected pregnant women should be screened to decrease transmission of these pathogens and to protect their own health.

  13. STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF Capillaria hepatica IN HUMANS AND RODENTS IN AN URBAN AREA OF THE CITY OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Elierson José Gomes; Basano, Sérgio de Almeida; de Souza, Márcia Maria; Honda, Eduardo Resende; de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Silva, Jéssica Carolinne Damasceno e; Barros, Lauro Prado; Rodrigues, Elisa Sousa; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatic capillariosis, caused by Capillaria hepatica (Calodium hepaticum) (Bancroft, 1893), Travassos, 1915 (Nematoda, Trichinelloidea, Capillariidae), is a common zoonosis in rodents but is rare in humans. Seventy-two cases in humans have been reported worldwide since the first case was described by MACARTHUR in 192417,27. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Capillaria hepatica in humans and rodents in an urban area of Porto Velho, the capital of Rondônia, in Brazil. Methods: After conducting a census of the area, 490 residents were randomly selected, and, after signing a term of consent, provided blood samples that were screened for anti-Capillaria hepatica antibodies. Simultaneously, rats were captured to assess the prevalence of this parasite in rodents by histopathological examination in liver sections. Results: A prevalence of 1.8% was found among residents who had specific antibodies at a dilution of 1:150, indicating exposure to parasite eggs; 0.8% of the subjects also had positive titers at a dilution of 1:400, indicating true infection. The prevalence in rats was 2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of infection with this parasite among humans and rats was low. While the prevalence encountered among humans was within the limits reported in the literature, the prevalence among rodents was much lower. PMID:25651325

  14. Virulence Determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the in vitro and in vivo assays that are available for determination of pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, highlighting the value of using multiplex PCR for rapid and accurate assessment of listerial virulence....

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among users attending a voluntary testing centre in Rio Grande, southern Brazil: predictive factors and hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Germano, F N; dos Santos, C A; Honscha, G; Strasburg, A; Gabbi, B; Mendoza-Sassi, R A; Soares, E A; Seuánez, H N; Soares, M A; Martínez, A M B

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in 750 individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center of Rio Grande (VCT/RG), in Southern Brazil, and identified viral genotypes. Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were also collected and analysed. Anti-HCV antibody-positive individuals were tested for HCV-RNA and genotyped by sequencing the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Prevalence estimates of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 6% and 5.5%, respectively. We identified genotypes 1 (67%), 2 (2%) and 3 (31%); the latter was more prevalent than in other regions of Brazil. Anti-HCV prevalence in VCT/RG users was similar to previous reports. Age, previous blood transfusion, sexual orientation and injecting drug use were independent predictors of HCV infection. The presence of multiple risk factors was also associated with a higher risk for HCV infection. HCV genotype was not associated with any variable analysed in this study. PMID:20852195

  16. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of

  17. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR = 7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p = 0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and

  18. [Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in community-dwelling elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: data from the FIBRA study].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Vasconcelos, Karina Simone de Souza; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of frailty varies greatly and has received insufficient attention in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among the elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical, functional, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. An ordinal regression model was used to verify conditions associated with frailty and to determine odds ratios ( α= 0.05). Prevalence rates were 46.3% for pre-frailty was 8.7% for weakness. Pre-frail and frail elderly, respectively, showed higher and increasing odds ratios for dependency in instrumental activities of daily living; restrictions in advanced activities of daily living; use of walking aids; comorbidities; falls; depressive symptoms; lower self-efficacy in preventing falls; hospitalization; and advanced age. The study identified a high percentage of frail states associated with higher odds of adverse health conditions, especially related to disability.

  19. Prevalence of CCR5-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in a mixed population from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Fernandes, H; Santos, A C C; Motta, F J N; Canalle, R; Yoshioka, F K N; Burbano, R R; Rey, J A; da Silva, B B; Pinto, G R

    2015-10-02

    Chemokines are low-molecular weight proteins that play a key role in inflammatory processes. Genomic variations in chemokine receptors are associated with the susceptibility to various diseases. Polymorphisms in chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5)-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I are related to human immunodeficiency virus infection resistance, which has led to genetic association studies for several other diseases. Given the heterogeneous distribution of these polymorphisms in different global populations and within Brazilian populations, we analyzed the prevalence of CCR5-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in a mixed population from northeastern Brazil. The study included 223 individuals from the general population of the city of Parnaíba, Piauí, who had a mean age of 73 years. Of these individuals, 37.2% were men and 62.8% were women. Polymorphisms were analyzed using DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using polymerase chain reaction alone (CCR5-Δ32) or accompanied by restriction endonuclease digestion (CCR2-V64I). In both cases, the genotypes were determined using 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver nitrate staining. The population conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both the loci studied. No individuals were homozygous for allele-Δ32, which was present in 1.8% of the population, whereas allele-64I was present in 13.9% of the participants studied; 74.9% were homozygous for the wild-type allele, while 22.4 and 2.7% were heterozygous and homozygous for the mutant allele, respectively. Additional studies are needed to investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms and disease etiopathogenesis in reference populations.

  20. Prevalence of CCR5-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in a mixed population from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Fernandes, H; Santos, A C C; Motta, F J N; Canalle, R; Yoshioka, F K N; Burbano, R R; Rey, J A; da Silva, B B; Pinto, G R

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are low-molecular weight proteins that play a key role in inflammatory processes. Genomic variations in chemokine receptors are associated with the susceptibility to various diseases. Polymorphisms in chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5)-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I are related to human immunodeficiency virus infection resistance, which has led to genetic association studies for several other diseases. Given the heterogeneous distribution of these polymorphisms in different global populations and within Brazilian populations, we analyzed the prevalence of CCR5-Δ32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in a mixed population from northeastern Brazil. The study included 223 individuals from the general population of the city of Parnaíba, Piauí, who had a mean age of 73 years. Of these individuals, 37.2% were men and 62.8% were women. Polymorphisms were analyzed using DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using polymerase chain reaction alone (CCR5-Δ32) or accompanied by restriction endonuclease digestion (CCR2-V64I). In both cases, the genotypes were determined using 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver nitrate staining. The population conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both the loci studied. No individuals were homozygous for allele-Δ32, which was present in 1.8% of the population, whereas allele-64I was present in 13.9% of the participants studied; 74.9% were homozygous for the wild-type allele, while 22.4 and 2.7% were heterozygous and homozygous for the mutant allele, respectively. Additional studies are needed to investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms and disease etiopathogenesis in reference populations. PMID:26436495

  1. Prevalence of the C-terminal truncations of NS1 in avian influenza A viruses and effect on virulence and replication of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Breithaupt, Angele; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Ziller, Mario; Teifke, Jens P; Stech, Jürgen; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) evolve from low pathogenic (LP) precursors after circulation in poultry by reassortment and/or single mutations in different gene segments including that encoding NS1. The carboxyl terminal end (CTE) of NS1 exhibits deletions between amino acid 202 and 230 with still unknown impact on virulence of AIV in chickens. In this study, NS1 protein sequences of all AIV subtypes in birds from 1902 to 2015 were analyzed to study the prevalence and distribution of CTE truncation (ΔCTE). Thirteen different ΔCTE forms were observed in NS1 proteins from 11 HA and 8 NA subtypes with high prevalences in H9, H7, H6 and H10 and N9, N2, N6 and N1 subtypes particularly in chickens and minor poultry species. With 88% NS217 lacking amino acids 218-230 was the most common ΔCTE form followed by NS224 (3.6%). NS217 was found in 10 and 8 different HA and NA subtypes, respectively, whereas NS224 was detected exclusively in the Italian HPAIV H7N1 suggesting relevance for virulence. To test this assumption, 3 recombinant HPAIV H7N1 were constructed carrying wild-type HP NS1 (Hp-NS224), NS1 with extended CTE (Hp-NS230) or NS1 from LPAIV H7N1 (Hp-NSLp), and tested in-vitro and in-vivo. Extension of CTE in Hp NS1 significantly decreased virus replication in chicken embryo kidney cells. Truncation in the NS1 decreased the tropism of Hp-NS224 to the endothelium, central nervous system and respiratory tract epithelium without significant difference in virulence in chickens. This study described the variable forms of ΔCTE in NS1 and indicated that CTE is not an essential virulence determinant particularly for the Italian HPAIV H7N1 but may be a host-adaptation marker required for efficient virus replication. PMID:26981790

  2. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177

  3. Prevalence and clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus in children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood pneumonia and bronchiolitis is a leading cause of illness and death in young children worldwide with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) as the main viral cause. RSV has been associated with annual respiratory disease outbreaks and bacterial co-infection has also been reported. This study is the first RSV epidemiological study in young children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Belém city, Pará (Northern Brazil). Methods With the objective of determining the prevalence of RSV infection and evaluating the patients’ clinical and epidemiological features, we conducted a prospective study across eight hospitals from November 2006 to October 2007. In this study, 1,050 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were obtained from hospitalized children up to the age of three years with CAP, and tested for RSV antigen by direct immunofluorescence assay and by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for RSV Group identification. Results RSV infection was detected in 243 (23.1%) children. The mean age of the RSV-positive group was lower than the RSV-negative group (12.1 months vs 15.5 months, p<0.001) whereas gender distribution was similar. The RSV-positive group showed lower means of C-reactive protein (CRP) in comparison to the RSV-negative group (15.3 vs 24.0 mg/dL, p<0.05). Radiological findings showed that 54.2% of RSV-positive group and 50.3% of RSV-negative group had interstitial infiltrate. Bacterial infection was identified predominantly in the RSV-positive group (10% vs 4.5%, p<0.05). Rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction were predominantly observed in the RSV-positive group. A co-circulation of RSV Groups A and B was identified, with a predominance of Group B (209/227). Multivariate analysis revealed that age under 1 year (p<0.015), CRP levels under 48 mg/dL (p<0.001) and bacterial co-infection (p<0.032) were independently associated with the presence of RSV and, in the analyze of symptoms, nasal obstruction

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease viruses in water buffaloes in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lage, A P; Castro, R S; Melo, M I; Aguiar, P H; Barreto Filho, J B; Leite, R C

    1996-01-01

    A serological survey to detect water buffaloes with antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus (BVD/MDV) was performed in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Precipitating antibodies against BTV were detected by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in 54.4% of the serum samples tested. Microplate serum-neutralization tests revealed that 14.7% and 52.7% of the water buffaloes had antibodies to BHV 1 and BVD/MDV, respectively. The prevalence of antibodies to BTV in water buffaloes under two years old was significantly lower than in adults.

  5. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in Spain: prevalence, serotypes, and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC in ruminants, raw beef products, and humans.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A

    2003-04-01

    In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans.

  6. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in Spain: prevalence, serotypes, and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC in ruminants, raw beef products, and humans.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A

    2003-04-01

    In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans. PMID:12671177

  7. A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Isabela S; Paula, Cristiane S; Oliveira, Melaine C; Bordin, Isabel A; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6% for global impairment, 5.4% for writing, 6.0% for arithmetic, and 7.5% for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:25925785

  8. High prevalence of enteroparasitosis in urban slums of Belo Horizonte-Brazil. Presence of enteroparasites as a risk factor in the family group

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Frederico F; Busatti, Haendel G N O; Cruz, Valeria L; Santos, Joseph F G; Gomes, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the urban slums of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and the risk of transmitting enteroparasites to the family members of infected individuals. Stool samples were collected and examined at clinical laboratories near each slum. Individuals were identified and classified as positive for parasitosis (IP+), and individuals with negative stool tests were classified as negative for parasitosis (IP−) and enrolled as control patients. We collected samples from 594 patients, of which 20.2% and 79.8% were classified as IP+ and IP−, respectively. In addition, 744 family members (FIPs) effectively participated in the study by providing fecal samples. In total, 1338 participants were evaluated. Of these, 34.6% were tested positive for parasitosis. Blastocystis was the most prevalent parasite, infecting 22.4% of individuals. Among FIPs, the overall prevalence was 46.1%. Of these, 50.6% and 44.7% were classified as FIPs+ and FIPs−, respectively. These results showed that IP+ did not impact the prevalence of infection within the studied communities, not constituting index cases of specific risk behaviors, suggesting that, in fact, these communities are exposed to similar oral–fecal routes of contamination. PMID:24091002

  9. [Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil: estimation of prevalence based on preliminary data of national serological surveys in children under 5 years old and other sources].

    PubMed

    Luquetti, Alejandro O; Ferreira, António Walter; Oliveira, Rosângela A; Tavares, Suelene B N; Rassi, Anis; Dias, João Carlos P; Prata, Aluizio

    2005-01-01

    A prevalence estimation of congenital transmission in Brazil is performed, based on several sources of recent data. From a serological survey conducted now in Brazil, with children below 5 years old, preliminary data from the state of Minas Gerais only 19/9,556 children did have antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. All 19 mothers were infected, but only one child persisted with antibodies on a second blood collection, hence diagnosed as congenital. The other were just passive transference of maternal antibodies. From a recent publication, 278 children born from 145 infected mothers were studied. Two cases (0.7%) were congenital. In other source, from 1,348 blood donors, 35 were born in non endemic areas. When 10 of them were called, 8 were born from infected mothers and five may be congenital. Finally, no infection was detected in 93 children born from 78 infected mothers. The reasons for this low prevalence are discussed, are lower than in other countries of the South Cone, that harbor also T. cruzi 2, but are unrecognized up to now.

  10. High prevalence of dementia in a community-based survey of older people from Brazil: association with intellectual activity rather than education.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marcos Antonio; Ferrioli, Eduardo; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Litvoc, Júlio; Bottino, Cássio Machado Campos

    2012-01-01

    Although several surveys have been conducted around the world, few surveys have investigated the prevalence of dementia in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate dementia prevalence in a community sample in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, and to evaluate its distribution across several socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and habits. The population was aged 60 years and older and a representative sample from three different social regions. The screening instruments used in the first phase were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object-Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, and the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale. In the second phase, the Cambridge Examination was employed to diagnose dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria. The estimate of dementia prevalence was adjusted for screening instrument performance, using the positive and negative predictive values. The data were weighted to compare frequencies, considering the sampling and the non-response effect, and subjected to multivariate analysis. In all, 1.145 elderly subjects were evaluated (mean age: 70.9 years), of whom 63.4% were female and 52.8% had up to 4 years of schooling (participation rates at the first and the second phases were 62.6 and 60%, respectively). The observed and estimated prevalences of dementia were 5.9% and 12.5%, respectively (n = 68). Alzheimer's disease was the main cause (60.3%). Dementia was associated with old age, low education, stroke, absence of arthritis, and not reading books. The estimated prevalence of dementia was higher than the prevalence previously found. Associated factors confirmed the importance of intellectual activities in prevention.

  11. Near full-length genome analysis of low prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subclade F1 in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Pastena, Évelyn Regina de Souza; Neto, Walter Kleine; Barreto, Claudia C; Ferrari, Kelly T; Kalmar, Erika MN; Ferreira, Suzete; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to lay the groundwork for the design of successful drugs or vaccine. In this study we aimed to characterize and define the molecular prevalence of HIV-1 subclade F1 currently circulating in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A total of 36 samples were selected from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed in two independent studies in our laboratory as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36 blood samples by 5 fragments overlapping PCR followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the 5 fragments of pure subclade F1 and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Subclades F1 that exhibited mosaic structure with other subtypes were omitted from any further analysis Results Our methods of fragment amplification and sequencing confirmed that only 5 sequences inferred from pol region as subclade F1 also holds true for the genome as a whole and, thus, estimated the true prevalence at 0.56%. The results also showed a single phylogenetic cluster of the Brazilian subclade F1 along with non-Brazilian South American isolates in both subgenomic and the full-length genomes analysis with an overall intrasubtype nucleotide divergence of 6.9%. The nucleotide differences within the South American and Central African F1 strains, in the C2-C3 env, were 8.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Conclusion All together, our findings showed a surprisingly low prevalence rate of subclade F1 in Brazil and suggest that these isolates originated in Central Africa and subsequently introduced to South America. PMID:19531216

  12. High prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 in a counseling and testing center in the city of Itajaí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Gorki; Giron, Leila Bertoni; Knoll, Rosalie Kupka; Galinskas, Juliana; Camargo, Michelle; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib; Samer, Sadia; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2015-01-01

    Itajaí is a port city in southern Brazil with one of the highest incidence and mortality rates from AIDS in the country. The prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were investigated in 1085 of 3196 new HIV-1 infection cases evaluated in the counseling and testing center of Itajaí from January 2002 to August 2008. Recent infections were assessed using the BED™, and pol region sequencing was performed in 76 samples. The prevalence ranged from 3.08% to 6.17% among women and from 10.26% to 17.36% among men. A total of 17% of infections were classified as recent, with annual incidence varying from 1.6% to 4.8 per 100 patient/year among women and from 2.05% to 8.5 per 100 patient/year among men. Pol sequences were obtained from 38 randomly recent infections selected individuals: 71% were infected by subtype C, 24% B, 2% D, and 2% F1. Among 38 subjects with established infection, 76% were subtype C, and 24% B. Transmitted drug resistance was detected in 18.4% of recent infection subjects (7.8% to nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, 5.2% to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and 5.2% protease inhibitors) and 5.2% of subjects with established infection had nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors resistance. The high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in this region is unprecedented in studies involving cases evaluated in the counseling and testing centers in Brazil.

  13. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control.

  14. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness and Blood Pressure Control in Matao, Brazil: A Pilot Study in Partnership With the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Program

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Cesar; Borin, Lucileni Aparecida; Trovo, Mayra de Cassia; dos Reis, Geraldo Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Background Around 30% of Brazilian population is hypertensive. Brazilian’s Family Health Strategy (FHS) is a community-based approach to provide primary health care and control chronic disease as hypertension. The aims of this pilot study were to study hypertension prevalence and awareness and to analyze the feasibility of FHS program with community healthy agents (CHA) to collect data about hypertensive subjects in Matao, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects equal or older than 40 years old in a neighborhood belonging to FHS program. CHA were trained to collect data and to assess blood pressure (BP) with an automated device. Hypertension diagnosis was defined if systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or subject had previous use of hypertensive drug. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression analysis were applied with significance level of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Results In 625 subjects, hypertension prevalence was 68.8% and women (71.9%) were more hypertensive than men (63.2%) (P = 0.02). Prevalence of hypertension increased with age group, from 46.3% (40 - 49 years) to 82.5% (70 - 79 years) (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of pre-hypertension was 40.1%: stage 1, 25.7% and stage 2, 17.0%. Hypertension awareness was 81.8% and 79.8% reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs. BP was not controlled in 61.8% and 67.7% of them was using anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA reported no difficulties to collect data and BP assessment with the automated device. Conclusion We observed a high hypertension prevalence rate, awareness, and subjects with uncontrolled hypertension even with use of anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA from FHS program are a feasible option to BP control in future studies involving larger populations. PMID:27298661

  15. Virulence genotypes, antibiotic resistance and the phylogenetic background of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections of dogs and cats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Osugui, L; de Castro, A F Pestana; Iovine, R; Irino, K; Carvalho, V M

    2014-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent disease of humans and pets and has extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains as one of the main etiologic agent. ExPEC are characterized by specific virulence factors and are related to a heterogeneous group of human and animal disorders, besides to be a relevant participant in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to characterize E. coli strains isolated from UTI of dogs and cats for serotypes, virulence markers, phylogenetic groups and sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs. E. coli was identified as the etiologic agent of UTI in urine samples of 43 pets (7 cats and 36 dogs). Serogroups O2, O4 and O6 corresponded to more than one third of the isolates, being 62% of the total strains classified as B2, 18% as D, 16% as B1 and 4% as A. The iucD (22%), fyuA (80%), traT (51%) and cvaC (20%) genes were distributed among the four phylogenetic groups, whereas the papC/papEF (47%) and malX (67%) genes were found only in groups B2 and D. There were a high number of resistant strains, with 76% of the strains belonging to groups A, B1 and D characterized as multidrug resistant (MDR), whereas only 21% had this phenotype in the group B2. The ExPEC strains isolated in this study displayed pathotypic and phylogenetic similarities with human isolates and high percentages of drug resistance. The finding of MDR ExPEC strains suggests implications for animal and public health and deserves more investigations.

  16. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis.

  17. High prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in women in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and direct association with abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Pagano; do Nascimento, Anderson Luís; Michelazzo, Daniela; Junior, Fernando Filardi Alves; Rocha, Marcelo Gondim; Rosa-e-Silva, Júlio César; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco José; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain is a disease that directly affects the social and professional lives of women. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of this clinical condition and to identify independent factors associated with it in women living in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: A one-year cross-sectional study was conducted in a population sample of 1,278 women over the age of 14 years. The target population was predominantly composed of women who are treated by the public health system. The questionnaire was administered by interviewers who were not linked to the city health care programs. The prevalence of the morbidity was estimated. First, we identified the significant variables associated with pelvic pain (p<0.10) and then we attributed values of 0 or 1 to the absence or presence of these variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify and estimate the simultaneous impact of the independent variables. The results were expressed by odds ratio and their 95% confidence interval with p<0.05. RESULTS: The disease was found in 11.5% (147/1,278) of the sample. The independent predictors were dyspareunia, previous abdominal surgery, depression, dysmenorrhea, anxiety, current sexual activity, low back pain, constipation, urinary symptoms, and low educational level. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Ribeirão Preto is high and is associated with conditions that can usually be prevented, controlled, or resolved by improvement of public health policies and public education. PMID:21915476

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Ribeiro, Ana Raquel Carneiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthiasis represents an obstacle to goat raising, causing severe damage to herds such as growth retardation, weight loss, and even death. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 256 goats from 54 farms were systematically sampled. Blood and fecal samples were collected from each animal for egg per gram (EPG), larval culture, and packed cell volume (PCV) analyses. We found that 79.3% of the goats investigated were parasitized with gastrointestinal helminths. Significant correlation (p = 0.004) was observed between the EPG and PCV of the animals studied, and it was observed that the EPG increases as the PCV decreases. In the larval culture, the most prevalent helminth was Haemonchus sp. (83.2%). Age and sex were significant variables (p ≤ 0.20) for the development of gastrointestinal helminths: 86.8% of animals over 36 months of age and 81.7% of females were infected. The variable type of animal exploitation was also significant, with 90.3% (p ≤ 0.20) of the animals presenting double suitability (milk and meat). The Sertão region of Paraíba State presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in goats, and age and type of animal exploitation are the most relevant risk factors to the development of these parasites.

  19. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Comerlato, Carolina Baldisserotto; Resende, Mariah Costa Carvalho de; Caierão, Juliana; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  20. Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in São Paulo, Brazil: Identification of Intermediate Virulence Factor Profiles by Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Liebchen, Ariane; Benz, Inga; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Yamamoto, Denise; Hernandes, Rodrigo T.; Sampaio, Jorge; Sampaio, Suely C. F.; Fruth, Angelika; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli is a major causative agent of severe diarrhea. In this study the prevalences of different pathotypes among 702 E. coli isolates from Brazilian patients with diarrhea were determined by multiplex PCR. Interestingly, most strains were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strains, followed by atypical EPEC (ATEC) strains. Classical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains were not detected. PMID:21508159

  1. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; André, Marcos Rogério; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; de Albuquerque Lopes, Cinthia Távora; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; de Andrade, Stefano Juliano Tavares; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2013-11-01

    Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Approximately 60% of buffalo herds in South America are located in Northern Brazil. Little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in Brazil. The present work aimed to verify the occurrence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in 542 water buffaloes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil, using molecular and serological techniques. The percentage of seropositive animals for B. bovis and B. bigemina was 41.2% and 19.0%, respectively, by ELISA. B. bovis and B. bigemina DNA were detected in 15 and 16% of sampled buffaloes, respectively. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.9) between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area. Significantly difference of positivity for serological and molecular assays was verified to localities and reproductive status of sampled animals, but not between buffalo breeds. The immune status of sampled buffaloes associated to the circulation of babesiosis agents in sampled population suggests that the studied area is at risk to clinical babesiosis outbreaks. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that this region can be classified as endemically unstable.

  2. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae from Acanthamoeba and Naegleria genera in non-hospital, public, internal environments from the city of Santos, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lais Helena; Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Caseiro, Marcos Montani; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da

    2009-12-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species are free-living amoebae (FLA) found in a large variety of natural habitats. The prevalence of such amoebae was determined from dust samples taken from public non-hospital internal environments with good standards of cleanliness from two campuses of the same University in the city of Santos (SP), Brazil, and where young and apparently healthy people circulate. The frequency of free-living amoebae in both campuses was 39% and 17% respectively, with predominance of the genus Acanthamoeba. On the campus with a much larger number of circulating individuals, the observed frequency of free-living amoebae was 2.29 times larger (P< 0.00005). Two trophozoite forms of Naegleria fowleri, are the only species of this genus known to cause primary amoebian meningoencephalitis, a rare and non-opportunistic infection. We assume that the high frequency of these organisms in different internal locations represents some kind of public health risk.

  3. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marizeli Viana de Aragão; Pinheiro, Helder Henrique Costa; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Medeiros, Rita Catarina

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine HPV prevalence in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable lesions and to identify the respective HPV types. A total of 166 samples were analyzed from patients 18 years or older in the State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected by sterile brush scraping in the oral cavity. HPV detection used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infected samples were typed as HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58. HPV was present in 40 samples (24.1%). Three samples (7.5%) were positive for HPV 6, five (12.5%) for HPV 18, and one (2.5%) for HPV 58.

  4. [Prevalence of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) during sunset in areas of the Itaipu Hydroelectric plant in Guaíra county, state of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A E; de Mello, R P; Lopes, C M; Alencar, J; Gentile, C

    1997-01-01

    Systematic collections of anophelines were conducted from November 1994 to August 1995 from 18:00 to 20:00 hr using Shannon traps and human-bait along the lake margin which forms the Itaipu Hydroelectric reservoir, State of Paraná, Brazil. Species prevalence was studied at 15 min intervals. Anopheles albitarsis sensu latu and An. galvaoi, were the most frequently collected mosquitoes. All Anopheles species populations peaked between 18:45 and 19:30 hr. The observations illustrate the existence of a haematophagic activity cycle during the early evening hours: exogenous stimulus (the beginning of sunset)-->Shannon trap (light attraction)-->human bait (haematophagy)-->rest and digestion-->exogenous stimulus-->Shannon trap or surrounding vegetation. The greater abundance of An. albitarsis collected in human-bait and Shannon trap suggests it may be a potential malaria vector in the region.

  5. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus variants and genetic diversity in the L1 gene and long control region of HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in North-East Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Chagas, Bárbara Simas; do Amaral, Carolina Medeiros; Nascimento, Kamylla Conceição Gomes; Leal, Lígia Rosa Sales; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Cartaxo Muniz, Maria Tereza; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study showed the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) variants as well as nucleotide changes within L1 gene and LCR of the HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil.

  7. Sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Silveira, Gian Libânio da; Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra de

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and risk factors relating to gastrointestinal helminthiasis, and to characterize the sanitary management practiced among sheep herds in the Sertão region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, based on factors that condition the ways of controlling these parasites in these herds. The research was carried out between April and July 2012. We visited 54 farms, where fecal and blood samples were individually collected from 465 animals. On each farm, a questionnaire was applied to gather information on variables relating to potential risk factors. The prevalence of sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the region was 75.9%. At least one animal tested positive for this helminthiasis on 53 (98.1%) of the 54 farms evaluated. The eggs per gram of feces (EPG) analysis showed the following infection burdens: 51.8% with mild infection, 27.1% moderate infection, 9.9% heavy infection and 11.2% fatal infection. Among the sheep farms visited, anthelmintics were used on 81.5% (p <0.05). The most relevant risk factor in this study was the farm area, because it defines the area available for grazing animals. Properties with many animals and little pasture area, which are the most abundant type in the Sertão region of Paraíba, tend to have high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis, because the animals are more prone to reinfection. The Sertão region of Paraíba presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis among sheep, and the farm area is the most relevant risk factor for the development of these parasites. PMID:25517527

  8. Sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Silveira, Gian Libânio da; Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra de

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and risk factors relating to gastrointestinal helminthiasis, and to characterize the sanitary management practiced among sheep herds in the Sertão region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, based on factors that condition the ways of controlling these parasites in these herds. The research was carried out between April and July 2012. We visited 54 farms, where fecal and blood samples were individually collected from 465 animals. On each farm, a questionnaire was applied to gather information on variables relating to potential risk factors. The prevalence of sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the region was 75.9%. At least one animal tested positive for this helminthiasis on 53 (98.1%) of the 54 farms evaluated. The eggs per gram of feces (EPG) analysis showed the following infection burdens: 51.8% with mild infection, 27.1% moderate infection, 9.9% heavy infection and 11.2% fatal infection. Among the sheep farms visited, anthelmintics were used on 81.5% (p <0.05). The most relevant risk factor in this study was the farm area, because it defines the area available for grazing animals. Properties with many animals and little pasture area, which are the most abundant type in the Sertão region of Paraíba, tend to have high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis, because the animals are more prone to reinfection. The Sertão region of Paraíba presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis among sheep, and the farm area is the most relevant risk factor for the development of these parasites.

  9. Prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in contaminated areas of the Santos-São Vicente Estuarine region and Bertioga, Brazil: 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T S; Carvalho, D P; Guimarães, M T; Campina, N N; Lobarinhas, M R; Lopes, A L J; Cunha, M G; Souza, I B; Oliveira, V L F; Martins, L C; Gomes, A; Pereira, L A A; Braga, A L F

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, cardiovascular diseases account for 33% of deaths and the prevalence of hypertension is of approximately 22%. The Santos and São Vicente Estuarine System is the most important example of environmental degradation by chemicals from industrial sources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in the population of this estuary in the period 2006-2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the aforementioned prevalence of hypertension in the evaluated areas, as well as risk factors for this disease in four contaminated areas located in the Estuary, and one area outside Estuary, the city of Bertioga. Associations between categorical variables were tested using Pearson's chi-square test incorporating Yates' correction, or Fisher's exact test. Single and multiple logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the risk factors for hypertension. The highest prevalence of hypertension was found in Continental São Vicente (28.4%). The risk factors for hypertension were the following: living in Center of Cubatão (OR: 1.3; IC95%: 1.0 - 1.6) and Continental São Vicente (OR: 1.4; IC95%: 1.1 - 1.8); illiterate (OR: 1.9; IC95%: 1.1 - 3.2); living in the area for more than 20 years (OR: 1.2; IC95%: 1.0 - 1.5); group of people aged 36-60 years (OR: 3.9; IC95%: 3.3 - 4.6) and who have had past occupational exposure (OR: 1.3; IC95%: 1.1 - 1.6). Results indicate that living in contaminated areas, especially for a longer time, is a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:27376370

  10. Race and prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Akogbe, Gabriel O.; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Sirak, Bradley; Anic, Gabriella M.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Fulp, William J.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Quiterio, Manuel; Smith, Danelle; Schabath, Matthew B.; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    HPV causes anal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Genital HPV prevalence in men appears to vary by world region with men residing in Asia having among the lowest prevalence. Unfortunately, there is little information on prevalence of HPV infection in men by race. The purpose of this study was to examine HPV prevalence by race across three countries. 3,909 men ages 18–70 years enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study of the natural history of HPV in men (The HIM Study) were included in the analysis. Participants completed risk factor questionnaires and samples were taken from the penile epithelium and scrotum for HPV detection. HPV testing of the combined DNA extract was conducted using PCR and genotyping. Asian/Pacific Islanders had the lowest HPV prevalence of 42.2% compared to Blacks (66.2%), and Whites (71.5%). The Asian/Pacific Islander race was strongly protective in univariate analysis (prevalence ratio(PR)= 0.59; 95% confidence interval(CI):0.48 – 0.74) and multivariate analysis for any HPV infection (PR= 0.65; 95% CI:0.52 – 0.8). Stratified analysis by lifetime number of female partners also showed strong inverse associations with the Asian/Pacific Islander race. We consistently observed the lowest prevalence of HPV infection among Asian/Pacific Islanders with moderate inverse associations even after various adjustments for potential confounding factors. Unmeasured behavioral factors, sexual mixing with low risk women, and/or race-specific differences in the frequency of germline variations among immune regulating genes may underlie these associations. Further studies among Asian populations that incorporate measures of immuno-genetics are needed to understand this phenomenon. PMID:22161806

  11. Prevalence of Listeria in Chinese food products from 13 provinces between 2000 and 2007 and virulence characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianshun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Mei, Lingling; Jiang, Lingli; Fang, Weihuan

    2009-01-01

    Listeriosis is a severe disease with high mortality rate, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. The causative organism Listeria monocytogenes is primarily transmitted to humans through contaminated foods. To gain an understanding of the prevalence of Listeria in Chinese food products, we reviewed relevant papers from journals published in China from 2000 to 2007. The average recovery rate of Listeria spp. was 3.7% (0.1-7.7%) in all food categories in 13 provinces, with raw meat being the leading source. L. innocua (28.9%, 271/937) and L. monocytogenes (25.3%, 237/937) were more commonly isolated, both at higher proportion in all food types. Subtyping schemes in three laboratories in different provinces revealed that the majority of the L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to lineage II (67.1%), followed by lineage I at 31.6%, including the pathogenic serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b isolates. Lineage III isolates comprising the low-pathogenic serovar 4a were rare. Knowledge of the prevalence of Listeria in various food products in different regions of China may be useful for developing intervention strategies for control of contaminations along the production chains.

  12. Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and high HIV-1 genetic diversity in patients from Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriana Santarém; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-08-01

    Few reports have described the molecular characteristics of the AIDS epidemic within the interior regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimensions. To help fill this gap, the prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity in Mato Grosso State, central western Brazil are reported. Drug-naïve patients (n = 105) were recruited at a reference center in Cuiabá/Mato Grosso State located across the border with Bolivia and considered a southern gate to the Amazon forest. For 92 HIV-1 isolates, the protease and partial reverse transcriptase fragments were amplified by nested-PCR and sequenced. Drug resistance was analyzed by the Calibrated Population Resistance tool and the International AIDS Society-USA database. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by REGA and phylogenetic analyses. Recombinant viruses were analyzed by SIMPLOT. Drug resistance mutations were observed in 5.4%: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations M41L (n = 1), D67N (n = 1), and K219E (n = 1), the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation K103N (n = 1) and the protease inhibitor mutation L90M (n = 1). Around 20% of the isolates were recombinants: different patterns of B/F1 mosaics (n = 11), four B/C, one F1/C/B, one F1/C, and one D/F1. Subtype B(PR) B(RT) represented 71.7%, 5.4% were of subtype C(PR) C(RT) and 3.3% were of subtype F1(PR) F1(RT) . A moderate prevalence of transmitted resistance and the co-circulation of subtypes B, F1, C, different recombinants, including the first report of subtype D, were found in Mato Grosso State, far from the epicenter of the epidemic. These results highlight the importance of monitoring transmitted drug resistance and HIV-1 genetic diversity in the interior regions of Brazil.

  13. Assessing risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among female crack cocaine users inSalvador--Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ceuci L X; Andrade, Tarcisio; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Bastos, Francisco I; Reingold, Arthur

    2007-12-01

    Crack cocaine use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. We investigated sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and infection rates in female crack cocaine users from impoverished communities of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A sample of 125 female crack cocaine users was recruited. Overall, the interviewees had low educational level and high rate of unemployment (close to 90%). One-third (37%) reported having traded sex for money or drugs, and 58% reported that they had not used condoms during intercourse in the last 30 days. The prevalence of infections was low: HIV-1.6%; HCV-2.4%; HBV- 0.8%; HTLV I/II-4.0%; and syphilis-4.0%. The combination of dire poverty and high prevalence of risk behaviors turn such populations a preferential target of initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm and promote social development. Low infection rates should not be viewed with complacency, but as a window of opportunity to implement prevention initiatives and reduce social marginalization.

  14. Prevalence and risk of blood-borne and sexually transmitted viral infections in incarcerated youth in Salvador, Brazil: opportunity and obligation for intervention.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Margaret; Messias, Márcia; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Farre, Lourdes; Schmalb, Márcia; Pedral-Sampaio, Diana; Ramos, Mauro; Brites, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among incarcerated adolescents in Salvador, Brazil, we interviewed 300 incarcerated youth aged 11-18 years to participate in a physical examination and to provide a blood sample to test for HIV-1, hepatitis B and C viruses exposure, human T-cells lymphotrophic virus, and syphilis. Overall prevalence was anti-HIV, 0.34%; anti-HBc, 11.1%; HBsAg, 2.4%; anti-HCV, 6.4%; HTLV, 1.09%; and syphilis, 3.4%. The majority (86.3%) reported a history of sexual activity; 27% had never used condoms. Girls also reported previous pregnancy (35%), abortion (26%) and sexual abuse (74%). Many youth reported a family history of alcohol abuse (56%), illicit drug use (24.7%), or legal problems (38%). Serological results show that youth in Salvador are at high risk for blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections. Policies to reduce the risk and impact of these infections should be a requisite part of health care for incarcerated youth.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Felix; Pilger, Daniel; Schuster, Angela; Lesshafft, Hannah; Guedes de Oliveira, Silas; Ignatius, Ralf; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions. Methodology/ Principal Findings To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. HrCLM was diagnosed in 8.2% (95% CI, 6.3–10.1%) of the study population (N = 806) with a peak prevalence of 18.2% (95% CI, 9.3–27.1%) in children aged 10–14. Most of the tracks (62.4%) were located on the feet, and 10.6% were superinfected. HrCLM was associated independently with age under 15, male sex, presence of animal faeces on the compound, walking barefoot on sandy ground and poverty. Conclusions/ Significance HrCLM is common in resource-poor communities in Amazonia and is related to poverty. To reduce the disease burden caused by HrCLM, living conditions have to be improved. PMID:27010204

  16. Hantavirus Infection Prevalence in Wild Rodents and Human Anti-Hantavirus Serological Profiles from Different Geographic Areas of South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia M.; Delfraro, Adriana; de Borba, Luana; Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Stella, Vanessa; de Araujo, Marina R.; Carstensen, Suzana; Rubio, Giselia; Maron, Angela; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

    2012-01-01

    Paraná state presents the fourth highest number of accumulated cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil. To map the risk areas for hantavirus transmission we carried out a study based on rodent trapping and determined the anti-hantavirus seroprevalence in these animals and in the inhabitants of these localities. Overall seroprevalence in rodents and humans were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the seropositive rodents were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hantaviruses from rodent samples cluster with Araucária (Juquitiba-like) or Jaborá hantavirus genotypes. The Jaborá strain was identified in Akodon serrensis and Akodon montensis, whereas the Araucária strain was detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, A. montensis, and Akodon paranaensis, with the latter species being identified for the first time as a natural host. These findings expose the complex relationships between virus and reservoirs in Brazil, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and human epidemiology. PMID:22855773

  17. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Rebolla, Mayra Frozoni; Silva, Eliete Maria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Rebolla, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, São Paulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  18. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    REBOLLA, Mayra Frozoni; SILVA, Eliete Maria; GOMES, Jancarlo Ferreira; FALCÃO, Alexandre Xavier; REBOLLA, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; FRANCO, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, SãoPaulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  19. Prevalence of anemia in under five-year-old children in a children's hospital in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Rosemary Ferreira; Gonzalez, Eliane Siqueira Campos; de Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti; de Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Figueroa, José Natal; Pereira, Ana Paula Campos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Anemia is a nutritional problem of global importance. It is estimated that at least one-third of the population has been at one time anemic. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in patients of a children's hospital in Recife. Methods A cross-sectional study was developed involving 595 male and female children aged from 6 to 59 months old, who were hospitalized in 2007. Results Children with a hemoglobin concentration less than 11 g/dL were considered anemic. The relationship between studied variables and anemia was evaluated by Poisson regression analysis. There was a 56.6% prevalence of anemia (95% CI: 46.6-54.6). Anemia was significantly correlated with low weight (Prevalence ratio - PR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18-1.64), young age (PR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.57-2.56) and a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory disease (PR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.27-1.96). Conclusion The high prevalence of anemia suggests that it may contribute as a causal factor for hospitalization, especially because the period of hospitalization was short and the patient was likely to be anemic at the time of admission. This study stresses the importance of evaluating the overall nutritional status of patients, including their ingestion of microelements. This is especially important in children, because of their greater susceptibility to anemia. Measures directed at the prevention and control of anemia, including increased coverage of supplementation and fortification programs are strongly recommended. PMID:23284255

  20. High prevalence of micropenis in 2710 male newborns from an intensive-use pesticide area of Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, L; Sampaio, D R; Paris, F; Audran, F; Orsini, M; Neto, J B; Sultan, C

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been suggested to contribute to the increasing trends of external genital malformation in male newborns. In Northeastern Brazil, the poor sanitary conditions found in the favelas encourage the widespread use of pesticides. This 2-year study of a total birth cohort of full-term male newborns in the regional hospitals of Campina Grande (Paraíba, Brazil) sought to (1) accurately establish for the first time the incidences of neonatal male genital malformations, (2) investigate the endocrine and genetic aetiologies of these malformations, and (3) evaluate their associations with possible prenatal exposure to EDCs. A total of 2710 male newborns were explored for cryptorchidism, hypospadias and micropenis. Cases were referred to the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for endocrine and genetic investigations, and all parents were interviewed about their environmental/occupational exposure to EDCs before/during pregnancy by paediatric endocrinologists using a detailed questionnaire. We observed 56 cases of genital malformation (2.07%), including 23 cryptorchidism (0.85%), 15 hypospadias (0.55%), and 18 micropenis (0.66%). All cases exhibited normal/subnormal testosterone production and none presented androgen receptor or 5α-reductase gene mutation. More than 92% of these newborns presented foetal contamination by EDCs, as their mothers reported daily domestic use of pesticides (i.e., DDT) and other EDCs. Most of these undervirilized male newborns presented additional EDC contamination, as 80.36% of the mothers and 58.63% of the fathers reported paid or unpaid work that entailed the use of pesticides and other EDCs before/during pregnancy for the mothers and around the time of fertilization for the fathers. The high rate of micropenis in our population associated with an elevated percentage of parental environmental/occupational exposure to EDCs before/during pregnancy indicates that foetal contamination may be a risk factor

  1. Mansonella ozzardi in Amazonas, Brazil: prevalence and distribution in the municipality of Coari, in the middle Solimões River.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; de Medeiros, Maurício Borborema; de Andrade, Edmar Vaz; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated some epidemiological aspects of the Mansonella ozzardi in municipality of Coari, Amazonas. Clinical symptoms were correlated with the filarial infection and the parasitic infection rates (PIR) were estimated in simuliid vectors. The general M. ozzardi human prevalence rate was 13.3% (231/1733), of which 10.2% (109/1069) were from the urban area and 18.4% (122/664) from the rural area. The prevalence rates were higher in men (14.5% urban and 19.7% rural) than in women (6.7% urban and 17.2% rural) and occurred in most age groups. The indices of microfilaremics were higher in people > or = 51 years old (26.9% urban and 61.5% rural). High prevalence rates were observed in retired people (27.1% urban area), housewives and farmer (41.6% and 25%, respectively, in rural area). The main clinical symptoms were joint pains and sensation of leg coldness. Only Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Simuliidae) transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality (PIR = 5.6% urban and 7.1% rural). M. ozzardi is a widely distributed parasitic disease in Coari. Thus, temporary residency in the region of people from other localities involved with the local gas exploitation might be a contributing factor in spreading the disease. PMID:20512236

  2. Virulence Attributes of Low-Virulence Organisms

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of infections involving female pelvic structures arise from organisms that are members of the normal flora. In addition, exogenous organisms that invade through the lower genital tract must interact with organisms that are part of the host's flora. In contrast to the concept that the normal flora is entirely innocuous, recent research has begun to identify what appear to be virulence attributes among these ordinarily low-virulence organisms. Most of our understanding of virulence has been derived from highly virulent organisms, of which Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides an example of relevance to the female genital tract. A review of the virulence factors of the gonococcus is presented to serve as an example of the variety of virulence properties associated with pathogenic bacteria. Molecular biology has begun to clarify one of the important paradigms of pathogenic bacteriology—that bacteria change their expression of virulence properties in response to their location within a host or to the stage of infection. Thus, infection involves not only the possession of virulence factors, but also the carefully controlled use of those factors. Virulence is often controlled by the coordinate expression of many virulence-associated genes in response to one environmental signal. With regard to low- virulence organisms present in the female lower genital tract, we are beginning to identify some of their virulence attributes. Examples from the work of our laboratory include the hemolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis and an immunosuppressive mycotoxin produced by Candida albicans. Demonstrating the coordinate expression (or other control mechanisms) of virulence factors in these sometimes innocuous and sometimes inimical organisms represents the next frontier in the study of normal vaginal microbiology. PMID:18475373

  3. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  4. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  5. Prevalence of lymphedema in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer in a referral center in southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphedema is a highly prevalent condition in women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer. Lymphedema negatively affects the quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema and associated factors in women treated for breast cancer in the municipality of Juiz de Fora. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that evaluated 250 women who were being treated for breast cancer. Pre-screening of the sample by analysis of medical records was performed to select women who met the inclusion criteria as follows: women who had an operation more than 6 months ago; absence of active disease, locoregional or distant; the absence of functional change in the affected limb before surgery, which could lead to swelling of the limb; and simulating or masking symptoms of lymphedema, such as bursitis, tendonitis, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Women with bilateral breast cancer, absence of axillary intervention (partial or complete axillary dissection and/or SLN biopsy), active disease in the region, or lympho-venous alteration of the limb before surgery were excluded. Data were collected from the medical records of the selected cases, and they subsequently underwent an interview and a physical assessment. Results The prevalence of lymphedema was 44.8%. There were medical records on the presence of this condition in 5.4% of cases. With regard to shoulder joint mobility, restrictions on abduction movements, internal and external rotation, and anterior shoulder adduction were significantly associated with lymphedema. Variables, including the presence of seroma, vascular changes, time elapsed after surgery, episodes of redness in the extremities, and cuticle removal from the hand with pliers were considered as major associated factors for lymphedema (p<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of 44.8% for lymphedema found in this study is considered to be relevant because it is a morbidity that produces psychological

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty in an older population from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the FIBRA-RJ Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Virgílio Garcia; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual's capacity to maintain homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan. METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.3); 43.6% (95% CI, 40.3-47) of the individuals were considered robust, and 47.3% (95% CI 43.8-50.8) were considered pre-frail (p<0.001). The frail individuals tended to be older (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% CI, 8.7-20) and have lower education levels (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1-4.6), lower cognitive performance (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.73-0.79) and reduced health perception (OR 65.8, 95% CI, 39.1-110.8). Frail individuals also had a greater number of comorbidities (OR 6.6, 95% CI, 4.4-9.9) and worse functional capacity (OR 3.8, 95% CI, 2.9-5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty was similar to that seen in other international studies and was significantly

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2011-01-01

    Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n = 1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n = 296) and PCR-negative (n = 917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family incomeprevalence of L. infantum infection in dogs in an area under the Control Program of VL intervention. Socioeconomic variables, dog behavior and the knowledge of the owner regarding the vector were

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection and associated factors in people living with HIV in Midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Natália Alberto Alves; Pfrimer, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and analyze sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with such co-infection. A cross-section study was performed in 495 individuals treated at a public center in the city of Goiânia. Participants were interviewed and blood collected for evaluation of serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. The rate of exposure to HBV was 33.5% (95% CI 29.4-37.9). Nineteen patients (3.8%) were diagnosed as HBV carriers, of whom 68.4% were HBV DNA positive. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 9.7% (95% CI 7.3-12.7). Genotype 1a was identified in 72.7% of the PCR samples positive for HCV. Co-infection by all three viruses was 4.4% (95% CI 2.9-6.8). Being, male, aged ≥40 years, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and having homosexual practices were independently associated with the presence of markers of HBV exposure. A history of injectable drugs use and STDs showed association with HCV seropositivity. Approximately 50% of participants were not aware of their HBV and HCV serostatus. The results obtained may contribute to assess the burden of viral hepatitis in people living with HIV and to guiding preventive measures for more vulnerable groups. PMID:25766773

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Katymilla Guimarães; Grama, Daliane Faria; da Cunha, Maria Júlia Rodrigues; Faria, Elaine Silva Marques; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI) in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293), nurses (63) and food handlers (19) were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.

  10. Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal Anal Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal anal cytology [≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm3, 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of anal specimens contained ≥1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal anal cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤50 cells/mm3, HIV-1 viral load ≥50 copies/mL, and anal HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ≥anal ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal anal cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced anal SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401

  11. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    El Dib, Regina P; Silva, Edina MK; Morais, José F; Trevisani, Virgínia FM

    2008-01-01

    Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians). A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry) using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although the possibility of residual

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in bank employees according to different defining criteria, Vitória/ES, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Saliba, Renata Aubin Dias; Zandonade, Eliana; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in bank employees in the city of Vitoria/ES, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 521 working men and women ≥20 years of age. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, biochemical, and hemodynamic characteristics were collected. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the crude and adjusted OR of the variables, and the statistical level of significance was set at 5.0%. RESULTS: We identified 86 (17.2%) and 113 (22.6%) subjects with metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation, respectively. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was higher in individuals with a high school education (OR 2.6 [CI95%, 1.1-6.1]). In overweight and obese subjects, the risks were also higher (OR 12.6 [CI95%, 4.8-33.2, p = 0.000] and OR 43.7% [CI95%, 16.1-118.9, p = 0.000], respectively). CONCLUSION: A large number of bank employees have metabolic syndrome, which can be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Individuals who had college degrees had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome; this finding can be explained by the high rates of overweight and obesity found in subjects with college and graduate school educations. PMID:23420160

  13. HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Luis F M; Nunes, Cynara C; Oliveira, Cristina M; Knoll, Rosalie K; Ferreira, João Leandro P; Freitas, Carmem A; Alves, Maria A; Dias, Claudia; Rodrigues, Rosangela

    2007-12-01

    HIV-1 B is predominant in Brazil, but HIV-1 C has increasingly been reported in the south of the country. However, many samples clustering with clade C are actually a recombinant, with a small B segment at RT (CRF31). Samples (209) from the three cities with the highest aids prevalence rate are analyzed. Partial polymerase sequences from HIV RNA made it possible to determine HIV clades and recombination patterns and to identify primary drug resistance mutations (DRMs). The incidence was estimated with a BED assay. HIV-1 C and CRF31 patterns were twice as frequent as clade B at all sites, but the proportion of C and CRF31 patterns was significantly different among sites. The incidence estimate for SC was 2.6 persons-years. Infection in recent or younger cases showed no association with clade C. Surveillance DRM was observed in 8.3% (95% CI 5-13), mostly to NNRTIs. Clade F pol genomes had significantly more primary DRM.

  14. Low prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance mutations and predominance of HIV-1 clade C at polymerase gene in newly diagnosed individuals from south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosangela; Scherer, Luciene C; Oliveira, Cristina M; Franco, Heitor Moreira; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Ferreira, Joao Leandro Paula; Castro, Simone Martins; Stella, Isete Maria; Brigido, Luis Fernando Macedo

    2006-03-01

    We describe preliminary molecular characterization of HIV-1 pol from 108 consecutive HIV seropositive users of a Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) site of Porto Alegre city, the major metropolitan area in the south of Brazil. Protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after direct nested PCR. Principal antiretroviral resistance mutations (ARM) were observed in 3% of the samples, two cases with K103N and one with M41L, L210W and T215Y, all in HIV-1 clade B infected men. At protease region, no principal mutations were observed, but polymorphisms at secondary codons were frequent. Contrary to other areas in the country where clade B dominates, HIV-1 clade C genomes predominated in this study (58%), clade B (32%) and clade F1 (3%). Of the genomes clustering in clade C, almost half (43%) had a small clade B segment at reverse transcriptase, forming a sub-cluster within clade C with a similar recombinant structure and carrying new amino acid signatures. Other mosaic genomes were also observed (7%). The low prevalence of resistance mutations is consistent with previous observations at this geographical location but the high frequency of HIV-1 clade C and CB mosaics seems pre-eminent and warns close monitoring.

  15. High prevalence and association of HIV-1 non-B subtype with specific sexual transmission risk among antiretroviral naïve patients in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cláudia Fontoura; Nunes, Cynara Carvalho; Freitas, Isabela Osório; Lamego, Isabel Saraiva; Oliveira, Ilda Maria Rodrigues de; Gilli, Sabrina; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Brigido, Luis Fernando

    2009-01-01

    In South Brazil the circulation of two HIV-1 subtypes with different characteristics represents an important scenario for the study of the impact of HIV-1 diversity on the evolution of the HIV-1 epidemic and AIDS disease. HIV-1 B, the predominant variant in industrialized countries and HIV-1 C, the most prevalent subtype in areas with rapid epidemic growth, are implicated in most infections. We evaluated blood samples from 128 antiretroviral (ARV) naïve patients recruited at entry to the largest HIV outpatient service in Porto Alegre. Based on partial pol region sequencing, HIV-1 C was observed in 29%, HIV-1 B in 22.6% and, the recently identified CRF31_BC, in 23.4% of 128 volunteers. Other variants were HIV-1 F in 10% and other mosaics in 5.5%. In order to evaluate the association of socio-behavioral characteristics and HIV-1 subtypes, interviews and laboratory evaluation were performed at entry. Our data suggest an established epidemic of the three major variants, without any evidence of partitioning in either of the subgroups analyzed. However, anal sex practices were associated with subtype B, which could indicate a greater transmissibility of non-B variants by vaginal intercourse. This study provides baseline information for epidemiologic surveillance of the changes of the molecular characteristics of HIV-1 epidemics in this region.

  16. The prevalence of physical activity and its associated effects among students in the São Paulo public school network, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo José; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Azevedo, Mário; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Sandra Marcela Mahecha

    2016-04-01

    The current study evaluated physical activity (PA) level and its associated effects among students in the public network of São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was taken using a representative sample of students in São Paulo public school system. International Physical Activity Questionnaire determined PA level. Students who reported at least 300 minutes/week of PA were considered active. The independente variables were: gender, age, body mass index, education, region, recognition of the Agita São Paulo program. The prevalence of regular PA was 71.7%. Males (PR = 1.09, 95% CIs = 1.04 -1.15) at least 17 years old (PR = 1.16, 95% CIs 1.09-1.24) in their 3rd year of high school (PR = 1.20, 95% CIs = 1.12-1.29) who resided in the Midwest region (PR = 1.27, 95% CIs 1.16-1.38) were most likely to be active. Males at least 17 years old in their 3rd year of high school who lived in the Midwest and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program had higher levels of PA. São Paulo students presented a high level of PA. Moreover, males older than 17 years, attending their 3rd year of high school, who lived in the Midwest region, and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program were the most likely to be more active.

  17. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  18. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health.

  19. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health. PMID:23318655

  20. Spotlight: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  1. Analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with urinary incontinence among elderly people in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil: SABE Study (Health, Wellbeing and Aging).

    PubMed

    Tamanini, José Tadeu Nunes; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda A O; Santos, Jair L F; Laurenti, Ruy

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly people living in São Paulo, Brazil and their associated risk factors. The Pan-American Health Organization and World Health Organization coordinated a multicenter study named Health, Wellbeing and Aging (SABE Study) in elderly people (over 60 years old) living in seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, the study was carried out in São Paulo in the year 2000. The total Brazilian sample included 2,143 people. The prevalence of self reported urinary incontinence was 11.8% among men and 26.2% for women. It was verified that among those reporting urinary incontinence, 37% also reported stroke and 34% depression. It was found that the greater the dependence that the elderly people presented, the greater the prevalence of urinary incontinence. The associated factors found were depression (odds ratio = 2.49), female (2.42), advanced age (2.35), important functional limitation (2.01). Urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom among the elderly population of the municipality of São Paulo, especially among women. The adoption of preventive measures can reduce the negative effects of urinary incontinence. PMID:19649416

  2. Detection of virulence factors and molecular typing of pathogenic Leptospira from capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; Coimbra, Marco Antonio; Albano, Ana Paula; Hartwig, Daiane D; Lucas, Caroline; Seixas, Fabiana K; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2012-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally prevalent zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp.; several serologic variants have reservoirs in synanthropic rodents. The capybara is the largest living rodent in the world, and it has a wide geographical distribution in Central and South America. This rodent is a significant source of Leptospira since the agent is shed via urine into the environment and is a potential public health threat. In this study, we isolated and identified by molecular techniques a pathogenic Leptospira from capybara in southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by partial rpoB gene sequencing and variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, to confirm the expression of virulence factors, the bacterial immunoglobulin-like proteins A and B expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using leptospiral specific monoclonal antibodies. This report identifies capybaras as an important source of infection and provides insight into the epidemiology of leptospirosis.

  3. Trends in antifungal susceptibility and virulence of Candida spp. from the nasolacrimal duct of horses.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Bittencourt, Paula Vago; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pinheiro, Mariana; Nogueira-Filho, Evilázio Fernandes; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors in strains of Candida isolated from the outlet and the lumen of the nasolacrimal duct of horses in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were obtained from 103 horses. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect the material from the outlet of the nasolacrimal duct and urethral probes, for the instillation of 2 ml of saline solution, were used to collect samples from the lumen of the nasolacrimal duct. A total of 77 Candida isolates were obtained, with C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C. parapsilosis sensu lato as the most prevalent species. One isolate (C. glabrata) was resistant to caspofungin. One isolate was resistant only to fluconazole (C. parapsilosis sensu lato), 11 were resistant only to itraconazole (7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. guilliermondii, 1 C. famata, 1 C. parapsilosis sensu lato), while eight C. tropicalis showed resistance to both azoles. Overall, 28 isolates produced phospholipases and 12 produced proteases. These results highlight the importance of investigating the antifungal susceptibility and virulence trends of Candida spp. from the microbiota of the nasolacrimal duct of horses.

  4. Variations in the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil: A Comparative Analysis between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gus, Iseu; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Kato, Sérgio; Bastos, Juliano; Medina, Claudio; Zazlavsky, Claudio; Portal, Vera Lucia; Timmers, Rita; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Gottschall, Carlos Antônio Mascia

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the importance of coronary artery disease (CAD), continuous investigation of the risk factors (RFs) is needed. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of RFs for CAD in cities in Rio Grande do Sul State, and compare it with that reported in a similar study conducted in the same cities in 2002. Methods Cross-sectional study on 1,056 healthy adults, investigating the prevalence and absolute and relative frequencies of the following RFs for CAD: obesity, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemias, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, and family history, as well as age and sex. Data was collected in 19 cities, host of the Offices of the Regional Coordinators of Health, as in the 2002 study. Results Twenty-six percent of the sample consisted of older adults and 57% were women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 44%, history family 50%, smoking 23%, overweight/obesity 68%, dyslipidemia (high cholesterol levels) 43%, SAH 40%, and diabetes 11%. When compared to the 2002 study, the prevalence of active smoking and sedentary behavior decreased, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity increased. Obesity is the most prevalent RF in women, and SAH the most prevalent in men. Conclusions The prevalence of RFs for CAD in Rio Grande do Sul State remains high. Hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia are still prevalent and require major prevention programs. Smoking and physical inactivity have decreased in the state, suggesting the efficacy of related campaigns. PMID:26761368

  5. [Prevalence of infection by Leishmania chagasi using ELISA (rK39 and CRUDE) and the Montenegro skin test in an endemic leishmaniasis area of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Souza, Edilberto Costa; da Silva, Leopoldo Muniz; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Cantanhede, Karleno de Lima; Bezerra, Geusa Felipa de Barros; Viana, Graça Maria de Castro

    2005-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken in 1,520 children less than 15 years of age in São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brazil, from June 1994 to January 1995, to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics (socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral) associated with infection by Leishmania chagasi. Montenegro skin test (MST) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-rK39 and CRUDE) test were used to detect infection. The statistical analysis used the chi2 test with Yates correction and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence of infection was 61.7% as measured by MST, 19.4% according to ELISA (rK39), and 19.7% by ELISA (CRUDE). Association was detected between leishmaniasis in the family, water supply, application of insecticide, and infection by L. chagasi using MST. No association with infection by L. chagasi was detected using ELISA rK39 or CRUDE. More effective control measures are needed to reduce prevalence and to detect asymptomatic cases in this high percentage of infected children.

  6. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  7. The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277) that is prevalent in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Melise; Albano, Rodolpho; Asensi, Marise; Assef, Ana Paula Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs. PMID:25466623

  8. Cryptosporidium Pathogenicity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bouzid, Maha; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Tyler, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary importance that causes gastroenteritis in a variety of vertebrate hosts. Several studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among Cryptosporidium species and isolates of the same species as well as evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The identification and validation of Cryptosporidium virulence factors have been hindered by the renowned difficulties pertaining to the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of this parasite. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in identifying putative virulence factors for Cryptosporidium. This progress has been accelerated since the publication of the Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis genomes, with the characterization of over 25 putative virulence factors identified by using a variety of immunological and molecular techniques and which are proposed to be involved in aspects of host-pathogen interactions from adhesion and locomotion to invasion and proliferation. Progress has also been made in the contribution of host factors that are associated with variations in both the severity and risk of infection. Here we provide a review comprised of the current state of knowledge on Cryptosporidium infectivity, pathogenesis, and transmissibility in light of our contemporary understanding of microbial virulence. PMID:23297262

  9. Parasitoid wasp virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Nathan T

    2013-01-01

    In nature, larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly infected by parasitoid wasps. Following infection, flies mount an immune response termed cellular encapsulation in which fly immune cells form a multilayered capsule that covers and kills the wasp egg. Parasitoids have thus evolved virulence factors to suppress cellular encapsulation. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiwasp response, we and others have begun identifying and functionally characterizing these virulence factors. Our recent work on the Drosophila parasitoid Ganaspis sp.1 has demonstrated that a virulence factor encoding a SERCA-type calcium pump plays an important role in Ganaspis sp.1 virulence. This venom SERCA antagonizes fly immune cell calcium signaling and thereby prevents the activation of the encapsulation response. In this way, the study of wasp virulence factors has revealed a novel aspect of fly immunity, namely a role for calcium signaling in fly immune cell activation, which is conserved with human immunity, again illustrating the marked conservation between fly and mammalian immune responses. Our findings demonstrate that the cellular encapsulation response can serve as a model of immune cell function and can also provide valuable insight into basic cell biological processes. PMID:24088661

  10. Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kleber de Oliveira, Wanderson; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda; do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius

    2016-03-11

    Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  12. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens from Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Navarro, I T; Graham, D H; Dahl, E; Freire, R L; Prudencio, L B; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C; Lehmann, T

    2003-11-14

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in 40 free range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from a rural area surrounding Paraná, Brazil was assessed. Blood, heart, and brain from each chicken were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT> or =1:5) were found in 16 chickens. Hearts and brains of seropositive (MAT> or =1:5) chickens were bioassayed in mice. Additionally, hearts and brains of seronegative (MAT<1:5) chickens were bioassayed in two T. gondii-free cats (12 chickens per cat). T. gondii was isolated from 13 of 16 (81%) seropositive chickens. Of the two cats fed tissues pooled form seronegative chickens, one shed T. gondii oocysts. Nine of the 13 T. gondii isolates killed 100% of infected mice. The T. gondii isolate from the cat was also virulent for mice. Genotyping of 13 chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that seven isolates were type I and six were type III; three of these type III isolates killed all infected mice suggesting that all strains virulent for mice are not type I. The isolate from the feces of the cat fed chicken tissues was type I.

  13. [Prevalence of risk health behavior among members of private health insurance plans: results from the 2008 national telephone survey Vigitel, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira, Martha Regina de; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Silva, Sara Araújo; Zouain, Cláudia Soares; Santos, Fausto Pereira Dos; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de; Penna, Gerson de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    This article aims at estimating the prevalence of adults engaging in protective and risk health behaviors among members of private health insurance plans. It was used a random sample of individuals over the age of 18 living in the Brazilian state capitals collected on 28,640 telephone interviews in 2008. The results showed that among males there was a high prevalence of the following risk factors: tobacco, overweight, low fruit and vegetable consumption, high meat with fat consumption and alcohol drinking. Among females we found a high prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. Men were generally more physically active and women consumed more fruit and vegetables. As more educated males were lower was the prevalence of tobacco, high blood pressure, but also a higher prevalence of overweight, consumption of meat with fat, dyslipidemia and lower number of yearly check-ups done. For females, tobacco smoking, overweight, obesity, decreasing with schooling, and consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, mammography and PAP test, increased with schooling. The health insurance user population constitutes about 26% of Brazilian people and the current study aims to accumulate evidence for health promotion actions by this public.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  15. [Telephone monitoring service for pregnant women and impact on prevalence of prematurity and associated risk factors in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tuon, Rogerio Antonio; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Silva, Sandra Maria Cunha Vidal E; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to assess the impact of a telephone monitoring service on prevalence of prematurity and to analyze associated risk factors using data on 2,739 pregnant women. Estimation was based on hierarchical multiple logistic regression, with p ≤ 0.05 for variables to remain in the model. Prevalence of preterm birth was 8.34% in monitored pregnant women and 10.18% in unmonitored women (p = 0.0058). Prevalence of preterm birth was inversely proportional to the number of monitoring calls (p < 0.0001). Variables associated with prematurity were maternal age < 19 years, history of death of two or more children, multiple pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, fewer monitoring calls, extended standing or lifting heavy weights at work, smoking, fewer prenatal visits, no ultrasound examination, gestational diabetes, multiple pregnancy, and fetal abnormality. This low-cost strategy proved effective for reducing the preterm birth rate.

  16. [Telephone monitoring service for pregnant women and impact on prevalence of prematurity and associated risk factors in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tuon, Rogerio Antonio; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Silva, Sandra Maria Cunha Vidal E; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to assess the impact of a telephone monitoring service on prevalence of prematurity and to analyze associated risk factors using data on 2,739 pregnant women. Estimation was based on hierarchical multiple logistic regression, with p ≤ 0.05 for variables to remain in the model. Prevalence of preterm birth was 8.34% in monitored pregnant women and 10.18% in unmonitored women (p = 0.0058). Prevalence of preterm birth was inversely proportional to the number of monitoring calls (p < 0.0001). Variables associated with prematurity were maternal age < 19 years, history of death of two or more children, multiple pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, fewer monitoring calls, extended standing or lifting heavy weights at work, smoking, fewer prenatal visits, no ultrasound examination, gestational diabetes, multiple pregnancy, and fetal abnormality. This low-cost strategy proved effective for reducing the preterm birth rate. PMID:27462851

  17. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  18. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  19. Prevalence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in horses and associated risk factors in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Libardoni, Felipe; Machado, Gustavo; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; Kowalski, Ananda Paula; Diehl, Gustavo Nogueira; dos Santos, Lucila Carboneiro; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine strangles and to identify associated risk factors for this disease through a cross-sectional study of nasal swabs. Nasal swabs (n=1010) from healthy equines (absence of nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy and cough) from 341 farms were plated on 5% blood agar; of these horses, 24 were identified as positive for Streptococcus equi through isolation, PCR and DNA sequencing. The estimated prevalence for individual animals was 2.3%, and for herds, it was 5.86%. Statistical analysis identified the following as associated risk factors: the number of group events that were attended by the equines (PR: 1.06); the sharing of food containers (PR: 3.74); and at least one previous positive diagnosis of strangles on the farm (PR: 3.20). These results constitute an epidemiological contribution to the horse industry and may support measures for the future control of the disease.

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Yai, Lucia Eiko Oishi; Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the importance of capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T. cruzi epimastigotes. None of the samples from capybara reacted positively with L. infantum promastigotes or with spores of E. cuniculi . Two (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to S. neurona merozoites, and 2 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum tachyzoites. A serum sample from 1 capybara was positive for antibodies to both T. cruzi and N. caninum. None of the remaining 62 samples reacted with more than 1 parasite.

  1. [Prevalence and factors associated with food and nutrition insecurity in families in municipalities of the north of the State of Alagoas, Brazil, 2010].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves; Moura, Fabiana Andréa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with food insecurity (INSEC) in families of northern Alagoas. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 1444 households classified in accordance with the Brazilian INSEC scale into the following categories: mild, moderate or severe. The prevalence ratio calculated by Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of moderate + severe INSEC with the independent variables in both crude and adjusted analysis. The variables that in the crude analysis reached p < 0.2 were included. INSEC was detected in 919 families, of which, 23.3% and 14.2% were in the moderate or severe form, respectively. There was a higher proportion of food insecurity in the families with subjects < 18 years. The variables that remained independently associated to moderate + severe food insecurity were: rooms in the household ≤ 4, schooling of the household head ≤ 4 years, drinking water other than mineral, beneficiary of the Bolsa Família Program, number of residents in the household > 4, head of household is female and schooling of the housewife ≤ 4 years. The conclusion was that the families studied showed a high prevalence of INSEC, especially those with individuals < 18 years.

  2. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines.

  3. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines. PMID:27037695

  4. Genotypic diversity, pathogenic potential and the resistance profile of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food from 1983 to 2013 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the leading serovars that causes salmonellosis worldwide. However, few studies have molecularly characterized S. Typhimurium strains in Brazil. In this study, we genotyped 92 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans (43) and food (49) between 1983 and 2013 in Brazil using PFGE, multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, we assessed the frequency of 12 virulence markers by PCR and the resistance profile against 12 antimicrobials. More than 85.8% of the strains studied carried 11 of the virulence markers or more. Thirty-three strains (25%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). The 92 S. Typhimurium studied were grouped by PFGE as PFGE-A, PFGE-B1 and PFGE-B2; by MLVA as MLVA-A, MLVA-B1 and MLVA-B2; and, finally, by ERIC-PCR as ERIC-A and ERIC-B. The strains isolated from humans before the mid-1990s were allocated to all clusters. The strains isolated from humans after the mid-1990s were distributed in the PFGE-B1, MLVA-B1, MLVA-B2 and ERIC-A clusters. The strains isolated from food were distributed in all clusters, except in PFGE-B2. All typing results suggested that the S. Typhimurium strains of human clinical origin isolated before the mid-1990s were genetically more diverse, which might indicate the selection of a more adapted S. Typhimurium subtype after Salmonella Enteritidis became the most prevalent serovar in Brazil. Regarding strains isolated from food, the results suggest the current circulation of more than one subtype. Furthermore, the high frequency of virulence genes and the presence of MDR strains reinforces their potential hazard for humans and the risk of their presence in foods in Brazil. PMID:26307078

  5. Genotypic diversity, pathogenic potential and the resistance profile of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food from 1983 to 2013 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the leading serovars that causes salmonellosis worldwide. However, few studies have molecularly characterized S. Typhimurium strains in Brazil. In this study, we genotyped 92 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans (43) and food (49) between 1983 and 2013 in Brazil using PFGE, multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, we assessed the frequency of 12 virulence markers by PCR and the resistance profile against 12 antimicrobials. More than 85.8% of the strains studied carried 11 of the virulence markers or more. Thirty-three strains (25%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). The 92 S. Typhimurium studied were grouped by PFGE as PFGE-A, PFGE-B1 and PFGE-B2; by MLVA as MLVA-A, MLVA-B1 and MLVA-B2; and, finally, by ERIC-PCR as ERIC-A and ERIC-B. The strains isolated from humans before the mid-1990s were allocated to all clusters. The strains isolated from humans after the mid-1990s were distributed in the PFGE-B1, MLVA-B1, MLVA-B2 and ERIC-A clusters. The strains isolated from food were distributed in all clusters, except in PFGE-B2. All typing results suggested that the S. Typhimurium strains of human clinical origin isolated before the mid-1990s were genetically more diverse, which might indicate the selection of a more adapted S. Typhimurium subtype after Salmonella Enteritidis became the most prevalent serovar in Brazil. Regarding strains isolated from food, the results suggest the current circulation of more than one subtype. Furthermore, the high frequency of virulence genes and the presence of MDR strains reinforces their potential hazard for humans and the risk of their presence in foods in Brazil.

  6. Agrobacterium virulence gene induction.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, Stanton B

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Agrobacterium to transform plants and other organisms is under highly regulated genetic control. Two Virulence (Vir) proteins, VirA and VirG, function as a two-component regulatory system to sense particular phenolic compounds synthesized by wounded plant tissues. Induction by these phenolic compounds, in the presence of certain neutral or acid sugars, results in activation of other vir genes, leading to the processing of T-DNA from the Ti-plasmid and transfer of T-DNA to recipient host cells. Many plant, and most nonplant, species do not provide sufficient quantities of the correct phenolic compounds to permit efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation to occur. In order to transform these species, phenolic inducing compounds must be added to agrobacteria before and/or during cocultivation of recipient cells with the bacteria. This chapter discusses conditions for efficient induction of Agrobacterium virulence genes by phenolic compounds. PMID:16988335

  7. Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and Virological Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Group of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marina P.; Matos, Márcia A. D.; Silva, Ágabo M. C.; Lopes, Carmen L. R.; Teles, Sheila A.; Matos, Marcos A.; Spitz, Natália; Araujo, Natalia M.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Kerr, Ligia R. F. S.; Martins, Regina M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) compared with the general population. This study aims to assess the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBV infection in a sample of MSM in Brazil, where data are scarce. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, from March to November 2014, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). After signing the consent form, participants were interviewed and a blood sample collected. All samples were tested for HBV serological markers and HBV DNA. HBV nucleotide sequence analysis was also performed. Results A total of 522 MSM were recruited in the study. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past [presence of anti-HBc marker]) was 15.4% (95% CI: 8.7–25.8) and the rate of HBsAg carriers was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.6). About 40% (95% CI: 32.3–48.8) of the participants had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination (reactive for isolated anti-HBs). In addition, 44.3% (95% CI: 36.1–52.9) were seronegative for all HBV markers. Age over 25 years old, receptive anal intercourse, previous sex with women, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were factors associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected only in HBsAg-positive individuals. HBV isolates were classified into genotype A (subgenotypes A1 and A2), and some mutations were identified throughout the genome. Therefore, occult HBV infection was not observed in the study population. Conclusions Public health strategies should be improved for the MSM population in order to prevent HBV and other STIs, as well as to provide appropriate management of patients with active infections. PMID:27508385

  8. Prevalence of weathering nodules of the ear in patients treated at the state civil servant's hospital of São Paulo, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Cilento, Juliana Nunes Maciel; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Weathering nodules of the ear are pale yellow, asymptomatic lesions which predominate on the helices of the ears. Although their pathogenesis remains unknown, there is an association with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, age and thermal injuries. Few studies have been conducted to date, and these involved a very small number of patients. OBJECTIVE Study the prevalence of weathering nodules of the ear in patients treated in the Dermatology Service of the State Civil Servant's Hospital of São Paulo, and evaluate their probable relationship with sun exposure, age and phototypes I and II. METHODS Four hundred patients older than 20 years of age were examined between July 2008 and December 2008. A questionnaire evaluating age, sex, place of birth, origin, occupation and history of sun exposure was applied. All patients were examined and evaluated for the presence of lesions by only one person. RESULTS The data showed that 155 (38.8%) patients had a lesion in at least one of the ears. The Chi-Square Test was used for the comparative analysis between the groups of patients with and without lesions. In the group of patients with lesions, 29% were 70 to 79 years old, 78.1% had a history of sun exposure and 45.1% belonged to FITZPATRICK skin phototypes I and II (p<0.05%). CONCLUSION The findings suggest relevant prevalence, probable association with chronic sun exposure, advanced age and phototypes I and II. PMID:23539005

  9. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  10. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The study revealed that 71.4% of women were young; 78.9% non white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence. PMID:25014304

  11. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Soares, Carlos A.G.

    2012-01-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria. PMID:23271948

  12. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S; Soares, Carlos A G

    2012-12-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria.

  13. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tatiana P Tavares; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; de Freitas, Emanuel Barbosa; Figueiredo, Aline; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Jacqueline M; Miranda, Flávia; Paes, Rita Cassia S; Monteiro, Leticia A R Carneiro; Lima, José Vergílio B; da C Neto, Aparecida A; Dutra, Valéria; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). Seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis antibodies. Antibodies against icterohaemorrhagiae and autumnalis serovars were the most prevalent. We used log-linear analyses to test for associations among seropositivity, age class, and sex of captured animals. Seropositivity was strongly associated with animal age class, but independent of sex. Forty-six percent of animals less than 2 years old, 63% of adults during peak reproductive years, and 100% of the oldest age class were seropositive. A nonparametric multivariate procedure (MRPP) showed that the composition of serovar antibody types changed with age, and ANOVA models demonstrated that antibody titers increased with age, suggesting long-term exposure to a greater number and variety (i.e., serovar types) of L. interrogans infections. This study presents the first quantitative survey of antibodies against L. interrogans serovars in a T. pecari population of the Pantanal. The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. interrogans in the environment. PMID:20596776

  14. Prevalence of deltaF508, G551D, G542X, and R553X mutations among cystic fibrosis patients in the North of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G de; Novaes, F C; Santos, N P C dos; Martins, V C; Souza, S M de; Santos, S E B dos; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, A K C

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and is rare among sub-Saharan Africans. The Brazilian population is not ethnically homogeneous but it is the result of three-way ethnic admixture of Europeans, Africans and Amerindians in varying proportions, depending on the region. In the present study, we investigated 33 patients who had been diagnosed and are currently under treatment for CF at the University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Belém, Pará State. The molecular analysis for G542X, G551D and R553X mutations was performed by PCR followed by RFLP using BstNI, HincII and MboI, respectively, in polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. ThedeltaF508 mutation (a deletion of 3 bp) was only analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. Each sample was analyzed for regions of interest in the CFTR gene using amplified by PCR and specific primers. The deltaF508 and G551D mutations presented frequencies of 22.7 and 3%, respectively. In 74.3% of the remaining patients, none of the mutations investigated was found. The present study characterized in a sample of patients with an established clinical diagnosis of CF (asthma, repeated bronchopneumonia, disorders of nutritional status, etc.) the most frequent mutation (deltaF508) in the North region of Brazil and is also the first report of the G551D mutation. In spite of the wide spectrum of CF mutations and the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Amazon population, the molecular diagnosis is a helpful additional tool for the diagnosis and treatment of CF patients.

  15. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. PMID:23953028

  16. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by “in-house” real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78–5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21–4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32–7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51–48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21–59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine. PMID:25464979

  17. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine. PMID:25464979

  18. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Characterization among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates Causing Severe Obstetric Infections in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiral, Elisabet; Sáez-López, Emma; Bosch, Jordi; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Sanz, Sergi; Vila, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The virulence markers and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 78 Escherichia coli isolates causing obstetric infections accompanied by sepsis or not were studied. Adhesion-related virulence factors were the most prevalent markers. Low rates of resistance to the antimicrobial agents used as first-line therapy suggest their correct implementation in stewardship guidelines. PMID:25740771

  20. Virulence of enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Jett, B D; Huycke, M M; Gilmore, M S

    1994-01-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms well suited to survival in intestinal and vaginal tracts and the oral cavity. However, as for most bacteria described as causing human disease, enterococci also possess properties that can be ascribed roles in pathogenesis. The natural ability of enterococci to readily acquire, accumulate, and share extrachromosomal elements encoding virulence traits or antibiotic resistance genes lends advantages to their survival under unusual environmental stresses and in part explains their increasing importance as nosocomial pathogens. This review discusses the current understanding of enterococcal virulence relating to (i) adherence to host tissues, (ii) invasion and abscess formation, (iii) factors potentially relevant to modulation of host inflammatory responses, and (iv) potentially toxic secreted products. Aggregation substance, surface carbohydrates, or fibronectin-binding moieties may facilitate adherence to host tissues. Enterococcus faecalis appears to have the capacity to translocate across intact intestinal mucosa in models of antibiotic-induced superinfection. Extracellular toxins such as cytolysin can induce tissue damage as shown in an endophthalmitis model, increase mortality in combination with aggregation substance in an endocarditis model, and cause systemic toxicity in a murine peritonitis model. Finally, lipoteichoic acid, superoxide production, or pheromones and corresponding peptide inhibitors each may modulate local inflammatory reactions. Images PMID:7834601

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Central Greece: prevalence and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non-O157 in animal feces, vegetables, and humans.

    PubMed

    Pinaka, O; Pournaras, S; Mouchtouri, V; Plakokefalos, E; Katsiaflaka, A; Kolokythopoulou, F; Barboutsi, E; Bitsolas, N; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-11-01

    In Greece, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have only been sporadically reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of STEC and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in farm animals, vegetables, and humans in Greece. A total number of 1,010 fecal samples were collected from farm animals (sheep, goats, cattle, chickens, pigs), 667 diarrheal samples from humans, and 60 from vegetables, which were cultured in specific media for STEC isolates. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect toxin-producing colonies, which, subsequently, were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for stx1, stx2, eae, rfbE O157, and fliC h7 genes. Eighty isolates (7.9 %) from animal samples were found to produce Shiga toxin by ELISA, while by PCR, O157 STEC isolates were detected from 8 (0.8 %) samples and non-O157 STEC isolates from 43 (4.2 %) samples. STEC isolates were recovered mainly from sheep and goats, rarely from cattle, and not from pigs and chickens, suggesting that small ruminants constitute a potential risk for human infections. However, only three human specimens (0.4 %) were positive for the detection of Shiga toxins and all were PCR-negative. Similarly, all 60 vegetable samples were negative for toxin production and for toxin genes, but three samples (two roman rockets and one spinach) were positive by PCR for rfbE O157 and fliC h7 genes. These findings indicate that sheep, goats, cattle, and leafy vegetables can be a reservoir of STEC and Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates in Greece, which are still rarely detected among humans. PMID:23677425

  2. Wide distribution of virulence genes among Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.

  3. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Udayalaxmi, J; Bhat, G K; Kotigadde, S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%). We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  4. [Molecular bases of virulence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Marchal, C; Taha, M K; Larribe, M; Seifert, H S; So, M

    1991-01-01

    Gonorrhea remains of clinical concern, due to its frequency, complications, sequelae, increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains and absence of vaccine. A better understanding of the first stages of infection as well as of mechanisms of escape to immune response appears important. Many pathogenic bacteria express pili on their all surfaces. These structures mediate binding of bacteria to host tissues. Furthermore, gonococcal pili are submitted to a high rate antigenic variation, allowing the escape to host immune response. Pilin antigenic variation occurs by DNA recombination between one of the silent partial variant gene segments and an expressed pilin genes. We have shown that transformation of living bacteria by DNA liberated from lysed cells is a critical strep for antigenic variation. This constitutes the first specific function for a DNA transformation system. Piliation and virulence can change with culture conditions. This observation suggests that pilin expression would be subjected to an adaptative response. We have identified and characterized two genes which act in trans to regulate pilus expression. They determine synthesis of a response regulator and a membrane located sensor. They appear to regulate expression of other genes, possibly also involved in virulence. We present evidence for several environmental factors which may control the degree of piliation.

  5. Virulence Potential of Fusogenic Orthoreoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peter K.C.; Lai, Mary Y.Y.; Leung, Peter C.K.; Wong, Kitty K.Y.; Lee, W.Y.; Lim, Wilina W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Several severe respiratory virus infections that have emerged during the past decade originated in animals, including bats. In Indonesia, exposure to bats has been associated with increased risk of acquiring orthoreovirus infection. Although orthoreovirus infections are mild and self-limiting, we explored their potential for evolution into a more virulent form. We used conventional virus culture, electron microscopy, and molecular sequencing to isolate and identify orthoreoviruses from 3 patients in whom respiratory tract infection developed after travel to Indonesia. Virus characterization by plaque-reduction neutralization testing showed antigenic similarity, but sequencing of the small segment genes suggested virus reassortment, which could lead to increased virulence. Bats as a reservoir might contribute to virus evolution and genetic diversity, giving orthoreoviruses the potential to become more virulent. Evolution of this virus should be closely monitored so that prevention and control measures can be taken should it become more virulent. PMID:22608100

  6. Theme and Variations in the Evolutionary Pathways to Virulence of an RNA Plant Virus Species

    PubMed Central

    Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Rakotomalala, Mbolarinosy; Sangu, Emmanuel; Sorho, Fatogoma; Kanyeka, Zakaria; Traoré, Oumar; Sérémé, Drissa; Poulicard, Nils; Rabenantoandro, Yvonne; Séré, Yacouba; Konaté, Gnissa; Ghesquière, Alain; Hébrard, Eugénie; Fargette, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of a highly variable RNA plant virus was considered to determine the range of virulence substitutions, the evolutionary pathways to virulence, and whether intraspecific diversity modulates virulence pathways and propensity. In all, 114 isolates representative of the genetic and geographic diversity of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in Africa were inoculated to several cultivars with eIF(iso)4G-mediated Rymv1-2 resistance. Altogether, 41 virulent variants generated from ten wild isolates were analyzed. Nonconservative amino acid replacements at five positions located within a stretch of 15 codons in the central region of the 79-aa-long protein VPg were associated with virulence. Virulence substitutions were fixed predominantly at codon 48 in most strains, whatever the host genetic background or the experimental conditions. There were one major and two isolate-specific mutational pathways conferring virulence at codon 48. In the prevalent mutational pathway I, arginine (AGA) was successively displaced by glycine (GGA) and glutamic acid (GAA). Substitutions in the other virulence codons were displaced when E48 was fixed. In the isolate-specific mutational pathway II, isoleucine (ATA) emerged and often later coexisted with valine (GTA). In mutational pathway III, arginine, with the specific S2/S3 strain codon usage AGG, was displaced by tryptophane (TGG). Mutational pathway I never arose in the widely spread West African S2/S3 strain because G48 was not infectious in the S2/S3 genetic context. Strain S2/S3 least frequently overcame resistance, whereas two geographically localized variants of the strain S4 had a high propensity to virulence. Codons 49 and 26 of the VPg, under diversifying selection, are candidate positions in modulating the genetic barriers to virulence. The theme and variations in the evolutionary pathways to virulence of RYMV illustrates the extent of parallel evolution within a highly variable RNA plant virus species. PMID:18039030

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    PubMed

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    PubMed

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental. PMID:26347323

  9. In vivo fitness correlates with host-specific virulence of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between virulence and overall within-host fitness of the fish rhabdovirus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was empirically investigated in vivo for two virus isolates belonging to different IHNV genogroups that exhibit opposing host-specific virulence. U group isolates are more virulent in sockeye salmon and M group isolates are more virulent in rainbow trout. In both single and mixed infections in the two fish hosts, the more virulent IHNV type exhibited higher prevalence and higher viral load than the less virulent type. Thus, a positive correlation was observed between higher in vivo fitness and higher host-specific virulence in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout. Comparisons of mean viral loads in single and mixed infections revealed no evidence for limitation due to competition effects between U and M viruses in either rainbow trout or sockeye salmon co-infections.

  10. Interference competition and parasite virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Ruth C.; Buckling, Angus; ffrench-Constant, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Within-host competition between parasites, a consequence of infection by multiple strains, is predicted to favour rapid host exploitation and greater damage to hosts (virulence). However, the inclusion of biological variables can drastically change this relationship. For example, if competing parasite strains produce toxins that kill each other (interference competition), their growth rates and virulence may be reduced relative to single-strain infections. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial toxins produced by bacteria that target closely related strains and species, and to which the producing strain is immune. We investigated competition between bacteriocin-producing, insect-killing bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) and how this competition affected virulence in caterpillars. Where one strain could kill the other, and not vice versa, the non-killing strain was competitively excluded, and insect mortality was the same as that of the killing strain alone. However, when caterpillars were multiply infected by strains that could kill each other, we did not observe competitive exclusion and their virulence was less than single-strain infections. The ubiquity and diversity of bacteriocins among pathogenic bacteria suggest mixed infections will be, on average, less virulent than single infections. PMID:15255095

  11. Morphology, physiology, and virulence of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    PubMed

    Poloni, A; Pessi, I S; Frazzon, A P G; Van der Sand, S T

    2009-09-01

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes diseases in cereal crops. The high morphological, physiological, and genetic variability makes the control of this fungus a difficult task. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphological, and physiological variability of B. sorokiniana isolates. For this, 35 B. sorokiniana isolates from different geographic regions in Brazil and other countries were used. The isolates were evaluated for their morphological variability, considering mycelium color, sector formation, and growth rate. Based on these morphological characteristics, the isolates were grouped in five different morphological groups. Extracellular enzymes activity in solid medium, virulence in wheat seeds and seedlings, and analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE were evaluated for all isolates. Variations among the isolates were found for enzymatic activity, and esterase was the enzyme that showed the highest activity indices. The results obtained from infection of seeds and seedlings showed that isolates from the same geographical region and morphological group had different degrees of virulence. The total protein profile shown by the isolates varied in the number of bands and intensity, where some of them may be used to characterize the specie.

  12. Do pathogens become more virulent as they spread? Evidence from the amphibian declines in Central America.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ben L; Puschendorf, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The virulence of a pathogen can vary strongly through time. While cyclical variation in virulence is regularly observed, directional shifts in virulence are less commonly observed and are typically associated with decreasing virulence of biological control agents through coevolution. It is increasingly appreciated, however, that spatial effects can lead to evolutionary trajectories that differ from standard expectations. One such possibility is that, as a pathogen spreads through a naive host population, its virulence increases on the invasion front. In Central America, there is compelling evidence for the recent spread of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for its strong impact on amphibian populations. Here, we re-examine data on Bd prevalence and amphibian population decline across 13 sites from southern Mexico through Central America, and show that, in the initial phases of the Bd invasion, amphibian population decline lagged approximately 9 years behind the arrival of the pathogen, but that this lag diminished markedly over time. In total, our analysis suggests an increase in Bd virulence as it spread southwards, a pattern consistent with rapid evolution of increased virulence on Bd's invading front. The impact of Bd on amphibians might therefore be driven by rapid evolution in addition to more proximate environmental drivers.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence: a Successful or Deleterious Association in the Bacterial World?

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Tomás, María

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. Although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. The emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. However, although antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence have developed on different timescales, they share some common characteristics. This review considers how bacterial virulence and fitness are affected by antibiotic resistance and also how the relationship between virulence and resistance is affected by different genetic mechanisms (e.g., coselection and compensatory mutations) and by the most prevalent global responses. The interplay between these factors and the associated biological costs depend on four main factors: the bacterial species involved, virulence and resistance mechanisms, the ecological niche, and the host. The development of new strategies involving new antimicrobials or nonantimicrobial compounds and of novel diagnostic methods that focus on high-risk clones and rapid tests to detect virulence markers may help to resolve the increasing problem of the association between virulence and resistance, which is becoming more beneficial for pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23554414

  14. Comparative virulence studies and transcriptome analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Zahid; Seleem, Mohamed N.; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; Huang, Lingli; Hao, Haihong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to check the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals and animal-derived food products but limited data are available regarding their virulence and associated gene expression profile. In the present study, antibiotic resistance and virulence of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus animal isolates were determined in vitro by agar dilution, biofilm formation, adhesion, invasion and intracellular survivability assays. In addition, the pathogenicity of these isolates was examined in a murine model of S. aureus sepsis. MRSA1679a, a strain isolated from chicken, was observed to be highly virulent, in cell culture and in mouse model, and exhibited extensive resistant profile. Comparative gene expression profile of MRSA1679a and the reference human MRSA strain (ATCC 29213) was performed using Illumina-based transcriptome and RT-qPCR analyses. Several virulence elements including 22 toxin genes were detected in MRSA animal-isolate. In addition, we observed enhanced expression of crucial virulence regulators, such as sarA and KdpDE in MRSA animal-isolate compared to the human isolate. Collectively, gene expression profile including several virulence and drug-resistance factors confirmed the unique and highly virulent determinants of the MRSA strain of poultry origin which warrants further attention due to significant threat to public health. PMID:27739497

  15. Do pathogens become more virulent as they spread? Evidence from the amphibian declines in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ben L.; Puschendorf, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The virulence of a pathogen can vary strongly through time. While cyclical variation in virulence is regularly observed, directional shifts in virulence are less commonly observed and are typically associated with decreasing virulence of biological control agents through coevolution. It is increasingly appreciated, however, that spatial effects can lead to evolutionary trajectories that differ from standard expectations. One such possibility is that, as a pathogen spreads through a naive host population, its virulence increases on the invasion front. In Central America, there is compelling evidence for the recent spread of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for its strong impact on amphibian populations. Here, we re-examine data on Bd prevalence and amphibian population decline across 13 sites from southern Mexico through Central America, and show that, in the initial phases of the Bd invasion, amphibian population decline lagged approximately 9 years behind the arrival of the pathogen, but that this lag diminished markedly over time. In total, our analysis suggests an increase in Bd virulence as it spread southwards, a pattern consistent with rapid evolution of increased virulence on Bd's invading front. The impact of Bd on amphibians might therefore be driven by rapid evolution in addition to more proximate environmental drivers. PMID:23843393

  16. Differences in virulence of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, J

    1979-10-01

    All pathogenic Naegleria fowleri isolated from the environment were highly virulent to mice when instilled intranasally. Axenic cultivation gradually decreased virulence of highly virulent strains. This decrease was most pronounced in environmental isolates and of minor importance in N. fowleri isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid. The low virulent strains obtained by continuous axenic cultivation appeared after clonation to consist of individuals with different virulence. Virulence could be enhanced in low virulent strains by brain passage and passages in Vero cell cultures, but could not be induced by these methods in nonvirulent strains isolated from the environment. Different mice strains showed different sensitivities to infection with pathogenic Naegleria. In addition, older mice were less sensitive than younger animals to low virulent strains. PMID:392414

  17. Differences in virulence of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, J

    1979-10-01

    All pathogenic Naegleria fowleri isolated from the environment were highly virulent to mice when instilled intranasally. Axenic cultivation gradually decreased virulence of highly virulent strains. This decrease was most pronounced in environmental isolates and of minor importance in N. fowleri isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid. The low virulent strains obtained by continuous axenic cultivation appeared after clonation to consist of individuals with different virulence. Virulence could be enhanced in low virulent strains by brain passage and passages in Vero cell cultures, but could not be induced by these methods in nonvirulent strains isolated from the environment. Different mice strains showed different sensitivities to infection with pathogenic Naegleria. In addition, older mice were less sensitive than younger animals to low virulent strains.

  18. Insights into Entamoeba histolytica virulence modulation.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Vaca, F; Anaya-Velázquez, F

    2010-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is able to invade human tissues by means of several molecules and biological properties related to the virulence. Pathogenic amebas use three major virulence factors, Gal/GalNAc lectin, amebapore and proteases, for lyse, phagocytose, kill and destroy a variety of cells and tissues in the host. Responses of the parasite to host components such as mucins and bacterial flora influence the behavior of pathogenic amebas altering their expression of virulence factors. The relative virulence of different strains of E. histolytica has been shown to vary as a consequence of changes in conditions of in vitro cultivation which implies substantial changes in basic metabolic aspects and factors directly and indirectly related to amebic virulence. Comparison of E. histolytica strains with different virulence phenotypes and under different conditions of growth will help to identify new virulence factor candidates and define the interplay between virulence factors and invasive phenotype. Virulence attenuate mutants of E. histolytica are useful also to uncover novel virulence determinants. The comparison of biological properties and virulence factors between E. histolytica and E. dispar, a non-pathogenic species, has been a useful approach to investigate the key factors involved in the experimental presentation of amebiasis and its complex regulation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate these variations in virulence are not yet known. Their elucidation will help us to better understand the gene expression plasticity that enables the effective adaptation of the ameba to changes in growth culture conditions and host factors.

  19. Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B

    2013-08-01

    How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Endosymbiont Rickettsia peacockii and Comparison with Virulent Rickettsia rickettsii: Identification of Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Felsheim, Roderick F.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia peacockii, also known as the East Side Agent, is a non-pathogenic obligate intracellular bacterium found as an endosymbiont in Dermacentor andersoni ticks in the western USA and Canada. Its presence in ticks is correlated with reduced prevalence of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. It has been proposed that a virulent SFG rickettsia underwent changes to become the East Side Agent. We determined the genome sequence of R. peacockii and provide a comparison to a closely related virulent R. rickettsii. The presence of 42 chromosomal copies of the ISRpe1 transposon in the genome of R. peacockii is associated with a lack of synteny with the genome of R. rickettsii and numerous deletions via recombination between transposon copies. The plasmid contains a number of genes from distantly related organisms, such as part of the glycosylation island of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genes deleted or mutated in R. peacockii which may relate to loss of virulence include those coding for an ankyrin repeat containing protein, DsbA, RickA, protease II, OmpA, ScaI, and a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase. The gene coding for the ankyrin repeat containing protein is especially implicated as it is mutated in R. rickettsii strain Iowa, which has attenuated virulence. Presence of numerous copies of the ISRpe1 transposon, likely acquired by lateral transfer from a Cardinium species, are associated with extensive genomic reorganization and deletions. The deletion and mutation of genes possibly involved in loss of virulence have been identified by this genomic comparison. It also illustrates that the introduction of a transposon into the genome can have varied effects; either correlating with an increase in pathogenicity as in Francisella tularensis or a loss of pathogenicity as in R. peacockii and the recombination enabled by multiple transposon copies can cause significant deletions in some genomes while not in others. PMID:20027221

  1. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, G; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F

    2009-03-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces. Thus, disease caused by R. equi has been regarded as an opportunistic infection of environmental origin and not a contagious disease. In this study, we report the exhalation of virulent R. equi from the respiratory tract of naturally infected foals. A handheld air-monitoring system was used to recover virulent R. equi from the exhaled breath of foals, and the concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air was compared to the concentration in environmental air samples taken from the holding pens and lane areas on farms. R. equi strains carrying the vapA gene of the virulence plasmid were detected by using colony blotting and DNA hybridization techniques in cultures of exhaled air from 67% (37/55) of foals tested. The concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air from foals was significantly higher than that in environmental air (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria exhaled by clinically healthy or diseased foals. The high concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria in exhaled air suggested that aerosol transmission between foals is possible and may have a significant impact on the prevalence of R. equi pneumonia on farms. The air sampling technique described is potentially useful as a noninvasive method for the detection and quantification of virulent R. equi in the respiratory tract of foals.

  2. Genetic diversity among capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yai, Lucia E O; Ragozo, Alessandra M A; Soares, Rodrigo M; Pena, Hilda F J; Su, C; Gennari, Solange M

    2009-06-10

    Recent studies indicate that Toxoplasma gondii isolates of many domestic hosts from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. However, little is known about genetics of T. gondii isolates from wild mammals in Brazil. In this study, genotypes of 36 T. gondii isolates from capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from six counties in São Paulo state, Brazil, were determined. Sixteen genotypes were identified using 11 genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. No classical clonal Type I and Type II isolates were found, confirming other findings that these lineages are rare in Brazil. Eight of these 36 isolates were grouped into the common clonal lineages in Brazil, previously designed as Types BrI, BrII and BrIII. Seven of the 16 genotypes were reported for the first time in this study. Three of the 36 isolates showed mixed infections. Analysis of mortality rates in infected mice indicated that Type BrI is highly virulent, Type BrII is intermediately virulent and Type BrIII is non-virulent, which is in agreement with previous report. The allele types at the CS3 locus are strongly linked to mouse-virulence of the parasite. These genotyping results support previous findings that the T. gondii population is highly diverse in Brazil.

  3. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Nuno; Figueiredo, Rui; Mendes, Catarina; Card, Roderick M.; Anjum, Muna F.; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. PMID:27025519

  4. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  5. Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianpeng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Li, Peng; Liu, Jiameng; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-08-25

    Brucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial growth curves and resistance to environmental stress factors showed that Pyk plays an important role in B. abortus growth, especially under the conditions of nutrition deprivation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Additionally, cell infection assay showed that Pyk is necessary for B. abortus survival and evading fusion with lysosomes within RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, animal experiments exhibited that the Pyk deletion significantly reduced B. abortus virulence in a mouse infection model. Our results elucidated the role of the Pyk in B. abortus virulence and provided information for further investigation of Brucella virulence associated carbon metabolism.

  6. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramian, Babak; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Abani, Samira; Dabiri, Hossein; Beigverdi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections. A total of 194 S. agalactiae isolates, 55 isolates from bovines and 139 from humans, were analyzed for capsular types, virulence genes (scpB, hly, rib, bca and bac) and mobile genetic elements (IS1548 and GBSi1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (61%), followed by types V, II, Ib, and IV. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The virulence gene profiles scpB- hly- IS1548- rib-bca (51%) and scpB- hly- IS1548- bca (19%) were only predominant among human isolates. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from human infections, these result can support the idea that S. agalactiae isolated from humans and bovines are generally unrelated and probably belonged to separate populations.

  7. Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianpeng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Li, Peng; Liu, Jiameng; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial growth curves and resistance to environmental stress factors showed that Pyk plays an important role in B. abortus growth, especially under the conditions of nutrition deprivation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Additionally, cell infection assay showed that Pyk is necessary for B. abortus survival and evading fusion with lysosomes within RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, animal experiments exhibited that the Pyk deletion significantly reduced B. abortus virulence in a mouse infection model. Our results elucidated the role of the Pyk in B. abortus virulence and provided information for further investigation of Brucella virulence associated carbon metabolism. PMID:27561260

  8. The degree of virulence does not necessarily affect MRSA biofilm strength and response to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa A Y; Nafee, Noha A; Moussa, Nihal K

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation transforms infections from acute to chronic, increasing patient mortality and significantly increasing healthcare costs. We are studying the prevalence of some virulence genes among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates relative to biofilm formation and the potential of photoactivated hypericin to treat these infections. Isolates were collected from three Egyptian governorates over seven months in 2011, 100 isolates were identified as MRSA. Biofilm formation was established using crystal violet staining and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction. Twenty two percent of the isolates formed biofilms, of which 68.2% were moderate to strong. The virulence genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. spaX (x-region of protein A) was most prevalent. All biofilm-formers lacked cap5 (capsular polysaccharide 5), the other genes were: nuc (thermonuclease) > clfA (clumping factor) > spaIgG (IgG binding site of protein A), fnbA (fibronectin protein A), cap8 (capsular polysaccharide 8), agr (accessory-gene-regulator locus) > fnbB (fibronectin protein B). agr-locus was only found in 22.22% of moderate biofilm-formers, the remaining genes were almost equally prevalent among biofilm-formers and negative controls. Photoactivated hypericin efficiently inhibited 92.2-99.9% of biofilm viability, irrespective of the number of virulence genes. To conclude, biofilm formation, and treatment might be affected by a myriad of virulence factors rather than a single gene, however, photoactivated hypericin remains a potential antibiofilm approach.

  9. The degree of virulence does not necessarily affect MRSA biofilm strength and response to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa A Y; Nafee, Noha A; Moussa, Nihal K

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation transforms infections from acute to chronic, increasing patient mortality and significantly increasing healthcare costs. We are studying the prevalence of some virulence genes among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates relative to biofilm formation and the potential of photoactivated hypericin to treat these infections. Isolates were collected from three Egyptian governorates over seven months in 2011, 100 isolates were identified as MRSA. Biofilm formation was established using crystal violet staining and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction. Twenty two percent of the isolates formed biofilms, of which 68.2% were moderate to strong. The virulence genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. spaX (x-region of protein A) was most prevalent. All biofilm-formers lacked cap5 (capsular polysaccharide 5), the other genes were: nuc (thermonuclease) > clfA (clumping factor) > spaIgG (IgG binding site of protein A), fnbA (fibronectin protein A), cap8 (capsular polysaccharide 8), agr (accessory-gene-regulator locus) > fnbB (fibronectin protein B). agr-locus was only found in 22.22% of moderate biofilm-formers, the remaining genes were almost equally prevalent among biofilm-formers and negative controls. Photoactivated hypericin efficiently inhibited 92.2-99.9% of biofilm viability, irrespective of the number of virulence genes. To conclude, biofilm formation, and treatment might be affected by a myriad of virulence factors rather than a single gene, however, photoactivated hypericin remains a potential antibiofilm approach. PMID:26616167

  10. Salmonella enterica: survival, colonization, and virulence differences among serovars.

    PubMed

    Andino, A; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels.

  11. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Andino, A.; Hanning, I.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  12. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  13. Virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various origins.

    PubMed

    Van der Mee-Marquet, N; Blanchard, M; Domelier, A-S; Quentin, R

    2004-12-01

    We looked for links between the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their source and their virulence genes. Forty-four methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus strains from four antibiogroups were studied by SmaI macrorestriction and PCR detection of ea, eb, tst, lukS-PV and lukF-PV. Genes encoding virulence factors were most prevalent (i) in S. aureus strains originated from skin, (ii) in methicillin-sensitive, quinolone-resistant strains or in methicillin-sensitive multiresistant strains (EMSSA strains), and (iii) in strains with decreased susceptibility or resistance to fusidic acid. This is consistent with the hypothesis that S. aureus antibiotic resistance promoted by local antibiotic treatment also contributes to the emergence of virulence strains.

  14. Cytotoxic Virulence Predicts Mortality in Nosocomial Pneumonia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rose, Hannah R; Holzman, Robert S; Altman, Deena R; Smyth, Davida S; Wasserman, Gregory A; Kafer, Jared M; Wible, Michelle; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Torres, Victor J; Shopsin, Bo

    2015-06-15

    The current study identified bacterial factors that may improve management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were obtained from 386 patients enrolled in a randomized, controlled study of antibiotic efficacy. Isolates were screened for production of virulence factors and for vancomycin susceptibility. After adjustment for host factors such as severity of illness and treatment modality, cytotoxic activity was strongly and inversely associated with mortality; however, it had no effect on clinical cure. Isolates having low cytotoxicity, which were derived largely from healthcare-associated clones, exhibited a greater prevalence of vancomycin heteroresistance, and they were recovered more often from patients who were older and frailer. Additionally, a clone with low cytotoxic activity was associated with death and poor clinical improvement. Clone specificity and attenuated virulence appear to be associated with outcome. To our knowledge, these are the first correlations between MRSA virulence and mortality in nosocomial pneumonia.

  15. Cytotoxic Virulence Predicts Mortality in Nosocomial Pneumonia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Hannah R.; Holzman, Robert S.; Altman, Deena R.; Smyth, Davida S.; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Kafer, Jared M.; Wible, Michelle; Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Torres, Victor J.; Shopsin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified bacterial factors that may improve management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were obtained from 386 patients enrolled in a randomized, controlled study of antibiotic efficacy. Isolates were screened for production of virulence factors and for vancomycin susceptibility. After adjustment for host factors such as severity of illness and treatment modality, cytotoxic activity was strongly and inversely associated with mortality; however, it had no effect on clinical cure. Isolates having low cytotoxicity, which were derived largely from healthcare-associated clones, exhibited a greater prevalence of vancomycin heteroresistance, and they were recovered more often from patients who were older and frailer. Additionally, a clone with low cytotoxic activity was associated with death and poor clinical improvement. Clone specificity and attenuated virulence appear to be associated with outcome. To our knowledge, these are the first correlations between MRSA virulence and mortality in nosocomial pneumonia. PMID:25298028

  16. Prevalence and Phenotypic Expression of Mutations in the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 Genes in Families with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the South of Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Beatriz Piva e; Scolari, Fernando Luís; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Simon, Laura; de Freitas, Valéria Centeno; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Úrsula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mutations in sarcomeric genes are found in 60-70% of individuals with familial forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, this estimate refers to northern hemisphere populations. The molecular-genetic profile of HCM has been subject of few investigations in Brazil, particularly in the south of the country. Objective: To investigate mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 in a cohort of HCM patients living in the extreme south of Brazil, and to evaluate genotype-phenotype associations. Methods: Direct DNA sequencing of all encoding regions of three sarcomeric genes was conducted in 43 consecutive individuals of ten unrelated families. Results: Mutations for CMH have been found in 25 (58%) patients of seven (70%) of the ten study families. Fourteen (56%) individuals were phenotype-positive. All mutations were missense, four (66%) in MYH7 and two (33%) in MYBPC3. We have not found mutations in the TNNT2 gene. Mutations in MYH7 were identified in 20 (47%) patients of six (60%) families. Two of them had not been previously described. Mutations in MYBPC3 were found in seven (16%) members of two (20%) families. Two (5%) patients showed double heterozygosis for both genes. The mutations affected different domains of encoded proteins and led to variable phenotypic expression. A family history of HCM was identified in all genotype-positive individuals. Conclusions: In this first genetic-molecular analysis carried out in the south of Brazil, we found mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7 and MYBPC3 in 58% of individuals. MYH7-related disease was identified in the majority of cases with mutation. PMID:27737317

  17. Antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus isolated from tropical recreational waters

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Rivera, Jessica I.; Coradin, Mariel; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of enterococci harboring tetracycline and vancomycin-resistance genes, as well as the enterococcal surface protein (esp) has mostly been determined in clinical settings, but their prevalence in tropical recreational waters remains largely unknown. The present study determined the prevalence of tetM (tetracycline-resistance), vanA and vanB (vancomycin-resistance) in the bacterial and viral fractions, enterococci and their induced phages isolated from tropical recreational marine and fresh waters, dry and wet sands. Since lysogenic phages can act as vectors for antibiotic-resistance and virulence factors, the prevalence of the mentioned genes, as well as that of an integrase-encoding gene (int) specific for Enterococcus faecalis phages was determined. Up to 60 % and 54 % of the bacterial fractions and enterococci harbored at least one of the tested genes, respectively, suggesting that bacteria in tropical environments may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes. int was detected in the viral fractions and in one Enterococcus isolate after induction. This study opens the opportunity to determine if the presence of bacteria harboring antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in tropical recreational waters represents a threat to public health. PMID:23981868

  18. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  19. Virulence Evolution Within the Ug99 Lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race TTKSK (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, recognized for possessing virulence to the stem rust resistance gene Sr31, was first identified in Uganda in 1998. Since then, TTKSK has been identified in Kenya in 2005 and Yemen in 2006. In addition to virulence to Sr31, race TTKSK was ...

  20. Pathogenicity islands and virulence evolution in Listeria.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Boland, J A; Domínguez-Bernal, G; González-Zorn, B; Kreft, J; Goebel, W

    2001-06-01

    As in other bacterial pathogens, the virulence determinants of Listeria species are clustered in genomic islands scattered along the chromosome. This review summarizes current knowledge about the structure, distribution and role in pathogenesis of Listeria virulence loci. Hypotheses about the mode of acquisition and evolution of these loci in this group of Gram-positive bacteria are presented and discussed.

  1. Genotypes and Pathogenicity of Cellulitis Isolates Reveal Traits That Modulate APEC Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Rocha, Débora Assumpção; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    We characterized 144 Escherichia coli isolates from severe cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens from South Brazil. Analysis of susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials revealed frequencies of resistance of less than 30% for most antimicrobials except tetracycline (70%) and sulphonamides (60%). The genotyping of 34 virulence-associated genes revealed that all the isolates harbored virulence factors related to adhesion, iron acquisition and serum resistance, which are characteristic of the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) pathotype. ColV plasmid-associated genes (cvi/cva, iroN, iss, iucD, sitD, traT, tsh) were especially frequent among the isolates (from 66.6% to 89.6%). According to the Clermont method of ECOR phylogenetic typing, isolates belonged to group D (47.2%), to group A (27.8%), to group B2 (17.4%) and to group B1 (7.6%); the group B2 isolates contained the highest number of virulence-associated genes. Clonal relationship analysis using the ARDRA method revealed a similarity level of 57% or higher among isolates, but no endemic clone. The virulence of the isolates was confirmed in vivo in one-day-old chicks. Most isolates (72.9%) killed all infected chicks within 7 days, and 65 isolates (38.1%) killed most of them within 24 hours. In order to analyze differences in virulence among the APEC isolates, we created a pathogenicity score by combining the times of death with the clinical symptoms noted. By looking for significant associations between the presence of virulence-associated genes and the pathogenicity score, we found that the presence of genes for invasins ibeA and gimB and for group II capsule KpsMTII increased virulence, while the presence of pic decreased virulence. The fact that ibeA, gimB and KpsMTII are characteristic of neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) suggests that genes of NMEC in APEC increase virulence of strains. PMID:23977279

  2. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    PubMed

    Sáez-López, Emma; Guiral, Elisabet; Fernández-Orth, Dietmar; Villanueva, Sonia; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Teixidó, Irene; Pericot, Anna; Figueras, Francesc; Palacio, Montse; Cobo, Teresa; Bosch, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001). Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001). The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the aetiological link

  3. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  4. Proteomic Characterization of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chromy, B; Murphy, G; Gonzales, A; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-01-05

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, functions via the Type III secretion mechanism whereby virulence factors are induced upon interactions with a mammalian host. Here, the Y. pestis proteome was studied by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) under physiologically relevant growth conditions mimicking the calcium concentrations and temperatures that the pathogen would encounter in the flea vector and upon interaction with the mammalian host. Over 4100 individual protein spots were detected of which hundreds were differentially expressed in the entire comparative experiment. A total of 43 proteins that were differentially expressed between the vector and host growth conditions were identified by mass spectrometry. Expected differences in expression were observed for several known virulence factors including catalase-peroxidase (KatY), murine toxin (Ymt), plasminogen activator (Pla), and F1 capsule antigen (Caf1), as well as putative virulence factors. Chaperone proteins and signaling molecules hypothesized to be involved in virulence due to their role in Type III secretion were also identified. Other differentially expressed proteins not previously reported to contribute to virulence are candidates for more detailed mechanistic studies, representing potential new virulence determinants. For example, several sugar metabolism proteins were differentially regulated in response to lower calcium and higher temperature, suggesting these proteins, while not directly connected to virulence, either represent a metabolic switch for survival in the host environment or may facilitate production of virulence factors. Results presented here contribute to a more thorough understanding of the virulence mechanism of Y. pestis through proteomic characterization of the pathogen under induced virulence.

  5. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Virulence Profiles in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Cats in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Boothe, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    The population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from cats are rarely characterized. The aim of this study was to compare and characterize the UPEC isolated from cats in four geographic regions of USA in terms of their multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence profiles, clinical signs, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic grouping. The results showed that a total of 74 E. coli isolates were typed to 40 sequence types with 10 being novel. The most frequent phylogenetic group was B2 (n = 57). The most frequent sequence types were ST73 (n = 12) and ST83 (n = 6), ST73 was represented by four multidrug resistant (MDR) and eight non-multidrug resistant (SDR) isolates, and ST83 were significantly more likely to exhibit no drug resistant (NDR) isolates carrying the highest number of virulence genes. Additionally, MDR isolates were more diverse, and followed by SDR and NDR isolates in regards to the distribution of the STs. afa/draBC was the most prevalent among the 29 virulence-associated genes. Linking virulence profile and antimicrobial resistance, the majority of virulence-associated genes tested were more prevalent in NDR isolates, and followed by SDR and MDR isolates. Twenty (50%) MLST types in this study have previously been associated with human isolates, suggesting that these STs are potentially zoonotic. Our data enhanced the understanding of E. coli population structure and virulence association from cats. The diverse and various combinations of virulence-associated genes implied that the infection control may be challenging. PMID:26587840

  6. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  7. Spontaneous mutations in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients play roles in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Nihonmatsu, Hisako; Ohya, Hitomi; Okuno, Rumi; Mitsui, Chieko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Mari; Shimada, Naomi; Ato, Manabu; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a widespread human pathogen and causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). STSS isolates have been previously shown to have high frequency mutations in the csrS/csrR (covS/covR) and/or rgg (ropB) genes, which are negative regulators of virulence. However, these mutations were found at somewhat low frequencies in emm1-genotyped isolates, the most prevalent STSS genotype. In this study, we sought to detect causal mutations of enhanced virulence in emm1 isolates lacking mutation(s) in the csrS/csrR and rgg genes. Three mutations associated with elevated virulence were found in the sic (a virulence gene) promoter, the csrR promoter, and the rocA gene (a csrR positive regulator). In vivo contribution of the sic promoter and rocA mutations to pathogenicity and lethality was confirmed in a GAS mouse model. Frequency of the sic promoter mutation was significantly higher in STSS emm1 isolates than in non-invasive STSS isolates; the rocA gene mutation frequency was not significantly different among STSS and non-STSS isolates. STSS emm1 isolates possessed a high frequency mutation in the sic promoter. Thus, this mutation may play a role in the dynamics of virulence and STSS pathogenesis. PMID:27349341

  8. Spontaneous mutations in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients play roles in virulence.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Nihonmatsu, Hisako; Ohya, Hitomi; Okuno, Rumi; Mitsui, Chieko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Mari; Shimada, Naomi; Ato, Manabu; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a widespread human pathogen and causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). STSS isolates have been previously shown to have high frequency mutations in the csrS/csrR (covS/covR) and/or rgg (ropB) genes, which are negative regulators of virulence. However, these mutations were found at somewhat low frequencies in emm1-genotyped isolates, the most prevalent STSS genotype. In this study, we sought to detect causal mutations of enhanced virulence in emm1 isolates lacking mutation(s) in the csrS/csrR and rgg genes. Three mutations associated with elevated virulence were found in the sic (a virulence gene) promoter, the csrR promoter, and the rocA gene (a csrR positive regulator). In vivo contribution of the sic promoter and rocA mutations to pathogenicity and lethality was confirmed in a GAS mouse model. Frequency of the sic promoter mutation was significantly higher in STSS emm1 isolates than in non-invasive STSS isolates; the rocA gene mutation frequency was not significantly different among STSS and non-STSS isolates. STSS emm1 isolates possessed a high frequency mutation in the sic promoter. Thus, this mutation may play a role in the dynamics of virulence and STSS pathogenesis. PMID:27349341

  9. Virulence of soil-borne pathogens and invasion by Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Tytgat, Tom; Van der Putten, Wim H; Clay, Keith

    2010-04-01

    *Globally, exotic invaders threaten biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies often report that invading plants are less affected by enemies in their invaded vs home ranges, but few studies have investigated the underlying mechanisms. *Here, we investigated the variation in prevalence, species composition and virulence of soil-borne Pythium pathogens associated with the tree Prunus serotina in its native US and non-native European ranges by culturing, DNA sequencing and controlled pathogenicity trials. *Two controlled pathogenicity experiments showed that Pythium pathogens from the native range caused 38-462% more root rot and 80-583% more seedling mortality, and 19-45% less biomass production than Pythium from the non-native range. DNA sequencing indicated that the most virulent Pythium taxa were sampled only from the native range. The greater virulence of Pythium sampled from the native range therefore corresponded to shifts in species composition across ranges rather than variation within a common Pythium species. *Prunus serotina still encounters Pythium in its non-native range but encounters less virulent taxa. Elucidating patterns of enemy virulence in native and nonnative ranges adds to our understanding of how invasive plants escape disease. Moreover, this strategy may identify resident enemies in the non-native range that could be used to manage invasive plants. PMID:20100208

  10. Chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) exhibit reduced virulence potential.

    PubMed

    Starcic Erjavec, Marjanca; Rijavec, Matija; Krizan-Hergouth, Veronika; Fruth, Angelika; Zgur-Bertok, Darja

    2007-11-01

    It is well documented that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates resistant to nalidixic acid have reduced virulence potential. Our goal was to assess whether UPEC isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin also exhibit reduced virulence potential. Among 110 human UPEC isolates, the prevalences of the virulence factors fimH, papC, papGII, papGIII, sfa/focDE, afa, hlyA, cnf1, usp, ibeA, fyuA, iroN, iucD, ireA, and K1 and K5 capsules as well as of pathotypes, phylogenetic groups, O antigens and a pathogenicity island (PAI) marker were compared between chloramphenicol-, tetracycline-, streptomycin- and, as a control, nalidixic acid-resistant and -susceptible strains. Our findings show that among human UPEC isolates, not only nalidixic acid-resistant but also chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant isolates have reduced virulence potential compared with susceptible strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a statistically significant reduction in virulence traits among chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant isolates.

  11. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from passerine and psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Davies, Y M; Cunha, M P V; Oliveira, M G X; Oliveira, M C V; Philadelpho, N; Romero, D C; Milanelo, L; Guimarães, M B; Ferreira, A J P; Moreno, A M; Sá, L R M; Knöbl, T

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered one of the most important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. The contact between humans and birds poses health risks to both. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates from psittacines and passerines, seized from illegal trade in Brazil. We analysed 32 strains isolated from birds of the orders Psittaciformes and Passeriformes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factor genes. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion assay and PCR. The results indicated that fimH (100%), uge (96.8%), kfu (81.2%) and irp-2 (68.7%) were the most common virulence genes, followed by kpn (46.8%), K2 (43.7%), mrkD (34.3%) and iroN (15.6%). The combination of virulence genes resulted in a great diversity of genotypes and the heterogeneity of the strains is also confirmed in the analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The susceptibility profiles of the K. pneumoniae showed 25% of multiple antibiotic resistance strains. We identified seven strains that presented non-extended spectrum beta lactamase blaSHV variants SHV-1 and SHV-11 and one strain positive to the blaTEM-1 gene. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was present in 10 strains (10/32). The data obtained in this study reveal the pathogenic potential of this pathogen and highlight the need for surveillance and monitoring.

  12. Virulence in malaria: an evolutionary viewpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, Margaret J; Read, Andrew F

    2004-01-01

    Malaria parasites cause much morbidity and mortality to their human hosts. From our evolutionary perspective, this is because virulence is positively associated with parasite transmission rate. Natural selection therefore drives virulence upwards, but only to the point where the cost to transmission caused by host death begins to outweigh the transmission benefits. In this review, we summarize data from the laboratory rodent malaria model, Plasmodium chabaudi, and field data on the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum, in relation to this virulence trade-off hypothesis. The data from both species show strong positive correlations between asexual multiplication, transmission rate, infection length, morbidity and mortality, and therefore support the underlying assumptions of the hypothesis. Moreover, the P. falciparum data show that expected total lifetime transmission of the parasite is maximized in young children in whom the fitness cost of host mortality balances the fitness benefits of higher transmission rates and slower clearance rates, thus exhibiting the hypothesized virulence trade-off. This evolutionary explanation of virulence appears to accord well with the clinical and molecular explanations of pathogenesis that involve cytoadherence, red cell invasion and immune evasion, although direct evidence of the fitness advantages of these mechanisms is scarce. One implication of this evolutionary view of virulence is that parasite populations are expected to evolve new levels of virulence in response to medical interventions such as vaccines and drugs. PMID:15306410

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  14. Associations between the presence of virulence determinants and the epidemiology and ecology of zoonotic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K M; Low, J C; Denwood, M J; Gally, D L; Evans, J; Gunn, G J; Mellor, D J; Reid, S W J; Matthews, L

    2010-12-01

    The severity of human infection with pathogenic Escherichia coli depends on two major virulence determinants (eae and stx) that, respectively, produce intimin and Shiga toxin. In cattle, both may enhance colonization, but whether this increases fitness by enhancing cattle-to-cattle transmission in the field is unknown. In E. coli O157, the almost uniform presence of the virulence determinants in cattle isolates prevents comparative analysis. The availability to this study of extensive non-O157 E. coli data, with much greater diversity in carriage of virulence determinants, provides the opportunity to gain insight into their potential impact on transmission. Dynamic models were used to simulate expected prevalence distributions for serogroups O26 and O103. Transmission parameters were estimated by fitting model outputs to prevalence data from Scottish cattle using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. Despite similar prevalence distributions for O26 and O103, their transmission dynamics were distinct. Serogroup O26 strains appear well adapted to the cattle host. The dynamics are characterized by a basic reproduction ratio (R(0)) of >1 (allowing sustained cattle-to-cattle transmission), a relatively low transmission rate from environmental reservoirs, and substantial association with eae on transmission. The presence of stx(2) was associated with reduced transmission. In contrast, serogroup O103 appears better adapted to the noncattle environment, characterized by an R(0) value of <1 for plausible test sensitivities, a significantly higher transmission rate from noncattle sources than serogroup O26, and an absence of fitness benefits associated with the carriage of eae. Thus, the association of eae with enhanced transmission depends on the E. coli serogroup. Our results suggest that the capacity of E. coli strains to derive fitness benefits from virulence determinants influences the prevalence in the cattle population and the ecology and epidemiology

  15. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxiang; Li, Jing; Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Mengquan; Ye, Renji; Lv, Huoyang

    2015-03-11

    This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as "other" Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species.

  16. The extinction differential induced virulence macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Liufang; Wang, Jin

    2014-04-01

    We apply the potential-flux landscape theory to deal with the large fluctuation induced extinction phenomena. We quantify the most probable extinction pathway on the landscape and measure the extinction risk by the landscape topography. In this Letter, we investigate the disease extinction through an epidemic model described by a set of chemical reaction. We found the virulence-differential-dependent symbioses between mother and daughter pathogen species: mutualism and parasitism. The symbioses, whether mutualism or parasitism, benefit the higher virulence species. This implies that speciation towards lower virulence is an effective strategy for a pathogen species to reduce its extinction risk.

  17. Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in asymptomatic carriers in a university hospital from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coch Gioia, Carolina A; Silva de Lemos, Ana P; Outeiro Gorla, Maria C; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Ballester, Teresa; Von Groll, Andrea; Wedig, Bruna; Ethur, Nathalia de Vargas; Bragança, Letícia; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves; Almeida da Silva, Pedro E

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic meningococcus carriers in hospitals is a risk factor for acquiring meningococcal disease. Meningococcal carrier (MC) frequency was investigated in oropharyngeal swab samples collected from 200 staff members at a teaching hospital from Brazil. MC prevalence was 9% (95% CI 5-13%). Risk factors associated with MC were: mean age of 26.5 years, male gender, bar attendance frequency and number of persons/house. Of 18 isolated meningococcal strains, 14 were non-group able (NG), 3 corresponded to serogroup B and 1 to serogroup 29E. The frequency of serotypes and serosubtypes was heterogenous, with a slight predominance of serotypes 4 and 7 and serosubtypes P1.7 and P1.5. Most strains (n=13) were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. The ctrA gene (PCR) was identified in 9 (64.3%) of the 14 NG strains, suggesting virulence in most of the NG isolated strains. Therefore, a constant surveillance of these asymptomatic carriers is required.

  18. Re-sequencing of a virulent strain of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 reveals potential virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kerry K; Cooper, Margarethe A; Zuccolo, Andrea; Joens, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    In vitro passage of Campylobacter jejuni strains results in phenotypic changes and a general loss of virulence, as is the case with the genome-sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC11168. Re-sequencing of a virulent strain of NCTC11168 identified 41 SNPs or indels involving 20 genes, four intergenic regions and three pseudogenes. The genes include six motility genes, two chemotaxis genes, three hypothetical genes and a capsule biosynthesis gene, which might have a critical role in C. jejuni virulence. Additionally, we found an insertion in both Cj0676 and Cj1470c, pseudogenes in avirulent NCTC11168, but functional proteins in virulent NCTC11168.

  19. Neoparamoeba perurans loses virulence during clonal culture.

    PubMed

    Bridle, Andrew R; Davenport, Danielle L; Crosbie, Philip B B; Polinski, Mark; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-08-01

    Amoebic Gill Disease affects farmed salmonids and is caused by Neoparamoeba perurans. Clonal cultures of this amoeba have been used for challenge experiments, however the effect of long-term culture on virulence has not been investigated. Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo methods, that a clone of N. perurans which was virulent 70 days after clonal culture lost virulence after 3 years in clonal culture. We propose that this is related either to the lack of attachment to the gills or the absence of an extracellular product, as shown by the lack of cytopathic effect on Chinook salmon embryo cells. The avirulent clonal culture of N. perurans allowed us to propose two potential virulence mechanisms/factors involved in Amoebic Gill Disease and is an invaluable tool for host-pathogen studies of Amoebic Gill Disease. PMID:26008963

  20. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M.C.; Takai, S.; Leite, D.S.; Pinto, J.P.A.N.; Brandão, P.E.; Santarém, V.A.; Listoni, F.J.P.; Da Silva, A.V.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244

  1. [Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].

    PubMed

    Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli.

  2. Spaceflight Effects on Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, S.; Goins, T.; Crandell, C.; Richards, C.; Patel, M.; Pyle, B.

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found in the environment. It is known to infect the immunocompromised. The organism has about 25 virulence genes that play different roles in disease processes. Several exotoxin proteins may be produced, including ExoA, ExoS, ExoT and ExoY, and other virulence factors. In spaceflight, possible increased expression of P. aeruginosa virulence proteins could increase health risks for spaceflight crews who experience decreased immunity. Cultures of P. aeruginosa strains PA01 and PA103 grown on orbit on Shuttle Endeavour flight STS-123 vs. static ground controls were used for analysis. The production of ETA was quantitated using an ELISA procedure. Results showed that while flight cultures of PA103 produced slightly more ETA than corresponding ground controls, the opposite was found for PA01. While it appears that spaceflight has little effect on ETA, stimulation of other virulence factors could cause increased virulence of this organism in space flight. Similar increased virulence in spaceflight has been observed for other bacteria. This is important because astronauts may be more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  3. Antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, I U; Hargreaves, M; Huygens, F

    2012-07-01

    This study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. E. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to E. faecium isolates. The virulence traits Cyl-A, Cyl-B, Cyl-M, gel-E, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-E (80% of E. faecalis and 31.9% of E. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of E. faecalis and 70.4% of E. faecium). E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from water had different antibiotic resistance patterns compared to those isolated from clinical samples. Linezolid resistance was not observed in any isolates tested and vancomycin resistance was observed only in clinical isolates. Resistance to other antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin) was detected in both clinical and water isolates. Clinical isolates were more resistant to all the antibiotics tested compared to water isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in clinical isolates (71.2% of E. faecalis and 70.3% of E. faecium) compared to water isolates (only 5.7% E. faecium). tet L and tet M genes were predominantly identified in tetracycline-resistant isolates. All water and clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin contained mutations in the gyrA, parC and pbp5 genes. A significant correlation was found between the presence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance in all the isolates tested in this study (p<0.05). The presence of antibiotic resistant enterococci, together with associated virulence traits, in surface recreational water could be a public health risk.

  4. Speciation and frequency of virulence genes of Enterococcus spp. isolated from rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-06-19

    In this study, 212 Enterococcus isolates from 23 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia were identified to the species level. The isolates were also tested for the presence of 6 virulence genes associated with Enterococcus related infections. Among the 23 rainwater tank samples, 20 (90%), 10 (44%), 7 (30%), 5 (22%), 4 (17%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples yielded E. faecalis, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. avium, and E. durans, respectively. Among the 6 virulence genes tested, gelE and efaA were most prevalent, detected in 19 (83%) and 18 (78%) of 23 rainwater tank samples, respectively. Virulence gene ace was also detected in 14 (61%) rainwater tank samples followed by AS, esp (E. faecalis variant), and cylA genes which were detected in 3 (13%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples, respectively. In all, 120 (57%) Enterococcus isolates from 20 rainwater tank samples harbored virulence genes. Among these tank water samples, Enterococcus spp. from 5 (25%) samples harbored a single virulence gene and 15 (75%) samples were harboring two or more virulence genes. The significance of these strains in terms of health implications remains to be assessed. The potential sources of these strains need to be identified for the improved management of captured rainwater quality. Finally, it is recommended that Enterococcus spp. should be used as an additional fecal indicator bacterium in conjunction with E. coli for the microbiological assessment of rainwater tanks.

  5. Pathogenicity and virulence: another view.

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, H D

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of pathogenicity and virulence have governed our perception of microbial harmfulness since the time of Pasteur and Koch. These concepts resulted in the recognition and identification of numerous etiological agents and provided natural and synthetic agents effective in therapy and prevention of diseases. However, Koch's postulates--the premier product of this view--place the onus of harmfulness solely on the microbial world. Our recent experiences with polymicrobic and nosocomial infections, legionellosis, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome point to the host as the major determinant of disease. The principles of parasitism, enunciated by Theobold Smith, approximate more accurately the disturbances of the host-parasite equilibrium we designate as infection. Many complex attributes of microbial anatomy and physiology have been obscured by our dependency on the pure-culture technique. For example, bacterial attachment organelles and the production of exopolysaccharides enable microorganisms to interact with mammalian glycocalyces and specific receptors. In addition, selection, through the use of therapeutic agents, aids in the progression of environmental organisms to members of the intimate human biosphere, with the potential to complicate the recovery of patients. These factors emphasize further the pivotal significance of host reactions in infections. Parasitism, in its negative aspects, explains the emergence of "new" infections that involve harm to more than host organs and cells: we may encounter subtler infections that reveal parasitic and host cell nucleic acid interactions in a form of genomic parasitism. PMID:3060244

  6. Dirofilariosis in the Americas: a more virulent Dirofilaria immitis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dirofilarioses are widespread diseases caused by filarioid nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) of the genus Dirofilaria, which are transmitted by a plethora of mosquito species. The principal agent of canine dirofilariosis in the Americas is Dirofilaria immitis, which may also occasionally infest humans, resulting in pulmonary nodules that may be confounded with malignant lung tumours. Because human cases of dirofilariosis by D. immitis are relatively frequent in the Americas and rare in Europe and other eastern countries, where Dirofilaria repens is the main causative agent, the existence of a more virulent strain of D. immitis in the Americas has been speculated. Recently, a case of human ocular infestation by Dirofilaria sp. was diagnosed in Pará State, northern Brazil, where canine heartworm dirofilariosis is endemic. The nematode was shown to be morphologically and phylogenetically related to D. immitis but it was genetically distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same geographical area. This finding raised questions regarding the aetiology of human dirofilariosis in the Americas, since information on the genetic makeup of filarioids infesting dogs and humans is meagre. Further studies would be needed to better characterize filarioids infesting dogs, wild animals, and humans in the Americas and to assess the existence of a more virulent D. immitis strain in this continent. Finally, the competence of different culicid species/strains from Europe and the Americas as vectors of Dirofilaria species should be investigated. Such studies would help us to understand possible variations in transmission patterns and even to predict possible scenarios that may emerge in the future, with the introduction of non-endemic Dirofilaria species/strains in free areas through importation of infested animals, vectors, or both. PMID:24274042

  7. Identification of Secreted Exoproteome Fingerprints of Highly-Virulent and Non-Virulent Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Emilia; Wojcik, Iwona; Jankowska, Urszula; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Lis, Marcin W.; Kosecka-Strojek, Maja; Sabat, Artur J.; Dubin, Grzegorz; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal inhabitant of skin and mucous membranes in nose vestibule but also an important opportunistic pathogen of humans and livestock. The extracellular proteome as a whole constitutes its major virulence determinant; however, the involvement of particular proteins is still relatively poorly understood. In this study, we compared the extracellular proteomes of poultry-derived S. aureus strains exhibiting a virulent (VIR) and non-virulent (NVIR) phenotype in a chicken embryo experimental infection model with the aim to identify proteomic signatures associated with the particular phenotypes. Despite significant heterogeneity within the analyzed proteomes, we identified alpha-haemolysin and bifunctional autolysin as indicators of virulence, whereas glutamylendopeptidase production was characteristic for non-virulent strains. Staphopain C (StpC) was identified in both the VIR and NVIR proteomes and the latter fact contradicted previous findings suggesting its involvement in virulence. By supplementing NVIR, StpC-negative strains with StpC, and comparing the virulence of parental and supplemented strains, we demonstrated that staphopain C alone does not affect staphylococcal virulence in a chicken embryo model. PMID:27242969

  8. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  9. Antibiotic resistance profile and virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in relation to phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Adib, N; Ghanbarpour, R; Solatzadeh, H; Alizade, H

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and belong to the large group of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The purposes of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance profile, virulence genes and phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from UTI cases. A total of 137 E. coli isolates were obtained from UTI samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of confirmed isolates was determined by disk diffusion method against eight antibiotics. The isolates were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of selected virulence genes including iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly. ECOR phylo-groups of isolates were determined by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. The antibiogram results showed that 71% of the isolates were resistant to cefazolin, 60.42% to co-trimoxazole, 54.16% to nalidixic acid, 36.45% to gentamicin, 29.18% to ciprofloxacin, 14.58% to cefepime, 6.25% to nitrofurantoin and 0.00% to imipenem. Twenty-two antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Virulence genotyping of isolates revealed that 58.39% isolates had at least one of the four virulence genes. The iucD gene was the most prevalent gene (43.06%). The other genes including sfa/focDE, papEF and hly genes were detected in 35.76%, 18.97% and 2.18% isolates, respectively. Nine combination patterns of the virulence genes were detected in isolates. Phylotyping of 137 isolates revealed that the isolates fell into A (45.99%), B1 (13.14%), B2 (19.71%) and D (21.16%) groups. Phylotyping of multidrug resistant isolates indicated that these isolates are mostly in A (60.34%) and D (20.38%) groups. In conclusion, the isolates that possessed the iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly virulence genes mostly belonged to A and B2 groups, whereas antibiotic resistant isolates were in groups A and D. Escherichia coli strains carrying virulence factors and antibiotic resistance are distributed in specific phylogenetic

  10. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  11. The burden of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Bruna Coelho Galvão; Guerra, Luiza Paulino; Drummond, Juliana Beaudette; Silva, Barbara C; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals.

  12. Heavy metal resistance and virulence profile in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian soils.

    PubMed

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Gonçalves, Guilherme Bartolomeu; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, which can have several virulence factors that confer on it the ability to cause severe, acute and chronic infections. Thus, the simultaneous occurrence of resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals associated with the presence of virulence genes is a potential threat to human health and environmental balance. This study aimed to investigate the resistance profile to heavy metals and the correlation of this phenotype of resistance to antimicrobials and to investigate the pathogenic potential of 46 P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from the soil of five Brazilian regions. The bacteria were evaluating for antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance, as well as the presence of plasmids and virulence genes. The isolates showed resistance to four different antibiotics and the majority (n = 44) had resistance to aztreonam or ticarcillin, furthermore, 32 isolates showed concomitant resistance to both of these antibiotics. A high prevalence of virulence genes was found, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the studied environmental isolates. Moreover, a high frequency of heavy metal resistance genes was also detected, however, the phenotypic results indicated that other genes and/or mechanisms should be related to heavy metal resistance. PMID:27197940

  13. A toxin-antitoxin module of Salmonella promotes virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Miguel A; Zhao, Weidong; Farenc, Carine; Gimenez, Grégory; Raoult, Didier; Cambillau, Christian; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Méresse, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are widely prevalent in both bacteria and archaea. Originally described as stabilizing elements of plasmids, TA modules are also widespread on bacterial chromosomes. These modules promote bacterial persistence in response to specific environmental stresses. So far, the possibility that TA modules could be involved in bacterial virulence has been largely neglected, but recent comparative genomic studies have shown that the presence of TA modules is significantly associated with the pathogenicity of bacteria. Using Salmonella as a model, we investigated whether TA modules help bacteria to overcome the stress conditions encountered during colonization, thereby supporting virulence in the host. By bioinformatics analyses, we found that the genome of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium encodes at least 11 type II TA modules. Several of these are conserved in other pathogenic strains but absent from non-pathogenic species indicating that certain TA modules might play a role in Salmonella pathogenicity. We show that one TA module, hereafter referred to as sehAB, plays a transient role in virulence in perorally inoculated mice. The use of a transcriptional reporter demonstrated that bacteria in which sehAB is strongly activated are predominantly localized in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In addition, sehAB was shown to be important for the survival of Salmonella in these peripheral lymphoid organs. These data indicate that the transient activation of a type II TA module can bring a selective advantage favouring virulence and demonstrate that TA modules are engaged in Salmonella pathogenesis.

  14. A Toxin-Antitoxin Module of Salmonella Promotes Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Zhao, Weidong; Farenc, Carine; Gimenez, Grégory; Raoult, Didier; Cambillau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are widely prevalent in both bacteria and archaea. Originally described as stabilizing elements of plasmids, TA modules are also widespread on bacterial chromosomes. These modules promote bacterial persistence in response to specific environmental stresses. So far, the possibility that TA modules could be involved in bacterial virulence has been largely neglected, but recent comparative genomic studies have shown that the presence of TA modules is significantly associated with the pathogenicity of bacteria. Using Salmonella as a model, we investigated whether TA modules help bacteria to overcome the stress conditions encountered during colonization, thereby supporting virulence in the host. By bioinformatics analyses, we found that the genome of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium encodes at least 11 type II TA modules. Several of these are conserved in other pathogenic strains but absent from non-pathogenic species indicating that certain TA modules might play a role in Salmonella pathogenicity. We show that one TA module, hereafter referred to as sehAB, plays a transient role in virulence in perorally inoculated mice. The use of a transcriptional reporter demonstrated that bacteria in which sehAB is strongly activated are predominantly localized in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In addition, sehAB was shown to be important for the survival of Salmonella in these peripheral lymphoid organs. These data indicate that the transient activation of a type II TA module can bring a selective advantage favouring virulence and demonstrate that TA modules are engaged in Salmonella pathogenesis. PMID:24385907

  15. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  16. Learning virulent proteins from integrated query networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methods of weakening and attenuating pathogens’ abilities to infect and propagate in a host, thus allowing the natural immune system to more easily decimate invaders, have gained attention as alternatives to broad-spectrum targeting approaches. The following work describes a technique to identifying proteins involved in virulence by relying on latent information computationally gathered across biological repositories, applicable to both generic and specific virulence categories. Results A lightweight method for data integration is used, which links information regarding a protein via a path-based query graph. A method of weighting is then applied to query graphs that can serve as input to various statistical classification methods for discrimination, and the combined usage of both data integration and learning methods are tested against the problem of both generalized and specific virulence function prediction. Conclusions This approach improves coverage of functional data over a protein. Moreover, while depending largely on noisy and potentially non-curated data from public sources, we find it outperforms other techniques to identification of general virulence factors and baseline remote homology detection methods for specific virulence categories. PMID:23198735

  17. Genetically manipulated virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Heesemann, J; Algermissen, B; Laufs, R

    1984-01-01

    Mobilizable virulence plasmids of Yersinia enterocolitica of serotypes O:3 and O:9 were constructed by cointegration of a mobilizable vector into the virulence plasmids. The obtained cointegrates were mobilized into plasmidless Y. enterocolitica strains of serotypes O:3, O:5, O:8, and O:9. The transfer experiments revealed the existence of two different subgroups of plasmid-associated traits. (i) Animal virulence functions (mouse lethality and conjuctivitis provocation) were only transferable to plasmid-cured derivatives of virulent parent strains (serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9), but they were not transferable to Y. enterocolitica antigen reference strains (serotypes O:3 and O:8) or to a plasmidless clinical isolate of serotype O:5. A further striking result was that a serotype O:8 strain regained the mouse lethality trait after receipt of a plasmid from a strain not lethal to mice. These results demonstrate that plasmid-mediated animal virulence functions are not uniformly expressed within Y. enterocolitica. (ii) The second subgroup of plasmid-mediated traits (calcium dependency, surface agglutinogens, HEp-2 cell adherence, and protein release) were transferable to all Y. enterocolitica recipient strains tested (serotypes O:3, O:5, O:8, and O:9 of different origin). For the first time HEp-2 cell adherence and temperature-induced release of five major protein species are described as transferable traits. Images PMID:6480101

  18. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission.

  19. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laura Nunes; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Macedo, Alexandre José; Trentin, Danielle Silva

    2016-08-24

    Decreased antimicrobial efficiency has become a global public health issue. The paucity of new antibacterial drugs is evident, and the arsenal against infectious diseases needs to be improved urgently. The selection of plants as a source of prototype compounds is appropriate, since plant species naturally produce a wide range of secondary metabolites that act as a chemical line of defense against microorganisms in the environment. Although traditional approaches to combat microbial infections remain effective, targeting microbial virulence rather than survival seems to be an exciting strategy, since the modulation of virulence factors might lead to a milder evolutionary pressure for the development of resistance. Additionally, anti-infective chemotherapies may be successfully achieved by combining antivirulence and conventional antimicrobials, extending the lifespan of these drugs. This review presents an updated discussion of natural compounds isolated from plants with chemically characterized structures and activity against the major bacterial virulence factors: quorum sensing, bacterial biofilms, bacterial motility, bacterial toxins, bacterial pigments, bacterial enzymes, and bacterial surfactants. Moreover, a critical analysis of the most promising virulence factors is presented, highlighting their potential as targets to attenuate bacterial virulence. The ongoing progress in the field of antivirulence therapy may therefore help to translate this promising concept into real intervention strategies in clinical areas. PMID:27437994

  20. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Mauricio H.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  1. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  2. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ≥ 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits.

  3. Effects of an intervention in eating habits and physical activity in Japanese-Brazilian women with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G; Gimeno, Suely G A; Hirai, Amélia T; Harima, Helena; Matsumura, Luiza; Pittito, Bianca de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of a lifestyle intervention on the cardiometabolic risk profile of women participating in the Study on Diabetes and Associated Diseases in the Japanese-Brazilian Population in Bauru. This was a non-controlled experimental study including clinical and laboratory values at baseline and after a 1-year intervention period. 401 Japanese-Brazilian women were examined (age 60.8+/-11.7 years), and 365 classified for metabolic syndrome (prevalence = 50.6%). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were older than those without (63.0+/-10.0 vs. 56.7+/-11.6 years, p < 0.01). After intervention, improvements in variables were found, except for C-reactive protein. Body mass index and waist circumference decreased, but adiposity reduction was more pronounced in the abdominal region (87.0+/-9.7 to 84.5+/-11.2cm, p < 0.001). Intervention-induced differences in total cholesterol, LDL, and post-challenge glucose were significant; women who lost more than 5% body weight showed a better profile than those who did not. The lifestyle intervention in Japanese-Brazilian women at high cardiometabolic risk improved anthropometric and laboratory parameters, but it is not known whether such benefits will persist and result in long-term reduction in cardiovascular events.

  4. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes investigation revealed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli as putative emerging diarrheal agents in children living in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Regiane C B; Dos Santos, Bruna C; Dos Santos, Luis F; Vieira, Melissa A; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Mondelli, Alessandro L; Sadatsune, Terue; Sforcin, José M; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes, a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide, among diarrheal and healthy children, up to 5 years of age, living in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. DEC, investigated by PCR detection of virulence factor-encoding genes associated with the distinct pathotypes, was isolated from 18.0% of the patients, and 19.0% of the controls, with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), the most frequent pathotype, being detected in equal proportion between patients and controls (10.0%). Among the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, only one isolate was able to produce the localized adherence pattern to HeLa cells, being thus the only typical EPEC identified. All the remaining EPEC were classified as atypical (aEPEC), and detected in 8.0% and 8.5% of the patients and controls, respectively. Regarding the serotypes, 26.5% of the analyzed EPEC isolates belonged to classical EPEC-serogroups, and the only two STEC found were serotyped as O26:H11 (patient) and O119:H7 (control). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 43.6%, 29.5% and 2.6% of the DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and gentamicin, respectively. Our data indicate that EAEC remains prevalent among children living in Botucatu, and revealed atypical EPEC as emerging putative diarrheal agents in this geographical region. PMID:26752102

  5. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes investigation revealed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli as putative emerging diarrheal agents in children living in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Regiane C B; Dos Santos, Bruna C; Dos Santos, Luis F; Vieira, Melissa A; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Mondelli, Alessandro L; Sadatsune, Terue; Sforcin, José M; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes, a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide, among diarrheal and healthy children, up to 5 years of age, living in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. DEC, investigated by PCR detection of virulence factor-encoding genes associated with the distinct pathotypes, was isolated from 18.0% of the patients, and 19.0% of the controls, with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), the most frequent pathotype, being detected in equal proportion between patients and controls (10.0%). Among the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, only one isolate was able to produce the localized adherence pattern to HeLa cells, being thus the only typical EPEC identified. All the remaining EPEC were classified as atypical (aEPEC), and detected in 8.0% and 8.5% of the patients and controls, respectively. Regarding the serotypes, 26.5% of the analyzed EPEC isolates belonged to classical EPEC-serogroups, and the only two STEC found were serotyped as O26:H11 (patient) and O119:H7 (control). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 43.6%, 29.5% and 2.6% of the DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and gentamicin, respectively. Our data indicate that EAEC remains prevalent among children living in Botucatu, and revealed atypical EPEC as emerging putative diarrheal agents in this geographical region.

  6. Virulence characterization of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from resident wild birds in Tokachi area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shyaka, Anselme; Kusumoto, Akiko; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Okouchi, Yoshiki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamoto, Keiko

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds is a potential hazard for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of C. jejuni in wild birds in Tokachi area, Hokkaido, Japan and investigate their virulence in vitro. In total, 173 cloacal swabs from individual wild birds were collected for the detection of Campylobacter spp. Thirty four samples (19.7%) were positive for Campylobacter of which 94.1% (32/34 samples) were C. jejuni. Additionally, one C. coli and one C. fetus were isolated. Seven C. jejuni isolates (one from crows and the other from pigeons) had important virulence genes including all three CDT genes (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and flaA, flaB, ciaB and cadF, and the other isolates were lacking cdtA gene. Further studies on in vitro virulence-associated phenotypes, such as motility assay on soft agar and invasion assay in Caco-2 cells, were performed. The wild bird C. jejuni isolates adhered and invaded human cells. Although the numbers of viable intracellular bacteria of wild bird isolates were lower than a type strain NCTC11168, they persisted at 48-hr and underwent replication in host cells.

  7. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  8. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  9. Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359

  10. Viral population dynamics and virulence thresholds.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Karen Z; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2012-08-01

    Viral factors and host barriers influence virally induced disease, and asymptomatic versus symptomatic infection is governed by a 'virulence threshold'. Understanding modulation of virulence thresholds could lend insight into disease outcome and aid in rational therapeutic and vaccine design. RNA viruses are an excellent system to study virulence thresholds in the context of quasispecies population dynamics. RNA viruses have high error frequencies and our understanding of viral population dynamics has been shaped by quasispecies evolutionary theory. In turn, research using RNA viruses as replicons with short generation times and high mutation rates has been an invaluable tool to test models of quasispecies theory. The challenge and new frontier of RNA virus population dynamics research is to combine multiple theoretical models and experimental data to describe viral population behavior as it changes, moving within and between hosts, to predict disease and pathogen emergence. Several excellent studies have begun to undertake this challenge using novel approaches.

  11. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L; Purcell, Maureen K; Read, Andrew F; Winton, James R; Wargo, Andrew R

    2016-02-01

    Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.

  12. Epidemiological consequences of a pathogen having both virulent and avirulent modes of transmission: the case of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    White, P. J.; Norman, R. A.; Hudson, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    A number of pathogens cause chronic infection in survivors of acute disease and this is believed to be a common means of persistence, including for highly virulent agents. We present a model in which transmission from chronically infected hosts causes chronic infection in naive individuals, without causing acute disease--indeed 'protecting' against it. Thus the pathogen obtains the benefit of virulence (high transmission rate), but mitigates against the cost (high host mortality). Recent findings suggest that rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a highly contagious and virulent pathogen, may also utilize this alternative, 'avirulent', mode of transmission. The model may resolve the paradox of how RHDV can be highly prevalent in some populations, in the absence of mortality. Differences in host demography determine whether avirulent transmission prevents large-scale mortality (as in most UK populations) or not. Other pathogens may exhibit similar behaviour and the implications for emerging diseases in general are discussed. PMID:12558352

  13. Biofilm formation by virulent and non-virulent strains of Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Bello-Ortí, Bernardo; Deslandes, Vincent; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Labrie, Josée; Howell, Kate J; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J; Aragon, Virginia; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal bacterium of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs. It is also the etiological agent of Glässer's disease, a systemic disease characterized by polyarthritis, fibrinous polyserositis and meningitis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation by well-characterized virulent and non-virulent strains of H. parasuis. We observed that non-virulent strains isolated from the nasal cavities of healthy pigs formed significantly (p < 0.05) more biofilms than virulent strains isolated from lesions of pigs with Glässer's disease. These differences were observed when biofilms were formed in microtiter plates under static conditions or formed in the presence of shear force in a drip-flow apparatus or a microfluidic system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using different fluorescent probes on a representative subset of strains indicated that the biofilm matrix contains poly-N-acetylglucosamine, proteins and eDNA. The biofilm matrix was highly sensitive to degradation by proteinase K. Comparison of transcriptional profiles of biofilm and planktonic cells of the non-virulent H. parasuis F9 strain revealed a significant number of up-regulated membrane-related genes in biofilms, and genes previously identified in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilms. Our data indicate that non-virulent strains of H. parasuis have the ability to form robust biofilms in contrast to virulent, systemic strains. Biofilm formation might therefore allow the non-virulent strains to colonize and persist in the upper respiratory tract of pigs. Conversely, the planktonic state of the virulent strains might allow them to disseminate within the host. PMID:25428823

  14. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  15. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  16. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  17. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy products - Genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles.

    PubMed

    Douëllou, T; Delannoy, S; Ganet, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Fach, P; Loukiadis, E; Montel, Mc; Thevenot-Sergentet, D

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are widely recognized as pathogens causing food borne disease. Here we evaluate the genetic diversity of 197 strains, mainly STEC, from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 and O145:28 and compared strains recovered in dairy products against strains from human, meat and environment cases. For this purpose, we characterized a set of reference-collection STEC isolates from dairy products by PFGE DNA fingerprinting and a subset of these by virulence-gene profiling. PFGE profiles of restricted STEC total DNA showed high genomic variability (0.9976 on Simpson's discriminatory index), enabling all dairy isolates to be differentiated. High-throughput real-time PCR screening of STEC virulence genes were applied on the O157:H7 and O26:H11 STEC isolates from dairy products and human cases. The virulence gene profiles of dairy and human STEC strains were similar. Nevertheless, frequency-wise, stx1 was more prevalent among dairy O26:H11 isolates than in human cases ones (87% vs. 44%) while stx2 was more prevalent among O26:H11 human isolates (23% vs. 81%). For O157:H7 isolates, stx1 (0% vs. 39%), nleF (40% vs 94%) and Z6065 (40% vs 100%) were more prevalent among human than dairy strains. Our data point to differences between human and dairy strains but these differences were not sufficient to associate PFGE and virulence gene profiles to a putative lower pathogenicity of dairy strains based on their lower incidence in disease. Further comparison of whole-genome expression and virulence gene profiles should be investigated in cheese and intestinal tract samples.

  18. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy products - Genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles.

    PubMed

    Douëllou, T; Delannoy, S; Ganet, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Fach, P; Loukiadis, E; Montel, Mc; Thevenot-Sergentet, D

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are widely recognized as pathogens causing food borne disease. Here we evaluate the genetic diversity of 197 strains, mainly STEC, from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 and O145:28 and compared strains recovered in dairy products against strains from human, meat and environment cases. For this purpose, we characterized a set of reference-collection STEC isolates from dairy products by PFGE DNA fingerprinting and a subset of these by virulence-gene profiling. PFGE profiles of restricted STEC total DNA showed high genomic variability (0.9976 on Simpson's discriminatory index), enabling all dairy isolates to be differentiated. High-throughput real-time PCR screening of STEC virulence genes were applied on the O157:H7 and O26:H11 STEC isolates from dairy products and human cases. The virulence gene profiles of dairy and human STEC strains were similar. Nevertheless, frequency-wise, stx1 was more prevalent among dairy O26:H11 isolates than in human cases ones (87% vs. 44%) while stx2 was more prevalent among O26:H11 human isolates (23% vs. 81%). For O157:H7 isolates, stx1 (0% vs. 39%), nleF (40% vs 94%) and Z6065 (40% vs 100%) were more prevalent among human than dairy strains. Our data point to differences between human and dairy strains but these differences were not sufficient to associate PFGE and virulence gene profiles to a putative lower pathogenicity of dairy strains based on their lower incidence in disease. Further comparison of whole-genome expression and virulence gene profiles should be investigated in cheese and intestinal tract samples. PMID:27257743

  19. Virulence Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns among Various Phylogenetic Groups of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Firouzi, Roya; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Arabshahi, Sina; Novinrooz, Aytak; Boroojeni, Azar Motamedi; Bahadori, Maryam; Heidari, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates and to investigate the frequency of several virulence genes, including fimH, papA, hlyD, cnf-1, sitA, and tsh, among various phylogenetic groups of UPEC isolates. A total of 85 E. coli isolates were recovered from urine samples from outpatients with a clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A molecular approach to examine the antimicrobial resistance patterns was employed using PCR and the disc diffusion method. The detected frequencies of the virulence factor genes determined using PCR were: fimH (34.1%), papA (9.4%), hlyD (21.2%), cnf-1 (3.5%), sitA (15.3%), and tsh (27.1%). These results revealed that the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (74.1%), cefotaxime (CTX) (68.2%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) (94.1%), and they were relatively less resistant to N (56.5%). According to these results, further investigation is needed to determine exactly whether or not SXT, CTX, and AMC are appropriate antibiotics for the treatment of UPEC infections in southern Iran. Although these results demonstrate that fimH is the most frequent virulence gene among UPEC isolates, the high prevalence of isolates that do not encode fimH (75.9%) and the relatively low frequency of isolates that carry other virulence genes require further investigation to clarify the role of the other potential virulence factors in the pathogenesis of these isolates.

  20. Effects of selection pressure and genetic association on the relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Levy, Karen; Trueba, Gabriel; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic selection pressure and genetic associations may lead to the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in individual pathogens. However, there is a lack of rigorous epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence at the population level. Using samples from a population-based case-control study in 25 villages in rural Ecuador, we characterized resistance to 12 antibiotics among pathogenic (n = 86) and commensal (n = 761) Escherichia coli isolates, classified by the presence or absence of known diarrheagenic virulence factor genes. The prevalences of resistance to single and multiple antibiotics were significantly higher for pathogenic isolates than for commensal isolates. Using a generalized estimating equation, antibiotic resistance was independently associated with virulence factor carriage, case status, and antibiotic use (for these respective factors: odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.7 to 5.1; OR = 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.3 to 3.0; and OR = 1.5, with a 95% CI of 0.9 to 2.5). Virulence factor carriage was more strongly related to antibiotic resistance than antibiotic use for all antibiotics examined, with the exception of fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, and cefotaxime. This study provides epidemiological evidence that antibiotic resistance and virulence factor carriage are linked in E. coli populations in a community setting. Further, these data suggest that while the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in E. coli is partially due to antibiotic selection pressure, it is also genetically determined. These findings should be considered in developing strategies for treating infections and controlling for antibiotic resistance.

  1. Comparison of plating media for recovery of total and virulent genotypes of Vibrio vulnificus in U.S. market oysters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; DePaola, Angelo

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of seafood associated mortality in the United States and is generally associated with consumption of raw oysters. Two genetic markers have emerged as indicators of strain virulence, 16S rDNA type B (rrnB) and virulence correlated gene type C (vcgC). While much is known about the distribution of V. vulnificus in oysters, a limited number of studies have addressed the more virulent subtypes. Therefore, the goals of this study were to (1) determine the suitability of media for recovery of total and virulent genotypes of V. vulnificus and (2) evaluate the geographical and seasonal distribution of these genotypes. Market oysters from across the United States and the strains isolated from them during a year-long study in 2007 were used. For media evaluation, VVA and CPC+ were compared using direct plating of oyster tissues while mCPC and CPC+ were compared for isolation following MPN enrichment. Representative isolates from each media/method were tested for rrn and vcg types to determine their seasonal and geographical distribution. No statistically significant difference was observed between VVA/CPC+ or mCPC/CPC+ for isolation of total or virulent (rrnB/vcgC) genotypes of V. vulnificus. Overall, 32% of recovered isolates possessed the virulent genotype. The prevalence of these genotypes was highest in oysters from the Gulf Coast during Oct-Dec, and demonstrated a statistically significant geographical and seasonal pattern. This is the first report on the distribution of virulent V. vulnificus genotypes across the United States, which provides novel insight into the occurrence of this pathogen.

  2. Effects of Selection Pressure and Genetic Association on the Relationship between Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Trueba, Gabriel; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Marrs, Carl F.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic selection pressure and genetic associations may lead to the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in individual pathogens. However, there is a lack of rigorous epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence at the population level. Using samples from a population-based case-control study in 25 villages in rural Ecuador, we characterized resistance to 12 antibiotics among pathogenic (n = 86) and commensal (n = 761) Escherichia coli isolates, classified by the presence or absence of known diarrheagenic virulence factor genes. The prevalences of resistance to single and multiple antibiotics were significantly higher for pathogenic isolates than for commensal isolates. Using a generalized estimating equation, antibiotic resistance was independently associated with virulence factor carriage, case status, and antibiotic use (for these respective factors: odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.7 to 5.1; OR = 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.3 to 3.0; and OR = 1.5, with a 95% CI of 0.9 to 2.5). Virulence factor carriage was more strongly related to antibiotic resistance than antibiotic use for all antibiotics examined, with the exception of fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, and cefotaxime. This study provides epidemiological evidence that antibiotic resistance and virulence factor carriage are linked in E. coli populations in a community setting. Further, these data suggest that while the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in E. coli is partially due to antibiotic selection pressure, it is also genetically determined. These findings should be considered in developing strategies for treating infections and controlling for antibiotic resistance. PMID:26282415

  3. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Dağı, Hatice Türk; Fındık, Duygu; Demirel, Gamze; Arslan, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3%) nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1%) S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9%) were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%), and 3 (2.9%) isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers. PMID:26167341

  4. Virulence determinants in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from North India and their interaction in in vitro organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepika; Sharma, Monica; Sarkar, Subendu; Thapa, B R; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrhoeal pathogen causing diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. In developing countries like India, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major killers among paediatric population and oddly, few studies are available from Indian paediatric population on the variability of EAEC virulence genes. In this study, we examined the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal-encoded virulence determinants in EAEC isolates, and analysed cytokines response generated against EAEC with specific aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) type in duodenal biopsies using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) mimicking in vivo conditions. Different virulence marker combinations among strains were reflected as a function of specific adhesins signifying EAEC heterogeneity. fis gene emerged as an important genetic marker apart from aggA and aap Further, EAEC infection in IVOC showed upregulation of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TLR-5 expression. EAEC with AAFII induced significant TLR-5 and IL-8 response, conceivably owing to more pathogenicity markers. This study sheds light on the pattern of EAEC pathotypes prevalent in North Indian paediatric population and highlights the presence of unique virulence combinations in pathogenic strains. Thus, evident diversity in EAEC virulence and multifaceted bacteria-host crosstalk can provide useful insights for the strategic management of diarrhoeal diseases in India, where diarrhoeal outbreaks are more frequent. PMID:27493010

  5. Virulence potential for extraintestinal infections among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans--the Trojan horse within our gut.

    PubMed

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-03-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains is the intestinal microbiota. Nevertheless, studies focused on the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among the bowel microbiota in healthy human individuals practically do not exist and a strong bias towards pathogenic strains among the E. coli data set is obvious. To assess the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among E. coli from the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans, we performed a search for data on the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and pathogenicity islands among fecal E. coli found in published studies, including studies comparing isolates from patients suffering from extraintestinal E. coli infections with E. coli from feces of healthy humans. An extensive literature search, including more than 500 published papers, revealed 24 papers with data on prevalences of ≥ 5 virulence-associated genes among 21 E. coli collections including ≥ 20 fecal/rectal strains obtained from healthy individuals and 4 papers with prevalences of pathogenicity islands among E. coli collections from healthy humans. The gathered data are presented in this minireview and clearly show that potential ExPEC strains are present among fecal isolates with a prevalence of around ≥ 10%.

  6. Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, M A V; Pena, H F J; Ton, N C; Lino, A J B; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Pereira, F E L

    2012-09-10

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 510 free-range (FR) chickens (380 from 33 small farms, and 130 from a slaughter house for FR chickens) from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were sought using commercial indirect haemagglutination (IHAT, Imuno-HAI Toxo(®), Wama Diagnóstica, São Paulo, Brazil, cut-off 1:16) and the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) tests. Attempts were made to isolate viable T. gondii from seropositive chickens by bioassay in mice. Pooled samples of brain, heart and quadriceps muscle of one thigh (total 40 g) from 64 chickens with IHAT titers of ≥ 1:16 were minced, digested in pepsin and bioassayed in mice. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 40.4% (206/510) FR chickens by IHAT (titer ≥ 1:16) and 38.8% (198/510) by MAT (titer ≥ 1:25); concordance between IHAT and MAT was 81.6% (kappa index=0.614). Viable T. gondii was isolated (designated TgCkBr234-281) from 48 of 64 (75%) seropositive (IHAT titers ≥ 1:32) FR chickens. Most isolates of T. gondii were virulent for mice; 100% of mice inoculated with 44 of 48 isolates died of toxoplasmosis within 30 days post inoculation (p.i). An epidemiological investigation revealed that people living in rural areas have little knowledge about the parasite and about the risk of acquiring it from raw meat. Results indicated that the locally available IHAT was useful for screening of chicken sera for T. gondii antibodies.

  7. Entamoeba histolytica. Phagocytosis as a virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we attempted to define the role of phagocytosis in the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica. We have isolated, from a highly phagocytic and virulent strain, a clone deficient in phagocytosis. Trophozoites of wild-type strain HM1:IMSS were fed with Escherichia coli strain CR34-Thy- grown on 5-bromo,2'-deoxyuridine. The trophozoites that had incorporated the base analog through phagocytosis of the bacteria were killed by irradiation with 310 nm light. The survivors, presumably trophozoites defective in phagocytosis, were grown until log phase and submitted two more times to the selection procedure. Clone L-6, isolated from a subpopulation resulting from this selection procedure, showed 75-85% less erythrophagocytic activity than the wild-type strain. The virulence of clone L-6 and strain HM1:IMSS was measured. The inoculum required to induce liver abscesses in 50% of the newborn hamsters inoculated (AD50) of HM1:IMSS was 1.5 X 10(4) trophozoites. Clone L-6 trophozoites failed to induce liver abscesses in newborn hamsters even with inocula of 5 X 10(5) trophozoites. Virulence revertants were obtained by successive passage of L-6 trophozoites through the liver of young hamsters. The trophozoites that recovered the ability to produce liver abscesses simultaneously recuperate high erythrophagocytic rates. These results show that phagocytosis is involved in the aggressive mechanisms of E. histolytica. PMID:6313842

  8. Entamoeba histolytica: oxygen resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Nequiz, Mario; Sánchez, Ernesto C; Tello, Eusebio; El-Hafidi, Mohamed; Saralegui, Andrés; Pineda, Erika; Delgado, José; Montfort, Irmgard; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2009-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica virulence has been attributed to several amoebic molecules such as adhesins, amoebapores and cysteine proteinases, but supporting evidence is either partial or indirect. In this work we compared several in vitro and in vivo features of both virulent E. histolytica (vEh) and non-virulent E. histolytica (nvEh) axenic HM-1 IMSS strains, such as complement resistance, proteinase activity, haemolytic, phagocytic and cytotoxic capacities, survival in mice caecum, and susceptibility to O(2). The only difference observed was a higher in vitro susceptibility of nvEh to O(2). The molecular mechanism of that difference was analyzed in both groups of amoebae after high O(2) exposure. vEh O(2) resistance correlated with: (i) higher O(2) reduction (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) production); (ii) increased H(2)O(2) resistance and thiol peroxidase activity, and (iii) reversible pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) inhibition. Despite the high level of carbonylated proteins in nvEh after O(2) exposure, membrane oxidation by reactive oxygen species was not observed. These results suggest that the virulent phenotype of E. histolytica is related to the greater ability to reduce O(2) and H(2)O(2) as well as PFOR reactivation, whereas nvEh undergoes irreversible PFOR inhibition resulting in metabolic failure and amoebic death.

  9. Molecular nature of virulence in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Nequiz, Mario; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2009-12-01

    For many years virulence of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica has been attributed to the capacity of the parasite to destroy tissues through the expression and/or secretion of various molecules. Such view is supported mainly by in vitro experimentation, whereas data obtained by using animal models of the disease have clearly demonstrated that the host's inflammatory response is primarily responsible for tissue damage. This review analyzes the content and/or activity of some of the presumed toxic amebic molecules present in amebic strains with different degrees of virulence compared to various parasite in vitro functions that are supposed to correlate with in vivo virulence. The analysis suggests that amebic virulence is primarily determined by the parasite's capacity to adapt and survive the aerobic conditions present in animal tissues. This initial episode in the host-parasite relationship is an absolute requirement for the further development of tissue lesions, which result from the concerted action of many molecules derived from both, the host and the parasite.

  10. Entamoeba histolytica: oxygen resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Nequiz, Mario; Sánchez, Ernesto C; Tello, Eusebio; El-Hafidi, Mohamed; Saralegui, Andrés; Pineda, Erika; Delgado, José; Montfort, Irmgard; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2009-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica virulence has been attributed to several amoebic molecules such as adhesins, amoebapores and cysteine proteinases, but supporting evidence is either partial or indirect. In this work we compared several in vitro and in vivo features of both virulent E. histolytica (vEh) and non-virulent E. histolytica (nvEh) axenic HM-1 IMSS strains, such as complement resistance, proteinase activity, haemolytic, phagocytic and cytotoxic capacities, survival in mice caecum, and susceptibility to O(2). The only difference observed was a higher in vitro susceptibility of nvEh to O(2). The molecular mechanism of that difference was analyzed in both groups of amoebae after high O(2) exposure. vEh O(2) resistance correlated with: (i) higher O(2) reduction (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) production); (ii) increased H(2)O(2) resistance and thiol peroxidase activity, and (iii) reversible pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) inhibition. Despite the high level of carbonylated proteins in nvEh after O(2) exposure, membrane oxidation by reactive oxygen species was not observed. These results suggest that the virulent phenotype of E. histolytica is related to the greater ability to reduce O(2) and H(2)O(2) as well as PFOR reactivation, whereas nvEh undergoes irreversible PFOR inhibition resulting in metabolic failure and amoebic death. PMID:19073188

  11. Virulence factors of medically important fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, L H; Klein, B S; Levitz, S M

    1996-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens have become an increasingly important medical problem with the explosion in the number of immunocompromised patients as a result of cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy, and AIDS. Additionally, the globalization of travel and expansion of humankind into previously undisturbed habitats have led to the reemergence of old fungi and new exposure to previously undescribed fungi. Until recently, relatively little was known about virulence factors for the medically important fungi. With the advent of molecular genetics, rapid progress has now been made in understanding the basis of pathogenicity for organisms such as Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The twin technologies of genetic transformation and "knockout" deletion construction allowed for genetic tests of virulence factors in these organisms. Such knowledge will prove invaluable for the rational design of antifungal therapies. Putative virulence factors and attributes are reviewed for Aspergillus species, C. neoformans, the dimorphic fungal pathogens, and others, with a focus upon a molecular genetic approach. Candida species are excluded from coverage, having been the subject of numerous recent reviews. This growing body of knowledge about fungal pathogens and their virulence factors will significantly aid efforts to treat the serious diseases they cause. PMID:8894347

  12. Novel Strategies to Combat Bacterial Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, S.V.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Incidences of antimicrobial resistant infections have increased dramatically over the past several decades and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Alternative approaches to combat infection are critical, and have led to the development of more specific drugs targeted at particular bacterial virulence systems or essential regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent developments in anti-bacterial therapy and the novel approaches toward increasing our therapeutic armory against bacterial infection. Recent findings Although classic antibiotic development is not occurring rapidly, alternative therapeutics that target specific bacterial virulence systems are progressing from the discovery stage through the FDA approval process. Here we review novel antibodies that target specific virulence systems as well as a variety of newly discovered small molecules that block bacterial attachment, communication systems (quorum sensing) or important regulatory processes associated with virulence gene expression. Summary The success of novel therapeutics could significantly change clinical practice. Furthermore, the complications of collateral damage due to antibiotic administration e.g. suprainfections or decreased host immunity due to loss of synergistic bacterial communities, may be minimized using therapeutics that specifically target pathogenic behavior. PMID:18787455

  13. Bacterial Reductionism: Host Thiols Enhance Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria exploit host cytosolic signals to upregulate virulence genes. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wong et al. (2015) show that Burkholderia pseudomallei senses host cytosolic glutathione, a low-molecular-weight thiol, through the membrane-bound histidine sensor kinase VirA, highlighting the importance of inter-kingdom signaling in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26159714

  14. Virulence Factor-activity Relationships: Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept or notion of virulence factor–activity relationships (VFAR) is an approach for identifying an analogous process to the use of qualitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for identifying new microbial contaminants. In QSAR, it is hypothesized that, for new chem...

  15. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  16. Are secondary metabolites dispensable for virulence?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of toxins by conidial fungal pathogens and their association with virulence has been assumed to occur in vivo and is widely accepted as dogma, but this association has yet to be definitively proven by either genetic or chemical means. Several studies from our labs have used targeted g...

  17. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required. PMID:21219758

  18. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  19. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  20. Microevolution and virulence of dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Rico-Hesse, Rebeca

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of dengue viruses has had a major impact on their virulence for humans and on the epidemiology of dengue disease around the world. Although antigenic and genetic differences in virus strains had become evident, it is mainly due to the lack of animal models of disease that has made it difficult to detect differences in virulence of dengue viruses. However, phylogenetic studies of many different dengue virus samples have led to the association between specific genotypes (within serotypes) and the presentation of more or less severe disease. Currently, dengue viruses can be classified as being of epidemiologically low, medium, or high impact; i.e., some viruses may remain in sylvatic cycles of little or low transmissibility to humans, others produce dengue fever (DF) only, and some genotypes have been associated with the potential to cause the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in addition to DF. Although the factors that contribute to dengue virus epidemiology are complex, studies have suggested that specific viral structures may contribute to increased replication in human target cells and to increased transmission by the mosquito vector; however, the immune status and possibly the genetic background of the host are also determinants of virulence or disease presentation. As to the question of whether dengue viruses are evolving toward virulence as they continue to spread throughout the world, phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses suggest that the more virulent genotypes are now displacing those that have lower epidemiological impact; there is no evidence for the transmission of antigenically aberrant, new strains.

  1. Prisons as reservoir for community transmission of tuberculosis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Flávia P C; Praça, Renata M; Tatara, Mariana B; Simonsen, Vera; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Croda, Mariana G; Suffys, Philip N; Ko, Albert I; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence.

  2. Prisons as reservoir for community transmission of tuberculosis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Flávia P C; Praça, Renata M; Tatara, Mariana B; Simonsen, Vera; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Croda, Mariana G; Suffys, Philip N; Ko, Albert I; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence. PMID:25642998

  3. Prisons as Reservoir for Community Transmission of Tuberculosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Flávia P.C.; Praça, Renata M.; Tatara, Mariana B.; Simonsen, Vera; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Croda, Mariana G.; Suffys, Philip N.; Ko, Albert I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence. PMID:25642998

  4. Candida Virulence Properties and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Neonatal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Wong, Angela Y.; Bhak, Grace; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S.; Taylor, Sarah; Tan, Sylvia; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if premature infants with invasive Candida infection caused by strains with increased virulence properties have worse clinical outcomes than those infected with less virulent strains. Study design Clinical isolates were studied from 2 populations; premature infants colonized with Candida (commensal, n=27), and those with invasive candidiasis (n=81). Individual isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis were tested for virulence in each of 3 assays: phenotypic switching, adhesion, and cytotoxicity. Invasive isolates were considered to have enhanced virulence if they measured more than 1 SD above the mean for the commensal isolates in at least 1 assay. Outcomes of patients with invasive isolates with enhanced virulence were compared with those with invasive isolates lacking enhanced virulence characteristics. Results 61% of invasive isolates of C. albicans and 42% of invasive isolates of C. parapsilosis had enhanced virulence. All C. albicans cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (n=6) and 90% of urine isolates (n=10) had enhanced virulence, compared with 48% of blood isolates (n=40). Infants with more virulent isolates were younger at the time of positive culture and had higher serum creatinine. Conclusions Individual isolates of Candida species vary in their virulence properties. Strains with higher virulence are associated with certain clinical outcomes. PMID:22504098

  5. Toward an improved laboratory definition of Listeria monocytogenes virulence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongyou; Lawrence, Mark L; Ainsworth, A Jerald; Austin, Frank W

    2007-09-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that encompasses a diversity of strains with varied virulence. The ability to rapidly determine the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes strains is integral to the control and prevention campaign against listeriosis. Early methods for assessing L. monocytogenes virulence include in vivo bioassays and in vitro cell assays. While in vivo bioassays provide a measurement of all virulence determinants of L. monocytogenes, they are not applied routinely due to their reliance on experimental animals whose costs have become increasingly prohibitive. As a low cost alternative, in vitro cell assays are useful for estimating the virulence of L. monocytogenes strains. However, these assays are often slow, and at times variable. Prior attempts to ascertain L. monocytogenes virulence by targeting virulence-associated proteins and genes have been largely unsuccessful, since many of the assay targets are present in both virulent and avirulent strains. Recent identification of novel virulence-specific genes (particularly internalin gene inlJ) has opened a new avenue for rapid, sensitive, and precise differentiation of virulent L. monocytogenes strains from avirulent strains. The application of DNA sequencing technique also offers an additional tool for assessing L. monocytogenes virulence potential. By providing an update on the laboratory methods that have been reported for the determination of L. monocytogenes pathogenicity, this review discusses future research needs that may help achieve an improved laboratory definition of L. monocytogenes virulence.

  6. A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves

    PubMed Central

    Parul, Singh; Bist, Basanti; Sharma, Barkha; Jain, Udit; Yadav, Janardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. Materials and Methods: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The VTEC isolates were observed for the enterohemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar (wSBA). Results: A total of 177 presumptive E. coli were isolated from 216 calf fecal samples revealing an overall prevalence of E. coli to be 81.94%. A total of 32 (14.81%) isolates were detected as VTEC through mPCR. The prevalence of verotoxin genes vt1, vt2, and combination of vt1+vt2 in the VTEC isolates was found to be 12 (37.5%), 14 (43.75%), and 6 (18.75%), respectively. Other virulent genes eaeA and hlyA were found in 6 and 11 VTEC strains with prevalence values of 18.75% and 34.37%, respectively. A total of 13 different O serogroups were revealed in serotyping of 32 VTEC isolates. Out of 32 VTEC strains, only 26 (81.25%) were enterohemolytic on wSBA as they produced the characteristic small, turbid zone of hemolysis around the streaking line. Although enterohemolysin production has been attributed to the presence of hlyA gene, only 11 of 26 enterohemolysin producing VTEC were found to be harboring the hlyA gene (11/26) 42.03%. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there might be an association between the presence of verotoxin genes and enterohemolysin production in VTEC group of E. coli.

  7. A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves

    PubMed Central

    Parul, Singh; Bist, Basanti; Sharma, Barkha; Jain, Udit; Yadav, Janardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. Materials and Methods: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The VTEC isolates were observed for the enterohemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar (wSBA). Results: A total of 177 presumptive E. coli were isolated from 216 calf fecal samples revealing an overall prevalence of E. coli to be 81.94%. A total of 32 (14.81%) isolates were detected as VTEC through mPCR. The prevalence of verotoxin genes vt1, vt2, and combination of vt1+vt2 in the VTEC isolates was found to be 12 (37.5%), 14 (43.75%), and 6 (18.75%), respectively. Other virulent genes eaeA and hlyA were found in 6 and 11 VTEC strains with prevalence values of 18.75% and 34.37%, respectively. A total of 13 different O serogroups were revealed in serotyping of 32 VTEC isolates. Out of 32 VTEC strains, only 26 (81.25%) were enterohemolytic on wSBA as they produced the characteristic small, turbid zone of hemolysis around the streaking line. Although enterohemolysin production has been attributed to the presence of hlyA gene, only 11 of 26 enterohemolysin producing VTEC were found to be harboring the hlyA gene (11/26) 42.03%. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there might be an association between the presence of verotoxin genes and enterohemolysin production in VTEC group of E. coli. PMID:27651684

  8. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  9. 'Ready made' virulence and 'dual use' virulence factors in pathogenic environmental fungi--the Cryptococcus neoformans paradigm.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Steenbergen, Judith N; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2003-08-01

    Environmental pathogenic fungi present a paradox in that they are virulent in animals without requiring animal hosts for replication or survival, a phenomenon we call 'ready-made' virulence. In the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, the capacity for virulence in animals may originate from environmental selective pressures imposed by such organisms as amoeboid and nematode predators. Many C. neoformans virulence factors appear to have 'dual use' capabilities that confer survival advantages in both animal hosts and in the environment. The findings with C. neoformans may provide a paradigm for understanding the origin and maintenance of virulence in other pathogenic environmental fungi.

  10. Virulence gene profiling and antibiotic resistance pattern of Indian isolates of Pasteurella multocida of small ruminant origin.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Laxmi N; Thomas, P; Gupta, S K; Priyadarshini, A; Kumar, S; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Kumar, A; Singh, Vijendra P

    2015-02-01

    Pasteurellosis in small ruminants affects the livelihood of small and marginal farmers of India. The present study was undertaken to understand the trends in gene carriage and antibiotic resistance pattern of Pasteurella multocida isolates recovered from small ruminants over a period of 10 years in India. A total of 88 P. multocida isolates of small ruminant origin were subjected to virulence gene profiling for 19 genes by PCR and antibiogram study employing 17 different antibiotics. Virulence genes like exbB, exbD, tonB, oma87, sodA, sodC, nanB and plpB (100% prevalence) and ptfA and hsf-2 (>90% prevalence) were found to be uniformly distributed among isolates. Unexpectedly, a very high prevalence (95.45%) of pfhA gene was observed in the present study. Dermonecrotoxin gene (toxA) was observed in 48.9% of isolates with highest occurrence among serotype A isolates and interestingly, one of each isolate of serotype B and F were found to carry this gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed 17.04% isolates to be multidrug resistant. Amongst all the antibiotics tested, most of the P. multocida isolates were found to be susceptible to enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol. This study highlights novel epidemiological information on frequency and occurrence of virulence genes among Indian isolates from small ruminants.

  11. [Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). In addition, the prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other animals (p < 0.03). Animal reservoirs of human infectious microsporidia were disclosed in six of 38 sites where faecal samples were taken from animals. Three species of human virulent microsporidia were identified in animals. Spores of E. hellem were found in 25 faecal samples (1.9%) taken from 12 bird species (6 zoo bird species, 4 free-ranging bird species, 2 livestock bird species). Spores of E. intestinalis were identified in five faecal samples (0.4%) taken from two livestock bird species and two zoo mammal species. In turn, E. bieneusi spores were detected only in three faecal samples (0.2%) taken from three zoo mammal species

  12. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host.

  13. Regulation of virulence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Marie, Chelsea; Petri, William A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the third-leading cause of parasitic mortality globally. E. histolytica infection generally does not cause symptoms, but the parasite has potent pathogenic potential. The origins, benefits, and triggers of amoebic virulence are complex. Amoebic pathogenesis entails depletion of the host mucosal barrier, adherence to the colonic lumen, cytotoxicity, and invasion of the colonic epithelium. Parasite damage results in colitis and, in some cases, disseminated disease. Both host and parasite genotypes influence the development of disease, as do the regulatory responses they govern at the host-pathogen interface. Host environmental factors determine parasite transmission and shape the colonic microenvironment E. histolytica infects. Here we highlight research that illuminates novel links between host, parasite, and environmental factors in the regulation of E. histolytica virulence.

  14. Riboregulators: Fine-Tuning Virulence in Shigella

    PubMed Central

    Fris, Megan E.; Murphy, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the past several years, RNA-mediated regulation (ribo-regulation) has become increasingly recognized for its importance in controlling critical bacterial processes. Regulatory RNA molecules, or riboregulators, are perpetually responsive to changes within the micro-environment of a bacterium. Notably, several characterized riboregulators control virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as is the case for each riboregulator characterized to date in Shigella. The timing of virulence gene expression and the ability of the pathogen to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions is critical to the establishment and progression of infection by Shigella species; ribo-regulators mediate each of these important processes. This mini review will present the current state of knowledge regarding RNA-mediated regulation in Shigella by detailing the characterization and function of each identified riboregulator in these pathogens. PMID:26858941

  15. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  16. [Genetic virulence markers of opportunistic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of opportunistic bacteria phenotypic and genetic virulence markers indicates that pathogenicity formation is based on a structural modification of bacterial DNA which is linked with migration of interbacterial pathogenicity "islands" genetic determinants. Structural organization features of these mobile genetic elements determine high expression probability, and PCR detection of pathogenicity "islands" determinants that control adhesins, invasins, cytotoxic and cytolitic toxines synthesis may indicate etiopathogenetic significance of clinical isolates.

  17. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review.

    PubMed

    Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2015-06-05

    Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them.

  18. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them. PMID:26057748

  19. Pseudopregnancy in Saanen goats (Capra hircus) raised in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes Júnior, E S; Cruz, J F; Teixeira, D I A; Lima Verde, J B; Paula, N R O; Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence of pseudopregnancy over 44 months was investigated in 23 Saanen goats raised in Northeast Brazil during continuous oestrous cycling (cyclic group) or after synchronization of oestrus (synchronized group). The goats were monitored by ultrasonography and their plasma progesterone profile. The overall prevalence of pseudopregnancy was 30.4% (7/23). In the cyclic group, 28.6% (4/14) of goats showed pseudopregnancy, while in the synchronized group the prevalence was 33.3% (3/9). There was no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). The mean (+/- SD) length of pseudopregnancy, as shown by the progesterone profile, was 121.6 +/- 33.5 days, ranging from 70 to 155 days. The study defined the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in Saanen goats raised in Northeast Brazil for the first time. This finding identified a major problem for this breed, as without treatment such animals remain unproductive until the spontaneous resolution of the condition. More research seems desirable to ascertain the prevalence of this condition in other breeds in this region of Brazil.

  20. Hantavirus interferon regulation and virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Mackow, Erich R; Dalrymple, Nadine A; Cimica, Velasco; Matthys, Valery; Gorbunova, Elena; Gavrilovskaya, Irina

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses predominantly replicate in primary human endothelial cells and cause 2 diseases characterized by altered barrier functions of vascular endothelium. Most hantaviruses restrict the early induction of interferon-β (IFNβ) and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) within human endothelial cells to permit their successful replication. PHV fails to regulate IFN induction within human endothelial cells which self-limits PHV replication and its potential as a human pathogen. These findings, and the altered regulation of endothelial cell barrier functions by pathogenic hantaviruses, suggest that virulence is determined by the ability of hantaviruses to alter key signaling pathways within human endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that the Gn protein from ANDV, but not PHV, inhibits TBK1 directed ISRE, kB and IFNβ induction through virulence determinants in the Gn cytoplasmic tail (GnT) that inhibit TBK1 directed IRF3 phosphorylation. Further studies indicate that in response to hypoxia induced VEGF, ANDV infection enhances the permeability and adherens junction internalization of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. These hypoxia/VEGF directed responses are rapamycin sensitive and directed by mTOR signaling pathways. These results demonstrate the presence of at least two hantavirus virulence determinants that act on endothelial cell signaling pathways: one that regulates antiviral IFN signaling responses, and a second that enhances normal hypoxia-VEGF-mTOR signaling pathways to facilitate endothelial cell permeability. These findings suggest signaling pathways as potential targets for therapeutic regulation of vascular deficits that contribute to hantavirus diseases and viral protein targets for attenuating pathogenic hantaviruses.

  1. Tracking bacterial virulence: global modulators as indicators

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Alejandro; Urcola, Imanol; Blanco, Jorge; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Muniesa, Maite; Quirós, Pablo; Falgenhauer, Linda; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hüttener, Mário; Juárez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of Gram-negative bacteria encode paralogues and/or orthologues of global modulators. The nucleoid-associated H-NS and Hha proteins are an example: several enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli or Salmonella harbor H-NS, Hha and their corresponding paralogues, StpA and YdgT proteins, respectively. Remarkably, the genome of the pathogenic enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 encodes, in addition to the hha and ydgT genes, two additional hha paralogues, hha2 and hha3. We show in this report that there exists a strong correlation between the presence of these paralogues and the virulence phenotype of several E. coli strains. hha2 and hha3 predominate in some groups of intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains (enteroaggregative and shiga toxin-producing isolates), as well as in the widely distributed extraintestinal ST131 isolates. Because of the relationship between the presence of hha2/hha3 and some virulence factors, we have been able to provide evidence for Hha2/Hha3 modulating the expression of the antigen 43 pathogenic determinants. We show that tracking global modulators or their paralogues/orthologues can be a new strategy to identify bacterial pathogenic clones and propose PCR amplification of hha2 and hha3 as a virulence indicator in environmental and clinical E. coli isolates. PMID:27169404

  2. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p < 0.05) in acrylic biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p < 0.05). Candida adhesin genes (ALS3/EPA1), SAP6 and HWP1 were up-regulated in mixed-species biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p < 0.05), up-regulation of IL-18, higher LDH activity and tissue invasion. As the presence of bacteria in acrylic biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  3. Pregnancy - associated human listeriosis: Virulence and genotypic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes from clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Singh, Durg Vijai; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a life-threatening pathogen, poses severe risk during pregnancy, may cause abortion, fetal death or neonatal morbidity in terms of septicemia and meningitis. The present study aimed at characterizing L. monocytogenes isolated from pregnant women based on serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence genes, in vivo pathogenicity test and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. The results revealed that out of 3700 human clinical samples, a total of 30 (0.81%) isolates [12 (0.80%) from placental bit (1500), 18 (0.81%) from vaginal swab (2200)] were positive for L. monocytogenes. All the isolates belonged to serogroup 4b, and were + ve for virulence genes tested i.e. inlA, inlC, inlJ, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA, and iap. Based on the mice inoculation tests, 20 isolates showed 100% and 4 isolates 60% relative virulence while 6 isolates were non-pathogenic. Moreover, 2 and 10 isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin, respectively, while the rest susceptible to other antibiotics used in this study. ERIC- and REP-PCR collectively depicted that the isolates from placental bit and vaginal swab had distinct PCR fingerprints except a few isolates with identical patterns. This study demonstrates prevalence of pathogenic strains mostly resistant to cefoxitin and/or ciprofloxacin. The results indicate the importance of isolating and characterizing the pathogen from human clinical samples as the pre-requisite for accurate epidemiological investigations. PMID:26231373

  4. AatA Is a Novel Autotransporter and Virulence Factor of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ganwu; Feng, Yaping; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Tivendale, Kelly A.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Zhou, Fanghong; Logue, Catherine M.; Miller, Cathy L.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Autotransporters (AT) are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria, and many of them are involved in virulence. An open reading frame (APECO1_O1CoBM96) encoding a novel AT was located in the pathogenicity island of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) O1's virulence plasmid, pAPEC-O1-ColBM. This 3.5-kb APEC autotransporter gene (aatA) is predicted to encode a 123.7-kDa protein with a 25-amino-acid signal peptide, an 857-amino-acid passenger domain, and a 284-amino-acid β domain. The three-dimensional structure of AatA was also predicted by the threading method using the I-TASSER online server and then was refined using four-body contact potentials. Molecular analysis of AatA revealed that it is translocated to the cell surface, where it elicits antibody production in infected chickens. Gene prevalence analysis indicated that aatA is strongly associated with E. coli from avian sources but not with E. coli isolated from human hosts. Also, AatA was shown to enhance adhesion of APEC to chicken embryo fibroblast cells and to contribute to APEC virulence. PMID:20028805

  5. Small Molecules that Modulate Quorum Sensing and Control Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Mattmann, Margrith E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria use small molecule signals to access their local population densities in a process called quorum sensing (QS). Once a threshold signal concentration is reached, and therefore a certain number of bacteria have assembled, bacteria use QS to change gene expression levels and initiate behaviors that benefit the group. These group processes play central roles in both bacterial virulence and symbiosis, and can have significant impacts on human health, agriculture, and the environment. The dependence of QS on small molecule signals has inspired organic chemists to design non-native molecules that can intercept these signals and thereby perturb bacterial group behaviors. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been the target of many of these efforts due to its prevalence in human infections. P. aeruginosa uses at least two N-acyl L-homoserine lactone signals and three homologous LuxR-type receptors to initiate a range of pathogenic behaviors at high cell densities, including biofilm formation and the production of an arsenal of virulence factors. This review highlights recent chemical efforts to modulate LuxR-type receptor activity in P. aeruginosa, and offers insight into the development of receptor-specific ligands as potential anti-virulence strategies. PMID:20672805

  6. Pathogenicity and phenotypic analysis of sopB, sopD and pipD virulence factors in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Agona.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Chai-Hoon; Sim, Jiun-Horng; Salleh, Noorzaleha Awang; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. Salmonellosis may be caused by any one of over 2,500 serovars of Salmonella. Nonetheless, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Agona are the second most prevalent serovars isolated from humans and livestock products respectively. Limited knowledge is available about the virulence mechanisms responsible for diarrheal disease caused by them. To investigate the contribution of sopB, sopD and pipD as virulence factors in intracellular infections and the uniqueness of these bacteria becoming far more prevalent than other serovars, the infection model of Caenorhabditis elegans and phenotypic microarray were used to characterize their mutants. The strains containing the mutation in sopB, sopD and pipD genes were constructed by using latest site-specific group II intron mutagenesis approach to reveal the pathogenicity of the virulence factors. Overall, we observed that the mutations in sopB, sopD and pipD genes of both serovars did not exhibit significant decrease in virulence towards the nematode. This may indicate that these virulence effectors may not be universal virulence factors involved in conserved innate immunity. There are significant phenotypic differences amongst strains carrying sopB, sopD and pipD gene mutations via the analysis of biochemical profiles of the bacteria. Interestingly, mutant strains displayed different susceptibility to chemical stressors from several distinct pharmacological and structural classes when compared to its isogenic parental strains. These metabolic and chemosensitivity assays also revealed multiple roles of Salmonella virulence factors in nutrient metabolism and antibiotic resistance.

  7. Clinical efficacy and effects of xylitol wipes on bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhan, L; Featherstone, J D B; Lo, J; Krupansky, C; Hoang, N; DenBesten, P; Huynh, T

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether xylitol-wipe use in young children prevented caries by affecting bacterial virulence. In a double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 mother-child pairs were randomized to xylitol-wipe or placebo-wipe groups. Salivary mutans streptococci levels were enumerated at baseline, 6 months, and one year. Ten mutans streptococci colonies were isolated and genotyped from each saliva sample. Genotype-colonization stability, xylitol sensitivity, and biofilm formation of these isolates were studied. Despite a significant reduction in new caries at one year in the xylitol-wipe group, no significant differences were found between the two groups in levels of mutans streptococci. Children in the xylitol-wipe group had significantly fewer retained genotypes (p = 0.06) and more transient genotypes of mutans streptococci (p = 0.05) than those in the placebo-wipe group. At one year, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of xylitol-resistant genotypes or in biofilm formation ability of mutans streptococci isolates between the two groups. The mechanism of the caries-preventive effect of xylitol-wipe use may be related to the stability of mutans streptococci colonization. Further studies with genomic characterization methods are needed to determine specific gene(s) that account for the caries-preventive effect of xylitol.

  8. Significance of the D-serine-deaminase and D-serine metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for virulence.

    PubMed

    Korte-Berwanger, Miriam; Sakinc, Türkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a D-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As D-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the D-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that D-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize D-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular D-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high D-serine concentrations; however, its D-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the D-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from D-serine in different strains with and without D-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that D-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of D-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ΔdsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of D-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use D-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, D-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, D-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of D-serine and a ΔdsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection.

  9. Homologues of Insecticidal Toxin Complex Genes in Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A and Their Contribution to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Skinner, Narelle A.; Joe, Angela; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen that consists of six biotypes: 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Strains of the latter five biotypes can carry a virulence plasmid, known as pYV, and several well-characterized chromosomally encoded virulence determinants. Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A lack the virulence-associated markers of pYV-bearing strains and were once considered to be avirulent. There is growing epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence, however, to suggest that some biotype 1A strains are virulent and can cause gastrointestinal disease. To identify potential virulence genes of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, we used genomic subtractive hybridization to determine genetic differences between two biotype 1A strains: an environmental isolate, Y. enterocolitica IP2222, and a clinical isolate, Y. enterocolitica T83. Among the Y. enterocolitica T83-specific genes we identified were three, tcbA, tcaC, and tccC, that showed homology to the insecticidal toxin complex (TC) genes first discovered in Photorhabdus luminescens. The Y. enterocolitica T83 TC gene homologues were expressed by Y. enterocolitica T83 and were significantly more prevalent among clinical biotype 1A strains than other Yersinia isolates. Inactivation of the TC genes in Y. enterocolitica T83 resulted in mutants which were attenuated in the ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of perorally infected mice. These results indicate that products of the TC gene complex contribute to the virulence of some strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, possibly by facilitating their persistence in vivo. PMID:16177365

  10. Significance of the d-Serine-Deaminase and d-Serine Metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sakinc, Türkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sören G.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a d-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As d-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the d-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that d-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize d-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular d-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high d-serine concentrations; however, its d-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the d-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from d-serine in different strains with and without d-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that d-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of d-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ΔdsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of d-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use d-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, d-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, d-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of d-serine and a ΔdsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection. PMID:24082071

  11. A Conserved Virulence Plasmidic Region Contributes to the Virulence of the Multiresistant Escherichia coli Meningitis Strain S286 Belonging to Phylogenetic Group C

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Valérie; Diancourt, Laure; Bingen, Edouard; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Recent isolation of the non-K1 Escherichia coli neonatal meningitis strain S286, belonging to phylogroup C, which is closely related to major group B1, and producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, encouraged us to seek the genetic determinants responsible for its virulence. We show that S286 belongs to the sequence O type ST23O78 and harbors 4 large plasmids. The largest one, pS286colV (∼120 kb), not related to resistance, contains genes characteristic of a Conserved Virulence Plasmidic (CVP) region initially identified in B2 extra-intestinal avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains and in the B2 neonatal meningitis E. coli strain S88. The sequence of this CVP region has a strong homology (98%) with that of the recently sequenced plasmid pChi7122-1 of the O78 APEC strain Chi7122. A CVP plasmid-cured variant of S286 was less virulent than the wild type strain in a neonatal rat sepsis model with a significant lower level of bacteremia at 24 h (4.1±1.41 versus 2.60±0.16 log CFU/ml, p = 0.001) and mortality. However, the mortality in the model of adult mice was comparable between wild type and variant indicating that pS286colV is not sufficient by itself to fully explain the virulence of S286. Gene expression analysis of pS286colV in iron depleted environment was very close to that of pS88, suggesting that genes of CVP region may be expressed similarly in two very different genetic backgrounds (group C versus group B2). Screening a collection of 178 human A/B1 extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains revealed that the CVP region is highly prevalent (23%) and MLST analysis indicated that these CVP positive strains belong to several clusters and mostly to phylogroup C. The virulence of S286 is explained in part by the presence of CVP region and this region has spread in different clusters of human A/B1 ExPEC, especially in group C. PMID:24086343

  12. Virulence factors of the family Legionellaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, J N; Saha, A K; Glew, R H

    1992-01-01

    Whereas bacteria in the genus Legionella have emerged as relatively frequent causes of pneumonia, the mechanisms underlying their pathogenicity are obscure. The legionellae are facultative intracellular pathogens which multiply within the phagosome of mononuclear phagocytes and are not killed efficiently by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The functional defects that might permit the intracellular survival of the legionellae have remained an enigma until recently. Phagosome-lysosome fusion is inhibited by a single strain (Philadelphia 1) of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, but not by other strains of L. pneumophila or other species. It has been found that following the ingestion of Legionella organisms, the subsequent activation of neutrophils and monocytes in response to both soluble and particulate stimuli is profoundly impaired and the bactericidal activity of these cells is attenuated, suggesting that Legionella bacterial cell-associated factors have an inhibitory effect on phagocyte activation. Two factors elaborated by the legionellae which inhibit phagocyte activation have been described. First, the Legionella (cyto)toxin blocks neutrophil oxidative metabolism in response to various agonists by an unknown mechanism. Second, L. micdadei bacterial cells contain a phosphatase which blocks superoxide anion production by stimulated neutrophils. The Legionella phosphatase disrupts the formation of critical intracellular second messengers in neutrophils. In addition to the toxin and phosphatase, several other moieties that may serve as virulence factors by promoting cell invasion or intracellular survival and multiplication are elaborated by the legionellae. Molecular biological studies show that a cell surface protein named Mip is necessary for the efficient invasion of monocytes. A possible role for a Legionella phospholipase C as a virulence factor is still largely theoretical. L. micdadei contains an unusual protein kinase which catalyzes the phosphorylation of

  13. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  14. Virulence Factors and O-Serogroups Profiles of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Hosseini, Sahar; Momtaz, Hassan; Mirnejad, Reza; Hoseini, Mohammad Javad; Yahaghi, Emad; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. Objectives: The present investigation was performed to study the virulence factors and O-Serogroups profiles of UPEC isolated from Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional investigation was performed on 100 urine samples collected from hospitalized pediatrics of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Midstream urine was collected to decrease potential bacterial, cellular and artifactual contamination. All samples were cultured and those with positive results were subjected to polymerase chain reactions to detect pap, cnf1, afa, sfa and hlyA genes and various O- Serogroups. Results: We found that 37.5% of boys and 75% of girls had positive results for Escherichia coli. We also found that O1 (19.33%), O2 (13.33%), O6 (13.33%), O4 (11.66%), and O18 (11.66 %) were the most commonly detected Serogroups. Totally, the serogroup of 5% of all strains were not detected. In addition, all of these O- Serogroups were pap+, cnf1+, hlyA+, and afa+. Totally, pap (70 %), cnf1 (56.66 %), and hlyA (43.33 %) were the most commonly detected virulence genes in the both studied groups of children. The sfa (30 %) and afa (26.66 %) genes had the lowest incidence rates. Conclusions: Special health care should be performed on UTIs management in Iranian pediatric patients. Extended researches should be performed to evaluate relation between other O-Serogroups and virulent genes. PMID:24719745

  15. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosol